Ultracapitalism of Pinochetism and its lessons for Russia

45
Ultracapitalism of Pinochetism and its lessons for Russia
The bombing of the presidential palace "La Moneda" during the military coup in Chile


On September 11, 1973, as a result of a military coup in Chile, a military junta led by General Pinochet came to power. An ultra-liberal fascist regime was established in Chile for many years - terror along with liberal anti-popular monetarist “reforms”.



People's power


Chile at that time was the most European, civilized country in Latin America, with a relatively high level of prosperity. In 1969, the leftist, social democratic political parties of Chile formed the Popular Unity bloc, whose candidate Salvador Allende won the 1970 presidential election. Chileans are tired of living in a country that was a former capitalist periphery. The country was a classic mono-economy, living solely on the export of copper and saltpeter. The principle of the authorities was quite familiar to current citizens of the Russian Federation: we sell resources, buy everything we need abroad.

Therefore, the people chose the left, who wanted to build a new socialism without blood and violence. They focused on the program of social democratic development, import substitution, relying on their own strengths. The new government nationalizes leading enterprises, carries out agrarian reforms in the interests of peasants, and takes measures to improve the lives of workers and employees. Relations with the countries of the socialist camp are being improved.

Allende's victory came as a surprise to both the USSR and the USA. The country in southwestern South America was part of Washington's sphere of influence. Therefore, Chile immediately came under severe pressure from economic sanctions. The country was in a fever due to Western sanctions, rising world oil prices, strikes and sabotage by right-wing forces within the country.

In 1971, the famous scientist, professor at 30 universities, Englishman Stafford Beer, the founder of organizational cybernetics, one of the creators of the theory of intelligent human structures, arrived in Chile. The Chilean government invited him to create a unified computerized system for managing the economy in real time. The system was called “Cybersyn” (Cybernetic synergism). It was supposed to work using the Cybernet network. In those days there was no Internet or fiber optic communication lines. The Cybernet communication network was supposed to include radio stations and telephone lines, which were connected to a single central computer. Beer, in essence, offered the Chileans a breakthrough into the future. In one leap, overtake even the developed world!

A system of network connections was built. A working virtual model of the country was created in which various options and solutions could be tested. The cumbersome and ineffective bureaucratic system was replaced by a network structure. The country received huge savings in effort, money and time.

In 1972, Beer published the brochure “Five Principles for the People.” In fact, it was direct democracy, power of the people based on high technologies that belonged to all people. Beer advocated a merciless fight against the bureaucratic golem. For direct contact between the people and the authorities and the immediate response of the authorities to the requests of the people. For direct personal responsibility of officials and government representatives (which was the strong point of the Stalinist USSR).

Beer noted:

"The future begins today!"

And further:

“Let's start thinking about the future, which is just beginning. Let's start planning a future for our grandchildren - a better society! … The future is not unknown, it does not have to get worse. For the first time in stories man knows enough to create the kind of society he aspires to. We must help the people to understand the right of choice given to them, and the people themselves must exercise it ... "


Salvador Allende, 1972

Crisis


The country was sitting on the needle of import supplies. As soon as copper prices went down, the mines were nationalized by the new authorities, and an economic blockade began. There was no currency to buy cars, spare parts, or a lot of goods. In October 1972, the country was swept by the so-called. "national strike", initiated by the Confederation of Truck Owners, who feared nationalization. With the help of the Cybernet network, it was possible to organize the supply of food to cities and manage transport as efficiently as possible.

To overcome the crisis and begin to rise, it was necessary to tighten our belts. Rebuild, set up new production. However, Allende's opponents did not want to wait, they did not want a new world. He was opposed by offended bureaucrats, whose parasitism was excluded by Beer’s system, by the comprador bourgeoisie trading in their homeland, by small businesses and trade unions who did not want to tighten their belts and work in a new way. And the Americans poured gasoline on it all and set it on fire. The national independence of Chile and its autonomous project for the future were very disliked by the US owners and the TNK-TNB connection

Allende, an honest and strong-willed man with developed systems thinking, supported Beer. However, the advanced project was interrupted by the coup of 1973. The old world (representatives of big capital, landowners, officials and the military caste, oriented to the West) destroyed the embryo of the future. The country remained on the periphery of the capitalist world.

Ultracapitalism of Pinochetism


On September 11, 1973, in the capital of Chile, Santiago, a military coup was carried out by the army, which was led by right-wing elements. President Salvador Allende and the Popular Unity Government were overthrown, and a military junta led by General Pinochet came to power. All political parties that were part of the bloc were banned, and their members were subjected to severe repression. Allende himself died during the storming of the presidential palace.

In Chile, a liberal fascist regime was established for many years - terror, along with ultra-liberal anti-people monetarist "reforms".

Together with Augusto Pinochet came the so-called. “Chicago economists” (Friedman’s students) with monetary methods, total privatization and an unlimited “market”. Therefore, the Russian “perestroika-reformers-optimizers” of the 1990-2000s literally extolled the dictatorship of Pinochet and his “economic miracle” on the bones of the people. Plus terrible corruption and shootings in stadiums. Obscurantist ideology: “God, army and property”

In the very first days, the junta destroyed all possible resistance assets. More than 11 thousand people were seized, they were taken mainly to football stadiums, tortured and shot. General Stark's punitive forces operated in the north of the country. “Subversive elements” were destroyed. Chileans were terrorized.

