Military Review

Leading military school in Russia

16
Leading military school in Russia
Nicholas Academy of the General Staff. View from Suvorovsky Prospekt



From the history


The idea of ​​creating a military scientific institution in the Russian state - the Military Academy, appeared in the middle of the XNUMXth century. It was expressed by the reformer and inventor, the author of the "secret howitzer", Field Marshal Pyotr Ivanovich Shuvalov. However, then this project, as well as the plan to create the Artillery Academy, were not completed.

After a series of wars with France, and especially the Patriotic War of 1812 and the foreign campaigns of the Russian army in 1813-1814. this issue is back on the agenda. With the establishment of permanent military formations - divisions and corps, which included all types of troops and were able to independently solve various tactical tasks, the introduction of states in peacetime and wartime, the organizational and staff structure of the troops became more complicated. It was obvious that the greatly increased role of the headquarters service required specially trained officers.

In 1810–1826 there were Moscow and St. Petersburg military schools for the training of columnists (junkers preparing to become officers of the General Staff), created on the initiative of the Chief of the General Staff of His Imperial Majesty Pyotr Volkonsky. It was the prototype of the Academy of the General Staff.

In 1830, Antoine Henri Jomini, a prominent military leader, theorist and historian, who was in the Russian service in the retinue of the emperor (in 1804–1813 he served in France, then in Russia), theoretically substantiated the idea of ​​​​creating an appropriate scientific and educational institution and developed a draft of its charter. The Academy was created in the capital of the Russian Empire at the General Staff for the education of officers and "for the greater dissemination of knowledge in the army."

The grand opening of the Imperial Military Academy in 1832 was timed to coincide with the day of the Order of St. George the Victorious - November 26 (December 8). Subsequently, this day of the patron saint of warriors became the annual holiday of the academy. The event was held with the presence of the tsar, the heir to the throne, the highest military and civil officials of the Russian Empire, as well as foreign guests.

The Academy was first located in the house of the former Foreign Collegium at 32 Angliyskaya Embankment. In 1901, the Higher School moved to a building specially built for it at 32 Suvorovsky Prospekt.


Ivan Onufrievich Sukhozanet (1788-1861) - Russian military engineer, artillery general, director of the Corps of Pages and the Imperial Academy of the General Staff (1832-1854). Portrait by T. Mayer, 1849

Milestones


The formation of the academy took place under the leadership of its first director, General of Artillery Ivan Sukhozanet, who held this position for more than 20 years. Established two departments: the first - tactics, the second - military stories and strategies.

From 1832 to 1918, the academy trained 4 officers of the Russian army, several dozen officers of the Bulgarian and Serbian armies. Among the graduates of the school are such prominent statesmen and military figures of Russia as Dmitry Milyutin, Nikolai Przhevalsky, Fedor Radetsky, Dmitry Skobelev, Roman Kondratenko, etc. It is worth noting that graduates of the Nikolaev Academy will become active creators of the new Russian army - the Red Army.


Monument to the dead pets of the Nikolaev Academy of the General Staff

After the February Revolution, the Provisional Government removed the word "Imperial" from the name of the academy, retaining the name "Nikolaev". In the spring of 1918, the academy, reorganized at the direction of Lenin, was evacuated to Yekaterinburg, then to Kazan. There, the bulk of its students and teachers went over to the side of the Czechoslovaks and the Whites.

In October 1918, the Revolutionary Military Council established the Academy of the General Staff of the Red Army in Moscow. The grand opening of the Soviet Academy took place on the same day as in 1832 - December 8. It was headed by a graduate of the old Nikolaev Academy, General Anton Klimovich. In August 1919, former Lieutenant General Andrey Snesarev, an orientalist, also a graduate of the Nikolaev Academy, became the head of the academy. During the Civil War, the academy and its courses were graduated by many prominent military leaders of the Red Army.

