Frost in Kiev grows stronger. Traffic lights from the cold now and then cut down. Debris of snow along the roads reduced the carriageway, at least, to the lane. Cars are crawling along the ruts of sleepy beetles. From the Polish border, fifty-kilometer traffic jams due to drifts. And somewhere in the steppes, new superfast trains are frozen ... Do you still believe in “global warming”? But what a great American fiction was! Clinton's vice president, Alan Gore, has even earned her a Nobel Prize! And although there is only minus fifteen outside the window, I want to take away the prize from Gore. And to drive him out for the cold - let him test his "theory" of warming in practice.
For some reason, most people believe that “earlier” - in the times of great-grandfathers, the climate was harsher, the winter was frostier, and the cold was stronger. In any historical film, both Russian and Ukrainian winter will be with deep snow, sleighs and rosy girls muffled to the very eyes. But how to connect the Pushkin lines from “Eugene Onegin” with this stereotype:
That year the autumn weather
It was a long time in the yard,
Winters waited, nature waited.
Snow fell only in January ...
The estate of Pushkin Mikhailovskoye, where in the 20 of the nineteenth century was created most of Eugene Onegin, is located in the Pskov province. If in the north of Russia the first snow in that era could only fall after the New Year, then how was the climate with us in the south?
Pushkin’s senior contemporary Maxim Berlinsky left such a picture of the “terrible” Kiev cold in “Stories of the city of Kiev ”, written at the turn of the 18th — 19th centuries:“ The winters are so warm that it barely freezes during the Genvard month, and autumn flowers are still visible until November ”.
Everything is just like this year, when in November flowers also bloomed here and there! In fact, no difference! Yes, and Denis Davydov in the article “Did Frost destroy the French army in 1812 year?” Argued that it was not frost, but Russian peasants. They not only the French, who came to the village to cook, were slaughtered like pigs, but even the Cossacks and the hussars of Davydov himself! Because of their beautiful form with tsatskim, their illiterate peasants were also mistaken for invaders: “Two days before I came to the village of Yegoryevskoye, which is on the road from Mozhaisk to Medyn, peasants of the near volost destroyed the Teptyarsky Cossack regiment, consisting of sixty Cossacks. They took these Cossacks for the enemy from the unclean pronunciation of the Russian language. They themselves peasants attacked the lagging my cart, on which lay a suitcase and a sick hussar Puchkov. Puchkov was beaten and left dead on the road, the cart was chopped up with axes, but they took nothing from the things, but tore them into pieces and scattered across the field. Here is an example of the frenzy of the villagers against the enemies of the fatherland and, along with this, their unselfishness. ”
Indeed, what frost can be compared with the club of a popular war? It was just a shame for Napoleon to admit that wild natives killed his army — so he poured everything into unprecedented cold.
We are waiting for the universal cold. The tale of global warming is finding fewer supporters. A new ice age is just around the corner - a couple of millennia are left
Yes, and try to measure the actual temperature of long-melted times at the then state of technology. We are accustomed to the thermometer, as if it was always. But this invention is not so ancient of the XVIII century - the century of Enlightenment. The first mercury thermometer, more or less similar to the modern one, was invented by the German physicist Daniel Fahrenheit in the 1715 year. Prior to that, his devices worked on alcohol. And it is very inaccurate, so to get pure alcohol of the same quality with the methods of the then distillation was oh, how difficult. Even in Europe. But going to mercury, poor Fahrenheit made a great mistake because of ... love for his spouse. In his complex and unthinkable average mind scale for 100 degrees was adopted "the body temperature of a normal person" - that is, Frau Fahrenheit, which the great inventor loved immensely. It was at the time of the invention of the thermometer (it was in Danzig that was unusually fierce in winter) that Fahrenheitsha caught a cold and became sick - it is impossible to consider her temperature as normal. The ice in Fahrenheit melted at 32 degrees. Water was boiling at 212. In general, it is not surprising that this tricky system was abandoned in favor of the alcohol thermometer of Frenchman Rene Antoine Reaumur divided into 80 degrees.
WINTER WERE EVERYONE. The French, as you know, do not drink alcohol undiluted and do not steal “degree” from it, adding water. They prefer light wines. It means that they have the strongest alcohol. Therefore, their system for a hundred years was out of competition. For the lowest point of the scale Reaumur in 1730, took the melting point of ice. For the top - the boiling point of water. However, about what the real “degree of Reaumur” is and how it is considered to be arguing so far. Another thing is more important to me - since 1734, Reomur has been publishing reports on regular air temperature measurements in different parts of France for five years, and then missed and gave up on this matter, not feeling the gratitude of the public - she didn’t care about Notre Dame de Paris high science. And if in France this case was lost, then no one started it at all. Died uncleanly from the frost - why should he measure the temperature with a costly French thermometer? And so it is clear that it will not come to life.
Rene Reaumur. Invented a thermometer on alcohol
Therefore, one has to read meteorological reports in the Cossack chronicles, like the one Samoravid was pleased with us under 1677: “The winter of barzo great hit with snakes, yaktezh and frosts, and there was not a lot of fun for the day Saint George, but the same yuzhey on Sivera not tilko sina, ale st and th on the huts did not become. The same zimy is three thousand times the supply from the regiments under the reserve was given to Sivska, from Sivska it was delivered to Kiev, and many submariners were exposed to frost, and the inn died. ”
It is clear that the strong were cold, if the people walking with carts were cold to death. But how to get the system out of completely contradictory climate data left in the annals?