Ultra-liberal monetarists carried out “shock therapy.” It is familiar to Russian citizens from the 1990s. Full privatization, deregulation, sharp reduction in social spending. State expenses were immediately cut by 10%, prices were freed, the market was opened to imports, and protectionist customs duties were abolished. Some forms of financial speculation were allowed, and privatization of the public sector of the economy began.


Chairman of the Government Junta of Chile (1973-1981), President and dictator of Chile in 1974-1990. Augusto Pinochet

Degradation of the country


"Successes" began immediately. Inflation was wild: under Allende, inflation did not rise above 163% per year, and in the first year of Pinochetism it, according to the most conservative estimates, amounted to 375%. Unemployment has jumped from a minimum of 2% to 20%! Part of the population did not even have money for food. A layer of new oligarchs-plutocrats, speculator financiers, and foreigners close to power immediately formed, who quickly enriched themselves from the suffering of the Chilean people. They were called "piranhas". And the ultra-liberal fascists demanded new “reforms”.

In 1975, Milton Friedman himself, the founder of the Chicago School, arrived in Chile. He convinced Pinochet to form a government entirely of monetarist economists. State spending was cut by 27% and continued to be cut. By 1980, government spending had been cut to half of what it had been under Allende. Hundreds of enterprises and banks were privatized. Due to the influx of imports and a drop in production, the number of jobs decreased by 1973 thousand from 1983 to 177. The country took out more and more loans, driving itself into debt bondage. Unemployment remained high.

Those dissatisfied with Pinochet's policies continued to be physically destroyed. The left-wing intelligentsia was killed, so already in 1976, 80% of political prisoners were from workers and peasants.

State schools were replaced by private, fee-paying ones. Kindergartens and cemeteries were privatized. Healthcare was made free of charge. Soon the average Chilean family only had enough money for food. The bus has become a luxury, getting up for work at 4 am to walk. People were forced to contribute part of their salaries to private pension funds. All this was done against the backdrop of state terror. After all, this "liberal" experiment was the first in the world.

In 1982, the unemployment rate rose to 30%. A huge external debt of $14 billion (for a country with a population of less than 10 million people), which was accumulated by local corporations. Hyperinflation, the country is on the verge of default. The authorities had to nationalize some companies! The monetarists were driven out of power. The Pinochet regime was saved only by the fact that it still controlled the mining and export of copper (85% of the treasury's foreign exchange earnings). Only in 1988 did economic growth begin, when the country already had 45% of the poor, the same as in the poorest countries in Africa. The terrible social stratification persisted even later.

Chile became a testing ground for ultra-liberal, radical “reforms”, which were then applied with similar “success” across the planet from South Africa to the post-Soviet republics.

As we see, the methods of ultra-liberals, both Chilean and Russian, are the same. Let me remind you that the commercialization of education and healthcare in the Russian Federation is in full swing. As well as the development of pension “reform”. As well as the powerful export of capital, the reduction of social spending, and the degradation of the national economy.

The results of Pinochet's rule were sad. Economic growth rates are quite comparable to other Latin American countries, but external debts are much higher. The mono-economy of the “pipe” has been preserved. Natural resources were rapaciously plundered. Non-state pension funds turned out to be ineffective. A sharp reduction in social spending - and the result is extreme poverty, corruption and crime. The top of the state is tied to parasitic income, robbery of the people, it helps the USA and TNCs to rob the country. Pinochet himself was an ordinary thief who took gold out of the country. The previously combat-ready army and security forces have decomposed into gangster formations that are dangerous only for the people.

Power of plutocrats, comprador bourgeoisie and ultra-liberal corporatocracy. In essence, fascism, but of a different type, not like that of Mussolini or Hitler, but in the interests of narrow rich and educated castes who hate the poor "losers".
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  1. +11
    11 September 2023
    An interesting research article that makes you think about the ways of development of our country. And how many statements have there been from liberals and others that we need our own Pinochet. Here is an honest investigation into how it really happened and what threatens us. soldier
  2. -21
    11 September 2023
    “In order to overcome the crisis, it was necessary to tighten our belts” - this is how people do not want to tighten their belts, especially if the cause of the crisis is the president’s policies. Allende destroyed the country's economy and plunged it into a low-intensity civil war.
    1. +1
      11 September 2023
      Allende destroyed the country's economy and plunged it into a low-intensity civil war.

      There is no arguing that Salvador Guillermo has done a lot of damage. ChSKH, not least because of its soft attitude towards various leftists)).
      The fact that the economy of Chile under him was drowned in an organized manner from different sides, for, in general, quite good money, is also a fact. Therefore, hanging everything only on this neck is, at a minimum, incorrect.
  3. +3
    11 September 2023
    "Direct democracy" of the socialist type means broad powers of elected bodies. And not the powerless, like the State Duma of the Russian Federation. But the main thing here is the ability of society to USE these powers.

