Orava Castle: continuation of the story

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Orava Castle: continuation of the story
Orava Castle. Photo by Ralph Lotus


Your Majesty, have you forgotten history kind?
To become queen, your great-grandmother executed her sister.
But your grandfather took the crown from her and imprisoned the deposed mother in a monastery.
Your father executed your grandfather to sit on the throne for 77 days...
Do you remember? He was found dead in bed.
And your mother became the dowager queen.
Then your older brother became king.
But he did not listen to the instructions of his ministers.
Remember what happened to him?
I will remind you. He went to the mountains and...
And fell into the abyss.

"Kingdom of Crooked Mirrors" (1963)

Castles of Europe. So, we also return to the Orava Castle, now in order to get acquainted with its history. And his story is rich and very interesting. Although the presentation looks a bit dry. Here you need to call on the help of fantasy and think about what could be behind these mean lines.



Let's start with the fact that the first known written mention of the existence of Orava Castle took place in 1267. By deed of gift, the castle became the property of the Hungarian king Béla IV after it was taken from its original owner Mika from the Balassa family (voivode of Zvolensky district) in exchange for the districts of Varin, Žilina and Suchany.

Then in 1298 the magnate Matthew Čak from Trenčín captured Orava and the castle. Since 1333, Orava Castle has been in royal possession. How?

It’s very simple: another local magnate helped King Charles Robert of Anjou to deprive Matvey Csak from Trencin of his property, and Orava Castle ended up in the hands of the king. All according to the saying, who is stronger - that's true!

But the transfer of the castle from hand to hand did not end there.


View of the courtyard. Photo by Stanislav Ludvinsky

In 1420, Orava Castle was taken over by Stibor of Szybozice, a devoted supporter of Sigismund of Luxembourg, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Hungary. But in 1441, during the civil war for the Hungarian crown, Orava Castle was captured by Peter Komorowski, one of the leaders of the former Hussite warriors who supported Ladislav the Posthumous.

His strength lasted for 30 years, and then in 1474, the Hungarian king Matthias (Matthias) Corvinus took possession of the castle and began its first large-scale reconstruction. The castle acquired a decent appearance, and then in 1482 Matthias Corvinus gave it to his illegitimate son and heir Janos.

After the death of Janos Korvin in 1504, Janos Zapolyai became the owner of Orava Castle, and he entrusted the management of it to Peter and Nikolai Kostka. Here, in 1526, the epic battle of Mohacs took place. After losing the battle, János Zápolyai attempted to seize the Hungarian throne and opposed Ferdinand I of Habsburg. But in 1534, Nikolai Kostka went over to the side of Ferdinand I of Habsburg, who awarded him the honorary title of ban, and Orava Castle came into the possession of Kostka’s relative, Janos Dubovetsky.


The roof of Janos Dubovetsky's palace is made of wooden blocks! Photography by Miro Svorka

Having taken possession of the castle in 1540, Janos Dubovetsky began extensive work to strengthen the castle. And on time. Because in 1545, after the death of Janos, Wenceslav Sedlnicki quarreled over the ownership of Orava Castle with Nikolai Kostka, and the matter smelled of another siege, war and fire. But in 1549, the emperor ended their dispute by appointing Siedlnicki as castellan of the castle.

However, in 1556, the county of Orava, together with the castle, passed into the possession of Francis Thurzo, who not only started a new reconstruction, but also began the colonization of the previously sparsely populated Upper Orava. In 1574 he died and his son Dörd, who grew up and was educated at the court of Archduke Ernst III of Habsburg, became his heir.


You look up and the hat falls off your head!

During the first anti-Habsburg uprising led by Stefan Bosskai, rebel forces attempted to capture Orava Castle, but were unsuccessful. But for his loyalty to the Habsburgs during the Fifteen Years' War against the Ottoman Empire and the Bocskai uprising, György Turzó received the title of count and as a reward the inherited possession of the land of Orava. And in 1609 he was awarded the title of Palatine of Hungary - the second most important position in Hungary after the king.

He was buried in the family crypt in the chapel of St. Michael in Orava Castle, and his only son Emerich became his heir. But he soon died too. The male branch of the family was cut short, and the head of the Orava district became Emerich's mother Erzhebeta Thurzo (née Czobor).


Everything here literally breathes antiquity! Photo by Modris Putnes

After the death of Elisabeth, all the legitimate heirs of the Thurzo family gathered in Lietava Castle and formed the Orava Compassorate (joint possession) in order to control the county with a residence in Orava Castle and prevent the division of family holdings. At the same time, management was transferred into the hands of an elected "director", who was supposed to redistribute the profit from the compass among all the remaining owners.