In the White Army, the academy operated in Yekaterinburg, then in Tomsk and Omsk, in the fall of 1919 it was evacuated to Vladivostok on the Russky Island. In 1923, part of the teaching staff, the library and the property of the academy returned to Moscow. Abroad, the White Guards opened Foreign Higher Military Scientific Courses, which worked until the start of World War II.

On August 5, 1921, the Academy of the General Staff of the Red Army was renamed the Military Academy of the Red Army by order of the Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic. The commander of the troops of the Western Front, Mikhail Tukhachevsky, became her boss. The Higher Military Academic Courses for Senior Commanders (HVAC) were established at the academy. A major role in their development was played by Mikhail Frunze, who was in 1924-1925. head of the military academy.

On November 1, 1936, on the basis of the operational faculty of the Frunze Military Academy of the Red Army, the grand opening of the Academy of the General Staff of the Red Army took place - in fact, its third opening. Two faculties were created at the academy: basic and military history. Also, for the first time in the history of the higher military school, the training of naval personnel began, and a naval department was established. On February 3, 1941, the academy became known as the Military Academy of the General Staff of the Red Army. K. E. Voroshilova.

After the collapse of the USSR, the Academy retained its status as the leading higher military educational institution and scientific institution of the Russian Federation.


Order of the People's Commissar of Defense on the formation of the Academy of the General Staff of the Red Army in 1936
Author:
Photos used:
https://ru.wikipedia.org/
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  1. Aerodrome
    Aerodrome 8 December 2022 05: 55
    +12
    Yes, and we have something to brag about ... have ceased to exist over the past 25 years:

