Military Review

How the pans destroyed Poland

26
Surrender of Krakow Castle. French officers give A. V. Suvorov swords. Engraving by R. V. Kufner from a drawing by I. D. Schubert. 1796



Decomposition of the Commonwealth


The once powerful state of the Commonwealth, which swallowed up the vast western and southern Russian lands, Russian Lithuania, and during the Time of Troubles in the Russian kingdom claimed the throne of Moscow, was in complete decline.

Polish statehood was destroyed by the Polish elite - magnates and pans. Their love of power, pride and hedonism. Pans, in essence, "ate" the great power. They could not unite the Polish and Russian parts of the kingdom into a single whole. At the same time, the Poles themselves, the glades, were close relatives of the Russians (the glades were the founders of Kyiv), back in the XIII-XIV centuries. were part of a single super-ethnos of the Rus, spoke dialects of the same language. However, then under the influence of the Western matrix (through Catholicism, Jesuitism), the Polish elite became a terrible enemy of Russia. A kind of "ram" of the Western world against the Russian world-civilization. Hence the origins of the long confrontation between Russia and Poland, the fraternal Slavic powers.

The Polish pro-Western elite, having turned their people - peasants, into serf slaves, tried to do the same operation with Russians who previously lived in the Russian state - the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Russia (The history of the creation of Lithuanian Rus - the great Russian state). First, the Russian elite was westernized, Polonized, converted to Catholicism or Uniatism - princely, boyar and gentry-noble families. And they tried to turn ordinary people, who preserved Russianness and Orthodoxy, into “cattle” (cattle). Completely enslave, deprive of faith, traditions, stories and language. Poland tried to turn the Russian outskirts into colonies, sucking them dry.

It is clear that the Russians put up serious resistance. They responded with a number of riots, uprisings and wars, which were often led by the Cossacks - the most active, militant (passionate) part of the Russian ethnos. The resistance of the Russian part of the Commonwealth led to its weakening. The Russian regions of the Commonwealth began to gravitate towards the Russian kingdom. The People's Liberation War led by Bohdan Khmelnitsky and the subsequent Russo-Polish War led to the reunification of the Left-bank part of Little Russia with Greater Russia. As a result, the Russian question, the question of "dissidents" - Orthodox and Protestants, became a cornerstone for Catholic Poland.

On the other hand, the Poles were never able to strengthen their statehood, which was collapsing due to the election of kings, the principle of “free veto” (lat. liberum veto), which allowed any member of the Sejm to stop discussing the issue in the Sejm and the work of the Sejm in general, opposing , the power of the magnates, who, on their own initiative, opposed the king, who was objectionable to them, and other magnate parties, unleashed civil wars. Huge resources of the state were spent on such internal wars, civil strife and quarrels.

Plus hedonism, the desire for luxury of the Polish elite. Magnates and pans maintained huge courts, often surpassing the royal ones in luxury. They spent enormous amounts of money on luxury goods, feasts, hunting and "harems". The simple gentry, as best they could, tried to conform to this madness. Hence the huge debts, the impoverished peasantry, the desire to “improve” the situation by war. General degradation of the state, people and economy.

War of 1768–1772


Already during the reign of Peter I, Russia could have taken the Right-Bank part of Little Russia (Why Peter I abandoned the Russian Right Bank) and White Russia. However, Peter put the interests of the Western partner, the Saxon prince and the Polish king Augustus the Strong, above the national ones. He did not finish off the Commonwealth, destroyed by the war with Sweden, another internal squabble and the uprising of the Russian Ukraine.

Petersburg, right up to Catherine II, preferred to have a weak Poland in the west, which, under kings August II, August III and Stanislav August IV, became a junior partner of Russia (How Russian "peacekeepers" put Polish kings on the throne). Like, it is better to have weak Poland as neighbors than Prussia and Austria. Catherine II at first also adhered to such a policy. The Russian government was not going to divide the Commonwealth and even more so to destroy the Polish statehood.

However, the Polish lords again galloped, destroying their own state. In the 1763th century, the decay of Poland reached its highest point: the kings of the Saxon dynasty were almost not interested in the country, preferring their native Saxony; finances, the army and legislation were destroyed. After the death of King August III (XNUMX), traditional strife began in Poland over the choice of a king. Under pressure from Empress Catherine II and the Russian army, Stanislav Poniatowski ascended the throne (a former favorite of Catherine - How Catherine made the Polish King Stanislaus).

Catherine demanded that Warsaw restore the rights of dissidents - religious minorities (Orthodox and Protestants). The chauvinistically minded Warsaw Seim refused. The Russian ambassador, Prince Repnin, arrested the leaders of the opposition and exiled him to Russia. This was an example of the utter decline of Poland, which could not protect its prominent figures. The frightened Sejm made concessions, but this did not suit the "patriots", opponents of the pro-Russian party in Poland.

