Military Review

Medieval fire festivals of modern Catalonia

56
Medieval fire festivals of modern Catalonia

In September 2016, I ended up in one of the hotels on the Spanish coast of Costa Dorada, located in the Cap Salou area. Having got used to it a little, I decided to devote one of the days to visiting the nearby capital of this province - Tarragona. Moreover, there were no problems with transport: the entire region south of Barcelona is served by the Bus Plana transport company that works like a clock (with which you can also go on a number of excursions with Russian-speaking guides). Having walked along the central street of Rambla Nova, I turned left to the fortress wall, which the Romans began to build - the first on the Iberian Peninsula:



And soon he went to the city cathedral, where something interesting was clearly happening.


As it turned out, I came here just in time, because literally three minutes later something unimaginable began here.





The fact that this action took place on a very narrow street made a special impression, and the Spaniards for the most part are good-natured nihilists. They did not take even the slightest fire safety measures and did not mind if the audience came close: a person wants sparks to burn through his clothes - but for God's sake, do not interfere with him, let him enjoy it. The procession ended in the square near the city hall, where the famous Catalan "living tower" was built.


Before that, I saw a sculptural composition depicting such an 8-step pyramid on the Rambla.


Now I have the opportunity to see the process of its construction with my own eyes.
Returning to the hotel, I began to find out what was happening today in Tarragona, and realized that I was at the culmination of the Santa Tecla holiday (Santa Tecla), which, according to centuries-old tradition, lasts 8 days.

Tarragona and Santa Tecla


According to the apocrypha "Acts of Paul and Thekla (Thekla)", this saint, revered as an Equal-to-the-Apostles saint, was born in the 30s. I century AD and was the daughter of a wealthy citizen from Asia Minor Iconium (now it is the Turkish city of Konya).

This is how Saint Thekla is represented on a fresco of the XNUMXth century in the Transfiguration Cathedral in Chernihiv:


Having heard the sermon of the Apostle Paul who came to the city, the girl refused to marry and wished to leave home with him. Thekla's parents and fiancé accused the future saint of preaching celibacy (which was considered a serious crime) and even of witchcraft. According to the apocrypha, the city authorities sentenced Paul to exile, and Thekla to be burned at the stake. This was not possible due to rain. Later, the girl nevertheless left her home and met with Paul in Antioch. But even here there were some adventures, because she attracted the attention of the Roman governor and, in response to his harassment, “tore off the mantle from Alexander and tore it, and removed the wreath from his head.”

This time, for insulting the highest official of the Roman Empire, Thekla was sentenced to be torn to pieces by wild animals. However, this, already the second in a short time, death sentence remained unfulfilled. The lioness, which was released first, showed no interest in the victim. But she killed the bear that came out second, and then also the lion, however, she herself died in a fight with him.

The audience was probably satisfied: it certainly was not what they expected to see, but the show certainly succeeded. But then it was not so interesting, because there were no more predators at hand. Theocla was now unsuccessfully tried to be fed ... to seals, and then to be torn apart with the help of bulls. These futile attempts at persecution made such an impression on everyone that the girl was released.

After that, she initially accompanied Paul, but over time she began to preach on her own and allegedly reached Spain. At the end of her life, already at the age of about 90, the future saint settled in a cave in Syria near Seleucia. When the pagan priests tried to take Thekla out of there, the vaults of the cave collapsed at her prayer. According to legend, only the hand remained of the saint, which was brought to Cilician Armenia.

However, this does not prevent the Italians from claiming that the head of this saint is kept in the Duomo Cathedral in Milan. And there are different opinions about the fate of her hand. The legend that developed in Tarragona in the Middle Ages claims that in 1321 the relic was presented by the Armenian king Oshin to the Aragonese king Jaime II. He gave away a herd of two hundred horses, a golden throne and four hundred heads of cheese from the island of Mallorca.

In general, this exchange of "gifts" is very reminiscent of the purchase of relics from Armenians. However, a monastery on the outskirts of the Cypriot village of Mosfiloti and a Syrian monastery in the city of Maaloula also make claims for the possession of this relic. In addition, it is alleged that part of the right hand of St. Thekla is located in the Russian Assumption Feklina female hermitage, on the territory of the Kozelsky district of the Kaluga region.

