Military Review

Great rulers. Equal-to-the-Apostles Emperor Constantine

85
Great rulers. Equal-to-the-Apostles Emperor Constantine
"The Battle of the Mulvian Bridge". Artwork by Giulio Romano, design by Rafael Santi


Few of the rulers managed to exert such a powerful influence on the course of the world stories, as the hero of our article today - Flavius ​​Valerius Aurelius Constantine. Secular historians called him the Great, the Christian Church declared him equal to the apostles (it is curious that the Catholic Church did this later than everyone else - in 1596 after the signing of the Union of Brest).


Bust of Constantine the Great in the city of Berat, Albania

However, not everyone knows that until the end of his life, this emperor remained a pagan and only before his death was baptized by the Nicomedia bishop Eusebius. And this Eusebius was no more, no less - a friend of Arius and the head of the Arians, who were then even called Eusebians.

Thus, it can be said that the Equal-to-the-Apostles Emperor was a pagan (and his life can by no means be called moral) and died a heretic, which does not at all interfere with his veneration by the official church.

The origin and youth of the future emperor


Konstantin was born on the territory of present-day Serbia - in the city of Naisse (Nish), which was part of the Roman province of Upper Moesia. It happened on February 27, but they argue about the year of birth, they consider it the most likely - 272. Constantine's father was a member of the noble patrician family Flavius ​​Valery Constantius Chlorus, and his mother, Elena, was a commoner from Bithynia, the daughter of a roadside tavern owner. However, some believe that her father was the owner of the so-called mancio - a hotel for officials of the empire. This is a higher social status. It was at this inn that Constantius Chlorine met Elena, who later, like her son, would be revered as a saint and equal to the apostles.


Equal-to-the-Apostles Constantine and Helena, mosaic of St. Isaac's Cathedral, St. Petersburg. In the right hand of Konstantin is a labarum, Elena holds the “True (Life-giving) Cross” she found

This woman was born in the village of Drepana (Drepanum), located near the future Constantinople. Later, Drepana became a city, which was named Helenopolis in her honor (identified with the city of Hersek in the Turkish province of Yalova).
As you probably guessed, Elena was not the wife of Constantius, but a concubine - a concubine. So Constantine the Great was also illegitimate.

In 97, Mark Cocceus Nerva reformed the system of government: the “senior” emperor, August, began to choose his co-ruler and heir, who received the title of Caesar. In 285, Diocletian developed this idea, effectively dividing the empire in two. Now the power was ruled by two Augusts (eastern and western), each of which appointed a co-ruler - Caesar. After 20 years of reign, Augustus had to yield his post to Caesar and retire.

For himself, Diocletian chose the rich and promising east, and gave the west, with Rome losing its significance, to the August appointed by him - Maximian Herculius. In 293, Gaius Valerius Galerius Maximilian became Caesar of Diocletian, who claimed that his mother gave birth to him "after intercourse with a dragon" (or serpent) - like Olympias, the mother of Alexander the Great. He is considered the founder of the city of Budapest. Diocletian, by tradition, adopted Galerius and married him to his daughter.


Sculpture of the head of Galerius, porphyry

And Maximian in the same year made Constantius Chlorus his junior co-ruler, also adopting him and marrying his stepdaughter Theodora.


Silver coin depicting Constantius Chlorus

Theodora had 6 children in this marriage - three sons and three daughters.

After the marriage of Constantius, information about Helen disappears from historical sources and reappears only after her son became emperor. It was then, having already converted to Christianity (at the age of more than 60 years), she led the excavations in Jerusalem. The result was the "acquisition" of the Holy Sepulcher, the Life-Giving Cross and some other relics.


Altobelo Melone. Journey of Saint Helena to Jerusalem


Helena on a coin minted in Antioch in 325-329, on the back - Securitas, goddess of security and stability

But back to her son Konstantin.

In 293, he ended up in the eastern provinces of the empire, where Diocletian ruled. In 297, a war began with the power of the Sassanids, in which the army of Caesar Galerius was first defeated at Carr - in the same place where Mark Crassus had once suffered a catastrophic defeat. However, in the future, the experienced commander Galerius acted successfully and occupied the Persian capital of Ctesiphon. Constantine was in the army of this Caesar.

Some authors write about the hostility that Galerius felt for Constantine. In The Origin of the Emperor Constantine, it is stated that in the battle with the Sarmatians, this Caesar put him on the most dangerous site. And Lactantius and Praxagoras report that once Galerius, as if in jest, pushed Constantine into a cage with wild animals.

Then Constantine was with Diocletian: he accompanied him on a trip to Egypt in 301, to Palestine in 302, to Rome in 303.

In the east, Constantine married Minervina for the first time, but this woman is sometimes called not a wife, but a concubine (cohabitant) - like the mother of Constantine himself. Minervina gave birth to a son, Crispus, who later became the governor of Gaul, where he successfully repelled the attacks of barbarian tribes and commanded fleet during his father's war with Licinius.


Coin depicting Crispus

The way to power


In 305, Diocletian and Maximian transferred power to their co-rulers - Galerius and Constantius Chlorus. The legitimate sons of the seriously ill Constantius were still minors, and Constantine was in Nicomedia at the court of Galerius - practically in the position of a hostage. Knowing about the expected imminent death of Augustus West, Galerius wanted to put Flavius ​​Severus in his place. Nevertheless, he was forced to release Konstantin, but ordered to intercept him on the road.