In February 1768, the opposition gathered in Bar ("Greek and slavish fanaticism fights with fire and sword against Catholic and gentry fanaticism") and created its own confederation (union of the gentry). The uprising of the gentry (rokosh) began. King Stanislav was powerless to suppress the rebellion and turned to Russia for help. Russian troops easily defeated the freedom-loving gentry, who still retained courage, but did not know order and discipline. Bra and Berdichev were taken. The Lithuanian confederates elected Prince Radziwill as marshal (commander), who gathered a 4-strong army in Nesvizh. However, when only one Russian battalion (600 soldiers) approached, Radziwill fled, and his warriors fled or surrendered.

Section


Realizing that they themselves could not do anything with the Russian army, the Confederates decided that "the West would help." They asked for help from France, which in the XVIII-XIX centuries was a traditional rival of Russia. The Versailles cabinet immediately came to the rescue: it sent money and military instructors and commanders. Also, France was able to persuade Turkey to go to war with Russia. Therefore, Russia had to divert the main forces to the war with the Porte, and the war in Poland dragged on.

On the other hand, the Poles set themselves up. Their neighbors - Prussia and Austria, coveted the rich Polish lands and cities. But Russia has long opposed the division of the Commonwealth. Now, when it was necessary to fight with Turkey and at the same time Berlin and Vienna put pressure on Petersburg, it was necessary to give consent to the division.

The help promised by Turkey and France did not save the Confederates. The Poles were defeated in all major battles (How Russia defeated the Confederates). Disunity, traditional for the Polish gentry, also affected. The leaders of the Confederates could not agree, they quarreled. French General Dumouriez tried to reconcile them, but in vain. The uprising remained "pansky", the Polish people as a whole were indifferent to this movement. Small Russian forces led by Suvorov cleared Wielkopolska from the rebels, then Lithuania. In April 1772, Krakow capitulated.

On the initiative of the Prussian king, on February 6 (17), 1772, an agreement was signed in St. Petersburg between Prussia and Russia. Austria joined the agreement. On August 5, 1772, the Austro-Russian convention was signed. Prussia received lands in the southern Baltic: Pomerania and West Prussia, which included the former Polish provinces of Pomerania, Malbork and Chelminskoe (without the free cities of Gdansk and Torun). Austria captured a significant part of the southern part of Poland - part of the Krakow and Sandomierz voivodships, the Auschwitz and Zator principalities, as well as the Russian (Galicia) and Bielsk voivodeships. Russia returned the eastern part of White Russia along the Western Bug and the Dnieper.

In September, the troops of Prussia, Austria and Russia occupied the annexed territories of the Commonwealth. Poland, having received no support from France and England, offered no resistance. So the first partition of the Commonwealth took place - the Polish statehood was still preserved, but it lost its viability and was doomed to complete extinction.

Author:
Photos used:
https://ru.wikipedia.org/, https://bigenc.ru/
26 comments
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  1. Maluck
    Maluck 5 August 2022 05: 34
    +2
    History usually goes in circles, so we may well see something similar ....
    1. Mavrikiy
      Mavrikiy 5 August 2022 08: 47
      +3
      Quote: Maluck
      History usually goes in circles, so we may well see something similar ....

      We can't, but we'll see, not even two years will pass. In two years, psheks will definitely get stuck somewhere. Fortunately, manure (territorial claims) is under their fence, richly outlined. Dill (Kresy), Lithuania (Vilna), and BR (Kresy). And you can show Germany who is the boss in the EU. request
    2. Basil50
      Basil50 5 August 2022 09: 23
      +1

      Now they forget the true meaning - * democracy *. But this is the power of large landowners and slave owners. So that in the then Poland was a true democracy, in the original sense of the term.
      The landowners-slaveowners elected the supreme power in full confidence of their own well-being and security. The state did not hurt them, and they needed it. Moreover, the French-English patted them very friendly and paid the most vocal adherents of * democracy *.
      Now, the same thing is happening on the outskirts. Only on the next technological round.
      1. gsev
        gsev 5 August 2022 17: 51
        +1
        Quote: Vasily50
        Now they forget the true meaning - * democracy *. But this is the power of large landowners and slave owners.
        The power of armed citizens. A society of people who are ready to fight for their rights and are united by common kinship, traditions, and place of residence. With property stratification, democracy degenerates into dictatorship.
        1. Basil50
          Basil50 5 August 2022 18: 11
          +3
          I ask you to. Refresh your memory of ancient Greece, which finally took shape the concept of democracy -
          "The power of landowners with slaves who cultivate this land."
          All so that true democrats do not have to think about * daily bread * in caring for their own well-being.
          Plebeians, as well as all sorts of different people, who did not have land and slaves, were not allowed to power.
          1. gsev
            gsev 5 August 2022 19: 18
            +1
            Quote: Vasily50
            Refresh your memory of ancient Greece