But let us return to the Tarragona version and try to understand why it was the relics of St. Thecla that attracted the attention of Jaime II?

The veneration of this saint in Tarragona began at the beginning of the 1118th century. Count Ramon Beregner the Great conquered this city from the Moors in XNUMX. And in the same year, Pope Gelasius II issued a bull in which the day of Saint Thekla was declared the main holiday of the year. And since, according to legend, Thekla preached in Tarragona, the cult of this saint began to form and strengthen in the newly populated by Christians city.

In Tarragona, the relics of Thekla were greeted with a solemn meeting. And since 1359, the beginning of the annual holiday in her honor has been recorded here, which lasted for 8 days (octava de Santa Tecla). Its charter (Ordinacions de Santa Tecla) was approved and published in 1370.

The first mention of the “bestiary” of this holiday dates back to 1381. Since that time, for example, the tortoise Cucafera (Cucafera de Tarragona) invented by the furrier shop has been taking part in it: in those days, for some reason, tortoises were considered the embodiment of the forces of evil and hell. In 1991, Cucafera was revived by the Tarragona Port Quarter Association. It is managed by 6 people at once.


This turtle is just not fire-breathing, and now sweets are pouring out of its mouth.

The dragon, whose photograph you saw at the beginning of the article, appeared in 1426, and its new birth took place in 1985. It is controlled by one person, and the weight of this “reptile” is 92 kg. The weight of the Fire Wyvern is slightly less - 83 kg.


Since 1383, fireworks, which were made by local pharmacists, began to be used at the festival.

At the beginning of the XNUMXth century, the “Dance of the Seven Deadly Sins” (Ball dels set pecats capitals) appeared.


Actors "Dance of the Seven Deadly Sins"

And in the XNUMXth century, representatives of various workshops began to perform the so-called "conversational dances" (balls parlats).

In 1564, the feast in honor of Saint Thecla in the entire province of Tarragona finally acquired an official character.

At the end of the 92th century (or at the beginning of the 10th century), “living towers” ​​(castells) began to be built in Tarragona. It is believed that this tradition originates from the Valencian dance in honor of the Virgin Mary, which ended with the construction of a "living pyramid" of three levels. There are now XNUMX "builder" teams in Catalonia, some of them capable of building a XNUMX-story tower.

It is believed that each such tower is a kind of “family tree”: people become younger with each “floor”, a child crowns the pyramid. The tower is considered finished when he, having straightened up, raises his hand. "Living towers" are now also being built in the French Roussillon and the Balearic Islands.

In the first half of the XNUMXth century, giant dolls became attributes of the holiday: moors (gegants moros), black giants (gegantons negritos) and “old giants” (“big-headed”). The dolls have long been owned by the municipality, but the black and Moorish giants are traditionally run by members of the gypsy community.




In 1911, Pope Pius X unexpectedly decided to exclude St. Thekla's day from the number of holidays, but in 1917 this decision was canceled by Pope Benedict XV. Since the 70s. In the XNUMXth century, the days of Saint Thekla received the status of a "traditional holiday of national tourist importance." The religious essence faded into the background, the events acquired an increasingly secular and entertaining character of a kind of ethnographic festival.

In 1998, one of the eight days of Santa Tecla became "childish", which had never happened before. Now the holiday, in essence, has little to do with a religious cult, only a small part of its spectators then go to the service in the local cathedral.

Reading materials about Santa Tecla, I learned along the way that a similar holiday is also held annually in September in the neighboring city of Reus. And so I decided to come back to this region of Catalonia a year later: at the exact time when it would be possible to visit the festive Reus and once again watch the feast of Saint Thecla in Tarragona. And, of course, compare them.

Reus and Misericordia


Reus is not only beautiful, but also a very cozy city. There are no crowds of tourists in it, but the residents, it seems, are not at all complex about this, leaving Barcelona and seaside resort towns “at the mercy” of visitors.

By the way, try to guess the name of this boy?