However, Constantine managed to get to Gaul, where his father was at that time. Together they still managed to campaign against the British Picts. In 306, after the death of Constantius Chlorus, the soldiers of the legions near the city of Eyuorak (modern York) proclaimed Constantine emperor.

But Galerius, referring to the young age of Constantine, appointed the aforementioned Flavius ​​Severus as August. Constantine received the title of Caesar and "son of August". Galerius' nephew Maximinus Daza (his junior co-ruler), who hoped to become the emperor of the West, also became the "son of August". It is curious that even then Constantine pursued a soft policy towards Christians, and Maximinus Daza, on the contrary, even intensified repressions in his possessions.

In the same year 306, Maxentius, the son of the abdicated August Maximian, seized power in Rome, who then tried to return to power and called on Diocletian to do the same. However, he prudently refused, and it was, of course, not a love of gardening, but a sober analysis of the balance of power: there was no chance of winning.

Flavius ​​Severus laid siege to Rome, but, unable to take this city, he first retreated to Ravenna, and then surrendered to Maximian, who forced him to commit suicide. In 307, Galerius came to Italy, but could not capture the main strongholds - Rome and Ravenna. In 308, he appointed Licinius the Augustus of the West, but in Italy, as we remember, Maxentius still held on, Gaul and Britain were controlled by Constantine.

Maximian, not wanting to share power with his son, moved to Arelat (Arles). He entered into an alliance with Constantine, married his daughter Fausta to him and recognized him as Augustus. In 310, having spread rumors about the death of Constantine, Maximian declared himself emperor.

However, the army was loyal to Constantine, and Maximian fled to Massilia (Marseille), whose inhabitants refused to defend him. Maximian was sentenced to death, but, as a mercy, they offered to commit suicide - the former emperor hanged himself.

The name of Maximian was erased from all inscriptions, his images were destroyed. The widow of Maximian was forced to swear that her son Maxentius was born from a relationship with a Syrian lover. Now do you understand why Diocletian refused to fight for power, citing a good cabbage crop?

In 312, Constantine opposed Maxentius. Having won several victories, he approached Rome. Here, at the Milvian Bridge, the decisive battle took place.

According to legend, on the eve of Constantine saw a cross in the sky and heard a voice saying "Sim conquer" (Hocvince).


Vision of Constantine I and the Battle of the Milvian Bridge. Miniature from the manuscript of the Homilia of Gregory the Theologian

After that, he ordered to make the so-called labarum - the imperial standard, which was later destroyed by order of Julian the Apostate.


Depiction of Constantine's labarum

In the battle that began, the troops of Maxentius were overturned and fled, the enemy of Constantine drowned in the Tiber.


Peter Lastmann. Battle of the Milvian Bridge

His body was found and beheaded, two sons were executed. On October 28, 312, the new lord solemnly entered Rome, the arch of Constantine became a monument to this victory.


Viviano Codazzi and Domenico Gargiulo. Triumphant Entry of Constantine into Rome, Prado Museum, Madrid


Arch of Constantine, Rome

Galerius died in 311, but, besides Constantine, there were still two Augusts in the empire: Maximinus Daza and Licinius, who was married to Constantine's sister. In February 313, Constantine and Licinius met in Milan, where they announced freedom of worship for Christians throughout the empire and the return of confiscated property to them. This joint statement of theirs was called the Edict of Milan, although no official document was issued.


Augustus Constantine on a solidus minted in 313–315.


Flavius ​​Galerius Valerius Licinian Licinius on a coin minted in 310–313.

But even earlier, Galerius announced freedom of religion in the Roman Empire on April 30, 311. However, this edict was not recognized then by Licinius and Maximinus Daza. Now Licinius even became the chairman of the court over the ruler of Antioch, Theoteknos, who was accused of mass executions of supporters of the new faith.

But in the future, Licinius removed all Christians from himself, banned the councils of bishops and canceled the release of priests from curial duties. And in 323, he ordered Christians to participate in a pagan rite dedicated to the 15th anniversary of his reign.

This later gave Constantine a reason to declare himself the protector of Christians. However, he himself fought against the followers of the African bishop Majorian, declared heretics, who would later be called donates. In 316, Constantine issued a decree depriving them of places for meetings and worship, then serious persecution began, and only in 321, on the eve of the war with Licinius, the persecution was stopped.

Let's go back a little.

In 313, Maximinus Daza "dropped out of the game": after being defeated by Licinius in the Battle of the Pure Fields (Faction), he fled to Tarsus, where he fell ill and died at the age of 43. Now the Asian provinces, the Balkans and Egypt were in the power of Licinius. Constantine relied on Italy, Spain, Gaul and Africa. And he had to be alone.

In 314, the armies of Licinius and Constantine met at Cybalus. Constantine became the winner in this battle, Licinius was forced to cede Pannonia, Dalmatia, Dacia, Macedonia and Greece to him.

After 10 years, the last rival of Constantine suffered a final defeat - first in the battle of Adrianople, and then in a naval battle near the Hellespont (Constantine's eldest son Crispus commanded the fleet) and in a land battle at Chrysopolis. Renouncing power in exchange for a promise to spare his life, Licinius settled in Thessalonica. In 325 he was killed. According to Jordanes, he was killed by the rebellious Goths, but Eutropius and Aurelius Victor claim that Licinius was strangled on the orders of Constantine.

Interestingly, in Rome, after the victory over Licinius, Constantine was received very coldly. Disgruntled citizens even smashed the head of his statue. Konstantin, who learned about this, ran his hand over his head and said:

"You can't say that I noticed it."

