Indian clothing from Glenbow

90
Indian clothing from Glenbow
Frame from the movie "Sons of the Big Dipper" (1966). Tokei Ito wearing a typical Prairie Indian "solar" headdress


"I will tan this skin,
it will be soft and white,
I'll make moccasins out of it."

James Willard Schultz "Son of the Navajos"

Indians with and without tomahawks. This material is the 1th in a row, and I wanted to make it ... prettier. And there are two themes in which bright and colorful photographs help to achieve this. It's knights and Indians! But knights are still mostly metal, texture, while Indian clothing attracts with its unusual appearance in itself. Although it is not so easy to find photographs of real Indian clothes that have survived to this day. In any case, those that are in public ownership. But here we are all lucky.



As it turned out, far away in Canada in the city of Calgary, Alberta, there is a Glenbow Museum dealing with lighting stories Western Canada, and beyond. So, in this museum there is a wonderful collection of Indian clothing, photos from which you can freely use.

This museum is generally very interesting, and we will turn to its artifacts again next time. But today we will confine ourselves to the Indian theme. Moreover, the story of how the North American Indians dressed and adorned themselves, I would like to start with memories ... about my childhood, which is not surprising.

As a child, of course, I heard about the Indians. At home I had a book by James Willard Schultz, The Lone Buffalo Mistake, in which, even before I could read, I looked at the illustrations with great interest. And then in 1960 they bought me a brand new, just published book "Homemade from natural material." The book shocked me.

It was beautifully illustrated and very clearly showed how to make homemade products from straw, acorns, bark - in a word, literally from everything, including feathers. And it told how to make a chic Indian headdress out of feathers! And the drawings in this book had such an effect on me that I quickly collected rook feathers and asked my grandmother to sew them on a fabric ribbon, everything was right according to the book. And in the end everything turned out according to the instructions.

So I became the owner of an Indian headdress, which was the envy of all my comrades, but it was very inconvenient to use it: the ribbon did not hold well on my head, twisted, and the feathers did not want to lie in order. Something the author of the book did not know, well, I did not understand, and even more so.

And only many, many years later, I learned the "secret of the golden key." It turns out that the feathers in the "solar" headdress were sewn not on a ribbon, but on a ... cap, which is usually not visible behind the feathers. That's why the Indians did well with them, but I didn't do very well. So these are the little things about Indian clothing that you should always know.


Here is the cover of this book… Truly a godsend for parents and children even today!

It is generally accepted that all the clothes of the Indians of the prairies and Canada were made from the skins of animals - bison, deer, antelopes. And yes, it was. But this concerned mainly winter clothes and ritual costumes for dancing. In everyday life, the Indians very quickly appreciated the practicality of European fabrics and began to sew their own clothes from them, or even use ready-made samples of pale-faced robes. For example, men's loincloths made of red and blue fabric, as well as woolen blankets, have become an important part of the Indian national costume. And the same goes for women's dresses.


Women's jacket, late XNUMXth century. Cotton, glass beads, brass discs, cowrie shells, buckskin fringe

But there was something that was not influenced by European fashion. It was shoes - traditional Indian leather shoes - moccasins, which in each of the tribes had their own drawings and served as a kind of passport for every Indian, whether he was a man or a woman.


Moccasins. Sik-Siki. Traditional tanned leather, deerskin soles

It should be noted a very specific cut of Indian clothing, which practically did not produce waste. Previously, for tailoring traditional Indian clothing, tanned deer skin was needed, that is, suede - thin and soft. The size of the skin, as a rule, determined the size of the garment itself. So, if an Indian cut a shirt, then she cut off the upper third of one skin and cut it in half. This third made one sleeve and the front half of the shirt. Accordingly, from exactly the same skin, cut in exactly the same way, the second sleeve and its back part were obtained. After that, the sleeves and the shirt itself were sewn along the edge, and its finishing began.


Typical shirt of the Sik-Sik Indians. End of the XNUMXth century Traditional tanned leather, ocher, glass beads, ermine skins


Shirt and leggings, 1890 Tanned leather, ermine skins, beads


Another Indian costume of the time. Belonged to an Indian of the Kaina tribe

The shirt was trimmed with patterns of porcupine needles or beads, sewn with fringe from strips of suede or scalp strands, painted on it images of the exploits of its owner. So, the transverse stripes on the sleeves showed the number of ku they had done. Drawn horseshoes - the number of stolen horses. The Sacred Pipe was drawn if a warrior led a military detachment. Shotgun - captured a gun in battle. Wavy rectangle - grabbed a blanket. Circle with a fringe - captured the shield, etc.


Sik-Siki. Sleeveless jacket entirely embroidered with beads. End of the XNUMXth century


Sik-Siki. Boy's shirt embroidered with glass beads. End of the XNUMXth century


Men's red cloth shirt. Mid XNUMXth century


Apache shirt, early XNUMXth century. Embellished with beads and strands of human hair

Leggings were cut in a similar way - Indian non-sewn pants. Pieces with front paws were cut off from the deer skin. Then the skin was folded in half and sewn along the seam. So one leg was obtained, and a strip of skin from the back leg served as a tie. Accordingly, the second leg was obtained from the second half of the skin. After that, they were also decorated at the seams, and ... that's it! True, the Crow Indians preferred to make leggings from blankets using the same technology. Pieces of the blanket were bent in half, sewn to the resulting "works" of the string and embroidered at the bottom with patterns.