    If society is passive for decades and lives under any laws, as under the Monarchy, it will inevitably come to Pinochetism. And Pinochet will be his greatest and most beloved folk hero.

    According to Senka and a hat. laughing
  4. +1
    11 September 2023
    Chile at that time was the most European, civilized country in Latin America, with a relatively high level of prosperity. In 1969, the leftist, social democratic political parties of Chile formed the Popular Unity bloc, whose candidate Salvador Allende won the 1970 presidential election. Chileans are tired of living in a country that was a former capitalist periphery. The country was a classic mono-economy, living solely on the export of copper and saltpeter. The principle of the authorities was quite familiar to current citizens of the Russian Federation: we sell resources, buy everything we need abroad.

    Therefore, the people chose the left, who wanted to build a new socialism without blood and violence. They focused on the program of social democratic development, import substitution, relying on their own strengths. The new government nationalizes leading enterprises, carries out agrarian reforms in the interests of peasants, and takes measures to improve the lives of workers and employees.

    From the very first lines, the author, to put it mildly, writes a lie.
    In Chile, the implementation of the welfare state concept, in which the state plays a key role in protecting and developing the economic and social well-being of its citizens, the refusal to export resources and “replacement of imports with local production” began in the 1920s.
    Accordingly, by the time Allende came to power in Chile, the public sector in the economy was about 70% - one of the highest figures in the world. In Latin America at that time, Chile was second only to Cuba in terms of the size of its public sector.
    As soon as copper prices went down, the new authorities nationalized the mines

    Not true again. Nationalization of copper mining began under the predecessor government
    Allende - Eduardo Free. By the time Allende came to power, the Chilean state was the majority owner, and the Kennecott and Anaconda taxes in Chile were 85 cents per
    every dollar of profit.
    Together with Augusto Pinochet came the so-called. “Chicago economists” (Friedman’s students) with monetary methods, total privatization and an unlimited “market”.

    Not true again. They "arrived" much earlier. Since 1950, Chilean economists have traveled to Chicago to study on an exchange program with the Catholic University of Santiago. From where they returned with the conviction that the budget should be balanced, the money supply limited, and trade liberalized. And the reform program known throughout the world as El ladrillo, which Pinochet followed, was prepared under Allende.
    Further in the text - the same thing, disassembling everything - a couple more articles will work out. The most important thing is that there is no description at all of what the Chilean economy was reduced to under Allende. In short - another portion of Samsonism - which has a very, very distant relation to Chilean reality.
  5. -2
    11 September 2023
    The article is generally correct except for the ending. This is not fascism. Fascism is a completely different historical phenomenon.
    A state with a set of such characteristics should be called liberalism. There were many such states and many exist now. Russia in the 90s was precisely a liberal state and still retains some of these liberal characteristics.
    Why liberalism? Liberalism, as an ideological and political-economic movement, completely outlived its usefulness in the 19th century. The liberal authorities, hiding behind liberal slogans, are actually ruining, destroying and destroying their country for the sake of world capital.
    1. +1
      December 4 2023
      Take the trouble to read the scientific definition of fascism and find out that under Pinochet it was fascism. An open terrorist dictatorship of the most reactionary groups of capital. Was there a dictatorship? Was. Did they kill all those who disagreed without any fuss? They killed. And who was in charge of all this? Large capital is in close connection with the military and politicians.
  6. -2
    11 September 2023
    The title was misleading, but in the text the author corrected himself several times, calling it fascism. Relying on corporations, that is, on monopolies in fact, is fascism, the definition is that of fascism or Nazism, whatever you want to call it.
    1. +5
      11 September 2023
      Quote from Bingo
      Relying on corporations, that is, on monopolies in fact - fascism

      The author would first, before writing such a thing, need to find out what is fascism. Yes, you too...
      1. +1
        17 September 2023
        You will be surprised, monsieur, but the forms of fascism can be different from its most extreme form, National Socialism, and I will remind you that the founder of the Fascist Party of Italy, Benito Mussolini, before its formation was a member of the Socialist Party of Italy, to softer-looking forms of fascism .
  7. +3
    11 September 2023
    The Chilean government invited him to create a unified computerized system for managing the economy in real time.
    They tried to create a similar system in the USSR, but they considered it too expensive, but it really was expensive, it required not only the implementation, but also the development of new industries. Instead, the Kosygin-Liberman reforms were carried out
    1. +1
      11 September 2023
      Quote: kor1vet1974
      Instead, they carried out the Kosygin-Liberman reforms