Relations with Gentiles, Jews and Christians


In 325, Constantine took part in the Council of Nicaea, at which the Creed was adopted. In order for the pagan emperor to have the legal right to attend meetings, he was elevated to the rank of deacon. The Melitians, whose communities were later also called the "Church of the Martyrs", retained their bishops (but they did not have the right to govern their provinces). But Arius was convicted and exiled to Illyria.

I must say that Constantine strove for reconciliation within the church - he had enough of the confrontation between Christians and pagans. And so the fanatical Orthodox Bishop of Alexandria Athanasius was exiled to Trier. And in 336, Constantine wished to meet with Arius. After this visit, the heresiarch experienced "extreme relaxation of the stomach", which became the cause of his death.

Some said that Arius was poisoned on the orders of Constantine, but a banal infection could also be the cause. Indeed, in 337, as we remember, the dying Constantine was baptized by a friend and supporter of Arius, Bishop Eusebius of Nicomedia, who in 336 delivered a panegyric on the 30th anniversary of the emperor’s reign and who supplied the new churches of Constantinople with liturgical books.

Synagogue stewards were, like Christian priests, exempt from community service, but Jews had the right to visit Jerusalem only one day a year and could not have Christian slaves. A temple was built in Jerusalem in honor of the Resurrection of Christ.

Treasures and statues began to be seized from pagan temples, the best of which were used to decorate the new capital. Many cult items were melted down into gold, silver and bronze coins.

Temples where ritual prostitution was practiced were closed, while divination and sacrifice were forbidden in others. Christians under Constantine gained wide access to public office.

Sole ruler of the empire



Fragments of the statue of Constantine the Great, Capitolini museum in Rome (the height of this statue reached 12 meters)

Having come to sole power, Constantine decided to establish a new capital of his empire. On the European coast of the Hellespont, the ancient Greek city of Byzantium was practically demolished, and in November 324, after the consecration of the land, the emperor with a spear in his hand went around the circumference of the future Constantinople - this is a completely pagan rite.


Constantine the Great brings the city as a gift to the Mother of God. Mosaic above the entrance to the Hagia Sophia. In fact, Constantine remained a pagan until his death, and therefore, naturally, the Mother of God did not give his city

At the beginning of the summer of 326, Constantine's eldest son Flavius ​​Julius Crispus, who was considered his heir, and his nephew Licinian were unexpectedly executed. The murder of Crispus angered the emperor's mother, Helen, who loved her grandson very much.

Most researchers believe that Crispus and Licinian were killed by their intrigues, the second wife of the emperor, Fausta. But the Byzantine historian Zosimus considered Crispus's love affair with his stepmother to be the cause of anger. A month later, Constantine repented of his decision and ordered Fausta to be killed: she suffocated, being locked in a hot bath.

They say that Constantine made the decision to be baptized before his death precisely because the pagan priests refused to forgive him the sin of filicide, and the Christian hierarchs turned out to be more lenient.

In addition to the construction of a new capital, it is worth noting the construction in Dacia (in Sucidava) of the “Konstantinov Bridge” across the Danube, which was opened personally by the emperor in July 328. It became the longest river bridge of that time: the total length was 2 meters, 437 of which passed above the water, the width was 1 meters, and the height above the river level was 137 meters.

In 332, the son of the emperor, also Constantine, in alliance with the Sarmatians successfully fought against the Visigoths, led by Ariarich.

In 334, the Limigant tribe rebelled against the Sarmatians, who were then allies of Rome. With the help of the Romans, they were defeated, and part of the Sarmatians then settled as columns on the territory of the empire - in Italy, Macedonia and Thrace. Young male Sarmatians joined the ranks of the Roman army.

In the spring of 336, Constantine's troops crossed the Danube and defeated the Goths in Dacia. After that, on the coins, Constantine began to be called "the winner of all peoples", another one was added to his titles - "The Greatest Dacian" (Dacicus maximus).

Baptism and death of Emperor Constantine


In 338, the Nisibis Peace Treaty with Persia ended. As a diplomatic justification for a new war, Constantine traditionally decided to appeal to the oppressed position of the Christians - now Persia. Shahinshah Shapur II was sent a letter demanding to stop the oppression of Christians subject to him, the army began to prepare for a new campaign - now to the east.

However, Constantine's plans were not destined to come true. In the spring of 337, the emperor fell ill, and attempts at treatment were unsuccessful. In his mother's hometown, Drepan, already renamed Helenopolis, he confessed to the local priests and was declared ready for baptism. But Constantine decided to be baptized in Nicomedia. The rite of baptism, as we remember, was conducted by the local bishop Eusebius.


"The Baptism of Constantine". Fresco made in the workshop of Raphael

Shortly thereafter, on May 22, 337, the emperor died. His body was taken to Constantinople, where, according to the will, it was buried in the Church of the Holy Apostles.

In predominantly pagan Rome, the Senate, according to ancient tradition, declared Constantine I "Divine" - the last in the history of this empire.

It is curious that the Saint was also declared the daughter of Constantine - Constanta. She was the wife of his two nephews - Hanniabalian the Younger and Constantius Gallus (brother of Julian the Apostate) and was by no means famous for either sympathy for Christians or a holy life. However, in the XIII century, a church was built in her mausoleum, and the Romans, who had forgotten their history, decided that this was the tomb of some kind of saint - the temple was called that: Santa Costanza.


Sad End of Constantine's Dynasty


Before his death, Constantine divided the empire into 4 parts between his sons and nephews, which caused displeasure among his direct descendants.