Men's embroidered tank top. End of the XNUMXth century


Women's leggings were shorter and tied under the knees. Kaina tribe. End of the XNUMXth century Suede, cotton lining, beading, metal cones, horsehair


Women's dress decorated in Indian style


Sik-Siki. Women's dress, embroidered with beads and decorated with pendants with thimbles!


Sik-Siki. Women's dress embroidered with cowrie shells. I remember that one of our readers in his commentary on one of the previous articles “about the Indians” wrote that they did not know cowrie shells. They knew, and how they knew!

Finally, moccasins. They were sewn together from a thick leather sole and a top with a valve, which was located in the same place as the valve on European shoes. Moreover, the shape of the valves, again, varied among different tribes.

The color of the moccasins also meant a lot. For example, the Sik-Siki Indians were called "Blackfoot" precisely because they wore black-dyed moccasins. An earlier type of moccasin was made from a single piece of leather. The later one had a sewn-on sole!


Early type moccasins made of one piece of leather: a still from the film "Trace of the Falcon" (1968)


Headdress of the Seated Eagle. The Nakoda tribe. Early 1900s, front view, eagle feathers, rabbit fur, horsehair, suede, glass beads


The same dress, rear view

The headdresses of the Indians in our remembrance are always associated with feathers. For example, in the novels of Fenimore Cooper, we meet Mohicans and Delawares with shaven heads with a single lock of hair on their heads, into which a single feather is woven. However, among the Prairie Indians, headdresses were much more complicated, and they did not always consist of feathers. For example, Pawnee warriors wore turbans, and their material determined their rank. Wildcat fur turbans are the highest rank, fox fur turbans are lower rank, but cloth turbans are worn by the most insignificant warriors.


Indians in "solar" headdresses. A still from the film The Falcon's Trail (1968). They are clearly made very carefully and with skill!

As for the sumptuous feather-dresses which have become a characteristic feature of the Indians of the prairies, they were mainly of two kinds. Earlier - it was used by the Sik-Siki and the Indians of the Plateau, resembling a crown of feathers sticking up vertically. And later - "solar dress", with feathers diverging in a circle, like the sun's rays. It was in them that feathers were sewn onto a cap, to which long ribbons with feathers sewn to them were attached to the sides, descending to the very ground.


Sik-Sik headdress

In addition to eagle feathers, raven feathers (Crow Indians), swallows, as well as many different skins were used - ermine, otter, beaver. The horns of a bison, deer or antelope could also decorate the headdress. Moreover, the choice of this kind of jewelry was by no means spontaneous, but was most directly connected with protective magic. Only the men did the dressing.


Cain Indian headdress: eagle feathers, glass beads, horsehair, suede


Nakoda Indian headdress. Mountain sheep horns, rabbit fur, suede

Women could only embroider patterns with beads on strips of fabric, which were then attached to the headdresses. On the feathers, signs of the military prowess of the wearer were also drawn. That is, the Indians, like the medieval knights of Europe, had their own system of signs, which made it possible to tell almost everything about this or that person. But for a knight it was a coat of arms, often of a very conditional content, which was sometimes impossible to understand without the services of a herald, while among the Indians all signs were something like an alphabet. Everyone knew them, outwardly they were simple, easy to remember and could tell absolutely everything about the person who wore them.


Headdress decorated with horns. Sik-Siki, mid-XNUMXth century Buckskin, weasel tails, glass beads, horse hair, copper bells, shells, porcupine quills, lynx claws, eagle feathers and down


Winter jacket with fur. Cree Indians

PS


Photographs from the Glenbow Museum in Calgary, Canada were used to design the material.
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  1. +9
    March 19 2023
    Vyacheslav Ooegovich, let me congratulate you on a kind of anniversary or achievement !!!
    I think a wonderful part of VO, the topic will be especially appreciated!
    All the good days!
    1. +6
      March 19 2023
      Thank you! Very nice!
      Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
      I think a wonderful part of VO, the topic will be especially appreciated!

      Hope so!
      1. +7
        March 19 2023
        Vyacheslav Olegovich, happy personal holiday to you! love )))
        Winter jacket with fur. Cree Indians

        Well, it will suit us, apparently, as an autumn one. And nothing like that - a jacket! wassat )))
        Good morning friends!
        No matter what.
        1. +5
          March 19 2023
          Quote: depressant
          your personal holiday!

          Thank you! I also liked the fur coat. Wouldn't refuse...
    2. +3
      March 19 2023
      Author: This article is my 1th in a row


      Kote Pan Kokhanka (Vladislav): Vyacheslav Ooegovich, let me congratulate you on a kind of anniversary
    3. +10
      March 19 2023
      Author:This material is my 1th in a row


      Happy anniversary, Vyacheslav smile drinks
      1. +6
        March 19 2023
        Quote: Richard
        Happy anniversary, Vyacheslav

        Thank you! True, only now I realized that this is an 80% anniversary! Because another 330 articles were published on the Pravda.ru website. But this is far from VO, so "does not count".
  2. +5
    March 19 2023
    Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich!

