Military Review

Great Scythia and the Middle East. Part of 2

16
Great Scythia and the Middle East. Part of 2 Great Scythia and the Middle East in the I millennium BC. er

The first Assyrian inscriptions (these were reports of intelligence officers to the king of Assyria) about the campaigns of the Gimirri people in the South Caucasus refer to the second half of 8 c. BC er “Gimirri”, as in the ancient state in the Northern Mesopotamia, was called the Cimmerians, who inhabited the Northern Black Sea region in the iron age. Archaeological research shows that the material culture of Cimmerians is similar to the tribes of the Scythian community.

After the change of the military-political elite in the Great Scythia, one part of the Cimmerians moved to the Balkans, the other to the Caucasus and then to Asia Minor. They are marked in the wars with Urartu, Assyria, Phrygia and Lydia. The main part of the Cimmerians remained in their homeland, and became known as "Scythians". During this period, the growth of the military-political power of the Great Scythia occurs, respectively, the expansion to the south increases. Derbent, which was founded on the site of a bronze dreneari settlement, is becoming a stronghold for trekking to the south.

At this time, there were two opposing military-political blocs in Front Asia. It was the Assyrian Empire, which sought to subjugate all the neighboring states and nationalities, and its opponents, the most powerful of them were Urartu, Media and Babylon. A new factor that changed the situation in the region was the Cimmerians and the Scythians.

In 720 BC. er Cimmerian-Scythian troops began a war with Urartu and by the 711 year they defeated this Transcaucasian state. Urartu became a Scythian-dependent state. Then the Scythians entrenched themselves in the east of Asia Minor, and soon the Allied Scythian-Urartu forces defeated Phrygia. Developing an offensive, the Scythians attacked Assyria: in 705 BC. er Assyrian king Sargon the Second died in a battle with the Scythian army. At the same time, a part of the Scythians advanced into Media, and this caused a revolt of the local population against the Assyrians. On the part of the ancient Mussel, the Scythians entrenched and established their own state, which existed until 590 BC. er Another Scythian-Cimmerian state formation (“the country of Gimir”) was created in the east of Asia Minor, on the site of the former Hittite empire. In Anatolia, the Scythians reached the Aegean coast, defeating Phrygia.

In 679 year BC. er The new Scythian campaign against Assyria ended in failure - King Ishpakai died (perhaps this is the same person with the Cimmerian king Teushpa, who died in the 670 in the battle with the Assyrians), his son Partatay concluded in 673 BC. er peace with the Assyrians and married the daughter of the Assyrian king. A military alliance was concluded between the Scythians and Assyria, but it turned out to be fragile and temporary. After a brief respite, the struggle was continued. In 665 BC. er the Lydian king Gig asked the Assyrians for support against the “Cimmerians,” Assyria came to the aid of Lydia. But Assyrian intervention could not change the situation at the front in Asia Minor: in 655 BC. er The Scythian king Madii defeated the Lydians and took them to the capital of Sardis, and in 653 BC. er established control on the Mede (northwestern Iran).

The fact of such large-scale hostilities, going from the western coast of Asia Minor to the southern coast of the Caspian Sea, speaks of the excellent organization of the army of "barbarians". And the level of organization of the army (and from ancient times to the present day) indicates the level of development of civilization. Great Scythia was a world-class power capable of conducting active hostilities in several strategic areas at once. Around 633 year BC. er the final stage of the battle for Asia Minor began, the Scythians and the Media dependent on them, concluded an alliance with Babylon against Assyria. Scythian troops like a hurricane passed through all the two years, Syria, Palestine and reached the borders of Egypt. Pharaoh Psammetichus I with great difficulty managed to persuade the Scythians not to invade his lands and buy off their invasion. However, at this time the Medes split the union. In response to their treachery, the Scythians stopped the onslaught on Assyria and defended the Assyrian capital Nineveh from being defeated by the Medes in 623-622. Soon, Media established a new alliance with the Scythians (615 BC), and the combined Scythian-Median-Babylonian army took over 612 BC. er Nineveh. The last Assyrian territory, Harran in the west of Upper Mesopotamia, was conquered by Babylonia in 609 BC. er Around the same time, the Scythians finished Urartu, destroying the last capital of this state - Teyshebaini. Shortly after the fall of Urartu, the main Scythian forces left Front Asia — around 580 BC. er According to legend, the Medes again betrayed - they invited the Scythian leaders to the banquet and killed them.