As a result, the so-called "massacre of 337" took place in Constantinople, during which two brothers of Constantine the Great (Julius Constantius and Dalmatius the Elder) and six of his nephews were killed. The empire was divided between the sons of Constantine the Great - Constantius, Constans and Constantine, who soon also entered into a struggle among themselves.

In the end, of all the male relatives of Constantine, only his son Constantius II and his nephew Flavius ​​Claudius Julian survived, who went down in history as Emperor Julian the Apostate.


Constantius II, depiction of the Chronograph of 354


Coin of Caesar Julian

Only the sudden death of Constantius saved the empire from the war between them. Julian died during a campaign against Persia - July 26, 363, and another dynasty came to power in the Roman Empire.
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  1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka 25 January 2023 05: 25
    +11
    Looking back, it can be noted that Valery turned out to be a good cycle about outstanding people of the ancient world !!!
    Thank you! Good day everyone!!!
    1. not the one
      not the one 25 January 2023 06: 08
      +14
      A good cycle turned out, readable.
      Good day to all !!!
      Join.
  2. Luminman
    Luminman 25 January 2023 05: 29
    0
    In 325, Constantine took part in the Council of Nicaea, at which the Creed was adopted.

    In addition to such a landmark event for the Eastern Church as the Ecumenical Council of Nicaea, in the same year the Hagia Sophia Cathedral was founded, which still exists, though in a slightly different capacity ...
    1. not the one
      not the one 25 January 2023 05: 58
      +16
      How tolerant you are, write directly - it’s not a Cathedral now, but the most that neither is a mosque. Otherwise, to read such verbal quirks in the style of “how not to offend anyone” - as if in the west or in the Americas of which you ended up ..
      1. parusnik
        parusnik 25 January 2023 06: 42
        -2
        How tolerant you are, write directly - it is no longer a Cathedral, but the most that neither is a mosque.
        In 1935, according to the decree of the Turkish government, signed by Kemal Ataturk, the Hagia Sophia Mosque became a museum.
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 25 January 2023 06: 47
          +7
          Erdogan declared it back as a mosque.
      2. Luminman
        Luminman 25 January 2023 07: 08
        -1
        Quote: not the one
        How tolerant you are, write directly - it’s no longer a Cathedral, but the most that neither is a mosque

        It's good that you know how to use Wikipedia, however, after reading the first paragraph, you immediately rushed to scribble comments and express your imperishable thoughts, without even bothering to read what role this cathedral played in Byzantium for a thousand years...
        1. not the one
          not the one 25 January 2023 08: 47
          +10
          What was that now, what kind of stream of consciousness? "No, you name it, I'm waiting!" What does Wikipedia have to do with it?
          after reading the first paragraph, you immediately rushed to scribble comments
          On what basis is your logical chain built, it would be interesting to know?
          without even bothering to read what role this cathedral played in Byzantium for a thousand years ...
          And where did you get this from, from which shelf of your consciousness, incomprehensible to mere mortals? How do you know who read what, who didn’t read what? Psychic? Medium? Sorcerer? ..Nda, the standard of communication ..I am terribly glad and proud that I am a contemporary of such a giant of thought.
    2. parusnik
      parusnik 25 January 2023 06: 38
      +1
      laid the Hagia Sophia
      A unique monument of architecture, the older it gets stronger, even earthquakes could not do anything with it.
      1. depressant
        depressant 25 January 2023 16: 14
        +9
        It is worth noting the construction in Dacia (in Sucidava) of the "Konstantin's Bridge" across the Danube, which was opened personally by the emperor in July 328. It became the longest river bridge of that time: the total length was 2 meters, 437 of which passed above the water, the width was 1 meters, and the height above the river level was 137 meters.


        The cathedral is in place, is the huge bridge preserved? I won’t be surprised if yes, but I admit that it could have been destroyed in the wars of the 19th and 20th centuries. For the object is strategic.
        But how they built it!
  3. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 25 January 2023 05: 31
    +6
    Many cult items were melted down into gold, silver and bronze coins.
    As part of the monetary reform carried out by Constantine, which streamlined the ratio of the rates of gold, silver and bronze (silver-plated) coins to the weight equivalent of the metal (Roman pound).
    1. not the one
      not the one 25 January 2023 06: 03
      +9
      Well, how, not like ours? Reform, in the sense. It suddenly became interesting: did everything go well there with Konstantin, or, as with our various reforms - everything through a place known to everyone and not for breakfast?
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 25 January 2023 06: 27
        +7
        Everything is great! The coins minted under this reform soon supplanted the previous money supply. The principles laid down by it were also used in the Middle Ages.
        1. not the one
          not the one 25 January 2023 06: 53
          +11
          I am very glad. I am very glad that at least someone, at least somewhere, succeeded. Otherwise, our life is like in the song: "Whatever they do, things don't go!" Okay, let's not talk about sad things, just be happy for Konstantin, God bless him
          1. depressant
            depressant 25 January 2023 16: 19
            +9
            rejoice for Konstantin, God bless him

            Well, at least you have fun, dear One more!
            wassat )))
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 25 January 2023 05: 43
    +4
    she led the excavations in Jerusalem. The result was the "acquisition" of the Holy Sepulcher, the Life-Giving Cross and some other relics.
    They could have found more, but the excavations were carried out haphazardly, by a barbaric method, many artifacts were destroyed or lost ..
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 25 January 2023 06: 48
      +7
      excavations were carried out haphazardly, by a barbaric method, many artifacts were destroyed or lost ..
      Schliemann's forerunner.
      1. parusnik
        parusnik 25 January 2023 16: 57
        +2
        Later there were Templar followers, they also found something ..
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 25 January 2023 17: 10
          +3
          Templars, they, too, found something ..
          These even after Schliemann could find something!