    Triggered a memory. In primary school, the mask was made for a holiday at school. Osceola, Chief of the Seminoles. Cardboard. It was a set of different masks. Cut and assembled from component parts.
    1. +6
      March 19 2023
      We didn't have anything like that at school.
      Everyone read about the Indians, but it was not. We had other Indians everywhere. Their clothing is a paramilitary suit, boots, cloaks, hats. The youth laughed, but over time, some of the merry fellows put on the same - to give themselves an aura of wisdom and significance. And yet so belonging denoted.
      1. +6
        March 19 2023
        It's probably individual. The day before yesterday, the youngest daughter was at a birthday party in a pirate style.
        Pulled out the role of Arabella.

        Yesterday I gave a brief introduction to Captain Blood. And, at the same time, with Captain Jack Sparrow.
        1. +7
          March 19 2023
          The day before yesterday, the youngest daughter was at a birthday party in a pirate style. Yesterday I gave a brief introduction to Captain Blood. And, at the same time, with Captain Jack Sparrow.

          It remains to briefly acquaint the daughter with the device of a motor boat, Kalash and the "reference book of a Somali pirate." And there you look in the summer it will already be safely possible to send her to the Volga to her grandmother for practice. Yes smile
          Greetings, Seryozha hi drinks
          1. +6
            March 19 2023
            Greetings, Dmitry!

            "The Course of the Young Ushkuinik" is a good idea.

            And from the port cities everyone is interesting.
            1. +6
              March 19 2023
              "The Course of the Young Ushkuinik" is a good idea.


              It remains only to dial the command. smile

              1. +3
                March 19 2023
                Like that. "Captain Vrungel" as a guide to action.
            2. +4
              March 19 2023
              And from the port cities everyone is interesting.

              That is, you and your daughters have already drawn up a "work plan" for the family business (Dad - Corsair, daughter of course - Arabella)? what
              Thank God that there are no ports, no tankers, no container ships on our Podkumkasmile
              1. +5
                March 19 2023
                Who will reveal the plans?

                And the role of Arabella includes the distribution of the loot.

                However, the pirates were usually friends with the Indians.
                1. +6
                  March 19 2023
                  This wonderful song is dedicated to everyone who played pirates and Indians in early childhood drinks
                  1. +1
                    March 20 2023
                    Life is like a ship
                    A little Spanish castle - past!
                    All that is impossible
                    I will do it myself.
          2. +5
            March 19 2023
            "The Somali Pirate's Handbook."

            With this premise, the guys did not hold the primer in their hands, there was no one to write to, the last white missionary had long been eaten, so if only to go to their lectures. request
    2. +6
      March 19 2023
      Hello, Sergey! smile
      And the famous Leader of the Redskins got out of the situation much easier. wink
      1. +6
        March 19 2023
        Hi Constantine!

        Yeah. "Sand is a poor substitute for oats" (c).
        1. +3
          March 19 2023
          Headdress of the Seated Eagle. Tribe Nakoda

          Interesting name recourse Like a criminal authority who controls his contingent from the zone Yes
  3. +7
    March 19 2023
    I wonder how they washed them? So on the shirt, all combat marks will be washed off, and the skin. Or reapplied?
    1. +6
      March 19 2023
      Quote: Tlauicol
      like on a shirt, all combat marks will be washed off, and the skin too.


      Dye plants were probably used, well, and refurbished with hair brushes. Here, rather, the question is whether they washed leather items that are usually not washed - they could do a dry cleaning procedure using the same plants, clay, coal - there are saponin-containing plants, acid in plant sap and ants in anthills, etc.
    2. +6
      March 19 2023
      Historians note that the North American Indians were clean and bathed regularly.
      I don't know how it was in real life, but in the movie "Mackenna's Gold" it looked like this. smile


      But there is no information about washing clothes. request
      1. +7
        March 19 2023
        Historians note that the North American Indians were clean and bathed regularly.

        Greetings, Konstantin hi drinks
        For you and all connoisseurs of female beauty, I present the painting "Bathing of the Indian Aphrodite"
        May "Bathing Aphrodite of tribe Crow"

        Wikipedia: Maija is a popular American artist who has been celebrating in her works the beauty of her people - Indians, the indigenous inhabitants of North America for more than 30 years.
        1. +6
          March 19 2023
          Hello Dima! smile drinks
          She, apparently, is like our Leader of the Redskins - she stuck a pen in herself and that's it, already a real squaw with the fifth size. wink
          1. +4
            March 19 2023
            “I’m surprised you don’t have a crucifix hanging. Where do you pray and where is your prayer book? No holy image decorates the walls of your room. What is that above your bed?
            Katz smiled.
            “This is Bathing Susanna, and the naked woman underneath is my former lover. To the right is a Japanese watercolor depicting a sexual act between an old Japanese samurai and a geisha. Isn't it very original? And the prayer book is in my kitchen. Schweik! Bring it here and open it on the third page.
            1. +4
              March 19 2023
              Schweik! Bring it here and open it on the third page.