      They didn't conduct it. Their got chatting...
    2. +2
      11 September 2023
      The Chilean "Cybersyn" and Glushkov's proposals are somewhat different things. Taking into account the peculiarities of the functioning of the real economy of the Union, his ideas were.....strange. The only thing that could really be implemented was a conditional analogue of the Internet. That is, connection. But everything didn’t come cheap there. And with his dreams, Viktor Mikhailovich quite frightened the nomenklatura.... Moreover, almost all of them)).
      As for the "libermanization of all Rus'"... Let's just say that contemporaries of that action said that neither Evsei Grigorievich nor Alexey Nikolaevich, in general, knew the country. We are talking about the real economy..... And that this reform could not lead to anything else in its form.
      Which, of course, does not mean that there was no need to reform the Union. It is necessary, I would even say, VERY NECESSARY. But.... To begin with, it would be nice to know what exactly is wrong and, most importantly, why....
  8. +8
    11 September 2023
    Allende was mistaken in the main thing - all his measures were half-hearted. He actually tried to sit on two chairs. Trying to introduce elements of socialism into the capitalist system, and not break it at the root. But the fatal mistake was the failure to take into account the experience of the formation of socialism in the USSR and carry out a total purge of the upper ranks from supporters of capitalism. Yes - this is blood and repression, but - as practice shows, there is no other way. As a result, those who were not afraid of blood and repression won. Because large-scale reforms cannot be carried out in a white coat.
    1. -1
      11 September 2023
      Quote: paul3390
      Allende was mistaken in the main thing - all his measures were half-hearted. He actually tried to sit on two chairs. Trying to introduce elements of socialism into the capitalist system, and not break it at the root. But the fatal mistake was the failure to take into account the experience of the formation of socialism in the USSR and carry out a total purge of the upper ranks from supporters of capitalism. Yes - this is blood and repression, but - as practice shows, there is no other way. As a result, those who were not afraid of blood and repression won. Because large-scale reforms cannot be carried out in a white coat.

      Allende found himself in power at the head of a broad “left” coalition, most of which were completely alien to his communist ideas. Allende, bypassing the coalition, pursued a policy of “communization” of the country. This is, in principle, a typical policy for communists, who come to power at the head of the next “popular front”, and then wipe out all “fellow travelers of the Revolution” from power. Fortunately, my fellow travelers and concerned citizens were not at a loss that time.
      1. +6
        11 September 2023
        in principle a typical policy for communists

        You might think that others are doing something wrong. In general, the coalition is nonsense, because as a result, its participants are forced to take into account the opinions of their partners, thereby not fulfilling their own programs and promises to their supporters.
        1. +5
          11 September 2023
          Quote: paul3390
          in principle a typical policy for communists

          You might think that others are doing something wrong. In general, the coalition is nonsense, because as a result, its participants are forced to take into account the opinions of their partners, thereby not fulfilling their own programs and promises to their supporters.

          You have to make a distinction between what you want and what you can. Ideally, Allende (and his supporters) may have wanted to build communism in a five-year period, but he came to power by agreement with the centrists in which he moderated his appetites to conditional socialism, but did not actually comply with them. As a result, a center-right coalition was formed in parliament, sending Allende to hell. Then Allende began to act through emergency decrees. Local authorities sabotaged them, especially after the left lost the 1973 elections. And then Allende made a fatal mistake when he (or not he personally, but the communists with whom he was associated) began to form the “Red Guard”. The army could not forgive such a thing.
          True, we must give Allende his due - he fought to the end.
      2. +4
        11 September 2023
        Allende was not a communist, he was a socialist (social democrat), and they have their own methods.
        1. +3
          11 September 2023
          Quote: kor1vet1974
          Allende was not a communist, he was a socialist (social democrat), and they have their own methods.

          No need. Allende was a member of the Socialist Party of Chile, and not the Social Democratic Party of Chile. The Social Democrats were the right wing of the Popular Front and advocated a coalition with the centrists, but the socialists, along with the Marxists and communists, advocated a break with the centrists and radical change.
          1. +1
            11 September 2023
            So we figured it out, it turns out Allende was not a communist, as you previously claimed.. laughing
            1. +1
              11 September 2023
              Quote: kor1vet1974
              So we figured it out, it turns out Allende was not a communist, as you previously claimed.. laughing

              Didn't Lenin say that socialism is the first stage of communism?
              And we can also recall the decision of the parliament of the same Chile, which, about a month before the Coup, accused Allende of imposing a communist dictatorship, and in particular: illegal expropriation of property, patronage of criminals, introduction of the study of Marxism into the educational program, an attempt on freedom of speech, illegal reprisals and other.
        2. 0
          11 September 2023
          Quote: kor1vet1974
          Allende was not a communist, he was a socialist (social democrat), and they have their own methods

          Allende mixed with anarchists from an early age. Studied Marx. And having become president, he led Chile to socialism according to the Chilean model.

          The Polish party during socialism was called the Workers' Party, and the Hungarian party was called socialist. However, these are the real communist parties...
          1. -1
            17 September 2023
            And one of the German National Socialist...
  9. Eug
    +1
    11 September 2023
    Bir and his Cybersyn are very reminiscent of the development of Academician Glushkov, which officials and bureaucrats also did not dare to implement, only the USSR...
    1. Fat
      +4
      11 September 2023
      Quote: Eug
      Bir and his Cybersyn are very reminiscent of the development of academician Glushkov, which officials and bureaucrats also did not dare to implement, only USSR