And everything would be fine if one of the directors did not support the anti-Habsburg uprising, led by the palatine Stefan Vesselegni. In response to such disloyal behavior, Emperor Leopold I ordered the confiscation of his property and sent his troops to Orava Castle. As a result, the castle garrison surrendered, and Nicholas Draskovic was chosen as the new “director”, expressing his humility and loyalty.

But in 1672, the “kuruci” (soldiers and refugees who joined the anti-Habsburg conspiracy) entered Orava, where they were joined by Protestant peasants. Under the leadership of Kaspar Pik, the “Kuruc” detachments managed to take the Orava Castle, but they only owned it for a short time.

Emperor Leopold I again sent his army to Orava, with the help of local Catholics, crushed the uprising and returned the castle to the crown. Meanwhile, the uprising of the "kuruts" continued as before. And in 1677 the castle was captured by them once again, but by the end of the year it was recaptured without a fight by the imperial army.


Gate with a drawbridge. Photograph by Janos Koroma

In 1683, the Kurucs again besieged Orava Castle in order to recapture it for their commander Emerich Thököly. But they failed to take it until the arrival of the Polish army led by Jan Kazimierz Sapieha.

The war cost Orava dearly. 27 villages were burned and many civilians were killed. And then the “Kurucians” managed to capture Orava Castle in 1708. But after the victorious Battle of Trencin, Habsburg troops led by Jan Palffy besieged the castle, and it all ended with the surrender of the Kuruc forces in the spring of 1709.

The compass was restored and under his leadership the colonization of Orava was completed.

At the same time, its catholization took place. Thus, the Protestant chapel in Orava Castle was Catholicized and dedicated to St. Michael. Its original XNUMXth-century furnishings, including the high altar, were moved to Nekpali and replaced with new Catholic Baroque furnishings.

The “Great Fire” broke out at Orava Castle in 1800. It started in the priest's house in the main courtyard, and eventually destroyed almost the entire castle complex. However, the next director of the Orava Compassorate, Franz Zichy Sr., carried out the most necessary restoration work and saved the castle from imminent destruction.

As a result of the revolution of 1848, the feudal system was abolished in Austria-Hungary, but the position of director of the Orava Compassorate was retained. Now the compassorate has turned from a feudal estate into a progressive enterprise in the woodworking industry. And in 1868, the first museum was created in Orava Castle, which was open to the public along with the castle.


Everything inside has been restored! Photography by Janos Koroma

Under the leadership of Josef Palfi, in 1906, work began on the reconstruction of Orava Castle in a romantic style. Work began on the Corvinus Palace, on the main courtyard and in the residential tower, but the outbreak of the First World War left them unfinished.

And then in 1919, the last director of the Orava compass, Josef Palfi, died, and the board of the compass was sworn in by the newly formed Czechoslovak Republic.

During the Second World War, in the autumn of 1944, Orava Castle was occupied by the German army. And here in Orava Podzamok, after the start of the Slovak National Uprising, the first battle of the rebels with the Germans in the Orava region took place.

Finally, in 1945, after more than 300 years of existence, the Orava compass was dissolved. His forests and other possessions were transferred to the state and the surrounding villages, and it was decided to open a compassorate museum in Orava Castle. However, during the fighting and the liberation of Orava, the castle was badly damaged (mainly from the explosion of a bridge across the Orava River) and required serious restoration work.

The general restoration of Orava Castle began in 1953. In addition, the castle became the seat of the Orava National History Museum. In 1968 the Orava Castle Museum celebrated its 100th anniversary. On this occasion, several exhibitions were open to the public here (including natural history, ethnographic, archaeological and historical exhibitions).

The general restoration of the castle was completed in 1977, and the restoration of St. Michael's Chapel in 2006. Its opening ceremony took place on April 22, and on April 29, 2006, the chapel was opened to the public. On August 21 of the same year, the Chapel of St. Michael was awarded the “Cultural Monument of the Year” award in the category “Restoration of a movable or immovable cultural monument of national importance.”