              1. +4
                March 19 2023
                — What have I done? Did I do something? I wasn't drunk!
                “To the position of the vestment,” replied Schweik, “to smithereens, Mr. Feldkurat, to the green serpent.” I think it will be easier for you if you change clothes and wash...
                1. +5
                  March 19 2023
                  In 1962, the Soviet-Czechoslovak film about J. Hasek "Big Road" was shot.
                  There was also a prototype of Schweik named Strashlipka, if I'm not mistaken. smile
                  1. +4
                    March 19 2023
                    By the way, I didn't look. And the prototype, I think, was not alone.

                    The book does not lose its relevance. I just wanted to read parts.
                    1. +3
                      March 19 2023
                      In this film, Yuri Yakovlev has a great role. smile

                      And this is Lieutenant Oak (he looks a lot like Widow's character)


                      I remember the book for as long as I can remember. At first he looked at the pictures, then he began to read. smile
          2. The comment was deleted.
          3. +5
            March 19 2023
            She is like our Leader of the Redskins - she stuck a pen in herself and that's it, already a real squaw with the fifth size!

            We have a forum member on VO with such a nickname - "Leader of the Redskins". But about the fact that he is a squaw with the fifth size, I think, Kostya, you are mistaken smile
            1. +5
              March 19 2023
              We have a forum member on VO with such a nickname - "Leader of the Redskins"
              Was. Igor was banned a year ago.
              1. +4
                March 19 2023
                Thanks for the news, Anton, I didn’t know - I sat without the Internet for a year and a half
            2. +5
              March 19 2023
              . But about the fact that he is a squaw with the fifth size, I think, Kostya, you are mistaken

              Dima! What strange associations you have - a leader and boobs! If I hadn't known you for a long time, the devil might have thought something. wassat
              1. +4
                March 19 2023
                What strange associations you have - a leader and boobs!

                What's so strange about that? The Indians were not chauvinists in this regard.
                Their history has left us a lot of evidence of women leaders.
                - The biography of a female leader of the Plains Bigbelly from the Crow tribe, described by Denig in The Five Tribes of the Upper Missouri, is a vivid example of the rare advancement of a woman up the military ladder to the very top:
                By her order, she was able to put up 160 tents of warriors. Her military luck and wise deeds raised her to a height that not all male warriors reached and, of course, no woman of the Crow Tribe had ever soared so high ... She took her well-deserved place on the council of leaders and warriors, becoming the third the most important person in the Crow tribal union.

                Kurtz also writes about her, describing his visit to Fort Union on October 27, 1851:
                Chief Absarokov arrived at the negotiations as a representative of the entire Crow tribal union. She does not look wild or warlike at all, although she carries herself with imperturbable dignity ... She is about forty-five years old. She is distinguished by modesty and is rather peaceful than conceals a readiness for a quarrel in her heart. I was present at the scene when she gave Denig the scalp of the Blackfoot, which Denig later re-gifted me...

                - In another report, Kurtz mentions an Assiniboine female leader who died in her first military campaign.
                - There is a legend among the Blackfoot about a leader named the Running Eagle, which the old Indians remembered back in 1940. Initially, she was called Brown Weasel, and she became the Running Eagle only after she set foot on the military path, although the reason for the occurrence of this name has not reached us.
                - It is worth mentioning one more woman. In the Battle of Rosebud (where General Crook's soldiers and his Indian scouts of the Shoshone and Absaroki fought on one side, and the Lakota and Cheyenne on the other), a young woman named Buffalo Calf Trail took part; she belonged to the Cheyenne tribe. It is generally accepted that she rushed into battle only to save her brother, as if she saw that he was in trouble. However, the warriors rode all night to get from their camp to the stream, where the bivouac of cavalrymen in blue uniforms was located, so it was not by chance that the girl found herself in the ranks of the Indian warriors. She went to fight. Another thing is that she, perhaps, went on a hike for the first time, but she went on purpose. The Cheyennes call that fight the Battle-When-Sister-Saved-Her-Brother.
                1. +3
                  March 19 2023
                  A few days before International Women's Day, it became known that the leader of the Mohegan Indian tribe (despite the consonance, they should not be confused with the Mohicans) for the first time in almost two centuries was a woman - 56-year-old Lynn Malerba.

