Military Review

The fatal defeat of Hannibal Barkid

58
The fatal defeat of Hannibal Barkid
Matthew Ryan. Battle of Zama



Rome and Carthage, the two superpowers of the Mediterranean, were simply doomed to a military conflict. Carthage did not like the appearance of impudent upstarts - the Romans - on the borders of their state. Gaining strength, Rome was not going to put up with the hegemony of the Punians.


On this map, the possessions of Rome are marked in blue, Carthage in red.

Even Pyrrhus, leaving in 276 BC. e. Sicily, which he could not conquer, he said to his friends:

"What arena for battles we leave to Carthage and Rome!"

And in 264 BC. e. these states really entered the war, called the First Punic. It lasted 23 years and ended in 241 BC. e. the victory of Rome, which got this fertile island.

Second Punic War


The Punians compensated for the loss of Sicily by conquering lands in the Iberian Peninsula. They discovered rich deposits of silver here, which allowed Carthage to revive its military power, building new ships and recruiting mercenaries.


Warriors of Carthage during the Second Punic War


Roman soldiers during the Second Punic War

In 221 BC. e. 26-year-old Hannibal Barkid, the son of the commander Hamilcar, became the commander of the troops in Spain. At the age of 9, he swore an oath until the end of his life to be an implacable enemy of Rome and to avenge the defeat of his homeland in the First Punic War.


B. West. Oath of Hannibal

Hannibal began a new war, capturing in 218 BC. e. Allied to Rome, the Pyrenean city of Sagunt. What happened next is well known to anyone who is at least a little familiar with history. Having lost a significant part of his army during the crossing of the Alps, many horses and elephants (but having replenished his troops with warriors of tribes hostile to Rome), Hannibal triumphantly entered Italy. Here he won several high-profile victories in battles that are included in all textbooks on the art of war.


Sites of the main battles of the Second Punic War

However, Hannibal could not defeat Rome, and meanwhile in 209 BC. e. The army of Publius Cornelius Scipio, operating in the Spanish possessions of the Punians, captured the city of New Carthage. By the way, the Roman commander at that time was only 25 years old. In 207 B.C. e. at the Battle of Metaurus, he defeated the army of Hasdrubal Barkid, who tried to pass into Italy along the Adriatic coast. According to Titus Livius,

“Hasdrubal, not wanting to outlive his soldiers who followed him, the illustrious commander, spurred his horse and rushed to the Roman cohort, and here, fighting, he met an end worthy of his father Hamilcar and brother Hannibal.”

In the spring of 206, Scipio won the battle of Ilipa, where he was opposed by another brother of Hannibal, Magon, a participant in the battles of Trebbia and Cannae. In the summer of 205 BC. e. Mago landed with his troops in Liguria, the following year he managed to get reinforcements from Carthage. In 203, his army entered into a major battle with the Roman, but was defeated. Mago died of his wounds on a ship bound for Carthage.

And Scipio in the spring of 204 BC. e., having sailed from the coast of Sicily, he landed his army on the African coast northeast of Utica. It included the V and VI legions, which, after the defeat at the Battle of Cannae (216 BC), were sent to Sicily without paying soldiers a salary and with a ban on wintering in houses. In 213 BC. e. the representatives of these legions obtained permission to atone for their shame with blood. In addition to them, about seven thousand soldiers recruited in southern Italy were at the disposal of Scipio.


Scipio Africanus, bust from the gallery of the New Palace of the Capitoline Museums

Scipio's opponent was the Carthaginian commander Gisgon.

Scipio managed to win over the heir to the throne of Numidia - Masinissa. Together they defeated King Syphax, who took away the prince's bride, the Carthaginian princess Sofonib. However, Sofonib did not suit Scipio as the wife of the king of Numidia, because she could persuade him to ally with Carthage. And against Masinissa, the son of Syphax, Vermina, continued to fight. And so Scipio set a condition for his new ally: help against his enemy in exchange for the life of Sofoniba. The Numidian chose power and, according to Titus Livy, ordered his wife to be poisoned.

For two years, Scipio, in alliance with Masinissa, successfully fought in Africa, gradually occupying the territory of the modern coast of Tunisia and seriously complicating the delivery of food to Carthage. Finally, the Senate of Carthage decided to enter into peace negotiations and withdraw the armies of Mago and Hannibal from Italy. Hannibal with his troops arrived at home in the fall of 203 BC. e., located south of Carthage. The famous commander at that time was 45 years old.