Vehicle of the XNUMXth – early XNUMXth century. Somehow it was preserved, and today it is exhibited in the castle. A trifle, as they say, but interesting to see! Photograph by Janos Koroma

Today the castle houses a number of exhibitions. Thus, in 2009, a new ethnographic gallery was prepared for the public. A fresh archaeological exhibition, opened in 2011 in the citadel of the Upper Castle, is dedicated to the prehistory of the Orava region and the history of the restoration of the Orava Castle. In 2015, another series of exhibits appeared in one of the halls of the Citadel, dedicated to films and TV series filmed at Orava Castle. And in 2016, in the restored halls on the ground floor of the Thurzo Palace, an exhibition was dedicated to the noble families associated with Orava Castle and their collections, called “The Treasury of Orava Castle”.

In 2017, restoration work began on the parsonage in the Main Courtyard, and when it was completed, a new multimedia exhibition “Orava peatlands” was opened here. So there is a lot to see in Orava Castle, and you can walk around it, moving from hall to hall, for a very long time.
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43 comments
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  1. +4
    3 September 2023 06: 39
    Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich! The roof was made of wooden planks. I wonder what breed?
    1. +3
      3 September 2023 07: 13
      Quote from Korsar4
      I wonder what breed?

      Don't know. From some kind of durable, probably, and waterproof ...
    2. +9
      3 September 2023 08: 51
      Quote from Korsar4
      Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich! The roof was made of wooden planks. I wonder what breed?

      I agree with Sergei’s words - a beautiful castle and excellent work by Vyacheslav Olegovich!!!


      Quote: kalibr
      Quote from Korsar4
      I wonder what breed?

      Don't know. From some kind of durable, probably, and waterproof ...

      I don’t know how it is with them, but our shingles (in solid boards) are made from coniferous trees: mostly larch or pine. Moreover, the cover was always made of pine. To make them resistant to bad weather, such roofs were impregnated with pitch (varnish based on tar and turpentine).
      Structurally, it looked like this: an inch and a quarter boards were laid from the ridge to the overlay (that’s what they were called - roofing boards). They were stuck together with dowels. The gaps between them were closed with flashings (an inch board one-third the width of the roofing), which was nailed in a checkerboard pattern. And she lay down on moss soaked in pitch.
      Rich roofs were made entirely from roofing boards. In essence, a monolithic wooden shield was created. I personally examined one of these. The house has rotted, and the roof is more than a century old (although the last 50 years have definitely been covered with iron). could only be done using a circular machine.
      Alas, such roofs cannot be found today. This type of competence was killed by the improvement in the well-being of the Ural workers, who everywhere tried to cover their houses with iron. However, today there are no specialists in the installation of roofing iron in a castle.
      Metal tiles and corrugated sheets rule.
      1. +8
        3 September 2023 09: 09
        I don’t know how it is with them, but our shingles (in solid boards) are made from coniferous trees: mostly larch or pine.

        “They” use larch, fir, coniferous spruce, ash and deciduous oak to make shingles. For some reason, Slovaks don’t like pine. Both chipped (manually) and sawn shingles are produced. Chipped is much more expensive, but much more durable.
        1. +3
          3 September 2023 09: 27
          There could probably be impregnation. The fir was a little surprising. It can quickly start to rot.
          1. +7
            3 September 2023 09: 56
            Fir was a little surprising

            Why? Fir is resistant to insects and fungi. It has the lowest thermal conductivity coefficient, the same as that of polystyrene foam, that is, it retains heat well. Very well processed. And the issue of resistance to decay is solved with appropriate modern chemicals.
            By the way, the traditional log house of the Shors - chailyg, yaylyg, is built from fir.
            1. +4
              3 September 2023 10: 29
              Fir absorbs moisture well. And an amazing coniferous species, the wood of which is without resin ducts.
              1. +4
                3 September 2023 12: 47
                Fir absorbs moisture well.

                For this there are appropriate impregnations.

        2. +5
          3 September 2023 09: 57
          I can’t even imagine how much a square meter of chipped shingles can cost! It would probably be more expensive to just make a roof with gold leaf.
          1. +5
            3 September 2023 11: 50
            I can’t even imagine how much a square meter of split shingle can cost! It’s probably only more expensive to make a roof with gold leaf. [/ Quote] Anton! Funny case: I was driving along Lake Balaton. And there are luxurious villas under a roof of reeds and reeds. I ask the guide... And to me: it's very, very expensive, but... cool and environmentally friendly! Reed roof!!!
            1. +4
              3 September 2023 12: 21
              To be honest, I don’t understand such perversions, Vyacheslav Olegovich. Pigeon mail - also expensive and environmentally friendly, but everyone uses the Internet
          2. +3
            3 September 2023 12: 41
            I can’t even imagine how much a square meter of split shingle can cost!