                  From now on, she will have to bear the name of Mutavi Mutahash ("Many Hearts") for life and protect the interests of one of the richest tribes in North America - the Mohegans own the largest casino and entertainment complex Mohegan Sun.
                  Mutawi Mutahash has already announced that she is very proud of her new status and will make every effort not to let her native tribe down. By the way, there were already leaders in her family: Lynn Malerba is the great-great-granddaughter of the legendary Matahga (aka Berril Fielding), who led the Mohegan from 1937 to 1952. But if for the Mohegan tribe the election of a woman as a leader is something out of the ordinary, then for the indigenous peoples of North America as a whole, this is nothing special: history knows dozens of examples when women became tribal leaders. At various times, Indian women led the Absarok, Seminole, Crow, Assiniboine, Cherokee, Pamunka, Miami Indians, Prescott Yavapai and many other tribes.
                  1. Fat
                    +4
                    March 19 2023
                    hi Greetings Dmitry
                    On August 15, 2010, M. Malerba was named the 18th chief of the Mohegan tribe and is the first female chief in modern history to hold this position. And further:
                    Today, President Biden announces his intention to appoint Marilyn Malherba as United States Treasurer. Malerba, who is the chief of the Mohegan tribe, will be the first Native American to hold the position.
                    The United States Treasurer directly controls the US Mint, Bureau of Engraving and Printing, Fort Knox, and is a key link to the Federal Reserve. Chief Malherba will also serve as Senior Adviser to the Secretary of the Treasury on Community Development and Community Engagement.
                    21 June 2022 of the year. request
                    PS The last speaker of the Mohegan language is Fidelia Hoscott Fielding (1827-1908), So the Mohegan tribe is a purely conditional entity, probably to pay less taxes ...
              2. +4
                March 19 2023
                Dima! What strange associations you have - a leader and boobs! If I hadn't known you for a long time, I could have thought what the hell

                What could one think? You yourself write:
                like our The leader of the Redskins - stuck a pen in herself and that's it, already a real squaw with the fifth size laughing

                Here I have - such associations smile
                Thank God, at least Igor is not here.
                1. +5
                  March 19 2023
                  I had in mind the well-known Leader of the Redskins performed by Sergei Tikhonov, aka Malchish Plokhish.

                  Unfortunately, he passed away early, at only 21 years old ...
            3. 0
              March 21 2023
              Where is the link to the museum website?
              Quote: Richard
              The leader of the Redskins

              At the camp site "Braslav intestinal lakes" there was a tour instructor "Leader of the Red-faced", everyone called him that.
        2. +6
          March 19 2023
          Quote: Richard
          For you and all connoisseurs of female beauty, I present the painting "Bathing of the Indian Aphrodite"


          So the girl is Caucasian.
          1. The comment was deleted.
          2. +5
            March 19 2023
            And here I am out of business. I have never seen live Indians. smile Indian artist
            1. +4
              March 19 2023
              I have never seen live Indians.


              Army General Philip Henry Sheridan spoke unambiguously about the Indians:
              “A good Indian is a dead Indian” (or rather, the phrase sounded like this: “Of all the Indians that I met, only dead Indians were good”).

              Philip Henry Sheridan; March 6, 1831, Albany, New York [1] - August 5, 1888, Massachusetts [1]) - American military leader, who shortly before his death received the highest military rank - army general. Hero of the Civil War, sided with the northerners. He is also known for his harsh policies towards the Indians during the Red River War.


              It's not surprising that you "haven't seen them with your eyes", it's amazing that at least something is left of them at all. request
            2. +1
              March 20 2023
              Quote: Richard
              And here I am out of business. I have never seen live Indians. smile Indian artist

              Indian, Latvian descent lol
    3. +7
      March 19 2023
      I wonder how they washed them?

      Slightly soiled items were rinsed in summer and thawed out in winter
      Heavily soiled washed.
      They did not have to choose detergents in special departments of the store. They made their own soap. For this, lye and soap root were used. Lye was made from ashes taken from the hearth. The manufacture of liquor was called "boiling". Washed in boxes made of wood (hollowtrough). In the following way: a bag of ash and burning "beech stones" were lowered into a trough with dirty things, then they were poured with boiling water.
      There was also such a way: they used a soap root. The grass was soaked, filtered, and then washed with the resulting solution. But with this method of washing, there were risks of demolishing clothes faster.
      Source: Stingl Miloslav "Indians without tomahawks"
  4. +7
    March 19 2023
    Asked specifically.
    Found out:
    "On July 14, 1905, the Native Americans, forcibly evicted by the US authorities to the so-called Indian Territory, announced the creation of a new state of Sequoia. They completed all the procedures required by law, but official Washington did not support the project. As a result, this territory became part of the state of Oklahoma. "( With)

    And this despite the fact that although there were such Indian tribes that still remained at the level of the tribal system, many had already reached the level of pre-state construction and were ready to carry out state activities within the possible state of Sequoia.
    It didn't grow. Competitors. Rights holders.
    It's a pity. I like Indians.
    1. +3
      March 19 2023
      Quote: depressant
      .
      It's a pity. I like Indians.
      Read about Kamanchey и Apaches in American books, for example, in Louis Lamour - Indians are described in them more plausibly, without "Hollywood bloodthirstiness" and without "Soviet molasses".
      hi
    2. +5
      March 19 2023
      I like Indians

      Allow me to introduce myself - Master of Sports, Major Chingachgook! (With)
      Hau, Ludmila Yakovlevna hi lol
      1. +4
        March 19 2023
        Hi Dima! )))
        Something is not written to me today ...
        But the Indians did fit in. Up to the point that some of the richest of them had black slaves. Well, you must! If I hadn't unearthed this topic, I would never have believed it.
        Of particular interest is the life of modern Indians. It seems to me that they forced themselves to be respected and reckoned with with the help of a flexible policy of adaptation to circumstances. Smart. And not cheeky.
        1. +4
          March 19 2023
          Lyudmila Yakovlevna hi
          had black slaves.