Let's go back to the time in the Pushkin places, with which we started. Pskov chroniclers noted that in 1303, the winter was “warm without snow, and for the summer there was bread dear”. After a century or more in 1421, “there was a winter of snow velm and a lot of snow pade, and then in the spring of pade the water is great and very green, filled with water sources and lakes”. The 1560 year of the Pskov chronicler notes especially, for “the winter was then snowless, only seven weeks were with snow, and in the spring the water was small: dryness on all the rivers”. And summer "was dry, spring bread was not born."
You see, what a discord - and the snowy winters fell, and snowless, and drought, and flood ... And our scientists reign at this time "global relative cooling" - the so-called Little Ice Age. He began, according to them, in the XIV century and stretched to the XIX-th. The term came up in the West. Although no glaciers appeared there. Just fell in a row a few cool little years. According to the Chronicle of Matthew Paris, the four rainy summers of 1312 — 1315 led to a massive famine in France. Frost Gardens grabbed in England ...
Nightmare! So, let's start the countdown of the New Epoch of Cooling from this date. And why not from the Battle of 1242, when Alexander Nevsky defeated the German knights on the ice of Lake Peipsi? The thing was April 5 - in the midst of spring. And the ice on the lake stood firmly until several hundred Teutonic horsemen in heavy armor fleeing from the battlefield jumped onto it. What is not the beginning of the Little Ice Age in climate history? By the way, I would like to note if this battle hadn't happened, none of the historians would even be interested in the state of the ice cover on the lake. Who can say what it was, for example, 5 April 1243, in just twelve months? Or on the same day in 1542? And whether there was ice at all. Or melted? Now, if the Battle on the Ice took place annually, we would have a detailed weather report on the weather in those places.
Unfortunately, all the data on frost before the invention of the thermometer and the beginning of regular observations are not so scientific as artistic value. It is known that the same Boplan during the 1646 campaign of the year against the Tatars was cold in the Ukrainian steppes. Sitting in a fur coat in a sleigh, he warmed his feet with a warm, lively dog, and rubbed his cheeks with alcohol and wrapped him with woolen cloth. Sorry Boplan! But how many degrees of frost was it? Five? Ten? Twenty? No answer. And never will be. For there was no thermometer.
SWEDS FREEZED AND THOUGHT THERMOMETER. But we can be proud that it was the tragedy of the Swedish army in Ukraine in the winter of 1709 that helped the Swede Anders Celsius to invent the usual scale for the thermometer. Frosts then stood out really notable. Swedes are not French. The people of the north, hardened. However, he also suffered on the way to Poltava under the town of Gadyach. Pastor Daniel Krman, who participated in this “Winter Olympics”, described the sufferings of Karl XII warriors as follows: “The saliva released from the mouth froze faster than it fell to the ground. Frozen sparrows fell from the roofs. One could see crippled hands, arms and legs, some of those who lost fingers, others with frost-bitten ears, noses, faces. Many were crawling on all fours on the ground, others were waving hard because of the frostbitten genitals. ” This is how General Frost fought against the invaders!
Celsius. I guessed to break the thermometer into 100 degrees
Little Celsius at this time was just the eighth year. Rumors about the sufferings of compatriots in Ukraine shocked him so far in distant Stockholm that he thought about the problem of accurate temperature measurement. To know for sure when you can go camping on Tsar Peter the Great, and when it is better to sit at home near the stove. The boy grew up and, regardless of Fahrenheit and Reaumur, invented his mercury thermometer. For zero, he took the boiling point of water, for 100 degrees - the melting point of ice. The great compatriot Karl Linney was already “turning” the Celsius scale into the position we were accustomed to in XXUMX. Since then, the opportunity has arisen for accurate climate studies, where frost is measured by a decrease in the mercury column, and not by the number of sparrows and frostbite limbs that fell from the roof.
And it turned out that a person can freeze to death in rather warm weather. He was drunk from a spree, fell into a puddle, froze into it by morning and gave God his soul only at two or three degrees below zero, as in the case of Ukraine, with outraged village servants of Bacchus. Covering his observations with exact figures, the author of the “History of the City of Kiev”, Maxim Berlinsky, wrote down at the end of the 18th century: “Reaumur did not rise above 31 degrees and did not go below 29; the common cold is around 8 and the heat around 20 degrees happens. ”
When translated into degrees Celsius, this means that the maximum heat could reach almost 39 degrees, the frost did not fall below 36. And the usual winter temperature was 10 degrees below zero, in summer - 25 degrees of heat.
Quite modern numbers. At the time of Berlin it was even hotter - for comparison, the maximum temperature in Kiev in August 2000 reached only 36,6 degrees Celsius. During the Epiphany cold of 2006, the cold period for several days was kept around 30 — reaching even 36 degrees below zero. Already breathing intercepted!
The theory of global warming is speculative through and through. She argues that the temperature on Earth is rising due to the greenhouse effect, and the greenhouse effect itself is caused by the turbulent technical activity of man. This is one of the horror stories that people use to brainworm people in order to distract from real problems. But regular observations of the climate are carried out a little more than two hundred years. The reasons for its change are still not clear to the scientists themselves. For example, everyone heard about the Great Ice Age. Its peak occurred at 20 — 15 of the millennium BC. er .. Then the glaciers covered even the territory of present-day Kiev, and the level of the World Ocean was lower than the modern one on 130 — 150. To America, they passed from Kamchatka by land! Then the climate began to warm, the ice melt, and instead of a glacier in our places appeared coniferous and deciduous forests. There are a dozen hypotheses trying to explain this riddle - right up to the fall of a giant meteorite and a change in the tilt of the Earth's axis and a change of poles. In fact, it is only clear that the man then did not conduct any vigorous activity, except for the hunt for a mammoth, and the climate was warmer much more active than today. In general, greetings to Alan Gore and other eulogies. And I wish you not to freeze when outside the window minus 15. Believe the thermometer, not theories.