Hannibal, bust from the National Museum of Naples

Between Carthage and Rome, peace negotiations were then underway, and therefore hostilities were suspended. The Punic ambassadors managed to negotiate with the Roman Senate, but by the time they returned to their homeland with the news of peace, the situation in Carthage had changed. After the arrival of two armies and the seemingly invincible Hannibal, the influence of the "war party" hoping to take revenge increased. In addition, the Punians, after the arrival of the ambassadors, plundered the Roman ships with food, thrown ashore during a storm. The indignant Scipio demanded the return of the seized property, the Carthaginians arrogantly refused, and this became the reason for the resumption of the war. This time, Scipio, wanting to punish the Punians for treachery, acted much more cruelly than before. He refused to capitulate the Punic cities, giving them up for plunder and turning the inhabitants into slavery. Hannibal did not feel ready for a serious battle: he had few forces, and there were many recruits in the army. The elephants at his disposal were poorly trained and therefore potentially dangerous not only for the Romans, but also for the Carthaginians. However, the Senate hurried him to defend the Punic cities, besides, Hannibal learned that Masinissa was coming to the aid of the Romans with the Numidian cavalry. In turn, the Punians hoped to get help from Vermina, the son of the king of Western Numidia, Syphax, a rival of Masinissa.

The Carthaginian army camped near the city of Zama - 150 km west of Carthage. The Romans soon arrived. Hannibal made a last attempt to negotiate peace, but Scipio told him:

"You need to either give yourself and your Fatherland to our discretion, or defeat us on the battlefield."


P. Rubens. Meeting of Scipio and Hannibal

And this meeting is depicted in an engraving of the late XNUMXth century (Hannibal on the left):


Ancient sources state that on the eve of the battle there was a solar eclipse. In 202 B.C. e. indeed, an eclipse of the sun was observed, and this allows us to date the battle on October 19. However, some researchers believe that the authors could slightly correct the date of the battle in order to emphasize the scale and significance of the event, to which even the heavens reacted.

The Romans were proud of the nobility of Scipio, who allegedly ordered the release of the Punic scouts caught in his camp. However, if we believe in the truth of this message, it can only be explained by assuming that Scipio was expecting the approach of Masinissa's units. And therefore, the Carthaginian spies released by him unwittingly misinformed Hannibal, bringing him unreliable information about the size of the enemy army.

Battle of Zama



Cornelis Court. Battle of Zama

The Greek historian Polybius wrote of this battle:

“Never before have there been troops so tested in battle, so happy and skillful commanders in military affairs; Never before has fate promised such valuable rewards to those who fight. The winner was to gain power not only over Libya and Europe, but also over all other countries of the world hitherto known to us.

Modern researchers estimate the number of enemy armies as approximately equal - approximately 35 thousand on both sides. However, the Romans had an advantage in cavalry, while the Carthaginians had elephants. It is known that the Roman and Carthaginian armies began to occupy their positions already at dawn. The battle began with oncoming attacks by Numidian light cavalry, units of which fought on both sides. Then 80 elephants of Hannibal went on the attack.


Jules Romain. La Bataille de Zama, tapestry, between 1688-1690

The Romans had already encountered enemy elephanteries, and Scipio, knowing about the elephants in the Punic army, built the maniples of the legions so that there were wide open spaces between them. The velites of the Romans fired at the elephants with arrows and darts, driving them into the "corridors" between the maniples. Some elephants in this situation generally turned to the left - right on the Carthaginian cavalry, which was ready for the next attack, crushing and upsetting its ranks. The blow of Masinissa's cavalry and Roman horsemen completed the rout, exposing the left flank of Hannibal's army. However, carried away by the pursuit of the enemy cavalry, they left the battlefield for a while. Things were not going well on the right flank of the Carthaginians either. But some elephants still reached the Roman maniples in the center and crashed into their ranks. Seeing this, Hannibal sent his infantry there: in the first line were mercenaries (Iberians, Gauls, Ligurians), in the second - Carthaginian militias and Macedonians. The veterans in the third line remained where they were.

And here, according to Polybius, the Punians refused to support the alien mercenaries, calmly watching their fight with the Roman soldiers. As a result, some of the mercenaries, having turned around, entered the battle with the warriors of the second line. It didn't really make sense. Probably, the mercenaries simply tried to flee from the battlefield, but the Carthaginians did not part, but began to drive them forward, acting as a barrage detachment.