          The desire of some people to use the labor of others, alas, does not depend on time and nationality. The Indians also had slavery.
          And the local slavery was very different from the subsequent scheme with African Americans. Or from ancient Roman slavery for example. Let's go through the key features:
          Slaves were not bought or sold. They were captured during raids, they were either representatives of neighboring hostile tribes, or white settlers
          The slaves of the Indians were almost always women and children. Adult males were rarely captured alive. They were considered a dangerous threat. their knee tendons were cut to prevent escape, and in rare cases they were adopted (adopted) by families that had lost husbands, sons, or brothers as a replacement (compensation) for the loss.
          Adaptation in most cases was also preceded by a "softer" procedure of corporal punishment - to get to the home of the host family, under the blows of whips, a hail of stones, undergoing numerous cuts with knives, sharp edges of shells or animal claws. Those who could not stand it were killed on the spot, and those who managed to pass the test were awaited by the care and affection of a new family, a new name and a new life. The fundamental point is that the capture itself was a loss of their tribal identity - the Indians almost never rescued those who were captured and did not exchange them.
          Captured old people and babies were immediately killed - they were considered a burden.
          Slaves were included in the tribe on equal terms. Over time, they became full members of the community.
          Among the Indians, slaves did not perform any kind of dirty or overly difficult work. They were required to do exactly the kind of work that other children and women in that tribe were supposed to do.
          The role of the slave wife in bed was mandatory. This was used by the Indians to break their will.
          During the Lewis and Clark expedition, expedition member Sergeant Patrig Gass noted that the Chinook Indians (who lived in the lower reaches of the Columbia River) had a group of captured white women of 9 people, whom one elderly Indian woman sold for comfort to white hunters.
          link: Tabarev A.V. Trophies and captives (a complex of combat traditions of the North American Indians through the eyes of Europeans and its evolution in the 1th-XNUMXth centuries)
        2. +4
          March 19 2023
          Chief Mop is very introduced from One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest.
  5. +3
    March 19 2023
    An earlier type of moccasin was made from a single piece of leather. The later one had a sewn-on sole!


    It is interesting that the use of wooden and rope soles was not practiced in moccasins - both are cheap and technologically advanced. Okay, wooden - it could interfere in the stirrup, but rope, woven from a worn lasso and tarred with pine resin - did not have such shortcomings.
    1. +5
      March 19 2023
      I used to have wooden clogs. Not only is the tree easily erased when worn, but also the leg can be twisted and the tendons severely damaged - the tree does not bend! I wonder how they used to put on such shoes in Europe. The Indians, accustomed to silent ambushes, did not even think of wooden soles. And then a leg will turn up, and something loud will fly off the tongue.
      1. +3
        March 19 2023
        Quote: depressant
        The Indians, accustomed to silent ambushes, did not even think of wooden soles.


        This would only concern the forest Indians - but the horsemen are not concerned about low noise, like a submarine. Specifically, in terms of design, they would not have come up with Japanese clogs, but rather northern European wooden shoes, and the horseman, unlike the infantryman, does not need to be afraid to tuck his legs in the stirrup. Rather, the collar would be relevant for the South American Indian militias - there were powerful infantry formations at the city-states and for them, structurally wooden shoes would have to have a transversely fixed articulation and fastening on the ankle of a fixing wooden shield.
  6. +6
    March 19 2023
    Vyacheslav Olegovich, I join in congratulating Kota Pan Kokhanka (Vladislav), on your wonderful achievement!
    Photos in the material are wonderful!
    At first I had films with Goiko Mitic and our "Headless Horseman". The class in 3-4 was presented with a book by Alfred Shklyarsky "Tomek on the warpath" in paperback. I was fascinated by the "Little Savages" from Detgiz, 1960, in a yellow cover with a picture of an Indian's head in profile in a luxurious headdress made of feathers on the 1st page of the cover, it was either in the 5th or in the 6th grade .... Well done were ours counselors in 1974 in the pioneer camp from Sevmash "Northern Artek", which was on the right bank of the Northern Dvina opposite the homeland of Nikolai Rubtsov - the village of Emetsk. Everyone was under the impression of the film "Sannikov Land", well, the romance of films about the Indians. The counselors allowed us to build an "Indian village" in the pine forest behind the small football field from huts, for the construction of which branches of pines and junipers were used. I had the role of a shaman, I tried to copy the dances of the shaman Makhmud Esambaev from "Sannikov Land" by the fire in the evening. In the same place, in the pioneer camp, I read "St. John's Wort" and "The Last of the Mohicans" ...
    "Men's embroidered sleeveless jacket. The end of the XNUMXth century" for some reason reminded me of either a Tatar or a Bashkir sleeveless jacket. And, it seems to me, "Women's dress, decorated in the Indian style" of scarlet color would look quite harmoniously on the Bashkir beauty.
    1. +3
      March 19 2023
      Quote: Tests
      paperback book by Alfred Shklyarsky "Tomek on the Warpath" I was fascinated by "Little Savages" from Detgiz in 1960 in a yellow cover with a picture of an Indian's head in profile in a luxurious headdress made of feathers on the 1st page of the cover, it was either in the 5th or in the 6th grade ...