          Templar is an example for all the guys!
          1. parusnik
            parusnik 25 January 2023 17: 17
            +2
            If the finds of the first digger raise doubts .. What did the Templars find? And did you find it at all?
          2. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 25 January 2023 19: 36
            +4
            Quote: 3x3zsave
            Templar is an example for all the guys!

            Each knight has half a horse!
  5. VLR
    25 January 2023 05: 45
    +8
    Speaking of Diocletian and his great love for growing cabbages. Some believe that one of the new Augusts did not believe and ordered, just in case, to poison the former emperor. But, of course, the story of the voluntary renunciation of power twice in a row is beautiful and extraordinary.
  6. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 25 January 2023 06: 06
    +6
    A month later, Constantine repented of his decision and ordered Fausta to be killed: she suffocated, being locked in a hot bath.
    In the same way, Amalasunta, the daughter of Theodoric the Great, was killed. This episode is reflected in the film "Battle of Rome".
    1. not the one
      not the one 25 January 2023 06: 45
      +9
      "Cruel, sir, manners in our city"
      The method, of course, is from the category of “well, that.” There, it seems, the Romans acted according to their favorite (and very effective, I must say) principle: “divide and conquer.” In the film, yes, and not in the film, they acted the same way. In a word - heartless, evil people
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 25 January 2023 07: 05
        +8
        Amalasuntha herself was not shy in choosing the means to achieve power. Having received it, she began political flirting with Emperor Justinian, which did not find understanding among the Gothic nobility.
    2. Senior seaman
      Senior seaman 25 January 2023 15: 16
      +6
      Quote: 3x3zsave
      This episode is reflected in the film "Battle of Rome".

      Many schoolchildren only because of this episode and reviewed))))
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 25 January 2023 15: 22
        +7
        Probably not without it. In general, the film in the Soviet box office was cut in half.
  7. north 2
    north 2 25 January 2023 07: 45
    +8
    it should be noted that Equal-to-the-Apostles Constantine is especially significant for the Orthodox faith for his participation and guidance in the compilation of the Creed, in which the term "Consubstantial with the Father" was introduced, forever fixing in the minds of Orthodox Christians the truth about the divinity of Jesus Christ, who assumed human nature to redeem everything the human race. And this Creed was drawn up as a force that defeated the heresy that dared to reject the Divine essence of the Son of God and dared to assert that Jesus was created.
    As for Equal-to-the-Apostles Helena, then in the early spring, when the Holy Fire will descend in Churches in the Holy Land on Orthodox Easter night, we should not forget that most of these Temples were built by Equal-to-the-Apostles Helen.
    And at the expense of the beautiful mosaic of Constantine and his mother Elena in St. Isaac's Cathedral. Petersburg, this mosaic is remarkable in that it shows for the first time the age difference between Constantine and Elena. In that mosaic, Elena is much older than her son, on icons before that, both Konstantin and Elena were depicted as peers. Either both are young or both are old. And this is correctly depicted on the Petersburg mosaic. Since Elena discovered the Life-Giving Cross when she was about sixty years old, and on the mosaic she is holding this cross in her hands. And her son Konstantin on this mosaic is clearly younger than his mother, as it should be in real life...
  8. bober1982
    bober1982 25 January 2023 07: 57
    +3
    According to the author of the article, Konstantin was a pagan, lived immorally and died a heretic, then it is not clear for what merits he was awarded the title of king equal to the apostles?
    1. know
      know 25 January 2023 08: 37
      +9
      And for what merits was Nicholas II ranked among the saints? And in general, many other saints? The same Dominic is the executioner of the Albigensians.
      1. bober1982
        bober1982 25 January 2023 08: 47
        0
        Quote: vet
        And for what merits is numbered among the saints

        Quote: vet
        And in general, many other saints?

        Read the Lives of the Saints, I recommend.
      2. not the one
        not the one 25 January 2023 08: 55
        +12
        And for what merits was Nicholas II ranked among the saints? And in general, many other saints?
        Let me join you. I also have a lot of questions about the list of saints. To put it mildly.
      3. Luminman
        Luminman 25 January 2023 09: 25
        0
        Quote: vet
        And for what merits was Nicholas II ranked among the saints?

        And for what merits was Bandera canonized? wink
        1. not the one
          not the one 25 January 2023 11: 08
          +11
          And this one is there, you look .. And who registered him there? many...
          1. Fat
            Fat 25 January 2023 12: 59
            +10
            Quote: not the one
            .And who registered him there?

            hi OCU Bandera was canonized in the face of holiness, Ukrainian schismatics, "ottomosovannye", the head of the schismatics is Metropolitan of Kyiv and All Ukraine (since 2018) Epiphanius (Dumenko) ...
            I don’t know in what face of holiness this historical figure was canonized ... request
      4. balabol
        balabol 25 January 2023 12: 26
        +5
        Nicholas and his family were canonized as martyrs by the Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate; are now revered as royal martyrs. Explanation - suffered from political opponents. Lots of information on this
        1. not the one
          not the one 25 January 2023 12: 37
          +11
          Well then, all the people should be registered there, they deserve everything more ...
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 25 January 2023 13: 26
            +11
            Quote: not the one
            all the people should be registered there

            Returning to the concept of Holy Rus'? smile
            1. Senior seaman
              Senior seaman 25 January 2023 15: 22
              +5
              Quote: Trilobite Master
              Quote: not the one
              all the people should be registered there