One way or another, the first line of the Roman system, which suffered heavy losses during the attack of the elephants, was overturned by the Punians. However, the principles of the second line held their positions. Now it was the turn of the reserves: the veterans of Hannibal and the triarii of Scipio entered the battle. According to Polybius, the bitterness of the parties reached its limit, and for two hours the fate of the battle hung in the balance, until the Roman-Numidian cavalry hit the Carthaginian ranks from the rear, returning to the battlefield after pursuing the defeated enemy cavalrymen. This blow decided the outcome of the battle.


Schematic of the Battle of Zama 19 October 202 BC e.

The Carthaginian army was defeated, losing, according to various sources, from half to two-thirds of the soldiers. Of the outcome of this battle, Polybius writes:

"Everything was covered in blood, filled with the wounded and the dead ... heaps of corpses, bleeding and piled on top of each other, as well as weapons scattered everywhere in a mess along with people."

Hannibal himself barely escaped death or captivity.

The losses of the Romans were also great (up to two and a half thousand people), but they retained a combat-ready army, while there was actually no one to defend Carthage.

Results of the Battle of Zama


Now the Senate of Carthage had no choice but to make peace on Rome's terms. Carthage lost all overseas territories, almost the entire fleet (the winners graciously left him 10 ships), the right to declare war without the permission of the Roman Senate. In addition, an indemnity of 10 thousand talents was imposed on the state of the Punians, which Carthage had to pay for 50 years. Rome became the master of the Mediterranean. But even this was not enough. After 55 years (in 146 BC), Carthage was defeated in the Third Punic War and was destroyed.

The fate of the generals


Despite the defeat, Hannibal maintained high authority in Carthage. It is believed that before 199 BC. e. he continued to lead the army of this state, and in 196 he became a Suffet (two Suffets were the highest officials of Carthage). However, Hannibal's political opponents accused him before the Roman Senate of preparing a new war in alliance with the Seleucid king Antiochus III. It is difficult to say how much this information corresponded to the truth, but Hannibal fled precisely to the state of the Seleucids. Later in Ephesus, he once again met with Publius Cornelius Scipio. In a conversation with him, he called himself the third greatest commander in history (after Alexander the Great and Pyrrhus), adding that in the event of a victory over Scipio, he would consider himself the first. During the Antiochian war of the Seleucids with Rome (192-189 BC), Hannibal commanded a squadron of ships, but was defeated in battle with fleet Rhodes. Concluding a peace treaty, the Romans demanded that Antiochus extradite his long-time enemy. Hannibal fled again - this time to the island of Crete. Then he visited Armenia and Bithynia. Cornelius Nepos claims that during the war of the Bithynians against Rome's allied Pergamon, Hannibal put the enemy's fleet to flight by throwing clay pots with poisonous snakes at his ships. However, the king of Bithynia, Prusius, betrayed his guest, and in order not to fall into the hands of the Romans, Hannibal took poison from the ring, which he always carried with him - either in 183, or in 181 BC. e.


The Death of Hannibal in an engraving from 1799

It may seem surprising, but the winner of Hannibal, Publius Cornelius Scipio, also ended his life in exile. The enemies accused the commander and his brothers of various abuses. Titus Livy reports that the people of Rome were on the side of the victorious Hannibal:

“Following Scipio, the whole assembly turned away from the accusers and followed him, so that, finally, even the scribes and messengers left the tribunes. No one was left with them, except for the slave servants and the herald, who from the rostrum called out the accused.

But Scipio still chose to leave Rome and go to his estate. Here he died a year later (in 183 BC) - at the age of 52.
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  1. Luminman
    Luminman 31 October 2022 04: 24
    +1
    I have always wondered if the Carthaginians kept in touch with their historical homeland - Phoenicia and the Phoenicians?
    1. ratfly
      ratfly 31 October 2022 05: 11
      +1
      Judging by the way Hannibal moved freely throughout the Mediterranean, Carthage had connections everywhere.
      1. Luminman
        Luminman 31 October 2022 06: 27
        +1
        Carthage had connections everywhere

        Ties ethnic and cultural
    2. paul3390
      paul3390 31 October 2022 10: 03
      +1
      As I understand it, the tithe was unfastened to the temple of Melkart in Tire until the last days of Carthage ..
  2. The comment was deleted.
  3. Catfish
    Catfish 31 October 2022 05: 45
    +2
    Good morning everyone! smile

    at the age of 9 he swore an oath until the end of his life to be an implacable enemy of Rome


    An interesting custom and what kind of animal lies there, a horse?