      My favorite books. The truth about the most beloved Indian book is yet to come...
  7. Fat
    +7
    March 19 2023
    Thank you for the article. Vyacheslav Olegovich. It's great that you showed a photo from the Glenbow Museum in Calgary, otherwise it was somehow implicitly believed that the Indians are where the endless prairies, countless herds of bison and wild mustangs and the wild-wild west smile
    And the Native Americans of the northeastern part of the continent seem to be ignored, such as not romantic ... Nevertheless, it is these, all sorts of black-footed people there, including sisikawa, Iroquois (haudenosaunee) and a number of very famous tribes and tribal unions of wooded hills, forests and swamps played a significant role in the formation of the USA and Canada themselves.
    It is very good that the museum in Calgary shows this.
    Didn't the expansion of the settlers, the "Frontier", start from the very east coast?
    1. +4
      March 19 2023
      Hi Andrew! smile
      Didn't the expansion of the settlers, the "Frontier", start from the very east coast?

      At the word "Frontier" this immediately pops up before my eyes.

      Colt Frontier Scout.
      1. Fat
        +5
        March 19 2023
        Greetings Konstantin. It's already later, but at first it was like that, but not everyone smile

        Dutch flintlock revolver, possibly 17th century.
        The Delawares, Montauks, Mohicans, Susquehannas, Honnyasonts, Wappingers, and Iroquois were the main Indian tribes living within the zone of Dutch influence, their combined number reached about 40 people. The Honnyasonts were destroyed by the Susquehanna Indians at the very beginning of the Dutch arms trade, and the remnants of this tribe joined the Iroquois, who had already set foot on the warpath with the Susquehanna. The Mohicans were also at war with the Iroquois, and the Wappingers had a fair amount of hatred for the Dutch. New Holland was by no means a quiet and peaceful colony. In 1643, its governor, Kieft, instigated a massacre of friendly Indians who had taken refuge from the Iroquois with Dutch farmers at the site of what is now the city of Jersey. Most of the Indian tribes living in New Holland, with the exception of the Iroquois, burned with a thirst for revenge. From 1643 to 1645, war broke out between the tribes devastated all areas from the Raritan River to Connecticut. Long Island, Westchester, and Manhattan were also depopulated and in ruins. Only Fort Orange and Rensselarvik, much upstream on the Hudson, and Fort Amsterdam on Manhattan Island escaped destruction. The Dutch received reinforcements in 1644; and in August 1645 a peace agreement was reached. (c) Guns, muskets and pistols of the New World. Firearms of the XNUMXth-XNUMXth centuries
        Russell Carl...
        From the very beginning, everyone "had fun" as best they could ... Otherwise, prairies - bison - Winchesters ... feel
        1. +5
          March 19 2023
          Hi Andrew! smile
          Such a revolver and a fairly progressive weapon for its time.
          The creative thought on the subject of how to better get away from your neighbor has never dozed off. laughing
          Here are a couple of samples:
          Flintlock revolver 1587 - class!


          Collier's flintlock revolver is also good.


          There are more, but this is a topic for a separate article. drinks
          1. Fat
            +5
            March 19 2023
            Well, at the end of 21, Vyacheslav Olegovich already presented an article on revolvers, which was done before the "Great Equalizer" https://topwar.ru/190093-revolvery-stoplera-dafta-kolliera-i-drugih-ili-s-chego- jeto-vse-nachinalos.html.
            The upper sample is from Hans Stopler ... What am I telling you, You yourself commented and supplemented that article and complained back that a separate article was needed Yes drinks
            Have you seen the article by V. Shipunov at https://author.today/post/175111?
            1. +2
              March 19 2023
              Thanks for the tip. I looked through Shipunov's article without reading it, the selection of trunks is good, tomorrow I'll take a closer look. smile
      2. +4
        March 19 2023
        At the word "Frontier" this immediately pops up before my eyes.

        The American frontier is the period from 1607 to 1912 - three hundred years. The first English settlers in Jamestown also used matchlock muskets.

  8. +4
    March 19 2023
    I join in the congratulations on the anniversary article. Let's plan how we celebrate the year 2000. Barbecue picnic on the banks of the Sura? smile
    A few words about the Indians in my life. smile
    My Indians are, first of all, Stanislav Suplatovich. These are forests, rivers, lakes, and swamps instead of mountains. Well, we didn't have mountains. smile
    We didn't copy Indian clothes, customs, and the like. we just went into the forests and lived there on an autonomous basis - we caught fish, picked mushrooms, berries, all sorts of roots and gave each other Indian nicknames. smile
    Instead of Indian pies, we had self-knitted rafts, instead of mustangs - bicycles, instead of moccasins - sneakers.
    In the year 86, I managed to get into the Museum of Ethnography - by chance, after this visit, arrowheads cut out of cans (before that there were nails) and roofing tin appeared on our arrows ...
    With such an arrow, I once pierced a pigeon through and through, threatening it to a beam in the attic of the barnyard, and this forever discouraged my taste for hunting in particular and for killing in general.
    Indians are an essential part of my childhood...
    1. +5
      March 19 2023
      Quote: Trilobite Master
      A barbecue picnic on the banks of the Sura?

