The first picture from a German rocket, a dummy and a monkey: how the Americans began their space exploration

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The first picture from a German rocket, a dummy and a monkey: how the Americans began their space exploration

Intentions related to the conquest of space appeared in mankind long before the first flights.

Meanwhile, the level of technological development and insufficient knowledge in the field of human physiology were associated with a number of questions that scientists at that time did not have answers to.



In particular, it was not clear how the human body would react to weightlessness? How stable will the psyche be in the conditions of space flight? Will the human body withstand changes in pressure and other indicators during the flight?

But most importantly, the knowledge of cosmic radiation was negligible. For example, it was believed that the latter penetrates the human body like needles, creating the corresponding pain sensations.

In general, several countries worked on projects to "conquer" space at once, including "irreconcilable rivals" - the USSR and the USA.

The Americans, by the way, were the first to take a picture of the Earth from space. It happened in 1946. True, the German V-2 ballistic missile, which the United States took out of Nazi Germany in 1945, was used for this so that the USSR would not get it.

Here it is worth adding that the first overcoming of the conditional milestone of 100 km, from which (in many respects conditionally) space begins, was nevertheless carried out by the Germans. In 1944, the Wehrmacht tested the aforementioned rocket, which then managed to climb 188 km. However, the apparatus did not have any research equipment, since it was created for completely different purposes.

However, despite its own space program, the United States also launched the V-2 in parallel for scientific purposes. The equipment on these rockets, at least initially, was disposable.

The rocket, which did not have a braking system, simply fell to the Earth and crashed along with the equipment installed on it. Only pictures and some data recording were of value.

At the same time, despite a seemingly certain advantage, American astronaut Alan Shepard went into space after Soviet cosmonauts Yuri Gagarin and German Titov. At the same time, there was no talk of any revolution around the Earth. Shepard's flight lasted only 15 minutes. And Sheppard's "space" itself was not quite space. The flight was characterized by suborbital, and it is difficult to call the American "mission" a real response to Gagarin's flight. This was also understood in America itself.

In fairness, it is worth noting that the Americans did make a “coil” around the Earth in 1961. True, in the first flight, in September, a dummy with sensors participated, and in the second, in November, Enos the chimpanzee.

American astronaut John Glenn managed to fly around the Earth only in February 1962.

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  1. 0
    April 4 2023 07: 24
    Unfortunately, today, less and less people on Earth know who was the first astronaut. The most important thing is that we remember and will never forget
    1. -1
      April 4 2023 07: 43
      Ask Svidomo - they will sing you a song about the first astronaut Shepardyuk (who, of course, had Ukrainian roots and in fact is not Shepard at all).
      1. 0
        April 4 2023 07: 56
        Judging by Biden, Bush Jr., Psaki and other chimpanzees, the chimpanzee can quite adequately replace the American astronauts.
        1. 0
          April 4 2023 07: 57
          yeah, again, the mass of the chimpanzee is small and the size - the equipment will be able to fit more into the capsule .... lol
  2. +1
    April 4 2023 07: 30
    "For the sake of fairness, it is worth noting that the Americans did make a "coil" around the Earth in 1961. True, a mannequin with sensors participated in the first flight, in September, and the chimpanzee Enos participated in the second, in November."
    Well, if "in fairness" then Belka and Strelka (Kaplya and Vilna) ( laughing ) back in August 1960, they flew more than one turn (27 hours) ... not a chimpanzee, though, but not alone - in a team with mice, rats and a greenhouse to boot ...
  3. +5
    April 4 2023 07: 32
    Amers had technology, German designers, documentation, the peak of industrial development, but the USSR was the first in space !!! This is an indicator of the effectiveness of the state and the cohesion of people for their own purposes! And now they can’t even clearly explain the goals of the state ...
  4. 0
    April 4 2023 08: 07
    I wonder how the Germans determined that they had crossed the line of 100 km. above the Earth, if there was no equipment?
    1. 0
      April 4 2023 08: 32
      Quote: 75Sergey
      I wonder how the Germans determined that they had crossed the line of 100 km. above the Earth, if there was no equipment?