Thus, in fact, the centenary war ended with the fall of the Assyrian military empire. Scythians became the main factor that dramatically changed the geopolitical situation in the region. They won their victories thanks to a higher level of organization and military technology. In this they surpassed the achievements of the civilizations of the Middle East. They introduced a new type of army: mounted riflemen. In addition, the Scythians widely spread a new type of arrows - with faceted bronze tips with a sleeve and introduced the saddle into use. Superiority in military affairs and organization gave political supremacy. No wonder Herodotus and other authors report that all of Asia was under the complete domination of the Scythians at the turn of 7 - 6 centuries. BC er The “islands” of the Scythian civilization remained in the Middle East as far back as 5-4 centuries. BC er

One of the oldest references to the name of the Rus, the Russian people is connected with the events of this long war for supremacy in the Middle East. In the prophecy of Ezekiel, who threatens his poor fellow tribesmen, that God will punish them and send the formidable people of "Gog and Magog, Prince Rosh." Obviously, this prophecy appeared under the impression of the invasion of Scythian warriors in Palestine. Under the name "Rosh" we see the Scythians, the direct ancestors of the Rus, the Russian people. Later, the Greek (Byzantine) authors also began to use this name, replacing the word “Rosh” with a more “rosh”. The people of "Rosh" ("Ros") for more than a millennium will act as the spokesman of the divine will, punishing the peoples mired in sins.

Scythian-Persian Wars and Alexander the Great

In general, the centenary war in the Middle East was fruitful. The Scythians gave impetus to the development of a new Indo-European (Aryan) civilization - the Median-Persian (Iranian) civilization. The Medes and Persians were relatives of the Scythians, but they were already quite different. In particular, the Iranians have created their own religion - Zoroastrianism. The invasion of the Scythians led to the uprising of the Medes under the rule of Assyria, and the restoration of independence. During the war with Assyria, Media is at the height of power, subjugating the regions of Persia, the Assyrian Empire, Urartu, a number of small states, part of Anatolia.

Around 550 BC er in the course of the palace coup, power in Media was captured by Persian Cyrus II, the Achaemenid state was created. This new state continued its expansion - the Persians quickly subjugated the whole of Asia Minor (Cilicia, the Lydian kingdom and other states), and then Babylon. After this, the new empire turned its gaze to the East — expansion began to Central Asia, which was then under the control of the Scythians (Saks). The large forces of the Persians began a war with the Scythian Saki. After a series of fierce battles, the Persian army was destroyed (according to ancient tradition, thousands of Scythian women took part in the war, along with men), and Cyrus was "drank the blood" of Queen Tamiris.

Later the war continued. Under Daria, the Persians, after a series of wars, were able to subjugate the southern regions of Central Asia. But further progress to the north was stopped. New subjects of the Achaemenid Empire provided the most combat-ready contingents, which were noted in a number of famous battles. So, in the battle of Marathon - this is one of the largest land battles of the Greco-Persian Wars, held on September 12 490 BC. e., it was the Saki broke through the center of the Greek army.

In 512 year BC. er Darius tried to strike at the center of Great Scythia - a huge Persian army moved across the bridge from ships in the narrowest part of the Bosphorus, and then across the Danube. The Scythians used their favorite scorched-earth tactics (much later their experience was repeated by Tsar Peter in the Northern War and Barclay de Tolly and Mikhail Kutuzov to the war with Napoleon's “Great Army”), leaving, destroying along the village path, stealing cattle, burning the steppe. At the same time, Scythian cavalry detachments regularly made raids, destroying individual enemy detachments, constantly keeping Darius’s army in suspense. After a long offensive, realizing that he had been lured into a trap, Darius threw the sick and wounded soldiers, the carts, and hastily retreated (ran). The happy occasion was saved by the thinned troops of Darius and they got out of the way. Great Scythia remained undefeated.

In 5-4 vv. BC er Scythia "goes into itself", an internal reorganization is underway, several external areas are lost. In the natural geopolitical center of the northern civilization - in the region of the Don and Volga to the Urals, a new statehood (elite) is being formed. Soon Scythia will replace Scythia. Sarmatians-Alans will be a new burst of energy of the northern civilization, which will generate a series of world political events.

