Military Review

Slavic project of Stalin

Slavic project of StalinFor more than 10 years, the international legal term “Union State of Russia and Belarus” has existed. But few people know, and even more so, remember that an international confederative entity with a similar name - “Slavic Union Confederate State” (SSCG) - was planned to be created by the 1953-1954 years. As a part of the USSR, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia or (the second version of the project) - Ukraine, Belarus and the mentioned states. With its capital in Belgrade, Minsk, Sofia or Warsaw.

Moreover, the entry of Ukraine and Belarus into the UN in 1945 was the first foreign policy step in the formation of the NKTF. However, this strategic project was opposed not only by the West, but also by some, it seems, allies of the USSR. And in the top Soviet leadership there were quite a few opponents of the Slavic interstate confederation.

As is known, during the Great Patriotic War, the Soviet leadership pursued a line on the strengthening, above all, of the military-political union of Slavic peoples, and after its termination - the political-economic union of Slavic states. At first, in 1946-1947, the project of a confederative state was actively supported by IB Tito and other leaders of Yugoslavia. Moreover, Tito proposed Belgrade as the capital of the new state, to which the USSR did not object, because it did not want to officially position itself as the “leader” of this state. Similar was the position on the project and other Slavic countries.

By the way, as early as 5 on April 1941, when, during a visit to Moscow by Yugoslav Prime Minister Dusan Simovic, an 5-year Treaty with the USSR “On friendship and non-aggression” was signed against the fascist aggressors, the idea of ​​a union of Slavic states was discussed in an interview with Stalin from their political and ideological systems. Simovic noted that Yugoslavia, in principle, supports this idea, and also stressed the fact that Serbia and Montenegro were in favor of such an alliance in the 19 century. However, will the Western powers — Germany, Italy, the Vatican — allow such a state to be created? Stalin replied that for them this union was not only unprofitable, but also dangerous. And the next day the troops of Germany, Italy and Hungary invaded Yugoslavia and soon occupied it. And the project was developed further in 1945.

At a reception in the Kremlin in honor of Czechoslovakia’s President E. Benes 28 March 1945 IV Stalin proposed a toast "For the new Slavophiles who stand for the union of independent Slavic states!"

The Generalissimo emphasized that “both the first and the second world wars unfolded and advanced on the backs of the Slavic peoples. In order not to let the Germans rise and start a new war, we need a union of Slavic peoples. ”

We emphasize that, after Stalin, not a single political figure of the USSR never publicly used the term “Slavs,” not to mention the “union of Slavic peoples,” because the policy of the post-Stalinist leadership was essentially anti-Slavic. But in 1946, the idea of ​​a Slavic interstate education was unanimously supported by the VI All-Slavic Congress, held in Belgrade on December 8-11, including in the speech of Tito. However, it was provoked by the “Titos” in 1948-1949. the break in military-political ties with the USSR and other socialist countries and, moreover, the participation of Yugoslavia in the so-called “Balkan Pact” created in 1952, which included, along with Yugoslavia, Greece and Turkey (members of NATO) - brought Yugoslavia from the Slavic project.

It would seem that at that time the USSR had to respond by creating a military-political bloc similar to NATO, but Moscow chose a different strategy: the Warsaw Pact was established only on May 14 of the year 1955. And in 1947-1953. The Soviet Union has concluded long-term agreements on mutual military assistance, coordination of foreign policy and close economic cooperation with countries that are potential participants in the JCL. In the same period, it can be said that the “cross” economic interaction of the same (and other) Eastern European countries was formed within the framework of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA), announced in early January 1949. Since the autumn of 1952, the CMEA member countries have begun to coordinate domestic and foreign economic plans.

In the same period, persecution of priests and believers ceased in the USSR. That is, the economic, political and, let's say, interfaith foundation of the Allied Slavic confederation was created in 1946-1953 years.