      By observing the rocket from the side. They say geometry works wonders, with the help of perspective, you can estimate the distance of an object if its dimensions are known. winked
  5. -1
    April 4 2023 08: 20
    Apparently, until the Soyuz-Apollo program, American space exploration was mainly represented by photographs and dummies. Only by the 70s did they begin to get something real. For example, they terribly deliver their descent vehicles to me, practically without heat-insulating coating, and through thousands of bolts, which would equalize the temperature of the hot plasma outside and the temperature inside the vehicles within a few seconds. And nothing! Astronauts resistant to 1500-2000 degrees Celsius) did not even notice this minor inconvenience))
    1. -1
      April 4 2023 08: 34
      Quote: Mikhail3
      Apparently, until the Soyuz-Apollo program, American space exploration was mainly represented by photographs and dummies. Only by the 70s did they begin to get something real. For example, they terribly deliver their descent vehicles to me, practically without heat-insulating coating, and through thousands of bolts, which would equalize the temperature of the hot plasma outside and the temperature inside the vehicles within a few seconds. And nothing! Astronauts resistant to 1500-2000 degrees Celsius) did not even notice this minor inconvenience))

      They have thermal insulation from below, where it is hot in the form of a heat shield. In other places everything is fine.
      1. 0
        April 4 2023 11: 45
        Thermal insulation of your house only "from below"? At the level of snow?)) No need to go higher? Lord... When plasma flows around the body of the descent vehicle, the temperature "from below" is the highest. But this does not mean at all that the temperature is room temperature beyond the size of the main heat-resistant shield))
        The bolts pass through all the layers of protection of the "descent vehicles". Okay, let's assume that in space everyone will be saved by the effect of a thermos (although it would be interesting to check). But as soon as these bolt rows, hundreds of kilograms of steel, are touched by the atmosphere, heat will be transferred into the cabin very, very quickly. The thermal conductivity of metals, you see, is very high. Plasma, born by the impact of the main shield on atmospheric gases, washes the entire apparatus. It's just that the temperature rises on the shield. And then its streams flow further, no longer so mechanically dangerous, but still just as hot)
        Pay attention - when the Americans began to fly into space REALLY, all these beautiful hatches on the piano curtains along the entire length of the "descent vehicles", all these bolt rows were immediately replaced by something similar to our vehicles. Because with miserable chemical astronautics there is no other way to go down. Physics, whatever...
        1. -1
          April 4 2023 13: 17
          Quote: Mikhail3
          Thermal insulation of your house only "from below"? At the level of snow?)) No need to go higher? Lord... When plasma flows around the body of the descent vehicle, the temperature "from below" is the highest. But this does not mean at all that the temperature is room temperature beyond the size of the main heat-resistant shield))
          The bolts pass through all the layers of protection of the "descent vehicles". Okay, let's assume that in space everyone will be saved by the effect of a thermos (although it would be interesting to check). But as soon as these bolt rows, hundreds of kilograms of steel, are touched by the atmosphere, heat will be transferred into the cabin very, very quickly. The thermal conductivity of metals, you see, is very high. Plasma, born by the impact of the main shield on atmospheric gases, washes the entire apparatus. It's just that the temperature rises on the shield. And then its streams flow further, no longer so mechanically dangerous, but still just as hot)
          Pay attention - when the Americans began to fly into space REALLY, all these beautiful hatches on the piano curtains along the entire length of the "descent vehicles", all these bolt rows were immediately replaced by something similar to our vehicles. Because with miserable chemical astronautics there is no other way to go down. Physics, whatever...

          Radically large difference between the temperature under the apparatus and outside. That is why all machines are designed this way. If you study the thermal insulation of Buranov and Shutlov, you will also find that the heat-resistant tiles are there only on the braking side.
          1. 0
            April 4 2023 18: 45
            Everything is more and more wonderful) I roughly know how the thermal insulation of Buranov is arranged) I have gaps about modern education) if you strain and try, you can probably catch the difference between different types of thermal insulation, which work somewhat differently, and thermal bridges, which quickly equalize the temperature between the outer surface and the inner. God...
            Okay, we need to get together) We calm down the stupid laughter and continue. So, on the surface of the main shield some miserable 28 degrees. Around the apparatus, of course, much less. Only 000-8 thousand, a pleasant summer evening. And our thermal bridges rapidly transfer this small temperature inside! Consider that if you raise the temperature in the room to some pathetic 10 degrees, you will die. And by the way, all electronics will also die. And that's only 200 degrees, not the thousands that rage outside. And which, along the steel cylinders of bolts, freely go inside. THESE descent vehicles were not in space. Sorry)
            Well, or the Americans had a REAL space propulsion device that allowed them to land using ka gamma plasmoin. Or mu delta inoplast. If you have enough fuel to slow down not by the atmosphere, but by traction, you can land without heating at all. Only earthlings can't do that. Such movers are unknown on our planet...
  6. 0
    April 5 2023 10: 36
    The astronauts joked that the first primate cosmonaut was supposed to be a monkey, but letters from angry animal advocates rained down on government agencies, and no one wrote in defense of Shepard (Shepherd Dog) ...

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