      Only virtual! I can't stand this dish. There is always a chance that something will go wrong, or meat or fire... or rain or wind. Even if you invite a barbecue... You need something that doesn't spoil the original. I'll come up with and write in 5 months. And everyone will be able to cook and eat imagining that we are all together!!!
      1. +6
        March 19 2023
        I can't stand this dish. There is always a chance that something will go wrong, or meat or fire... or rain or wind.

        This is necessary, so that you are not so lucky in life. Some kind of island of bad luck ...
        1. +4
          March 19 2023
          Just barbecues need to be done at the cottage or camp site. Winter kebabs are a separate issue altogether.
          1. +1
            March 19 2023
            Just barbecues need to be done at the cottage or camp site.

            In such circumstances, even as it is not interesting. But on the unprepared shore of Lake Izabal, from an armadillo. You have to sweat, literally.
            1. +4
              March 19 2023
              I didn’t make it out of armadillos, but I tried it out of reindeer, on the banks of the Imandra. The meat is bitter no matter how you handle it. What the cattle eats, that's what makes it bitter.
              1. +6
                March 19 2023
                In Sevastopol, local guys made plov from mussels - just delicious. Highly recommend if given the opportunity.
                And barbecue is a common thing, the guys and I regularly play here, Masha marinates, we fry in the garden. Pastoral... smile drinks
            2. +5
              March 19 2023
              But on the unprepared shore of Lake Izabal, from an armadillo.
              Yes. I remember the phrase from the film "Crocodile Dundee": "... Iguana. It tastes like shit, but you can eat it"
              1. +3
                March 19 2023
                Armadillo tastes very personal. Local delicacy. I would even prefer pork. And the iguana is very bony, there is nothing really.
        2. +4
          March 19 2023
          “You can’t sell an elephant with such a mood” (c).
      2. +6
        March 19 2023
        Quote: kalibr
        There's always a chance something will go wrong

        It all depends on the company. smile
        1. +6
          March 19 2023
          I agree with this! A carefully selected company will turn any "barbecue" into a "pow-wow"!
        2. +5
          March 19 2023
          So after all, any "symposium" depends solely on the company, and not necessarily "under the barbecue." drinks
    2. +4
      March 19 2023
      My Indians are, first of all, Stanislav Suplatovich.
      Suplatovich, of course, makes an indelible impression on the fragile teenage psyche. But the stronger the subsequent disappointment!
      1. +5
        March 19 2023
        Quote: 3x3zsave
        the stronger the subsequent disappointment

        I don't know what the disappointment is. The books are excellent. smile
        1. +5
          March 19 2023
          You know, Michael, in the sense of the truth of life, "Little Savages" by Setton-Thompson, is much more honest. And back in 1990, familiar Indianists “raised their eyelids” to me on the work of Suplatovich.
          1. +5
            March 19 2023
            I was also interested in Suplatovich and his work relatively recently - I suddenly remembered, I could not resist. I took note of the information and continue to keep the old tender memories of the books I read.
            1. +2
              March 19 2023
              Compare the distance and age of perception of negative information.
              And in general, we were then a "blank page", take it - and write!
    3. +5
      March 19 2023
      With such an arrow, I once pierced a pigeon through and through, threatening it to a beam in the attic of the barnyard, and this forever discouraged my taste for hunting in particular and for killing in general.
      You are a humanist, Mikhail, from the word "absolutely"! I don't know whether to be surprised, to be happy or to cry....
  9. +4
    March 19 2023
    Good day to all.
    Vyacheslav Olegovich, do you like the movie: "Sons. Big Bear"?
    I watched "Chingachgook the Big Serpent" (GDR), "St. John's Wort" on YouTube, I liked them, but I didn't like "White Wolves": heavy ...
    And he is dear to his mother: the first kisses and a declaration of love.
    Stepfather recommends "The Faithful Hand" and the first films based on Karl May ..
    Haven't watched yet
    1. +4
      March 19 2023
      Dear Katenka. Luckily, I've watched ALL Native American films ever made, even American ones from the 50's. "Fort Apache", "Gatling machine gun" ... a lot of things ... I don't like our Russian Indian "kinas". And yes - I don't like "White Wolves" either.
      1. +4
        March 19 2023
        My favorite Indian movie is Dances with Wolves.
        1. +4
          March 19 2023
          Quote: Trilobite Master
          My favorite Indian movie is Dances with Wolves.

          "Dancing with Wolves" drinks
          The Last of the Mohicans is a good movie, much better than the book
  10. +1
    March 20 2023
    If the world goes to hell, then the ability to make clothes like an Indian will be very useful.

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