              Returning to the concept of Holy Rus'? smile

              What left her? feel
              1. Trilobite Master
                Trilobite Master 25 January 2023 15: 44
                +8
                Yes, how many times ... "unwashed Russia", whoever wrote it, definitions like "scoop", "the wrong country was called Honduras", etc.
                Yes, and in modern society, the cult of the Motherland as a shrine, and the Orthodox shrine also somehow does not take root very well.
                Although, if we recall what our country had to endure in the XNUMXth century, then all sorts of passions and torments there would be enough for more than one canonization.
        2. know
          know 25 January 2023 12: 41
          +10
          Not so passionate, if you think about it. From birth, they ate hearty, slept sweetly. And before death, they did not starve, no one mocked them, did not torture, did not torture. Death is almost instant and almost painless. What are the passions. Farm laborers and disenfranchised factory workers had more passions - including through the fault of Nicholas II. And among those innocently killed during Bloody Sunday - when they went to the king with royal portraits and icons in their hands. These were the innocent martyrs.
        3. Stirbjorn
          Stirbjorn 25 January 2023 15: 54
          +7
          Quote: balabol
          Explanation - suffered from political opponents.

          So Paul I is necessary. Or whose opponents are there?!
        4. balabol
          balabol 25 January 2023 18: 43
          +7
          Here asked a question. Why cons? The official decision of the patriarchy with their justification is given. The fact is that they are not a saint, but a martyr.
          If the minuses are for me, then this is the persecution for the truth and the desire for accuracy, if the patriarch is for such a decision, then I still can’t tell him. wink
          Sometimes readers of the site baffle me with their actions, what informational signal do they send?
    2. Senior seaman
      Senior seaman 25 January 2023 15: 20
      +7
      The situation is approximately the same as with our "Red Sun".
      He was also revered as a baptist, but he was canonized much later, when some episodes from his life were slightly forgotten.
  9. Evgenijus
    Evgenijus 25 January 2023 08: 00
    +3
    I liked the article. Emperor Constantine is revealed precisely as the Emperor. But in today's Christian world (not among professional historians) he is remembered as a true Christian. There is no material at all in the article about how Constantine sent his mother, Queen Helen, in search of the Cross on which Jesus Christ was crucified. For his patronage of Christians, Constantine was called "Holy King Constantine". There are icons with his image and the same name.
    1. Stirbjorn
      Stirbjorn 25 January 2023 14: 56
      +5
      Quote: Evgenijus
      But in today's Christian world (not among professional historians) he is remembered as a true Christian.
      Thanks to this, an equestrian statue (the only one from the ancient world, if I am not mistaken) of Emperor Marcus Aurelius has been preserved, for the Christians mistook it for a statue of Constantine and did not break it. And only in the Renaissance did they find out that this is actually a "philosopher on the throne." And since the times were no longer the same, and ancient statues were not destroyed, the equestrian statue of the emperor has survived to this day.
  10. VLR
    25 January 2023 09: 52
    +5
    Good morning. The next articles in the "Great Rulers" cycle, no longer related to Rome or Byzantium, will be written by Vyacheslav Shpakovsky, who, having seen my articles about the "Age of Five Good Emperors", asked me to "begin". I'll change the subject. First there will be an article Modern Russia: the painful search for patriotism - if, of course, they dare to publish it smile
    And then we'll take a short trip to Ancient Greece.
    1. bober1982
      bober1982 25 January 2023 10: 08
      +5
      Quote: VlR
      there will be an article Modern Russia: the painful search for patriotism

      The main thing here is not to commemorate Saltykov-Shchedrin, with his (or, not him) famous ..... they began to press on patriotism, apparently everyone was stealing ...., it’s just that it’s already set on edge.
      1. not the one
        not the one 25 January 2023 11: 12
        +11
        The topic is interesting, it will be necessary not to miss it. This will be published in the "Opinions" section, I believe. Thank you in advance, there will be fun in the comments, I'm almost sure of this, I will certainly come up if I see a people's meeting. You can’t miss this in any way - a good mood will be provided. And Mikhail Evgrafovich, ours and you, will certainly be mentioned, I bet!
        1. bober1982
          bober1982 25 January 2023 11: 44
          +5
          Quote: not the one
          And Mikhail Evgrafovich, ours and you, will certainly be mentioned, I bet!

          And, they will also say that patriotism is the last refuge of scoundrels, and then they will even agree to what they will say ..... religion is the opium of the people.
          1. not the one
            not the one 25 January 2023 11: 55
            +12
            Surely. And if they don’t, then I (I almost said: “Turn off the gas!”) Then I’ll try to mention it myself - well, don’t lose our argument to me, after all! And the section why will be different: so this I didn’t take it from the bay-floundering - that’s it
            Black January. Forgiveness Sunday". Rock oratorio dedicated to the memory of the feat of the "Young Guard"
            authored by Valery Ryzhov today appeared in the "News" section, although I would have identified it just in "Opinions" ..
            1. VLR
              25 January 2023 12: 07
              +10
              Yes, my first publication in the "News" section. Before that - the vast majority of articles in the "History" section, sometimes in the "Opinions" and "Armament" sections. But "Black October" is a very short note, I originally planned it as a news article.
              1. VLR
                25 January 2023 12: 21
                +8
                "Black January", of course, something "brought" me to Palestine with this "October" smile
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 25 January 2023 16: 35
                  +6
                  If to Palestine, then this is with September.
              2. not the one
                not the one 25 January 2023 12: 21
                +12
                my first publication in the "News" section
                I won't congratulate you on your debut. Not in your case. There is nothing for you to do there as an author. As a reader - yes, maybe ....
                a very short note, I originally planned it as a news one.
                I understand,
                "A hunting toast should be short, like a command, like a shot."
                But, nevertheless .. you would have stayed better in the "History" section .. My opinion is this, I do not impose it on anyone ..
    2. Luminman
      Luminman 25 January 2023 16: 43
      +6
      Quote: VlR
      I'll change the subject. First there will be an article