During this period, Western Scythians, near the banks of the Danube, will have to withstand the onslaught of the commanders of the new power - Macedonia. In 339 year BC. er Scythians in the western, “Ukrainian” turn will suffer defeats from the army of Philip of Macedon, 90-year-old King Atey fell in this battle. However, apparently, the victory came at a high price, and the Macedonians would stop the onslaught to the east. The next "reconnaissance in force" will take place already under Alexander Filippich. The Macedonians will be able to advance to the lower reaches of the Dnieper, Zorios will besiege Olbia, but unsuccessfully.

It should be noted that the relations between Macedonia under Alexander and Scythia were rather complicated. On the one hand, the great king probed the northern power, conducted reconnaissance, on the other hand, mutually beneficial cooperation went on, the Scythian selective squad was part of Alexander's army. The Macedonian king, having made a “spear strike” through Persia and entrenched himself in Central Asia, tried to probe the boundaries of Scythia. However, the resistance in Bactria and Sogdiana, the uprising of satrap Bess, who relied on the support of the Scythians (and then of Spitamen), showed Alexander that the march to the north would be too dangerous. As a result, he chose the south direction. The border with Great Scythia was stabilized. In the Nikanorovskaya Chronicle it is reported that San, Velikosan, Avelgasan - the princes of “the bravest people of the Slovenian, the most glorious and distinguished tribe of the Russian” and Alexander Filippych separated the spheres of influence, pledged not to enter foreign territory. The territory of the Scythians recognized all lands from the Baltic to the Caspian seas.

Parthians

The last significant impulse of the northern civilization in the Middle East was the Parthians, who created the Parthian state (3 in. BC - 2 in the AD). At the end of 3 - the beginning of 2 centuries. BC er The situation in Scythia has changed a lot. The Sarmatian period of northern civilization began. The old "Scythian" elite retained power only in the Crimea, and Sarmatians restored the influence of Scythia-Sarmatia to Iran and India in the South, and the Balkans in the west.

One of the Scythian-Massaget tribes is the Parthians (parny) headed by Arshak (the ancestor of the Arshakids dynasty) around 250 of the year BC. er established control to the south and south-east of the Caspian Sea on the territory of modern Turkmenistan. Later, the Parthians subjugated a vast territory from Mesopotamia to the borders of India. In the west, Parthia encountered Rome and stopped its advance to the east. In 53 year BC. er Marc Licinius Crassus was defeated by the Parthians at Carrh and was killed along with his son Publius. 40-thousand Roman army ceased to exist - half died, about 10 thousand were captured, the rest were able to escape.