      The proposal to restructure the management of the USSR economy by creating a nationwide automated system for managing the national economy of the country on the basis of the Unified State Computer Network was contained in Kitov’s letter to the head of the USSR N. S. Khrushchev, which he sent to the CPSU Central Committee on January 7, 1959. In this letter, he proposed creating a nationwide computer network multi-purpose, intended for planning and managing the economy throughout the country. There, Kitov proposed to the head of the USSR Government, “so that things are not left to chance,” to create a single coordinating all-Union body for the development, implementation and operation of all automated control systems in the country - “Goskompr” <...>
      The leadership of the USSR partially supported the proposals contained in Kitov’s letter dated 07.01.1959/1959/XNUMX - a joint Resolution of the CPSU Central Committee and the Council of Ministers of the USSR (May XNUMX) was adopted on the accelerated creation of new computers and their widespread use in various areas of economic life. However, Kitov’s main proposal to automate economic management of the entire USSR based on the creation of a Unified State Network of Computer Centers (USNC) was not taken into account in this Resolution. <...>
      In the fall of 1959, Kitov sent a second letter to Khrushchev, in which he proposed a way to significantly reduce state costs for the creation of a National Automated System for Managing the USSR Economy based on the Unified State Electronics Center. This second letter from Kitov contained an even more radical 200-page project he developed, “The Red Book” - a project for creating an All-Union network of dual-use computer centers - military and civilian, to manage the country’s economy in peacetime and the USSR Armed Forces in wartime. Kitov proposed, instead of dispersing VT funds among tens of thousands of enterprises, institutions and organizations of the USSR, concentrating them in the Unified State Network of powerful computer centers under military command. In peacetime, these centers were supposed to solve national economic, scientific and technical problems both for central authorities and for regional enterprises and institutions. Military tasks were to be solved in the event of “special periods” occurring. These powerful computer centers had to be serviced by military personnel and access to them had to be remote.

      Anatoly Ivanovich Kitov - Was a pioneer in the automation of accounting for economic information in the USSR. (OGAS)

      A little more detail: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_automated_system_of_accounting_and_processing_information
  10. -1
    11 September 2023
    The results of Pinochet's rule were sad. Economic growth rates are quite comparable to other Latin American countries


    It would be interesting to compare Chile and Venezuela using specific figures.
    Pinochet won in Chile and a liberal market economy was created.
    Chavez won in Venezuela and a quasi-socialist distribution economy was created.

    A sharp reduction in social spending - and the result is extreme poverty, corruption and crime.


    As of 2021, Chile's minimum wage is the highest in all of South America.
    As of 2021, Chile has the second lowest level of corruption among Latin American countries after Uruguay (22nd in the world) and is ranked 25th in the world according to the Corruption Perceptions Index.
  11. +8
    11 September 2023
    From the very first lines, the author, to put it mildly, writes a lie.

    What you have is not true, to put it mildly, somewhat more, but in essence the event is not true.
    In Chile, the implementation of the welfare state concept, in which the state plays a key role in protecting and developing the economic and social well-being of its citizens, the refusal to export resources and “replacement of imports with local production” began in the 1920s.
    Accordingly, by the time Allende came to power in Chile, the public sector in the economy was about 70% - one of the highest figures in the world. In Latin America at that time, Chile was second only to Cuba in terms of the size of its public sector.

    1. In 1970, right before Allende came to power, state property in Chile included: iron and steel industry, oil production and oil refining, most railways, the national airline, and much more. belonged to the state about 40% of production capacity of all types in the country.. Not 70%, but 40%. It's a bit of a stretch for you.
    2. Copper mining was of particular importance in the Chilean economy. By the beginning of Allende’s presidency, the two main copper producers in Chile—the American companies Kennecott and Anaconda—provided 20% of the country’s GNP. At the same time, they were the source of 40% of all tax revenues of the treasury and 80% of all income in foreign currency

    Not true again. Nationalization of copper mining began under the predecessor government
    Allende - Eduardo Free. By the time Allende came to power, the Chilean state was the majority owner, and Kennecott and Anaconda taxes in Chile amounted to 85 cents on every dollar of profit.

    1. Nationalization of copper mining began under the government of Allende's predecessor, the Christian Democrat Eduardo Frei Montalva, but the Christian Democratic government obtained its 51% share in the copper mines by paying American companies "entrance fee" from loans provided by the American government for this, and promising full repayment within several years .
    2. If taxes hit 85%, then American companies received at least 15% for themselves. And of this 85%, the Chilean state had to pay a loan to purchase Chilean mines from the United States.
    Together with Augusto Pinochet came the so-called. “Chicago economists” (Friedman’s students) with monetary methods, total privatization and an unlimited “market”.
    Not true again. They "arrived" much earlier. Since 1950, Chilean economists have traveled to Chicago to study on an exchange program with the Catholic University of Santiago. From where they returned with the conviction that the budget should be balanced, the money supply limited, and trade liberalized. And the reform program known throughout the world as El ladrillo, which Pinochet followed, was prepared under Allende.

    Error again. They prepared a reform program not on the instructions of Allende, but on the initiative of his opponents and began to implement it under Pinochet after the coup. This program included the privatization of social insurance, medicine, and so on.