    1. Military Veterinary Institute
    2. Moscow Military Institute of Radio Electronics of the Space Forces
    3. St. Petersburg Higher School of Air Defense Radio Electronics.
    4. St. Petersburg Higher Military Engineering School of Communications named after the Leningrad City Council.
    5. St. Petersburg Higher Artillery Command School
    6. St. Petersburg Higher Anti-Aircraft Missile Command School of the Order of the Red Star
    7. Leningrad Higher Military-Political Air Defense School named after Yu. V. Andropov
    8. Achinsk Military Aviation Technical College named after 60 Anniversary of the Komsomol
    9. Armavir Higher Military Aviation Red Banner School of Pilots named after Chief Marshal of Aviation P.S. Kutakhova
    10. Balashov Higher Military Aviation School for Pilots named after the Chief Marshal of Aviation A.A. Novikov
    11. Barnaul Higher Military Aviation School for Pilots named after the Chief Marshal of Aviation K.A. Vershinin
    12. Borisoglebsk Higher Military Aviation Order of Lenin Red Banner Pilot School named after V.P. Chkalova
    13. Blagoveshchensk Higher Tank Command School named after Marshal of the Soviet Union Meretskov K. A.
    14. Yeisk Higher Military Aviation School (Military Institute) named after twice Hero of the Soviet Union, Pilot-Cosmonaut of the USSR V. M. Komarov - branch of the Air Force Military Training and Research Center (branch of the Gagarin and Zhukovsky Air Force Academy)
    15. Yekaterinburg Artillery Institute
    16. Irkutsk Military Aviation Engineering Institute
    17. Kaliningrad Military Aviation Technical School
    18. Kachinsky Higher Military Aviation Order of Lenin Red Banner School of Pilots named after A.F. Myasnikov
    19. Kazan Higher Artillery Command and Engineering School named after Marshal of Artillery Chistyakov M.N.
    20. Kemerovo Higher Military Command School of Signals named after Marshal of the Signal Corps Peresypkin I. T.
    21. Kolomna Higher Artillery Command School
    22. Krasnoyarsk Higher Command School of Air Defense Radioelectronics
    23. Kirov Military Aviation Technical School
    24. Kurgan Higher Military-Political Aviation School
    25 . Kurgan Military Aviation Technical School
    26. Lomonosov Military Aviation Technical School
    27. Nizhny Novgorod Higher Anti-Aircraft Missile Command School
    28. Nizhny Novgorod Higher Military Engineering Command School
    29. Novocherkassk Higher Military Command School of Communications named after Marshal of the Soviet Union Sokolovsky V.D.
    30. Orenburg Higher Anti-Aircraft Missile School
    31. Orenburg Higher Military Aviation Red Banner School of Pilots named after I.S. Halfbina
    32. Perm Military Aviation Technical School. Lenin Komsomol
    33. Pushkin Higher Order of the Red Star School of Air Defense Radio Electronics named after Air Marshal E. Ya. Savitsky
    34. PERM HIGH MILITARY TEAM-ENGINEERING SCHOOL OF MISSILE TROOPS NAMED AFTER MARSHAL V.I. CHUYKOV
    35. Ryazan Military Automobile Institute named after General of the Army V.P. Dubynin
    36. Ryazan Higher Military Command School of Communications named after Marshal of the Soviet Union M. V. Zakharov
    37. Rostov Military Institute of Missile Forces named after Chief Marshal of Artillery Nedelin M.I.
    38. Samara Military Medical Institute
    39. Saratov Higher Military Aviation School of Pilots
    40. Stavropol Higher Military Aviation School for Air Defense Pilots and Navigators named after Air Marshal Sudets V.A.
    41. Saratov Military Medical Institute
    42. Saratov Military Institute for Advanced Training of Specialists of Mobilization Bodies
    43. Saratov Higher Military Command and Engineering School of Missile Forces named after the Hero of the Soviet Union, Major General Lizyukov A.I.
    44. Stavropol Higher Military Engineering School of Communications named after the 60th anniversary of the Great October Revolution
    45. Tambov Higher Military Aviation School named after M.M. Raskovoi
    46. ​​Tambov Higher Military Aviation Engineering Order of Lenin Red Banner School named after F.E. Dzerzhinsky
    47. Togliatti Military Technical Institute
    48. Tomsk Military Medical Institute
    49. Tula Artillery Engineering Institute
    50. Ulyanovsk Higher Military Engineering School of Communications named after G. K. Ordzhonikidze
    51. Ulyanovsk Higher Military Technical School named after Bogdan Khmelnitsky
    52. Ulyanovsk Guards Higher Tank Command School named after V. I. Lenin
    53. Ufa Higher Military Aviation School for Pilots
    54. Tomsk Higher Military Command Order of the Red Star School of Communications.
    55. Chelyabinsk Higher Tank Command School
    56. Chelyabinsk Higher Military Automobile Command and Engineering School. ch. Marshal of the armored forces Rotmistrov P.A.
    57. Shadrinsk Naval Aviation School of Navigators
    58. Leningrad Higher Military Topographic Command School. Antonova A.I.
    59. Tambov Higher Military Command School of Chemical Defense...

    TOTAL 59 (!!!) Creation of any university, especially a military one, is a huge investment of time and money.
    What is destroyed cannot be restored. Lost experience, lost personnel, lost time ......
    Destinies crossed out, hopes dashed. Irreparable damage has been done to the country's defense https://ok1000.livejournal.com/548442.html
    1. FoBoss_VM
      FoBoss_VM 8 December 2022 07: 04
      +5
      Here I would also add the Pacific Higher Naval School named after Admiral S.O. Makarov, which miraculously simply survived in the days of Serdyukovism. There were several years when there was no recruitment of cadets AT ALL. And the school became a branch of the VMA Kuznetsov. The teaching staff, the training base, and the housing stock have been fairly thinned out. The school had very little to go to oblivion .. And now they chopped off a third of the territory for the cadet school, cutting down the old park of trees in 1937, destroying the monument to the cadets who died in the Second World War and destroying the stadium. There was absolutely no need to build a cadet school exactly there, there is plenty of land in the city ... And they also ruined the chic TOVVMU club, with a theater concert hall, a disco and ballrooms. First they brought him to a terrible state and then completely demolished. It is very sad when they do this to the country's higher universities. These are some kind of barbarians and traitors
      1. dmi.pris1
        dmi.pris1 8 December 2022 08: 19
        +6
        And then we reflect on what happened to our senior officers during the fighting...
        1. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 8 December 2022 13: 58
          +2
          Quote: dmi.pris
          And then we reflect on what happened to our senior officers during the fighting...