    I would like more details from Valery about this.



    In this picture, a sheep is depicted at all. What is the meaning, not of an oath, but of the action itself?

    Well, everything is clear with Hannibal - he was a consistent and implacable enemy of Rome and preferred death to humiliation and shame.
    And here is how the compatriots repaid his winner, Scipio Africanus ... God forbid from such "gratitude". negative
    1. know
      know 31 October 2022 06: 52
      +3
      Horse and sheep in the paintings: perhaps
      are they sacrificial animals? He swore - and with a knife on their throat? So that the gods understand the seriousness of intentions.
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 31 October 2022 07: 13
        +3
        So I wanted to know some details. smile
        1. Fat
          Fat 31 October 2022 08: 28
          +6
          hi Greetings Konstantin. If there is a "sacrificial" animal in such an absurd pose, then most likely divination by the insides is haruspicy. I think to know the details you need to be at least an augur laughing

          Bronze liver for divination.
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 31 October 2022 09: 51
            +4
            Hi Andrew! hi
            you have to be at least an augur

            M-yes-s... If I came across fortune-telling, it was only on cards and on coffee grounds. request
      2. Alexander Salenko
        Alexander Salenko 2 November 2022 18: 32
        0
        And it seems to me that this is just a beautiful legend. Pope Hannibal made peace with the Romans.
    2. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 31 October 2022 11: 07
      +3
      God save me from such "gratitude".
      What do we have differently?
      "The grateful Fatherland awarded with a bayonet in the belly." (FROM)
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 31 October 2022 11: 32
        +2
        What do we have differently?


        And who argues, time goes by, but people do not change.
    3. Nephilim
      Nephilim 31 October 2022 11: 51
      +3
      I would like more details from Valery about this.

      You open the Journal of Biblical Literature, January 1904. There, on page 79, a very informative article - "The History and Significance of the Carthaginian Sacrifices" by the British Assyriologist Langdon. I can send a link.
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 31 October 2022 12: 11
        +4
        I can send a link.


        If it's not hard for you. I will be grateful for the link. hi
        1. Nephilim
          Nephilim 31 October 2022 12: 13
          +2
          https://www.jstor.org/stable/3268958#metadata_info_tab_contents
          Article in English.
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 31 October 2022 12: 23
            +3
            Thanks, but the translation didn't work. request
            1. Nephilim
              Nephilim 31 October 2022 12: 37
              +3
              Download the file to your computer. Then you open. Copy text. Then paste it into Word. Then open "Review", submenu "translation". You receive a translation. Not literary, of course, but you can understand. You can, as an option, copy the test in fragments and paste it into Google Translate.
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 31 October 2022 12: 40
                +3
                I've never tried it, but I'll try. Thanks again. hi
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 31 October 2022 05: 58
    +4
    however, Hannibal fled precisely to the state of the Seleucids
    Good commanders do not lie on the road, especially for those who are fighting Rome.
  5. Cartalon
    Cartalon 31 October 2022 06: 00
    +1
    Publius Cornelius Scipio did not participate in the battle of Metaurus, it happened in Italy, and he was in Spain.
  6. tlauicol
    tlauicol 31 October 2022 06: 09
    +2
    [Center]
    picture for clarity
  7. tlauicol
    tlauicol 31 October 2022 06: 18
    +2

    and a slightly larger balance of power
  8. Korsar4
    Korsar4 31 October 2022 06: 32
    +4
    Nevertheless, a book that came across in time revives events. We have already mentioned Nemirovsky's "Hannibal's Elephants". After that, Titus Livius wants to read.
  9. Korsar4
    Korsar4 31 October 2022 07: 25
    +4
    And yet - as I imagine how the Numidians treated their horses - it's breathtaking. Rohan.
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 31 October 2022 08: 03
      +4
      Hello, Sergey! smile

      I can imagine how the Numidians treated their horses - it's breathtaking.