This is Antoni Gaudí, who was born in Reus but moved to Barcelona at the age of 16. And he never built anything in his hometown (however, there is still a Gaudi museum in Reus).

The events that marked the beginning of the holiday, which I visited this time, date back to 1592. Tradition says that during the plague, the Virgin Mary appeared to a young shepherdess named Isabel Besora. She said that the disease would recede if you walked around the walls of Reus with a large candle, which should then be placed in front of her image.

As you probably guessed, the members of the city council only laughed at the girl. And then Mary, who reappeared, kissed Isabelle on the cheek, on which the image of a rose flower appeared. It was no longer possible to ignore such a miracle, the will of the Mother of God was fulfilled, and the epidemic stopped. In honor of this event, on the site of the appearance of the Virgin, 10 years later, the chapel of the Virgin Mary of Mercy (Santuario de la Virgen de la Misericordia) was built.

At the end of the XNUMXth century, a church appeared here, which has survived to this day. The Mother of God began to be considered the patroness and protector of the city. And the square was named after the young shepherdess - Plaça de la Pastoreta. On it you can see one of the two statues of Isabel. This townspeople traditionally call fadrineta ("young girl").


The Church of Mary the Merciful was badly damaged in 1936 during the civil war. Then the ancient image of the Mother of God burned down and the statues of four Old Testament wives - Abigail, Esther, Judith and Ruth, which Gaudi considered one of the best religious sculptures in the world, were destroyed. The new image of the Virgin Mary was created by the Barcelona-based Enrico Monjo, and the statues were made by the native of Reus, Arturo Aldo (the author of the monument to the young Gaudi, whose photo you have already seen).

But we've gone too far ahead.

Since the end of the 25th century, the tradition of the annual fiery procession of “dancing devils” (ball de diables) has appeared in Reus. And once every 2029 years, the mystery of Our Lady (ball de la Mare de Deu) takes place - a performance illustrating the legend of the appearance of the Virgin Mary to the shepherdess Isabel (its nearest date is XNUMX).

This time I was prepared and therefore decided to arrive in advance, starting the tour from the Church of Mary the Merciful - the end point of the festive procession. I decided that at this time I could inspect everything calmly - almost alone. And then I'll go to meet the festive procession. And my assumptions were completely justified.

But this church is located away from the city center, and it had to be found first. When addressing questions to the inhabitants of some Spanish city, I always exhale and mentally say to myself: this is a Spaniard, he does not know either Russian or English, and I do not know Spanish. Most likely, he will not understand me, and if he understands, then it is wrong.

If he does understand me, it will almost certainly turn out that he does not know the answer to my question (even if the right place is three houses from here). But he will wave his arms for three minutes (at least), say something, and eventually send me in the opposite direction. However, the attempt is not torture: “we smile and wave” (in response). But this time I was lucky, and I ran into a girl who was clearly a participant in the upcoming holiday.


She clearly indicated the right direction, and about an hour later I saw her as part of one of the “teams” participating in the procession.

Church of Our Lady of Mercy:



This monument to the shepherd Isabel is located at the supposed place of her meeting with the Virgin Mary.


Then, as expected, I went to meet the procession.





The festive procession, in my opinion, makes a stronger impression in Tarragona. The point is probably that the action in this city takes place not on a wide boulevard, but on a narrow medieval street, where the audience is literally squeezed between the walls of houses and the fire-breathing characters of a medieval bestiary passing in front of them. It creates a very special atmosphere.

But, of course, if possible, you need to see both cities and both holidays.
Author:
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  1. Fat
    Fat 22 September 2022 07: 10
    +10
    Thanks, Valery. Great article. There are no words.
  2. kalibr
    kalibr 22 September 2022 07: 13
    +9
    Simply amazing article, Valery! Bravo!
  3. Korsar4
    Korsar4 22 September 2022 07: 16
    +8
    Thank you, Valery!