          And this does not depend on the number of higher educational institutions. Alas, the bronzing of the peacetime army and the withdrawal into "paper space", which is weakly connected with reality, is an inevitable process. According to reports in the army, everything is always fine. And when it comes down to it - either Mukden with Tsushima, then Tannenberg with Stokhod, then a meat grinder and boilers of the first months of the Soviet-Finnish. However, others are not better - it is enough to recall the same 1939-1940s. in Europe.
          1. Blackgrifon
            Blackgrifon 9 December 2022 22: 23
            0
            Quote: Alexey RA
            And this does not depend on the number of higher educational institutions. Alas, the bronzing of the peacetime army and the withdrawal into "paper space", which is weakly connected with reality, is an inevitable process. According to reports in the army, everything is always fine

            In support of your comment. The army of the French Empire of Napoleon 3 is small, highly professional, contracted with vast experience in local wars and experience in the war on the Crimean Peninsula, with its own park "patriot" and other stray. And in a clash with the numerous draft army of Germany at the end of the 19th century. - devastating defeat.
    2. Damir_N
      Damir_N 8 December 2022 13: 30
      +3
      I would add here VVIA named after N.E. Zhukovsky with its research potential and the Flight Academy named after Yu. Gagarin in Monino. The transfer to Voronezh and the merger did not have the best effect on the state of scientific and engineering thought. The professorship remained in Moscow, plus laboratories, the value of which is difficult to imagine. Only the lazy one does not write about the state of the Air Force now.
    3. nils
      nils 8 December 2022 20: 24
      +2
      Quote: Aerodrome
      ... ceased to exist in the last 25 years:

      + 60. St. Petersburg Higher Combined Arms Command School,
      61. Omsk Higher Combined Arms Command Double Red Banner School named after M. V. Frunze,
      62. Air Force Academy named after Yu.A. Gagarin (Monino),
      63. The highest officer orders of Lenin and the October Revolution, Red Banner courses "Shot" named after Marshal of the Soviet Union B. M. Shaposhnikov (Solnechnogorsk),
      64. Stavropol Military Institute of Communications of the Rocket Forces,
      65. Air Force Engineering Order of Lenin and the October Revolution Red Banner Academy. Professor N.E. Zhukovsky,
      66. Red Banner Military Academy of Air Defense named after Marshal of the Soviet Union Zhukov G.K.
      + Almost all military departments of universities have been reduced.
      Almost all of this was done under Putin.
    4. zenion
      zenion 9 December 2022 15: 26
      -2
      Aerodrome. And this is all because they forgot to write at the beginning of each name the word - His Majesty the Tsar of all Rus', the white and dark side of the universe of Rus'. If you wrote this, and added at the end - at my will, at the command of the pike, stand in front of me, like a bath sheet in front of it! Then all this would have appeared, instantly from under the ground. The main thing is who needs it, if all the coins are gold behind the cordon. All this is located on the island of Buyan, where all these violent ones live. There is a squirrel who works as a specialist in teeth made of gold and diamonds.
    5. UAZ 452
      UAZ 452 9 December 2022 17: 37
      +1
      TOTAL 59 (!!!) Creation of any university, especially a military one, is a huge investment of time and money.

      There are only three military academies in the United States - one for each branch of the armed forces. And somehow cope with the training of personnel. Perhaps we have not reduced enough?
      Before Serdyukov's layoffs, this whole abyss of military universities annually produced 40 officers, and this is for an army of a million! The vast majority of graduates immediately quit, but this did not bother anyone - the movement to master the budgets continued as if nothing had happened.
      If the cadets of the remaining unreduced universities did not spend 2-3 months annually preparing for parades, and in total not less than a week every month, going to unarmed patrols, the same unarmed sitting as watchmen at numerous checkpoints and other super-important posts, but engaged exclusively combat training, then there would be much more sense than from the restoration of all these institutions, glorious for the highest bearing of their cadets at parades and drill reviews.
      1. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 12 December 2022 10: 31
        +2
        Quote: UAZ 452
        There are only three military academies in the United States - one for each branch of the armed forces. And somehow cope with the training of personnel. Perhaps we have not reduced enough?