In the USSR, the creation of such a state was coordinated by the Slavic Committee of the USSR, created in March 1947. It was attended by many economic, legal and ideological agencies - All-Union, Belarusian and Ukrainian. He became the successor of the October 5 of the All-Slavic Committee established in Moscow on October 1941. Its permanent chairman was Lieutenant-General of Engineering Troops Alexander Semenovich Gundorov (1894-1973). The presidium of the committee included well-known figures: commanders F.I. Tolbukhin, S.A. Kovpak, writers N.S. Tikhonov, Yakub Kolas, V.V. Vishnevsky, A.E. Korneychuk, BD scientists Grekov, N.S. Derzhavin, N.A. Voznesensky (Chairman of the USSR State Planning Committee until the Autumn of 1948), M.Z. Saburov (Chairman of the USSR State Planning Committee in 1949-1958), ETC. Lysenko, the first chairman of the board of the Union of Composers of the USSR B.V. Asafiev, People's Artist of the USSR L.P. Aleksandrovskaya, Minister of Higher Education of the USSR S.V. Kaftanov, Metropolitan of Krutitsky and Nikolai Kolomensky (Yarushevich).

The printed organ of this committee in 1947 was the monthly journal Slavs, published since December 1941. And how intensively the Slavic Committee of the USSR worked, at least in the culturalhistorical some events, for example, in 1949, testify to the sphere: the 100th anniversary of the birth of the Bulgarian poet and publicist Hristo Botev; 125th anniversary of the birth of the Czech composer B. Smetana; 200th anniversary of the death of the Polish poet J. Slowacki; events in memory of A. Mitskevich; lectures and brochures on Slavic statehood were held.

A frequent guest of the committee was the chairman of the North American Slavic Congress, Leo Krzycki (Polish). Since the autumn of 1947, cooperation has been established with the Canadian Slavic Committee and its Secretary General John Boyd (I. Boichuk, Western Ukrainian), and since 1950 with the Partnership of United Ukrainians of Canada. Since 1952, contacts began to be established with Slavic organizations in Argentina (with the assistance of country leader H. Peron), Australia, and New Zealand. For example, in a certificate prepared for the CPSU Central Committee on the work of the USSR Slavic Committee for 1953, it was noted in particular that “... in order to assist the Slavic Union of Uruguay in organizing a library and improving the work of Russian schools for children and adults, the USSR Slavic Committee sent this union in 1953, more than 1500 of various books and textbooks, as well as geographical maps, school tables, etc. materials. " In the same year, the Slavic Committee of the USSR held solemn meetings in connection with the 10 anniversary of the battle of Lenino (in the Mogilev region of Belarus in mid-October 1943, where Polish units distinguished themselves), with the 75 anniversary of the liberation of Bulgaria from the Ottoman yoke, the 75 anniversary since the birth of an outstanding public figure and writer of Czechoslovakia, Zdenek Needla. These and other events were widely reported in the media of the USSR and Eastern European Slavic states, they were regularly reported in the Yugoslav press.

The Slavic Committee often exchanged delegations with the Slavic communities of Great Britain, Belgium, Germany, Greece, Iran, Lebanon, Iraq, Italy, Spain, France, Sweden, USA, Canada, Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, Chile, Ethiopia, Australia, New Zealand Union of South Africa (SAU). Note that in the absence of official relations of the USSR with a number of countries mentioned, including Spain and South Africa (diplomatic relations with South Africa established by spring 1942, were interrupted by 1949 in summer by Pretoria’s decision), the Slavic Committee of the Soviet Union practically highly successful.

Similar committees and their media were equally active in Belarus, Ukraine, Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Bulgaria.

However, the creation of NATO’s 1949 in April and the aggravation of Soviet-Yugoslav relations, the outbreak of war in Korea slowed down the process of creating a “Slavic Union Confederate State”

However, in those years, in the top leadership of the USSR, work was already carried out to curtail this strategic project. According to archival data, Khrushchev, Malenkov, Beria, Mikoyan more than once tried to convince Stalin of the prematurity of such a project, as well as that the creation of the HSCC would quickly worsen the already tense relations with the United States and NATO. What, they say, is better to create a "pro-Soviet" NATO.

In addition, the head of Bulgaria G. Dimitrov supported the idea of ​​I. B. from the very beginning. Tito, put forward in 1948 year, on the creation of the so-called "Balkan" and more widely - "Danube-Balkan confederation" or "federation", and with the participation of all Eastern European countries, as well as Greece and Albania. That in fact relegated to the background the project of the Slavic interstate confederation.