            Depending on the laying method, which determines the number of "tiles" per square meter, the cost per square meter of impregnated handmade chipped pine shingles ranges from 36 to 90 euros in Slovakia. Plus installation. From other breeds it will be more expensive, how much - you have to look.



            But it looks nice. This is spruce shingle.
            1. +5
              3 September 2023 12: 47
              from 36 to 90 euros in Slovakia.
              Wow! Seems like I'm doing something wrong...
              1. +6
                3 September 2023 13: 05
                Wow! Seems like I'm doing something wrong...

                In Slovakia, now popular products. In production, it seems nothing complicated, but you need to fill your hand.





                I, it seems, is not from the church choir, but I was busy all day, until something began to work out.
        3. +4
          3 September 2023 12: 08
          Fir soaks up water like a sponge and vomits from zero temperature drops in the sun. It can be safely used for the draft ceiling of attics, but be sure to fill it with earth (clay). It feels good as logs of the walls of the hut (but the house needs to be scorched) and even the pillars of the yard (in the ground). Spruce dries out in the sun - there will be cracks in the roof. This is not critical if the shingle is thatched. It was not accepted by us.
          Oak and ash are rare here. The nearest oak grove is half a hundred kilometers to the south.
          I have not seen chipped boards in old houses. And why, if there is a plant nearby that supplied itself and its neighbors with iron inventory from axes to braids. Wooden spades, like pitchforks, were wild anarchism at the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries.
          1. +5
            3 September 2023 12: 16
            Wooden spades, like pitchforks, were wild anarchism
            To hell with him, with "anarchism", but in the Vladimir region back in the 80s. of the last century, they dug potatoes with wooden shovels so as not to cut the tubers.
            1. +3
              3 September 2023 17: 43
              Quote: 3x3zsave
              Wooden spades, like pitchforks, were wild anarchism
              To hell with him, with "anarchism", but in the Vladimir region back in the 80s. of the last century, they dug potatoes with wooden shovels so as not to cut the tubers.

              Apparently they have a very good land. At the end of the 90s, we had the practice of digging potatoes with dung forks. They even began to make homemade products for 5 teeth.
          2. +3
            3 September 2023 13: 16
            Fir absorbs water like a sponge

            After proper processing - does not absorb. Modern chemistry works wonders.

      2. +3
        3 September 2023 09: 24
        The first association is an aspen ploughshare, which was used to cover the domes of wooden churches in the North.

        But the picture clearly shows a different breed.
  2. +4
    3 September 2023 08: 18
    After the death of Elisabeth, all the legitimate heirs of the Thurzo family gathered in Lietava Castle and formed the Orava Compassorate (joint possession) in order to control the county with a residence in Orava Castle and prevent the division of family holdings. At the same time, management was transferred into the hands of an elected "director", who was supposed to redistribute the profit from the compass among all the remaining owners.

    History has known similar things in our Fatherland.
    For example, the joint management of a majorate in the Urals by the Strooonov family.
  3. +4
    3 September 2023 08: 52
    Then in 1298 the magnate Matthew Čak from Trenčín captured Orava and the castle. Since 1333, Orava Castle has been in royal possession. How?
    It’s very simple: another local magnate helped King Charles Robert of Anjou to deprive Matvey Csak from Trencin of his property, and Orava Castle ended up in the hands of the king. All according to the saying, who is stronger - that's true!

    The version is beautiful, but there is one nuance - in 1333 no one could take anything away from Matusz Csak, since back in 1321 he died a natural death, leaving no direct heirs, so he bequeathed his possessions to his nephew - Stepan from Štremberk. So in 1321, the Hungarian king Charles Robert of Anjou (no one helped him) took the castle away from him, appointing his supporter, the Zvolen zupan Master Doncza, a famous castle builder, to manage it.
    In 1331, the king appointed Master Donča Župan of Orava and until 1420 there was nothing interesting in the history of the castle, except that from 1393 to 1401 the castle was owned by Vladislav Opolczyk, who was famous for his plan for the division of Poland between the Teutonic Order, Hungary and the Czech Republic.
  4. +4
    3 September 2023 09: 05
    Apparently the castle garrisons were very small, or they agreed on good terms. It's not so easy to capture such a castle. Unless you burn it
  5. +3
    3 September 2023 09: 49
    Thank you very much to Vyacheslav Olegovich for the article! The castle is very beautiful! I like it! good hi
  6. +1
    3 September 2023 12: 37
    Every sandpiper praises its swamp.
    The castle is a colonial symbol of enslavement.
    It would be destroyed to create a Chinese pagoda on the foundation.
    Or Japanese?
    1. +3
      3 September 2023 12: 55
      Sorry for the invasion of personal space, but the question has long been interesting - what do you take before writing comments - LSD, DOB, 2C-B, DOM, DMT? Or do you prefer natural products like Salvia divinorum?
      1. +5
        3 September 2023 13: 15
        Unfamiliar sage.