    A particularly strong impression was made by the story of St. Thekla and the beasts that tore each other to pieces.
  4. Alexander Salenko
    Alexander Salenko 22 September 2022 08: 12
    +5
    Thanks, but one clarification, the Romans could not build the first fortress on the Iberian Peninsula, otherwise Scipio would storm and besiege Hannibal. Let me remind you that the second Punic War began with the siege of Sagunt.
  5. ArchiPhil
    ArchiPhil 22 September 2022 08: 15
    +6
    Thanks Valery for a wonderful article!
    I was struck by the history of the "living pyramids". Ten floors? Impressed! good
    1. depressant
      depressant 22 September 2022 09: 10
      +4
      I join in gratitude to Valery)))
      The ancient holidays, while transforming, preserved the belief in a miracle as a dream come true. And how beautiful they are! It is hot with them, the proximity of the gentle sea, hopes are in the air.
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 22 September 2022 14: 28
        +4
        Since the beginning of the 90s, every summer in my village, a religious procession has been held in honor of the acquisition of a locally venerated icon. Naturally, I myself do not participate, but from year to year I had to observe. There is a gloomy priest, waving a censer, followed by a homeless-looking man with timpani and grandmothers with some kind of banners. They go slowly and drearily, I go to work in the morning with a happier look. A complete feeling that you are present not at a holiday, but at a funeral.
        Before the revolution, I read, it was a little different - a fair was organized, shops were set up, in general, it was more fun, but it didn’t reach such delights, as Valery described.
        I’m thinking, why does our Orthodox denomination diligently shy away from any joys all the way, leaving the adherents only suffering and repentance?
        After all, if they believe that a person is created in the image and likeness of God, then both the sense of humor and the need to have fun in a person are from God. This means that God has both a sense of humor and a need for fun. Whence then this eternal gloominess?
        By the way, if we assume that the Creator has a sense of humor, many questions of the universe that have tormented a person for many centuries are resolved by themselves quite logically and consistently. smile
        1. mihaylov
          mihaylov 22 September 2022 14: 35
          +4
          Quote: Trilobite Master
          There is a gloomy priest, waving a censer, followed by a homeless-looking man with timpani and grandmothers with some banners

          Good afternoon Mikhail,
          practical peasantry and they found application, so to speak - everything is in business: drinks

          After all, if they believe that a person is created in the image and likeness of God, then both the sense of humor and the need to have fun in a person are from God. This means that God has both a sense of humor and a need for fun.

          The well-known novel "The Name of the Rose" by Umberto Eco is dedicated to this. hi
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 22 September 2022 15: 49
            +2
            I didn't read the novel, I didn't watch the movie. From what I've heard, it seems like a kind of dark gothic detective story interspersed with philosophy and a lot of references to the present - the genre is clearly not mine. smile
            Recommend it?
            smile
            1. mihaylov
              mihaylov 22 September 2022 16: 08
              +2
              Quote: Trilobite Master
              Recommend it?

              Recommend. hi
              gothic dark detective story with a splash of philosophy

              Yes, a historical detective with some allusion to Conan Doyle - but that's about the external form.
              The inner content is much deeper and in general the book is multi-level: I noticed some points and began to understand only after repeated re-reading.
              Since it was written by a professional medievalist historian, the history of the emergence of heresies and the ups and downs of the political struggle between the emperor and the pope at the beginning of the 14th century is practically scientifically described. and this! - in a work of art. The key issue of the work is the attitude to laughter and humor in the Middle Ages.
              Lots of contemporary references
              Didn't notice it there.
              As far as films are concerned, a great film was made in 1986 with Sean Connery and Christian Slater, but the book is better of course first. At least they didn't spoil it.
              As for the new film, in my opinion - it sucks, they forgot how to make a movie. hi
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 22 September 2022 16: 26
                +1
                Everything was normal with humor and love of life and laughter.