From 3 century BC. er on 3-4 cc. n er Great Sarmatia (Alania) retained most of Eurasia in its sphere of influence: Transcaucasia, Mesopotamia, Iran (through Parthians), Central Asia and Afghanistan (Saka-Kushan principalities), North India (Indo-Scythian or Indo-Saka kingdoms). Sarmatia kept the onslaught of Rome to the east with the help of Parthia, and conducting military operations on the territory of Bulgaria.
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  1. Miha_Skif
    Miha_Skif 22 October 2012 10: 17
    +9
    Great article! It seems to be nothing special, well-known facts are given, but it is worth putting them into a single whole, considering from a "geopolitical" point of view - a breathtaking picture appears fellow Someone, however, this manifestation of the picture causes not a surprised delight, not a worship of the valor of distant ancestors, but a gnashing of teeth wassat
    You can add a little. The article covers mainly military-political events, which, and only which, are recorded in the annals and chronicles of neighboring states. The cultural, "civilizational" influence, which can only be assessed by archaeological methods, was even larger. So, for information, in our country there are about the same number of archaeologists specializing in the Scythian culture as all the others combined (specialists in the Middle Ages, Bronze, Neolithic, Paleolithic, etc.). This directly speaks about the number of archaeological sites of the Scythian era.
    And in general, it seems to me that it is not by chance that the boundary of the spread of Scythian culture practically coincides with the borders of the former Soviet Union ...
    1. klimpopov
      klimpopov 22 October 2012 11: 23
      +4
      I also liked the article, sorry for the lack of maps for clarity.
    2. Igarr
      Igarr 22 October 2012 11: 25
      -1
      And the article is good.
      And Mikhail Skif is a good comment.
      ...
      One question .. and one perplexity - remain.
      This place - "According to legend, the Medes betrayed again - they invited the Scythian leaders to a feast and killed them."
      I immediately have associations - with Prince Igor and the Drevlyans, ... with the book of Olga, ... with a feast on the bones on Kalka.
      And bewilderment - they have been fighting for a hundred years, in different directions, such large-scale (well, they say) battles. Where did they get people?
      Consider that in the days of edged weapons and without antibiotics - any injury became mortal. In the film "Alexander" - it is well shown how the wounded were treated - with a chisel at the base of the skull.
      And here are the thousandths herds , oh, I made a mistake - hordes of horse archers, foot hoplites - and everyone is alive. Fight like wound up.
      One of the two — or were not armies, but Gangs, or descriptions — is simply PR.
      1. Volkhov
        Volkhov 22 October 2012 11: 56
        +4
        In the cinema, they’ll not show it yet, but in Celtic skulls there are traces of implanting teeth with implanted steel rods (comet iron is better than titanium), in America there are traces of trepanations, including for the development of opportunities - for some reason the Nazis copied them. And somehow 90 years old people were active in the army, and now these are crazy ruins mainly ...
        Maybe something ancestors understood in medicine?
        1. Igarr
          Igarr 22 October 2012 12: 48
          +2
          Not only in medicine.
          Even in polished crystal and optical axes - the famous crystal skull.
          In the layout of space cosmodromes - Nazca.
          In large-scale and large-block construction - Egypt, Baalbek, and everywhere.
          In electrical engineering - in Babylon was found ... an analogue of the battery.
          In combat lasers - how famously Archimedes burned the Roman fleet. And each Roman vessel has ten rows of oars. Avon how.
          ...
          Yes there were people ... at that time. Not that the current tribe.
          ...
          Only nowhere has there ever been a mention, at least, of a submarine.
          Diving bell under Alexander the Great - yes, met.
          1. Volkhov
            Volkhov 22 October 2012 13: 31
            0
            In Russian fairy tales - sea kings, in Babylon - wise men with a semi-aquatic way of life, but clean submarines did not use - it is more convenient to dive LA.
            On U-Tube there was a video of Portuguese fishermen how 2 fighters drove a small plate into the sea - a case of black Martian iron, thin, probably Nazi or Mars, dived and that’s it. These were before.
    3. Corneli
      Corneli 24 October 2012 08: 50
      0
      Quote: Miha_Skif
      Someone, however, this manifestation of the picture causes not a surprised delight, not a worship of the valor of distant ancestors, but a gnashing of teeth