    Further in the text - the same thing, disassembling everything - a couple more articles will work out. The most important thing is that there is no description at all of what the Chilean economy was reduced to under Allende. In short - another portion of Samsonism - which has a very, very distant relation to Chilean reality.

    There will be a couple more articles to sort out your mistakes. It is impossible to say where Allende’s economy might have led since he was in power for a very short period.
    But everything is clear to the catastrophe that the Chicago Boys economy led to with the assistance of Pinochet.
    1. 0
      11 September 2023
      Sir, the quote on Wikipedia is in poor taste.
  12. +2
    11 September 2023
    It reminds me of Russia in some way. Both the 90th and the current one.
  13. -1
    11 September 2023
    Obscurantist ideology: “God, army and property”
    You, this... Alexander...
    Power of plutocrats, comprador bourgeoisie and ultra-liberal corporatocracy. In essence, fascism
    As Ostrovsky wrote about this, Not this one, but that one...
    Truth is good, but happiness is better.
  14. 0
    12 September 2023
    Yeah. It's a complicated story - what can I say?
  15. +1
    12 September 2023
    Pinochet's management and economic success are strongly reminiscent of our current breakthroughs, breakthroughs, and so on
  16. +2
    12 September 2023
    Quote from Frettaskyrandi
    Sir, the quote on Wikipedia is in poor taste.

    Whom do you foresee?
  17. 0
    12 September 2023
    It would be interesting to compare Chile and Venezuela using specific figures.
    Pinochet won in Chile and a liberal market economy was created.
    Chavez won in Venezuela and a quasi-socialist distribution economy was created.

    1. The happiness of the Chilean people is that Pinochet and his economic legacy have been gone for more than 30 years. His liberal market economy led the country to a real economic disaster and his heirs saved the country with quasi-socialist measures.
    2. Chavez won in Venezuela because his predecessors also brought the country to disaster thanks to the liberal market economy.
    The same thing in Argentina, Peru, Ecuador, Brazil, Africa, Asia and so on - the liberal market economy has brought 90% of the world's population to disaster.
  18. 0
    12 September 2023
    With a good ruler, inflation is only 163 percent, and with a bad ruler, 375 percent.
    And we complain about the refinancing rate of 12,5 percent.

    Doesn't anyone remember about 180 percent per annum? Has everyone forgotten about the salary with boots, pots and porcelain?
    Or who is alive and writes here in the comments that everything was fine and they even survived everything?
    Is Chubais to blame? Maybe not Chubais? Maybe we ourselves are to blame? They didn’t go to demonstrations against Russia’s independence from the USSR.
  19. -1
    15 September 2023
    The articles are replete with inaccuracies and distortions.
    For example
    Inflation was wild: under Allende, inflation did not rise above 163% per year, and in the first year of Pinochetism it, according to the most conservative estimates, amounted to 375%.

    The author manipulates numbers, misleading readers.
    In the first half of 1973, that is, under Allende, inflation was 353%.
    Moreover, just two years ago inflation was 22 percent.
    A natural result of Allende's leftist populist policies.
    Nationalization existed in Chile before Allende, but it was careful not to scare off investors and producers.
    In Allende’s version, nationalization was more reminiscent of “taking everything away and dividing it up,” although some payments for property were provided for, which did not suit the owners and investors in the economy at all.
    Livestock owners began to slaughter them and move them to neighboring Argentina, rightly fearing expropriation. Production began to close, investments began to leave the country. They raised wages, but prices went up, they dealt with them with a simple decision - administrative regulation, which at first curbed inflation, but had consequences with the closure of production and active growth of inflation in the future, and naturally, to a commodity shortage and the black market, where there were no other prices.
    In May 1973, in his presidential address to Congress, Allende wrote: “We must admit that we have been unable to create an economic management appropriate to the new conditions, that we have been captured by a bureaucratic tornado, that we do not have the necessary tools to seize the profits of the bourgeoisie, and that the policy of income redistribution has been pursued in isolation.” from the real possibilities of the economy"

    By mid-1973, there was no one left to defend Allende in Chile. The Chamber of Deputies adopted a resolution in which it accused Allende of authoritarian aspirations and the desire to destroy the role of the legislative branch; disregarding court decisions and patronizing criminals associated with the ruling party; in attacks on freedom of speech, arrests, beatings and torture, terrorizing the population with the help of armed gangs, and so on.
    The coup in September was not the first. Back in the summer, there was the “Tanquetazo” rebellion - an armed uprising of the 2nd tank regiment of the Chilean army against the government, suppressed by the very same military men who overthrew the Allende government in early September, and suppressed with the active participation of Pinochet himself, who was appointed by Allende as commandant of Santiago and commander of the ground forces. troops. In fact, before September, the country was already on the verge of an active phase of civil war.
    As a result of September 11, Allende's palace was defended by only 40 people during the coup. There were simply no military units loyal to him in nature.
    1. 0
      16 September 2023
      Wow, what cheap manipulations.. Somehow you immediately jumped to the 73rd, but modestly lowered your eyes and kept silent about the growth of the 71st and 72nd years..
      “In the first half of 1973, that is, under Allende, inflation was 353%.
      Despite the fact that just two years ago, inflation was 22 percent." - “Livestock owners began to slaughter and move them," etc. according to the list. Strange, who accelerated inflation like that? According to your “smart” version - apparently Allende.