      It seems nothing like that - the horse is well-fed, the rider too. smile

      And this is a skirmish between a Numedian and a Roman (as the caption says) during one of the Punic Wars.
      1. tlauicol
        tlauicol 31 October 2022 08: 10
        +4
        "Numidians are political prostitutes!" am V.I. Lenin
        1. Korsar4
          Korsar4 31 October 2022 08: 43
          +4
          The woman is to blame for everything. Sofonisba.
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 31 October 2022 09: 42
            +6
            They are always to blame for everything. sad



            The text of your comment is too short and in the opinion of the site administration does not carry useful information. request
            1. Korsar4
              Korsar4 31 October 2022 10: 12
              +3
              And who is this person? Does he refer to the Titanic?
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 31 October 2022 10: 43
                +4
                And who is this person?

                A third-class passenger on the Titanic, he was supposed to drown, and he drowned.
                1. Korsar4
                  Korsar4 31 October 2022 11: 40
                  +2
                  Don't dream of the plague
                  Florentine and leprosy?
                  Wanna ride first class
                  And not in the hold, in the semi-darkness?
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 31 October 2022 12: 21
                    +4
                    Everyone is equal in front of an iceberg and a torpedo, but the audience from the first class is still more even. smile
                    Involved in many things
                    Do not rush about like a nerd in the jungle,
                    Do not grieve that you did not manage everywhere,
                    Maybe you missed the Titanic
            2. Fat
              Fat 31 October 2022 10: 20
              +2
              laughing
              "If you are in your mind, do not marry,
              Don't part with life. I got married myself.
              That's why I don't recommend marriage.
              Even though the matter is settled, let's throw the bone.
              Try to see if you can be saved." (c) Meander
              Some sincerely believe that "the die is cast, the Rubicon is crossed," Caesar's Greek paraphrase of this verse wassat
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 31 October 2022 10: 46
                +2
                . I got married myself.
                That's why I don't recommend marriage.

              2. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 31 October 2022 11: 04
                +4
                "Die is cast!
                Together with the rest of the property, when trying to cross the Rubicon back "(C)
                1. Fat
                  Fat 31 October 2022 11: 36
                  +1
                  hi Greetings, Anton.
                  "Alas, it's true. It could have been more interesting." (With) recourse
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 31 October 2022 11: 58
                    +2
                    Hello Borisych!
                    It's just made up. V. Zvyagintsev "Odysseus leaves Ithaca".
                    1. Fat
                      Fat 31 October 2022 12: 22
                      +1
                      So he took the words from there, supported the "direction". Odysseus Leaving Ithaca is perhaps the most philosophical novel of the entire cycle.
                      I won’t say that I’m completely disassembled into quotes, but there are enough “stamps” ...
                      "..Amazing. As they say, who died yesterday - regrets today." (With) winked
        2. kor1vet1974
          kor1vet1974 31 October 2022 12: 28
          +5
          "Numidians are women with low social responsibility" Vladimir Putin.
      2. Korsar4
        Korsar4 31 October 2022 08: 41
        +2
        Hi Constantine!

        Correctly. The main thing is that the personnel should be fed. Horses, of course, too.
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 31 October 2022 09: 37
          +4
          "Not a step forward until you know what's wrong with the ration." (c) soldier
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 31 October 2022 10: 11
            +3
            And the covenant to stay close to the kitchen, but no one canceled the bosses away.
        2. Senior seaman
          Senior seaman 31 October 2022 10: 34
          +6
          Quote: Korsar4
          Hi Constantine!

          Correctly. The main thing is that the personnel should be fed. Horses, of course, too.