      "Information about the Scythians comes mainly from the works of ancient authors (especially the" History "of Herodotus) and archaeological excavations in the lands from the lower Danube to Siberia and Altai. The Scythian-Sarmatian language, as well as the Alanian language derived from it, was included in the northeastern branch of Iranian languages ​​and was probably the ancestor of modern Ossetian language [1] [2], as indicated by hundreds of Scythian personal names, names of tribes, rivers, preserved in Greek records. "
      http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A1%D0%BA%D0%B8%D1%84%D1%8B
      It is difficult for me to be proud of the Slav and surprised to admire the exploits of your Ossetian ancestors (
  2. Ross
    Ross 22 October 2012 11: 58
    +4
    Thank you for an integral volumetric look at this period of our ancient history.
  3. nerd.su
    nerd.su 22 October 2012 16: 16
    +1
    Yes, great article! From it, however, it is not clear how, in the absence of their own written language, even of thin skinny letters, the Scythian kings could control such a huge power, coordinate the actions of the troops during the invasion of Asia Minor? After all, the Scythians had a developed economy, and long-distance campaigns required the supply of troops with fodder and provisions and other logistics ... The answer is somewhat unexpected. The ruling elite controlled their great power and commanded the troops, communicating with each other at a great distance with the help of palanths. As you know, one of the remaining palantines was captured by the Nazguls in the main tower of Minas Itil, or just Itil and then went to Sauron. The whereabouts of Itil are more or less reliably known. Some debate is going on: is Prince Svyatoslav Igorevich in 968/969 who took and destroyed Itil the King of Angmar or is it the legendary Elessar? These are very interesting questions that need to be answered. I really hope that here I will be correctly understood and supported in the search for truth!
    1. Volkhov
      Volkhov 22 October 2012 16: 49
      +2
      There was no written language of our own, they used Sanskrit and runes, study Iranian casting - there, in the form of stylized animals, oscillatory circuits of capacitance / inductance are made - this is for remote control.
      Glad you got tired - the cat knows ...
  4. Setrac
    Setrac 22 October 2012 20: 45
    +2
    It is unclear how all this information in the absence of writing reached us at all?
  5. pesec
    pesec 22 October 2012 21: 43
    +1
    In two pages of the text of the article, the period of the history of the peoples inhabiting Southern and Eastern Europe, the Near and Middle East, etc. for 1200 years. Such a methodology for describing events seems to me flawed. With a minimum of reliable information that has reached our time, to make a correct analysis of the era is not realistic. Always a percentage of speculation, fiction will be unacceptably large. It seems to me that another method of studying the past should be applied. Your opinion?
    1. Volkhov
      Volkhov 24 October 2012 07: 52
      +1
      It is necessary to use natural factors, such as explosions of comets and floods, to bind the main events - they cannot be faked or hidden, and thus written information can be checked.
      For example, the name "Palestine" (Paleniy Stan) is confirmed by the fused stone at Sinai (triangle 50x80 km) and the name corresponds to the essence, and written sources are confirmed by the fact.
  6. Aaron Zawi
    Aaron Zawi 22 October 2012 22: 30
    +1
    Firstly, there wasn’t even a term like Palestine. This term was introduced by the emperor of the Roman Empire Andrian after the suppression of the Bar Kochba rebellion in 136 AD In historical Egyptian, Aramaic, Assyrian, etc. sources these territories were called Judea and Israel.
    Then it’s interesting to know how the Medes, the ancestors of the Kurds, became relatives of the Iranians?
  7. Farvil
    Farvil 23 October 2012 01: 18
    0
    Nowadays, everything suddenly became historians and let's write anything, while not forgetting to insert that these are Russian ancestors.
  8. avreli
    avreli 23 October 2012 05: 27
    -1
    I support the idea that “Russia is the homeland of elephants”. For it is very spiritual. wink

    And he said repeatedly that Samsonov is a wonderful author. An educated, excellent popularizer, well versed in many periods of Russian history.

    But here he surpassed himself. IMHO

    ... showed Alexander that going north would be too dangerous. As a result, he chose the southern direction. The border with Great Scythia was stabilized. In the Nikanorov annals, it is reported that San, Velikosan, Avelgasan are the princes of the "bravest people of the Slovenian, most glorious and noble tribe of the Russian" and Alexander Filippych delimited spheres of influence, pledged not to enter foreign territory. The territory of the Scythians recognized all the lands from the Baltic to the Caspian Sea.

    But ... it turns out that Macedon himself wrote us our lands. And neatly so within the borders of the current Russian Federation (from the Baltic to the Caspian), no - to Black or Azov. Well done Filippych, saw a historical perspective.
    And the "princes of the brave people" delivered (now fashionable definition).
    One - the sun-holiness-respect, the other - too, but great, third ... here the third let us down, some incomprehensible dignity. Or maybe not “san” at all, Abel - somehow in Hebrew, Hasan - in Arabic.

    And yes, in relation to Russians - “Gog and Magog”, well, it doesn’t sound, even though ...
    ... the formidable people of Gog and Magog, Prince Rosh. Obviously, this prophecy was inspired by the invasion of Scythian warriors in Palestine. Under the name "Roche" we see the Scythians, direct ancestors of the Rus, the Russian people.