                "Goodbye love, and you, my cuties,
                Farewell, baths, market, Big Bridge,
                Farewell, camisole, pants, shirts, buckles,
                Farewell, hares, fish, if post.
                Farewell, saddles, harness typesetting,
                Farewell, dancing, dexterous jumps,
                Farewell, feather bed, fluff and living flesh,
                Farewell Paris, farewell pies.
                Farewell, hats that are full of flowers,
                Farewell, wine, and mash, and friends,
                Farewell, fishermen with nets and cages.
                Farewell, churches, to distant lands
                I will carry the blessings of the saints.
                Farewell, hot, cherished days!
                I trudge to the Languedoc under compulsion.
                Farewell, Paris, farewell, pies ... "(C)
              2. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 22 September 2022 17: 05
                +1
                vicissitudes of the political struggle between the emperor and the pope at the beginning of the 14th century
                This is when Philip the Handsome managed to become emperor?
                1. mihaylov
                  mihaylov 22 September 2022 17: 09
                  +2
                  Quote: 3x3zsave
                  This is when Philip the Handsome managed to become emperor?

                  No, a little later, if I'm not mistaken, the action of the novel takes place in 1323 and the plot is negotiations about a possible meeting for a debate on poverty of imperial theologians and papal representatives.
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 22 September 2022 17: 15
                    +1
                    That is, already Avignon and the Church, controlled by the French kings?
                    1. mihaylov
                      mihaylov 22 September 2022 17: 22
                      +2
                      Quote: 3x3zsave
                      That is, already Avignon and the Church, controlled by the French kings?

                      Yes, but the French kings do not appear much in the book, the struggle between the papal curia and the emperor, which resulted in the religious question of the poverty of Christ, is highlighted.
                      1. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 22 September 2022 17: 30
                        +1
                        It's already interesting! But what, such a dispute, which resulted in an undercover confrontation, really happened?
                      2. mihaylov
                        mihaylov 22 September 2022 17: 35
                        +2
                        Quote: 3x3zsave
                        It's already interesting! But what, such a dispute, which resulted in an undercover confrontation, really happened?

                        Apparently yes, apparently we are talking about these events:
                        After the death of Emperor Henry VII, the princes elected two kings. The Wittelsbach party installed Ludwig IV of Bavaria (1314–1348) on the throne, while the Habsburgs elected Frederick the Handsome as king. In 1322, Ludwig of Bavaria opposed Frederick and defeated his rival at the battle of Mühldorf, thereby forcing him to recognize his power in the empire. The pope then openly spoke out against Ludwig and presented him with an ultimatum: within three months to abdicate the throne. In opposition to the pope, Ludwig appointed the Neapolitan king Robert of Anjou as imperial governor of Italy. Ludwig of Bavaria and the Italian party of Ghibellines, who were in alliance with him, tried to deprive the pope of power in Rome, who was in his residence in Avignon. Poets and philosophers, advanced spiritual fighters of modern times, such as Dante and Petrarch (1304-1374), enthusiastically greeted the emperor as a messenger of God's providence.

                        It is interesting that in the last struggle between the papacy and the empire, the primary role was assigned not to weapons or political forces, but to ideological argument; political battles moved into the plane of church politics. In the battle, not only the secular classes, who rejected papal absolutism, and the electors, but also the clergy, including the hierarchs of the church, took the side of the emperor. This time the Avignon pope failed to turn his own subjects against the king. And Ludwig of Bavaria unexpectedly found quite faithful assistants among university theologians and leaders of the Minorite Order.

                        On June 25, 1323, Pope John XXII, in his bull Quia nonnunquam, condemned spiritualism and the minority movement of poverty. After he qualified these views as heretical, the persecution of the Minorites began. So the theological dispute took on a sharply political character and acquired an anti-papal orientation.