            Approximately 85% of people are unwilling and unable to fight in their usual conditions. They have no influence on the politics of their country. The great politicians of their time sought to take into account the opinion of ordinary people, making the state and its power invincible before external forces. For example, Napoleon claimed that he was able to deceive any general, politician, king and emperor in Europe; it was not difficult for him to deceive a French woman about her financial situation as a result of his policies. Lenin's words about a cook called to govern the state are in principle a development or repetition of Napoleon's words. There is a historical concept that the economic and social situation in Athens was no different from the situation in Germany during the time of Karl Marx. The German historian of that time even found an analogue of the Gotha program in the Athenian history of the times of Pericles and Solon.
        2. alexey sidykin
          alexey sidykin 6 August 2022 13: 32
          0
          Quote: gsev
          Quote: Vasily50
          Now they forget the true meaning - * democracy *. But this is the power of large landowners and slave owners.
          The power of armed citizens. A society of people who are ready to fight for their rights and are united by common kinship, traditions, and place of residence. With property stratification, democracy degenerates into dictatorship.

          I advise you to get to know better what Greek democracy is so as not to write nonsense.
          1. gsev
            gsev 7 August 2022 00: 16
            0
            Quote: Alexey Sedykin
            you better know what Greek democracy is

            And how is Greek democracy different from Russian.? I worked at a company where the chief engineer was brought in the trunk of a car, with the condition that he would work for shelter, food and clothing, and monthly the one who brought him would be paid either 15 rubles or 000 rubles. This slave has done some cool projects over the years, got his freedom, and now works as a big boss in a respected company. As far as I know, he has no claims either to the one who brought him, or to the one for whom he worked for food. For some time in Russia, a girl with beautiful external data could not open her own business without the risk of becoming a sex maid after that.
            1. alexey sidykin
              alexey sidykin 7 August 2022 10: 01
              0
              Quote: gsev
              Quote: Alexey Sedykin
              you better know what Greek democracy is

              And how is Greek democracy different from Russian.? I worked at a company where the chief engineer was brought in the trunk of a car, with the condition that he would work for shelter, food and clothing, and monthly the one who brought him would be paid either 15 rubles or 000 rubles. This slave has done some cool projects over the years, got his freedom, and now works as a big boss in a respected company. As far as I know, he has no claims either to the one who brought him, or to the one for whom he worked for food. For some time in Russia, a girl with beautiful external data could not open her own business without the risk of becoming a sex maid after that.

              I wrote to you ... ask then and you will know ... but I do not intend to paint footcloths here.
          2. the Urals
            the Urals Yesterday, 19: 28
            0
            Демократия и рабовладельческий строй одновременно? Вы про это?
            1. alexey sidykin
              alexey sidykin Yesterday, 21: 02
              -1
              Не только... там еще неграждане были ))) и ещё куча по мелочи
      2. alexey sidykin
        alexey sidykin 6 August 2022 13: 33
        -2
        Quote: Vasily50
        Now they forget the true meaning - * democracy *. But this is the power of large landowners and slave owners. So that in the then Poland was a true democracy, in the original sense of the term.
        The landowners-slaveowners elected the supreme power in full confidence of their own well-being and security. The state did not hurt them, and they needed it. Moreover, the French-English patted them very friendly and paid the most vocal adherents of * democracy *.
        Now, the same thing is happening on the outskirts. Only on the next technological round.

        What nonsense ...
  2. north 2
    north 2 5 August 2022 05: 39
    +6
    history has not taught Poland, but Russia. Because already eighteen years after the last partition of the Commonwealth, the Poles with great pleasure fell under Napoleon Bonaparte with the dream of conquering Russia. And forty years after the Red Army put several hundred thousand
    the lives of their soldiers, freeing the Poles from German fascism, the Poles have already fallen under America in order to go again on the same campaign with the dream of destroying
    Russia. And given the fact that Poland in the Time of Troubles tried very hard so that the Polish king Sigismund would climb the Russian throne in the Kremlin and
    Russia was destroyed in this way, it is so incomprehensible how History has not explained to Russia so far that Poland was and is the same danger to Russia as the danger of the Golden Horde was. Here the Golden Horde of Russia was forever sent into oblivion, and Poland is still not sent there for some reason
    1. Alex TTW
      Alex TTW 6 August 2022 03: 56
      0
      Quote: North 2
      And forty years after the Red Army laid down several hundred thousand lives of its soldiers freeing the Poles from German fascism