          The horses are drunk, the boys are harnessed)))
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 31 October 2022 11: 39
            +2
            This is what Pan Ataman's lack of gold reserves leads to.
      3. Engineer
        Engineer 31 October 2022 10: 58
        +4
        The horned saddle of a Roman during the Punic Wars is complete crap. D. b. just a saddle-clothes like the Greeks
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 31 October 2022 11: 30
          +2
          What was, was. smile I'm talking about searching the web,
          1. Engineer
            Engineer 31 October 2022 11: 47
            +3
            No problem. These artists are just amazing people. The strange grip of the arrow by the Persian archer McBride turns out to be historical, but here such a blunder out of the blue
            As for the helmet, I'm not sure either. The rider has a Boeotian, but it seems like d.b. Montefortino variation.
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 31 October 2022 12: 13
              +2
              The signature was in English. In general, everything is clear, but he was too lazy, the translator climbed, and for sure - the Roman horseman.
            2. Alexander Salenko
              Alexander Salenko 2 November 2022 18: 37
              0
              And I was embarrassed by a Numidian with a shock spear, as you yourself think, could it be?
              1. Engineer
                Engineer 2 November 2022 18: 46
                0
                It could have been something like a Persian coat. Ok 2 meters. It was possible to throw and fight close.
      4. The comment was deleted.
  10. kor1vet1974
    kor1vet1974 31 October 2022 09: 45
    +4
    During the Antiochian War of the Seleucids with Rome (192-189 BC)
    Hannibal, advised to leave Greece alone, which Antiochus had set as his goal, and to deploy the war in Italy in order to crush the enemy on his own territory. "The Romans are hated there. Samnites, Ligures, Boii," Hannibal twisted his fingers. And then Carthage, my fatherland, will raise its head. Oh, it will be a great war! And it seems I know who will win it this time. "But Antioch preferred the tit in the hands of Hellas, and not the crane in the sky, Rome.
  11. alexandr_vd
    alexandr_vd 31 October 2022 15: 41
    +1
    For Scipio. At 52, he probably did not have any health problems - such as prostatitis, sclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, oncology, and other delights of a later age ...
    It's good to die relatively young! And who is more loved by fate! According to Viktor Tsoi...
  12. Zymran
    Zymran 31 October 2022 15: 51
    0
    It may seem strange, but apparently the Carthaginians simply did not know how to effectively use elephants. Experience shows that they are most terrible against the cavalry, they constantly tried to crush the infantry with them.
    1. Alexander Salenko
      Alexander Salenko 2 November 2022 18: 46
      +1
      They had rich experience in using elephants, including against Pyrrhus, and the Romans trained horses against elephantia. Hannibal himself used elephants quite successfully, they just almost all died while he entered Italy, except for one.
      Judge for yourself, did the maniples part to let the elephants through? They parted, consequently discharged their battle formations, the front became discontinuous. It's easier to push him.
      Me, I'm reading an article. Ryzhov thought with interest about the returning Roman cavalry, said, as well as that the battle was hanging in the balance, but such a return of the cavalry does not happen very often and Hannibal's veterans could well push through the Romans.
      Let's remember the war in Britain between Parliament and the King in the 17th century, when Prince Rupert smashed Parliament's cavalry but returned to the battlefield already lost by the King.
      1. Zymran
        Zymran 2 November 2022 21: 17
        0
        Who used elephants against Pyrrhus??
        Hannibal's elephants were used to drive the barbarians during his campaign in Italy, the only major battle against the Romans where elephants participated was at Trebia.
        And yet I think that the elephants should have been left to attack Scipio's cavalry.
        1. Alexander Salenko
          Alexander Salenko 5 November 2022 16: 43
          0
          Sorry, I was mistaken, on the contrary, he used it and the Carthaginians spied it on him.
  13. Sergey Zilinsky
    Sergey Zilinsky 31 October 2022 18: 26
    +1
    And I heard a slightly different version of the death of Sofonisba:
    Angry, Scipio ordered Masinissa to hand over Syphax's wife to the Romans. When Masinissa began to beg him and talk about his love for her, Scipio even more sharply ordered him not to take anything arbitrarily from the Roman booty. However, Masinissa, being unable to resist the power of the Roman consul, nevertheless decided to fulfill at least part of the request of Sofonisba, who begged not to give her into the hands of the Romans, and through the servant gave her poison. Sofonisba accepted it without hesitation, turning to Masinissa in her last words: “I will gratefully,” she said, “accept this wedding gift if the husband could not give his wife anything better; but still tell him that it would be easier for me to die if I didn’t get married on the verge of death.
  14. faterdom
    faterdom 31 October 2022 18: 37
    +3
    Quote: Luminman
    I have always wondered if the Carthaginians kept in touch with their historical homeland - Phoenicia and the Phoenicians?

    Tire was destroyed by Alexander the Great, even before the Punic Wars. So at that time Phenicia no longer existed, but there were colonies along the coast, subordinate to Carthage as a new metropolis.
    But trade relations, partners, channels remained. And, most importantly, what caused Alexander's rage, apparently, the Phoenicians managed to take out the gold and purple reserves accumulated over the centuries, including gold and purple. To Carthage.
    At the time of the Punic Wars, it was one of the Mediterranean ports of the Seleucid Empire.