                        All this is described in some detail in the book, although this is only the background for a detective story. But in reality this is a detective story - only the background for describing these events.
                      3. Trilobite Master
                        Trilobite Master 22 September 2022 17: 49
                        +1
                        There was, and it took place on a purely practical plane, for the essence of it was whether the Church has the right to collect earthly riches or still has to vegetate in asceticism. The property declaration of Jesus, certified by the tax inspector, would have settled all disputes in this matter, but he did not leave us one. Therefore, they argue whether Jesus was an ordinary beggar or vice versa - a wealthy, respectable man.
                        There was such a dispute even in Russia - the Josephites and non-possessors.
                        But whether there was such a dispute between those subjects, at that time and in that place, I can’t say. But I think that it has been permanent since the time when the enterprise "Christos and Co" began to bring a steady profit.
                      4. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 22 September 2022 17: 58
                        +2
                        The property declaration of Jesus, certified by the tax inspector, would have settled all disputes in this matter, but he did not leave us one.
                        He had a publican as a student! Where would such an incunabula come from?
                      5. Trilobite Master
                        Trilobite Master 22 September 2022 19: 00
                        +1
                        But the employee of the tax inspectorate, Matvey Alfeevich Levy, should have indicated in appearance and announced a strict reprimand or even a warning about incomplete official compliance and with the obligatory entry into the registration card.
                        Well, it is necessary to allow such negligence - not to demand a declaration from Jesus ... But, alas.
                      6. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 22 September 2022 19: 16
                        +1
                        Well, how could he be?
                        Suitable "brigade", led by Peter and begins to press.
                      7. Trilobite Master
                        Trilobite Master 22 September 2022 20: 11
                        +2
                        What brigade? Caddle of street cormorants with a hillock-bred, and even an undercover cop.
                        I would have puffed out my cheeks, clicked once, and they would have run ahead of themselves knocking on each other, jumping out of their bast shoes. They were only masters in blue, and for any nix immediately on slippers.
                        smile
                      8. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 22 September 2022 20: 48
                        +2
                        So they took him to the show!
                        - Can you write?
                        - I can.
                        - Prove it!
                        - Do not vorpros!
                        - And write, brother, that's what ... "
                        Well, and away we go!
                      9. Trilobite Master
                        Trilobite Master 22 September 2022 22: 04
                        +1
                        Quote: 3x3zsave
                        - Can you write?
                        - I can.
                        - Prove it!
                        - Do not vorpros!

                        - Cool! What about poop?
                        laughing
                      10. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 23 September 2022 08: 25
                        +2
                        But on this topic there is an interesting study authored by A. I. Lipkov, "The impetus for reflection, or all about toilets."
                      11. Trilobite Master
                        Trilobite Master 23 September 2022 08: 51
                        +1
                        Quote: 3x3zsave
                        Encouragement to think

                        This is closer to today's Samsonov. laughing
                        Uh tin...
                        The Norman theory is a lie because it is a lie.
                        Rus are Slavs because they are Russians.
                        And try to bet. laughing
                        But the comments are interesting to read.
                      12. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 23 September 2022 09: 00
                        +2
                        No, normal research.
                        As for today's material of the head of the "history" department, well, the poor fellow must somehow collect clickbait ...
                      13. Trilobite Master
                        Trilobite Master 23 September 2022 09: 35
                        +1
                        Quote: 3x3zsave
                        normal study

                        I'll have to ask.
                        Today's Samsonov, it seems to me, was already around five years ago, in those good old days, when such materials were collected by a thousand comments. smile Search for a break. But for some reason it seems to me that this article has already been published.
                      14. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 23 September 2022 09: 40
                        +1
                        I'll have to ask.
                        I can drop.
                      15. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 23 September 2022 09: 45
                        +2
                        Today's Samsonov, it seems to me, was already around five years ago, in those good old days, when such materials were collected by a thousand comments.
                        Perhaps something even comes to mind, in January 2019. But then they had not yet been banned for unflattering criticism of the authors.
                      16. Trilobite Master
                        Trilobite Master 23 September 2022 10: 03
                        +1
                        Quote: 3x3zsave
                        in January 2019

                        I think it was before. Back in the time of Veni the Blessed. smile
                        And throw off the book so that I don’t have to look, if it’s not difficult. I'll take a look.
                      17. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 23 September 2022 10: 15
                        +2
                        So Venya then marked the penultimate time.
                        Dropped by mail.
                      18. mihaylov
                        mihaylov 23 September 2022 10: 14
                        +1
                        Quote: Trilobite Master
                        This is closer to today's Samsonov. laughing
                        Uh tin...