      SW. Valery! You have already been asked to cover the topic of Britain, from pre-Roman times to the Heptarchy and Dunlag. I also ask and, I hope, colleagues "living" in this topic will support me in this! With great pleasure, I myself would have sat down on such an interesting topic, but I have no desire to write for VO. Thanks in advance...
  11. kor1vet1974
    kor1vet1974 25 January 2023 09: 54
    +5
    A good commander. suspicious. He was able to recognize his mistakes and tried to correct them. Good manager and financier.
  12. Diviz
    Diviz 25 January 2023 12: 53
    +7
    There were many things built before the Romans. The Romans restored the structures they destroyed to suit their way of life. And then they rewrote history for themselves.
    The theme of ancient Greece is interesting because representatives of different civilizations and peoples lived in this region. Achaeans Thracians Pelasgians Hittites Etruscans Danaans Minoans Mycenaeans cannot be listed.
  13. depressant
    depressant 25 January 2023 14: 44
    +7
    Good afternoon dear friends! )))
    The intro to Valery's article is "The Battle of the Milvian Bridge". Artwork by Giulio Romano, design by Rafael Santi.
    Is that a tapestry? And what does "design by Raphael" mean?
    Experts, please explain.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 25 January 2023 15: 07
      +6
      It was written after the death of Raphael, according to his sketches.
      1. depressant
        depressant 25 January 2023 15: 57
        +6
        Thanks Anton! )))
        I was very confused by the definition of "design".
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 25 January 2023 16: 39
          +6
          Contact Lyudmila Yakovlevna!
          If it was written "creative idea", would it be easier?)))
          1. depressant
            depressant 25 January 2023 17: 01
            +6
            Thematic canvas)))
            As they said before, a battle painter. Well, like Vereshchagin. By the way, in comparison. Subtropics, a lot of naked bodies, contact combat, brutal kneading. We have either a mountain of skulls dried by the desert sun as the apotheosis of war, or waist-deep in snow, like "Don't block it - let it pass!" different wars.
            And further.
            The Roman army has passed, and no pits for you from explosions, dug trenches, trenches, fortifications. Unless the crops are trampled. The earth did not suffer. "Eco-friendly" were wars.
    2. Senior seaman
      Senior seaman 25 January 2023 15: 29
      +5
      Romano was a student of Raphael and worked on the frescoes of the "Stanza" under his direction. Then, after the death of the teacher, he finished what he did not have time to finish.
      Quote: depressant
      Is that a tapestry?

      Fresco.
      1. depressant
        depressant 25 January 2023 15: 59
        +5
        It seemed to me that the tapestry, because there is a border, such as if the work is hung on carnations laughing )))
        Thanks for clarifying!
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 25 January 2023 17: 16
          +5
          Now Raphael breathed a sigh of relief: "Well, at least lazy Giulio learned to draw carnations!")))
  14. depressant
    depressant 25 January 2023 16: 05
    +5
    After 20 years of reign, Augustus had to yield his post to Caesar and retire.

    Hmm... We're the Third Rome, right?
    Even would and climate in addition. Wouldn't mind.
    1. Fat
      Fat 25 January 2023 16: 44
      +5
      Quote: depressant
      We are the Third Rome, right?

      hi Hello Ludmila. The Third Rome - in Orthodoxy, the eschatological concept is (IMHO) only means this:
      the first two Romes were punished for their betrayal of Orthodoxy, after which Moscow took their place. If Moscow also falls into sin, the fourth Rome will not follow it, simply because at that time there was not a single Orthodox state anywhere in the world. It would mean the end of the world

      Over time, this "slogan" has lost its relevance, the modern Russian Federation is a multi-confessional power.
      And so, many states reasonably claimed for the "position" of the third Rome, at least 9 (except Russia) smile
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 25 January 2023 16: 53
        +4
        And so, many states reasonably claimed for the "position" of the third Rome, at least 9 (except Russia)
        You are intriguing, Borisych!
        "Please tell me the whole list?" (FROM)
        1. Fat
          Fat 25 January 2023 16: 59
          +4
          hi Greetings Anton. And please:
          1 Succession claims from the Byzantine Empire
          1.1 Bulgaria
          1.2 Serbia
          1.3 Ottoman Empire
          1.4 Spain
          1.5 Greece
          2 Succession claims from the Holy Roman Empire
          2.1 Germany
          2.2 France
          2.3 Austria
          2.4 Italy
          smile
          1. parusnik
            parusnik 25 January 2023 17: 03
            +5
            Andrey Borisovich, hi and by what criteria did Spain get into the list of heirs of the Byzantine Empire?
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 25 January 2023 17: 37
              +4
              Everything is clear with Spain, the Habsburgs were on the throne. I do not understand the claims of Italy, under Mussolini, or what?
              1. depressant
                depressant 25 January 2023 18: 09
                +6
                Well, perhaps not because the integral complexity of the entire managed object began to exceed the integral complexity of control, and then ...
                Constantine decided to establish a new capital for his empire. On the European coast of the Hellespont, the ancient Greek city of Byzantium was practically demolished, and in November 324, after the consecration of the land, the emperor with a spear in his hand went around the circumference of the future Constantinople - this is a completely pagan rite.