        And now I continue to admire the clary sage and clary sage.

        1. +3
          3 September 2023 13: 19
          Unfamiliar sage.

          Sage of predictors.

          1. +3
            3 September 2023 14: 52
            Every society has its own ways of relieving stress.
      2. +5
        3 September 2023 13: 26
        I would guess psilobicilli, just in season.
        1. +4
          3 September 2023 13: 46
          I would guess psilobicilli




          For example, a mushroom with the poetic name of stropharia shit. As the title suggests, the hallucinations after it aren't very good, and neither are the comments.
          1. +4
            3 September 2023 16: 25
            I'll work in the country, and all mental fatigue relieves!
            1. +4
              3 September 2023 17: 39
              Golden words, Vyacheslav Olegovich! You are golden man! You think about the people all the time... But how can you not think about them when this is going on around you?! . You don’t take care of yourself, Vyacheslav Olegovich .. You should have a rest ... (c) wink
          2. +4
            3 September 2023 17: 10
            For example, a mushroom with the poetic name of shitty stropharia.

            Wow, what a beautiful and intelligent true name this lodger of cow cakes and composts has. Direct song! smile
            And in our area, the villagers, due to their illiteracy and simplicity of soul, call it in a folk way, not courteously - a dung coot.

            Didn't know it was a hallucinogen. The goodness of this here is not measured here - at least open a drug cartel. laughing
            1. +1
              3 September 2023 17: 43
              And in our area, the villagers, due to their illiteracy and simplicity of soul, call it in a folk way, not courteously - a dung coot.

              Dung bald head, if correct. Or stropharia dung. These are different mushrooms, although they are close relatives.
              1. +4
                3 September 2023 17: 57
                These are different mushrooms.

                Ah, Viktor Nikolaevich.angry Broke off all dreams on the most interesting crying And I already threw in a business plan for the future of Stropharia Incorporated JSC. Figured out costs and benefits. The Medellin cartel would have wept with envy. And I even found the zits-chairman - the bald guard of the barnyard laughing
                1. +1
                  3 September 2023 18: 26
                  And I already threw in a business plan for the future of Stropharia Incorporated JSC.

                  They threw it in vain. By Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation N 934 (dated November 27.11, 2010), psilocybin-containing mushrooms are classified as plants subject to control on the territory of the Russian Federation. With this resolution, your business plan will break like the Titanic on an iceberg.
                  1. +4
                    3 September 2023 19: 15
                    Excuse me, I'll be away from the computer for half an hour. The skewers are waiting. His honor Mr. physics teacher Vladimir Surenovich asks to replace him at the barbecue. They want to dance with their wife. According to tradition, on the first Sunday in September, my wife gathered all her school staff in our garden. Celebrate the start of the school year.
                    1. +2
                      3 September 2023 19: 18
                      A good tradition. Try to save energy for the whole school year.
                      1. +3
                        3 September 2023 22: 54
                        Good tradition.

                        Good. It’s a pity that today it’s a little forgotten, but in Soviet times it was the norm in all educational institutions. By the way, Sergey, you also have a direct connection to pedagogy. That's why we also drank to your health. drinks Thanks again for your help with the garden. We are very grateful to you.
                    2. +5
                      3 September 2023 22: 59
                      The smart-ass Muska, in the hope of snatching a piece of kebab from the teacher’s table, naively pretends to be their colleague smile
                2. +2
                  3 September 2023 18: 59
                  Start with popular fly agaric lectures. However, the niche is not free. Such talented speakers.
  7. 0
    3 September 2023 20: 35
    He looks shabby! Apparently they are repairing piece by piece. Are the Czechs saving money??
    1. Fat
      +3
      4 September 2023 08: 35
      Quote: alekc75
      He looks shabby! Apparently they are repairing piece by piece. Are the Czechs saving money??

      hi I think the work is being funded as it progresses... A good, proper restoration is a discipline that requires more time than excess funding, at least heaps of money, but this will not make things faster. A counter example is the British. Stonehenge was repaired with concrete, once or twice and the result, the funds were spent. Now this monument is in many ways practically a remake ... "Shabby" laughing

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