                        Good afternoon Mikhail,
                        I read your comment and looked into this "article": in general, there is nothing to comment on there, everything is clear.
                        My only question is: how does the concept of a superethnos ("Russian superethnos (superethnos of the Rus)") fit in with its complete wretchedness, for everyone and sundry, as follows from this opus, "chased the superethnos around the zone with a jacket"?
                        As a result, part of the Slavic-Russians was physically destroyed, part was forced out to the east - including the genera of the Rus-Varangians, part was enslaved. In the occupied lands, the Slavs were assimilated, deprived of faith, culture and language. The Slavs-Rus were Germanized, Christianized. Other Slavic clans - Poles, Czechs and others, survived, but were westernized, fell under the rule of Catholic Rome

                        It's just awful, you can't do this with superethnoi! drinks
                      19. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 23 September 2022 11: 10
                        +1
                        This is impossible with ethnic groups, but with superethnoi, according to Gumilyov, it is possible! Look what they brought the Mongols to, they live in steampunk!)))
                      20. mihaylov
                        mihaylov 23 September 2022 11: 46
                        +2
                        Quote: 3x3zsave
                        Look what they brought the Mongols to, they live in steampunk!)))

                        Hands off the Mongols! Russian and Mongolian - brothers forever! laughing
                      21. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 23 September 2022 14: 47
                        +1
                        brothers forever!
                        "Brothers-flayers, why are you me!?" (FROM)
                      22. Trilobite Master
                        Trilobite Master 23 September 2022 11: 33
                        +2
                        Greetings, Sergey.
                        I glanced at the article, diagonally. I can’t read such nonsense thoughtfully, especially since it seemed to me that I had already read this several years ago.
                        Samsonov is a fierce admirer of Yury Dmitrievich Petukhov, remember this? Superethnos from there. Something Samsonov himself thinks out, of course, in these places he immediately has contradictions and logical inconsistencies. Probably, this is one of them, I don’t know, you won’t ask the authors - Petukhov died, and Samsonov does not get in touch. sad
                      23. mihaylov
                        mihaylov 23 September 2022 11: 50
                        +2
                        Quote: Trilobite Master
                        Petukhov Yuri Dmitrievich, remember this? FROM

                        To be honest, no, but I guess.
                        In connection with all this and yesterday's conversation about Umberto Eco, I would even recommend you his book Foucault's Pendulum, if you haven't read it of course. In my opinion, he did a wonderful job of walking through such "characters" there. hi
                      24. Trilobite Master
                        Trilobite Master 23 September 2022 12: 09
                        +2
                        I'll definitely take a look at the weekend.
                        And about Petukhov - the character is still the same. If my memory serves me right, and it should not, then this figure was involved in extremism, some of his books are even banned in the Russian Federation.
                        The essence of the work is simple. The Rus are the descendants of aliens from outer space, "white gods" who arrived on Earth back in the boreal period, and further down the text - Scythian-Slavic-Russians, superethnos, rulers of the planet, evil vile Semites (Samsonov settled them in the Vatican) as antipodes, the need to revive the nation and other such goodies.
                      25. mihaylov
                        mihaylov 23 September 2022 12: 16
                        +2
                        Quote: Trilobite Master
                        The essence of the work is simple.

                        Y-yes, really everything is simple and proof, as I understand it, is not required, because everything is clear anyway. hi
                      26. Trilobite Master
                        Trilobite Master 23 September 2022 12: 49
                        +2
                        Evidence at the level of today's Samsonov. I posted the diagram above. smile
                        For many, it's enough. request
                      27. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 22 September 2022 20: 31
                        +2
                        "Somehow Christ was walking through the heavenly bushes and casually wandered to the Gates. And there Peter shifted from foot to foot. Well, they met, hugged, and Peter said:
                        - Listen, teacher, I need to go around the corner ... Yes, and cases have accumulated over 2000 years, “I don’t want to”! Harness a little for me, I harnessed for you!
                        Jesus agreed. Standing, admiring the bushes, listening to the birds of paradise... Suddenly, there is a knock at the Gate!!! Jesus goes to open (no, but what the hell, this is not an earthly vale for you, you fit into a fornication - if you please, correspond). On the doorstep is an old man.
                        “Who are you?” Jesus asks.
                        - I myself am a simple carpenter, but the whole world knows my son.
                        - Father???
                        - Pinocchio???? "
              3. Trilobite Master
                Trilobite Master 22 September 2022 17: 36
                +2
                Thank you, I'll definitely take note. hi
          2. Korsar4
            Korsar4 22 September 2022 18: 26
            +4
            Very like. More than cinema. A smile still gives light. And the space expands.
        2. ee2100
          ee2100 22 September 2022 15: 07
          +3
          Good afternoon!
          Michael, in some countries they dance at funerals! And in general, a holiday is a holiday!
          It is not for nothing that the Orthodox religion in the West is called orthodox.
          Do you want that too? drinks
          1. Luminman
            Luminman 22 September 2022 15: 36
            0
            Quote: ee2100
            in some countries people dance at funerals! And in general, a holiday is a holiday!