      "As a result of September 11, Allende's palace was defended by only 40 people during the coup." - awesome conclusion.. Like - “when Kennedy was assassinated, there were no people loyal to him in the States at all.”

      For an article that is “replete with inaccuracies and distortions,” you added so much “stupidity” to just two theses from it that the article, against the background of your “notes,” looks like a deep scientific work.
      1. -1
        17 September 2023
        Wow, what cheap manipulations.. Somehow you immediately jumped to the 73rd, but modestly lowered your eyes and kept silent about the growth of the 71st and 72nd years..

        If you don’t know, Allende was appointed president (not elected, by the way) in November 1970. And inflation went up precisely under him.
        inflation was 22,1% in 1971 due to administrative price controls, in the first half of 1972 it rose to 28%, in the second half of 1972 it was 100%, and in the first half of 1973 353%

        It’s strange, who accelerated inflation like that? According to your “smart” version, apparently Allende.
        It was Allende with his left-wing populism such as raising wages.
        At the same time, real incomes of the population went down, which is not surprising given Allende’s populist policies.

        That is, real incomes of the population fell approximately three times under Allende.
        It is not surprising that he lost all the support he had at the beginning of his presidency thanks to his populism.
        So it is not surprising that in September 1973 not a single military unit - not a single one at all - spoke out for such a president, and he himself had to shoot himself with a Castro machine gun. On Allende’s side, only his personal party guard, consisting of party militants led by left-wing activist Max Marambio, who was trained in Cuba, acted. After Allende shot himself, the Swedish ambassador took this party guard under protection and ensured their departure from Chile.
        Your example with Kennedy is complete nonsense.
        1. -1
          17 September 2023
          I don’t even want to comment on your nonsense.
          Learn and think before you write:

          “On September 15, 1970, before Allende took office, Richard Nixon gave the order to overthrow him. According to a declassified National Security Council document, handwritten notes from CIA Director Richard Helms read: “Probably a 1 in 10 chance, but Chile must be saved!” worth the splurge; no worries; no embassy intervention; $10 million available, more if needed; constant action and the best people we have; game plan; make the economy scream; 48 hours for action plan." These notes were made during the timing of Helms' meeting with President Nixon, indicating the administration's readiness to stage a coup in Chile and the extent to which Nixon was willing to do so."


          “In recent history, this was, without a doubt, the bloodiest military coup not only in Chile, but in all of Latin America. The calling card of this continent until 1973 and many years later were military coups, assassinations of presidents and simply political activists. Only in "During the 1960s, the presidents and governments of Brazil (1964), Argentina (1966), Peru (1968), Bolivia (1969) were overthrown by the military with the active support of the United States. In 1973, an "epidemic" of military coups overtook Uruguay and Chile."

          “The military coup in Chile in 1973 was an operation of the US Central Intelligence Agency. Brutal repressions against Allende’s supporters and any “manifestations of socialist ideology” were also sanctioned by the United States, namely with the knowledge and blessing of US President Richard Nixon and his Secretary of State - now Henry Kissinger, who is alive and recently celebrated his 100th birthday."


          Etc. There are a lot of documents proving that the coup was deliberately planned by the United States, and the States themselves did not hide this - “Kissinger - “We will not allow the Chilean cause to go down the drain.”
          And only very stupid people can believe that he was overthrown because “real incomes of the population fell.”
          1. -1
            18 September 2023
            You yourself don’t understand what you wrote. This is not the 70s of the 20th century, when I also read this in newspapers and even in films, I remember watching about it in a cinema. But now two decades of the 21st century have passed, it’s time for you to find out a little more than what was written in Soviet newspapers.
            “In the archive documents, this KGB operation is called “Leader,” and the election of Allende in 1970 as President of Chile is called “a revolutionary blow to the system of imperialism in Latin America.” The KGB played an important role in his election campaign - Allende won with a very slight majority of votes. There are documents showing that the KGB financed his election campaign, paid him tens of thousands of dollars and even transferred several icons to his personal collection.