                That's why. The control object called "Roman Empire" found a way out by complicating the control system.
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 25 January 2023 18: 17
                  +4
                  "After 20 years after receiving a higher mathematical education, I realized that I only needed to know the integral once in my life. When I needed to get the keys out of the toilet."
                  1. depressant
                    depressant 25 January 2023 19: 56
                    +4
                    Cheer up, Anton...
                    "After 20 years after receiving a higher mathematical education, I realized that I only needed to know the integral once in my life. When I needed to get the keys out of the toilet."

                    Old joke, but...
                    When the provinces of the empire, trading among themselves under the forced protection of the central government and gaining managerial experience from it, suddenly realized that they themselves were "hoo!", they began to slowly fill with separatist sentiments. Unable to extinguish those moods, Constantine makes a move - not with the cavalry, but with this very thing - he tears down the old capital of Byzantium and builds a new one, as if denoting who is the boss in the house.
                    However, the trend has already begun.
                    But since present-day Rome, as the center of the ancient empire that founded Constantinople, is geographically located in Italy, it can be assumed that the current Italians are legitimate claimants to the Byzantine part of that dead that has long been unable to live. There is just no law.
                    1. Trilobite Master
                      Trilobite Master 25 January 2023 21: 06
                      +4
                      Quote: depressant
                      When the provinces of the empire... suddenly realized that they themselves were "wow!".

                      This, of course, yes, but, I think, the reason for the transfer of the capital was not to surprise everyone and show who is the boss in the house.
                      I think the point is the external pressure of the barbarians on the borders of the old empire. Basically, this pressure was felt from the north in the south and southwest directions. And Byzantium lay aside from the main migration routes that passed to the north, in the steppe zone, but in close proximity to the main trade sea routes, moreover, due to its location on the cape, it was easier to defend in case of emergency.
              2. parusnik
                parusnik 25 January 2023 18: 10
                +4
                Everything is clear with Spain
                I don’t get it .. The territories of Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria were part of the Byzantine Empire .. And what about Spain?
                Succession claims from the Holy Roman Empire
                - Italy .. Here we mean the Holy Roman Empire, as a direct continuation of the ancient Roman Empire and the Frankish Empire of Charlemagne, founded by Otto, I don’t remember the number, the German king, in the 10th century, Italy was part of it.
              3. parusnik
                parusnik 25 January 2023 18: 20
                +3
                The Habsburgs were on the throne.
                Since the 30s of the 15th century, the Habsburgs have occupied the throne of the Holy Roman Empire since the 16th century, the Holy Roman Empire of the German nation, Bonaparte did not dissolve it .. There they had a break, not a big one, until Bonaparte, in the eighteenth century ..
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 25 January 2023 18: 30
                  +2
                  The Habsburgs ruled Spain for almost three centuries.
                  1. parusnik
                    parusnik 25 January 2023 20: 17
                    +3
                    But I don’t argue. What does Spain, or rather the Pyrenees, have to do with the Balkans and Asia Minor?
              4. Fat
                Fat 25 January 2023 18: 25
                +3
                Italy was marked twice.
                For the first time - after the unification of Italy into a kingdom in the 19th century and the announcement of Rome as the capital of the Kingdom. Here Giuseppe Mazzini, an Italian nationalist and patriot, noted that the third Rome is truly popular after the imperial and papal ... And behind him, other figures of that time pulled up this idea of ​​his. He suggested that Italy should dominate the Mediterranean, following the example of ancient Rome ...
                Then, in the 20th century, in his speeches, Benito Mussolini often called Italy the Third Rome ... Rome, after the Imperial and Papal, was also the name of Mussolini's plan to expand the city in the direction of Ostia and the sea. smile
                1. parusnik
                  parusnik 25 January 2023 20: 25
                  +4
                  Then I noticed that Italy was part of the Great and Sacred .. not all, in some places .. smile
            2. Fat
              Fat 25 January 2023 19: 56
              +3
              hi Greetings, Alexey. The fact is that Andrei Palaiologos, the titular emperor of Byzantium, the titular despot of the Morea, the brother of the Grand Duchess Sophia Palaiologos of Moscow, in 1502 signed an agreement transferring all his rights to the Spanish monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile ...
              1. parusnik
                parusnik 25 January 2023 20: 23
                +4
                Oh yes smile This one who traded himself smile Or rather, with their titles, being in exile smile Roughly speaking, he drank the country away, but did not disgrace the titles (drank away, exaggerating, of course), he traded them without having anything. smile
  15. faterdom
    faterdom 26 January 2023 00: 33
    +3
    How to know how to maneuver: at the same time the last divine emperor of pagan Rome, a saint of the Christian church, who executed his son, wife and, in general, illegitimate.
    Although, the consequences of his actions are huge, yes.
    And even what he did not play a big role - the so-called "letter of Constantine", where he allegedly bequeathed to the head of the Christian community of the city of Rome (not the Empire, but the city) to be the head of all Christians, and, for some reason, looking after all the bridges ( and apparently viaducts) of the empire!?
    This is how the Popes of Rome appeared, and for some reason retroactively appointed the long-dead Apostle Peter as the first of them, and in general such a post could not have existed under Constantine.
    I would call him a very fortunate man who semi-accidentally had a great influence on the course of world history.
    Despite the fact that the previously described magnificent five "good emperors" appeared less.