        Not take off. © smile
        The American officer corps stands on the shoulders of professional sergeants-NCOs (with their own parallel structure), who occupy most of the positions that our officers manage. And these sergeants are paid not much less than officers of the corresponding ranks. With such a "cushion" it is really possible to have fewer officers, since only combat planning and control are left to their share. The entire economic and technical part, as well as the preparation, is managed by the NCO.
  2. Rusfaner
    Rusfaner 8 December 2022 09: 42
    0
    With such a history and, it seems, experience, why are the graduates of the Academy so screwed up now?!
  3. Buyan
    Buyan 8 December 2022 13: 02
    +2
    I can’t evaluate, but in my opinion the quantity did not turn into quality, all the same
  4. vvn_vl
    vvn_vl 8 December 2022 18: 32
    +4
    given that the last ministers of defense were trained by trade and construction institutes, the role of this school is declining
  5. zenion
    zenion 9 December 2022 15: 14
    -1
    Struggling to pull someone in Russia under the crown. Under what name will the martyr be crowned? If things go on as they are now, then this monarch will be the prince of Moscow, or Zamoskovsk. All this is unimportant, the main thing is the crown and title. This is All the greatest ruler of all Zamoskovia to the very end of the nearest Zamoskovia, with him the uncle is the main thief.
  6. Tank destroyerSU-100
    Tank destroyerSU-100 10 January 2023 18: 22
    0
    Quote: Aerodrome
    Yes, and we have something to brag about ... have ceased to exist over the past 25 years:

    1. Military Veterinary Institute
    2. Moscow Military Institute of Radio Electronics of the Space Forces
    3. St. Petersburg Higher School of Air Defense Radio Electronics.
    4. St. Petersburg Higher Military Engineering School of Communications named after the Leningrad City Council.
    5. St. Petersburg Higher Artillery Command School
    6. St. Petersburg Higher Anti-Aircraft Missile Command School of the Order of the Red Star
    7. Leningrad Higher Military-Political Air Defense School named after Yu. V. Andropov
    8. Achinsk Military Aviation Technical College named after 60 Anniversary of the Komsomol
    9. Armavir Higher Military Aviation Red Banner School of Pilots named after Chief Marshal of Aviation P.S. Kutakhova
    10. Balashov Higher Military Aviation School for Pilots named after the Chief Marshal of Aviation A.A. Novikov
    11. Barnaul Higher Military Aviation School for Pilots named after the Chief Marshal of Aviation K.A. Vershinin
    12. Borisoglebsk Higher Military Aviation Order of Lenin Red Banner Pilot School named after V.P. Chkalova
    13. Blagoveshchensk Higher Tank Command School named after Marshal of the Soviet Union Meretskov K. A.
    14. Yeisk Higher Military Aviation School (Military Institute) named after twice Hero of the Soviet Union, Pilot-Cosmonaut of the USSR V. M. Komarov - branch of the Air Force Military Training and Research Center (branch of the Gagarin and Zhukovsky Air Force Academy)
    15. Yekaterinburg Artillery Institute
    16. Irkutsk Military Aviation Engineering Institute
    17. Kaliningrad Military Aviation Technical School
    18. Kachinsky Higher Military Aviation Order of Lenin Red Banner School of Pilots named after A.F. Myasnikov
    19. Kazan Higher Artillery Command and Engineering School named after Marshal of Artillery Chistyakov M.N.
    20. Kemerovo Higher Military Command School of Signals named after Marshal of the Signal Corps Peresypkin I. T.
    21. Kolomna Higher Artillery Command School
    22. Krasnoyarsk Higher Command School of Air Defense Radioelectronics
    23. Kirov Military Aviation Technical School
    24. Kurgan Higher Military-Political Aviation School
    25 . Kurgan Military Aviation Technical School
    26. Lomonosov Military Aviation Technical School
    27. Nizhny Novgorod Higher Anti-Aircraft Missile Command School
    28. Nizhny Novgorod Higher Military Engineering Command School
    29. Novocherkassk Higher Military Command School of Communications named after Marshal of the Soviet Union Sokolovsky V.D.
    30. Orenburg Higher Anti-Aircraft Missile School
    31. Orenburg Higher Military Aviation Red Banner School of Pilots named after I.S. Halfbina
    32. Perm Military Aviation Technical School. Lenin Komsomol
    33. Pushkin Higher Order of the Red Star School of Air Defense Radio Electronics named after Air Marshal E. Ya. Savitsky
    34. PERM HIGH MILITARY TEAM-ENGINEERING SCHOOL OF MISSILE TROOPS NAMED AFTER MARSHAL V.I. CHUYKOV
    35. Ryazan Military Automobile Institute named after General of the Army V.P. Dubynin
    36. Ryazan Higher Military Command School of Communications named after Marshal of the Soviet Union M. V. Zakharov
    37. Rostov Military Institute of Missile Forces named after Chief Marshal of Artillery Nedelin M.I.
    38. Samara Military Medical Institute
    39. Saratov Higher Military Aviation School of Pilots
    40. Stavropol Higher Military Aviation School for Air Defense Pilots and Navigators named after Air Marshal Sudets V.A.
    41. Saratov Military Medical Institute
    42. Saratov Military Institute for Advanced Training of Specialists of Mobilization Bodies
    43. Saratov Higher Military Command and Engineering School of Missile Forces named after the Hero of the Soviet Union, Major General Lizyukov A.I.
    44. Stavropol Higher Military Engineering School of Communications named after the 60th anniversary of the Great October Revolution
    45. Tambov Higher Military Aviation School named after M.M. Raskovoi
    46. ​​Tambov Higher Military Aviation Engineering Order of Lenin Red Banner School named after F.E. Dzerzhinsky
    47. Togliatti Military Technical Institute
    48. Tomsk Military Medical Institute
    49. Tula Artillery Engineering Institute
    50. Ulyanovsk Higher Military Engineering School of Communications named after G. K. Ordzhonikidze
    51. Ulyanovsk Higher Military Technical School named after Bogdan Khmelnitsky
    52. Ulyanovsk Guards Higher Tank Command School named after V. I. Lenin
    53. Ufa Higher Military Aviation School for Pilots
    54. Tomsk Higher Military Command Order of the Red Star School of Communications.
    55. Chelyabinsk Higher Tank Command School
    56. Chelyabinsk Higher Military Automobile Command and Engineering School. ch. Marshal of the armored forces Rotmistrov P.A.
    57. Shadrinsk Naval Aviation School of Navigators
    58. Leningrad Higher Military Topographic Command School. Antonova A.I.
    59. Tambov Higher Military Command School of Chemical Defense...

    TOTAL 59 (!!!) Creation of any university, especially a military one, is a huge investment of time and money.
    What is destroyed cannot be restored. Lost experience, lost personnel, lost time ......
    Destinies crossed out, hopes dashed. Irreparable damage has been done to the country's defense https://ok1000.livejournal.com/548442.html

    And why the hell do we have military schools, said S. Ivanov, Taburetkin and Makarov, we will put "defective managers" in charge of the units, they will manage with the help of management. And at the same time, like, it eliminates caste, the lieutenants from the "jackets" will best command.
  7. Tank destroyerSU-100
    Tank destroyerSU-100 10 January 2023 18: 27
    0
    If you want to destroy the army, destroy military universities, which they have been doing with rapture for the last 25 years.