    In general, the issue of “direct ancestors” is not fully developed. smile
    1. Corneli
      Corneli 24 October 2012 09: 18
      -2
      Yeah .... article "la bomb", briefly about the main thing:
      1. Cimmerians - nomadic tribes that entered the Caucasus from the steppe zone from 714 to 640 BC. e. (horse nomads). As a result of the coordinated actions of the combined forces of the opponents of the Cimmerians - Scythians, Lydians and Medes, the Cimmerians were completely defeated and soon disappeared among the population of Asia Minor and Persia.
      2. a) European Scythians were Iranian-speaking nomads who dominated the Black Sea region until the XNUMXth – XNUMXrd centuries BC. e. Significant data on European Scythians are contained in ancient Greek sources, especially Herodotus. Often, the name of the Scythians means precisely the European Scythians.
      b) Saki - Scythian tribes inhabiting the territory of modern Central Asia. Asian peoples, especially the Persians called them "Saki." Ancient Greek authors called the Saks "Asian Scythians" (bazaars in the eastern Iranian dialect)
      at) Sarmatians - Sarmatian or Savromat tribes related to the Scythians originally lived in the Volga region and the Ural steppes. From the XNUMXth century BC e. There are several wars between the Sarmatians and the Scythians proper, as a result of which the Sarmatians occupied a dominant position in European Scythia, which was later called Sarmatia in ancient sources. (bazaar in Ossetian))
      3. Parthians - conditionally one of the tribes of the Massagets of Scythian origin. Around the III century BC. e. several of these tribes united in a tribal union under the general name - Dahi. Among these tribes, the Parni tribe (Parthians) took the leading role. They were warlike people, adroit riders and excellent archery. In 256 BC e. formed under the leadership of the Arshakids an independent state, with time turned into a large empire, including the territory between the Euphrates and the Indus, the Caspian and Arabian seas. (bazaar again in east Iranian)
      4. Alans - (why drag them to the Sarmatians in this article even though they are relatives I xs) nomadic Iranian-speaking tribes of Scythian-Sarmatian origin, in written sources are mentioned from the 1230st century AD e. - the time of their appearance in the Sea of ​​Azov and Ciscaucasia. A part of the Alans from the end of the XNUMXth century took part in the Great Migration of Peoples, while the rest went on to settled in territories adjacent to the foothills of the Caucasus. The Tatar-Mongols, who defeated Alania and captured the fertile lowlands of the Ciscaucasia by the end of the XNUMXs, forced the surviving Alans to take refuge in the mountains of the Central Caucasus and Transcaucasia. There they were preserved in the form of Ossetians ... (I think the language is understandable)
      In general, the question ... And then "Great Scythia". And why were different Iranian tribes hostile to each other dragged to the Slavs? belay
      P.S. I will not say anything about the Gogs and Magogs .... though ... Ossetians ... maybe Gogi lol
  9. avreli
    avreli 23 October 2012 10: 02
    0
    Thought, but decided to add.

    Having taken up such an interesting topic, the author outlined it with very large strokes, which is why the main idea faded.
    And the theme “we see Scythians, direct ancestors of the Russians” should be presented something like this:
    http://true-history.blog.ru/109741331.html
  10. Setrac
    Setrac 23 October 2012 11: 25
    +1
    Russia - the birthplace of elephants - is not an allegory, but the prose of life, not for nothing that the remains of mammoths are found mainly in Siberia.
  11. Khent
    Khent 23 October 2012 13: 49
    -2
    Sorry if I’m biased somewhere. I am not a historian. but I know the story very well, and I want to show only two examples, it’s just pointless to talk about the rest.
    Ararat or Urartu has never been to the Transcaucasian, Ararat has spread to the Armenian highlands.
    Teishebaini was not the capital of "Urartu", it was the center of the province, and even after 100 years of plundering Teishebaini, "Urartu" existed as an independent state ... it is enough just to read the Behistun inscription of Darius I. So you just need to study all the facts and then think whether there is scientific here or not.
    1. Karlsonn
      Karlsonn 23 October 2012 14: 56
      -4
      ... not guslars, not songbooks with you
      wolves howl .... laughing
      nonsense, part two! You correctly noticed -
      Quote: Khent
      the rest is simply pointless to talk about.

      I am sincerely surprised how in this article about Konon the Cimmerian, who was not mentioned by the barbarian, well, they didn’t talk about the conquest of the Promised Land by the Russian regiments (and as you thought, it was Palestine, this distorted Russian name is Burned Stan wink wassat )
      Although, if people like to believe in fairy tales, then let them believe - their own business hi .
    2. donchepano
      donchepano 23 October 2012 16: 08
      0
      Kent tell us illiterate: Ararat is Armenia or Kurdistan? that from your post is unclear ...