            And in some countries, in general, they just work ...
          2. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 22 September 2022 15: 45
            +3
            Welcome.
            At one time I talked with a girl from Jehovah's Witnesses. They just have it: a funeral is a holiday. At least that's what she told me.
            As far as funerals go...
            Personally, I am convinced of the truth of one definition: "relatives are a group of people who do not know each other well, do not really like, but systematically meet to mark a change in their number."
            Universal grief at a funeral, in my opinion, is absolutely superfluous.
            From the point of view of Christianity, it is also absolutely illogical. Reminds me of Shakespeare's Twelfth Night:
            Jester
            Worthy Madonna, why are you sad?
            Olivia
            Worthy, because my brother died.
            Jester
            I believe his soul is in hell, madonna.
            Olivia
            I know that his soul is in heaven, .
            Jester
            Madonna, only a round one can be sad that his brother's soul is in paradise. “People, get this stupid creature out of here!”

            smile
            1. ee2100
              ee2100 22 September 2022 16: 05
              +2
              I don’t like funerals and try not to attend them, even as an invitee.
              Relations with relatives are really different, especially if there is something to share.
              Thanks for the tip on the book.
              I read it in a day.
              "the existing world order clearly promised the centurion much brighter and more refined pleasures than sex with the priestesses of Astarte or Hyperborean roulette" (c)
              Hyperborean roulette puzzled me. sad
              1. Trilobite Master
                Trilobite Master 22 September 2022 17: 32
                +1
                I don’t know exactly what it is, but I think it’s an analogue of the hussar. smile
                1. ee2100
                  ee2100 22 September 2022 17: 47
                  +1
                  Maybe this is the predecessor of the Russian laughing
  6. Van 16
    Van 16 22 September 2022 08: 27
    +6
    Very interesting article and great pictures!
    Several times I attended quite serious fire shows, not quite fireworks, of course, but the spectacle is very impressive, frankly.
  7. mihaylov
    mihaylov 22 September 2022 10: 23
    +5
    OH YEAH!!!
    I was on this, only in 2015 and in Mallorca, it really was at night:


    the drummers were especially impressed:
    1. ArchiPhil
      ArchiPhil 22 September 2022 11: 20
      +5
      Quote: Mihaylov
      drummers

      Who doesn't love a drum? laughing

      The most famous fan of the Spanish football team is Manolo.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 22 September 2022 11: 39
        +4
        And I like drummers more.

        Once upon a time in Paris...
  8. El Barto
    El Barto 22 September 2022 10: 41
    +5
    The traditions of ancient, and even ancient holidays with separate archaic rituals, are preserved by many peoples. For some reason, Shrovetide turned out to be especially tenacious.
    Of course, most of the time Shrovetide has turned into strange modern carnivals like Mardi Gras.
    But, for example, on Fasnacht in southern Germany and northern Switzerland (historical Franconia), specific traditions are still preserved





  9. know
    know 22 September 2022 11: 57
    +4
    The content and content of medieval holidays, of course, has changed, and now it is not the worship of saints. But they have become part of the life and culture of modern Catalans. It is respectful that people remember them for hundreds of years, voluntarily and not under pressure bother with preparations, children of the generation of smartphones and Tik Tok climb to the top of the "living pyramids" without insurance - and parents, as well as activists of child protection societies, have nothing against.