            In fact, Allende did not win the election campaign - he received 36,6 percent of the vote, and his opponent in the elections, former Chilean President Jorge Alessandri Rodriguez - 35,3, and Allende was appointed president by decision of Congress.
            The fact that the Americans participated in some way in the coup does not negate the fact that Allende, with his populism in distributing wages and primitive nationalization at the first stage, made himself popular, the people like it, but his leftist methods killed the economy of Chile and plunged most of the population into poverty, as can be seen from the facts and figures given in the post above, and this completely killed his former popularity, and as a result brought the country to such a state that there were no people willing to speak for him.
            Yes, the Americans opposed him, which is not surprising; with their investments they actually stimulated the Chilean economy, which developed quite successfully, although not always stably, before Allende (By 1970, the volume of direct American investment in the Chilean economy amounted to $1.1 billion out of a total of $1,672 billion).
            And before Allende, Presidents Frei and Rodriguez carried out meaningful nationalization and economic reform that did not scare away investors. The same Rodriguez, while still Minister of Finance back in 1947-1950, was able to reduce inflation from 57 percent to 17. And under Freya, for example, during his presidency, agrarian reform and “Chilization” of copper were carried out (the state bought 51% of the shares of enterprises , mining copper in such a way that it did not scare off investors). Under Freya, real incomes of the population grew steadily, as can be clearly seen from the graph above.
            But Allende’s populism destroyed all this. He scared off investors, quarreled with the Americans, destroyed the economy, created hyperinflation, and plunged the population into poverty.
            That's why no one married him. And not because the Americans somehow participated in the coup.
            1. +1
              19 September 2023
              "Scared off investors, quarreled with the Americans, destroyed the economy, created hyperinflation, plunged the population into poverty." -Oh, how bad everything is with you, with cause-and-effect relationships... You were told in Russian that Nixon, even before Allende took office, had already ordered his overthrow. Aw!!! You hear? Allende wasn't even president yet when they started to overthrow him!! And you are talking nonsense that Allende quarreled with someone else.

              “but his leftist methods killed the Chilean economy and plunged most of the population into poverty, as can be seen from the facts and figures” - the Chilean economy was killed by the States, not Allende.. Nixon even said especially for people like him - “to make the Chilean economy scream.” But it’s somehow hard for you to understand.
              Let's enlighten ourselves further:

              "Historian Peter Wynne has argued that the role of the CIA was crucial to the establishment of the military junta; the CIA helped form a plot against the Allende government, which Pinochet then portrayed as having prevented a counter-attack. The historian states that the coup itself was only possible as a result of a three-year covert operation organized by the United States He also points out that the United States imposed an “invisible blockade” that was designed to undermine the economy under Allende and contributed to destabilizing the regime.
              The director of the National Security Archive's Chile Documentation Project, Peter Kornbluh, argues in his book The Pinochet Affair that the United States actively participated and actively "fueled" the 1973 coup.
              CIA historian Tim Weiner, in Legacy of Ashes, and Christopher Hitchens, in The Trial of Henry Kissinger, similarly argue that U.S. covert actions actively destabilized Allende's government and set the stage for the events of 1973."

              Study history, you will learn a lot of interesting things... hi
  20. 0
    18 September 2023
    I wonder if Mussolini and Hitler did not have fascism in the interests of a narrow section of the rich?
  21. +2
    20 September 2023
    I once read that in Chile there were about 30 explosions every day, mostly of bridges and power lines - this is how the extremists fought against Allende. The author, I remember, also asked the question - how long would the prosperity of Switzerland, for example, (a country with a similar mountainous terrain) last ), if something like this happened there every day? As for Pinochet's reforms, in terms of production per capita in 1968, Chile came out only in 1989
  22. +1
    October 24 2023
    Quote from Frettaskyrandi
    Further in the text - the same thing, disassembling everything - a couple more articles will work out. The most important thing is that there is no description at all of what the Chilean economy was reduced to under Allende. In short - another portion of Samsonism - which has a very, very distant relation to Chilean reality.


    But, unlike “Samsonovshchina,” the strike of truck owners (the main freight transport in Chile), incited and paid for by American women and Chilean anti-socialists, local fascists, was most directly related to the anti-Allenda crisis in Chile.
    They blocked roads and streets with their trucks and began to prevent the delivery of food, medicine, and all the essentials. The traders who hid the goods helped. Sabotage. Hence all the “horrors” of Allende’s reforms.

    https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%97%D0%B0%D0%B1%D0%B0%D1%81%D1%82%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%BA%D0%B0_%D0%B3%D1%80%D1%83%D0%B7%D0%BE%D0%BF%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%B5%D0%B2%D0%BE%D0%B7%D1%87%D0%B8%D0%BA%D0%BE%D0%B2_%D0%B2_%D0%A7%D0%B8%D0%BB%D0%B8_1972%E2%80%941973

    “Any revolution is only worth something if it knows how to defend itself...” (Lenin).
    Allende did not dare to at least ban the media, where they poured slop on him and his reforms. In Russia, since 1918 (Red Terror), saboteurs and wreckers were shot and their property was confiscated.
    The cunning Pinochet (even then he was playing his game) suggested that Allende bomb the trucks blocking the roads from the air - it’s hard to say what this would lead to, so Allende refused. Then they bombed him...

    But the glorious general and great economist Pinochet took into account Allende’s mistakes and did not repeat them - he banned all protests and strikes, and jailed trade union activists.
    Media, TV - only praise the military junta, honest journalists with their criticism are “reforged”. Many simply disappeared without a trace - they are still searching...

    If General Pin and his creative junta were such a paw and a lula, then in his old age after the change of power in Chile they began to drag him through the courts, he had to retire under house arrest.
    If the quiet old man from Borovich, so adored by modern liberals, had not died in time, he could have gotten a life sentence for his art...

  23. +1
    January 4 2024
    In Russia the so-called God's self-proclaimed chosen ones staged a libertarian revolution to steal everything and bring it to the West. Very similar to what happened in Chile. They still open 500 one-day stores a day and there’s no end in sight! We need resistance!

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