      It's time to put an end to this myth - the Red Army laid down several hundred thousand lives of its soldiers on the territory of present-day Poland, not to liberate the Poles, but to defeat the Germans who occupied Poland. As a stage in the process that began on the Volga and ended in Berlin.
      The same applies to the Hungarians (their loyal allies of Hitler), and a number of other countries.
  3. Mikhail3
    Mikhail3 5 August 2022 12: 06
    +5
    HOW the pans destroyed Poland, the article, of course, does not say. They did it in two ways. First, they destroyed the production potential of the territory. The merciless exploitation of the peasantry quickly led to the decline of agrotechnical culture. The peasants simply could not effectively manage the land, having no means for anything. Neither for seed selection, nor for tools of labor, nor for livestock ... Productivity fell like a stake.
    Handicrafts in the country also experienced constant pressure from the gentry. Often, not being able to pay for the necessary goods, the pans took them "on a saber." It’s not that you don’t earn money, you often lose your head for your work. There is no law, no one will protect you from arbitrariness. In such conditions, what kind of development? Machine tools, trained specialists... nothing happened.
    Well, echoing the trouble, partially affected by the author. Weak power. The law may even be unjust (although it is best to avoid it at all costs), but at a minimum it must be enforced, and this enforcement should be constantly monitored by people with serious powers. Otherwise, all smart and active workers, creators, will certainly leave the country. Or they die on the spot...
  4. zenion
    zenion 5 August 2022 14: 35
    +1
    The pans ruined Poland in the same manner as the tsars ruined the Russian empire. Betrayal and narrow-mindedness has no options. Exactly the same specialists ruined the USSR.
  5. remix
    remix 5 August 2022 17: 42
    0
    "Russian Lithuania..." That was enough to keep me from reading further nonsense.
    1. alexey sidykin
      alexey sidykin 6 August 2022 13: 28
      +2
      Quote from: remix
      "Russian Lithuania..." That was enough to keep me from reading further nonsense.

      Well, why, to some extent, this is the correct expression. In the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the dominant religion was Orthodoxy under the auspices of the Metropolitan of Vladimir. The state language was also the Western dialect of the Russian language. The ruling dynasty rather quickly practically Russified, except for the senior line and the Samogitian. Yes, and the older one also began to give up. But, the marriage of Olgerd with the Tver princess mother Yagello played a cruel joke. She nurtured hatred for Moscow in her son.
  6. alexey sidykin
    alexey sidykin 6 August 2022 13: 21
    +1
    The author correctly indicated the reasons for the collapse of the Commonwealth ... but the indication that the Poles and Eastern Slavs were one Russian ethnic group made me laugh a lot.
    1. cat Rusich
      cat Rusich 6 August 2022 20: 18
      0
      Quote: Alexey Sedykin
      ... but the indication that the Poles and the Eastern Slavs were one Russian ethnic group made me laugh a lot.
      Where did you go from Polish land
      Population of the lands of modern Poland and surrounding countries around 800-960.
      hi
      1. alexey sidykin
        alexey sidykin 7 August 2022 09: 57
        +1
        I know very well where the Polish land came from even without you ... and you should find out from whom Vladimir Kr chopped off. The sun of the city of Przemysl with the surrounding lands ... but you still haven’t revealed the revelation from above that the Poles are Russia laughing
  7. iouris
    iouris 6 August 2022 15: 00
    +1
    The social structure of the Commonwealth is something special. Only the "elite" (gentry) was considered the "people", "nation".
    This nation descended from the "ancient Sarmatians" (does it remind you of anything?).
    The rest (peasants) were considered "cattle". "" is a tool, a talking tool. Naturally, disenfranchised as far as possible. So all the talk about the existence of a deep connection between the Polish (national) constitution of 1791 and "people's democracy" needs this clarification.
    Thus, the revival of the Commonwealth will mean the enslavement and lack of rights of those broad sections of the population who are not "descendants of the Sarmatians."
    The Pans did not destroy Poland, but the Polish class system (their "nation"), which is now being revived.
  8. Alex 1970
    Alex 1970 7 August 2022 08: 01
    +1
    As soon as I read about the "super ethnos", I decided to look at the author and was not mistaken, well, why such an obsession, huh?
    1. Torins
      Torins 7 August 2022 15: 28
      +1
      This is Samsonov, only the grave will fix him.
  9. Beloemigrant
    Beloemigrant 11 August 2022 00: 50
    0
    pora konczit bred o bratskich narodach pszeki primer nr1 ukry nr2 serby i croaty nr3 araby i jewreje nr4 kitajcy i wetnamcy nr5 bolsze jest no mne soskuczilos
  10. Altmann
    Altmann 11 August 2022 19: 14
    0
    Unfortunately, it was not possible to unite the Slavic tribes. Worst of all, the Slovak peoples, Poles, Bulgarians, Czechs and Slovaks are Russophobic today, although they are not going to fight with Russia, but if history and its teachings are not changed, this trend will continue. The Germans managed to reunite