Stalin publicly condemned the idea of ​​Tito-Dimitrov during the trilateral Soviet-Bulgarian-Yugoslav meeting of 10 on February 1948 in Moscow (G. Dimitrov and V. Kolarov attended Bulgaria, and E. Kardel, M. Djilas and V. Bakarich from Bulgaria attended). Tito pointedly refused to come to this meeting. On the "trial" proposal of the Yugoslav delegation that a draft federation of Yugoslavia with Albania was being prepared, Stalin sharply objected: "No, first the federation of Bulgaria-Yugoslavia, and then both with Albania." He added: “We think that it is also necessary to create a federation uniting Poland with Czechoslovakia. Or - it can be a confederation ”(see, for example, E. Hodge,“ Reflections on Yugoslav “socialism”, Tirana, Russian language, 1981 g., Complete Works and IW Stalin's letters in 33- x volumes, Beijing-Tirana, 1977-1979, t. 28).

It seems that Stalin reasonably saw in the idea of ​​Belgrade and Sofia an attempt to "blur" the formation of the Slavic confederative union and indirectly represent the USSR as a kind of liquidator of the state independence of Eastern European countries. The inclusion of Greece in such a project actually meant that Tito and Dimitrov confirmed the accusations of the West about the interference of the “pro-Soviet eastern bloc” in the internal affairs of Greece (at that time it was swept by a bloody civil war). The absence of Tito at a meeting in Moscow indirectly confirmed such predictions of Stalin. Soon they came true ...

At that time, Stalin’s frequent illnesses made it possible to slow down the work of creating a Slavic interstate confederation. It should also be noted that the most active and influential supporters of the NWSC project suddenly died, again, in the same years: A.A. Zhdanov (Stalin's actual successor) in 1948, Zhikitsa Iovanovich (leader of the anti-Titov opposition) and B.V. Asafiev in 1949, Vasil Kolarov (head of Bulgaria) in 1950, Clement Gottwald (head of Czechoslovakia) in 1953. Boleslav Berut was the one who “lasted” longer: he died suddenly in 1956, and in Moscow. It is also noteworthy that in the report of Malenkov to the XIX Congress of the CPSU (October 5 1952) nothing was said about the Slavic project; only Gottwald and Berut mentioned him, and the head of the Slavic Committee of the USSR was a delegate of the same congress without the right to speak.

Stalin was only at the first and last (5 and 14 of October) meetings, made a brief speech at the last. In his speech, too, there was not a word about the Slavic confederative project.

In the meantime, since 1955, the magazine Slavs began to come out once in two months, and from 1957, once a quarter. In July, 1958, A.S. Gundorov in a report to the CPSU Central Committee complained: “... The Slavic Committee is now contained in a“ canned ”form. Communication with the fraternal Slavic countries has been reduced to a minimum, the press bureau has been liquidated, political speeches are prohibited, etc. There remains only a connection with the Slavic emigration of America and Australia. The staff of the committee has been reduced to 5 people, and its presidium has been abolished. ” And - no answer ...

However, they "answered" in the autumn of the same year: from November 1958, they stopped publishing the magazine "Slavs".

Finally, in March 1962, the USSR Slavic Committee was disbanded: the CPSU Central Committee accused him of "promoting national exclusivity", "ignoring the decisions of the XX and XXII CPSU congresses" and "cringing before the cult of personality"

According to the Russian historian and publicist Nikolai Kikeshev, “the political function of the all-Slavic movement was especially evident at the end of the Great Patriotic War, when Europe was divided into spheres of influence, and the Soviet leadership set about creating a union of Slavic states. This policy received the full support of the leaders of Slavic countries, as well as delegates of the World Slavic Congress in Belgrade (December 1946). The Slavic Union was supposed to be the basis of the bloc of the people's democratic states of Central and Southeastern Europe ... ”. But later, "Soviet ideologues again decided to rely on the doctrine of proletarian internationalism." The use by the leadership of the USSR of the idea of ​​Slavism for political purposes turned out to be possible, as N. Kikeshev believes, because this, one might say, phenomenon objectively existed and exists among the Slavic peoples already at the subconscious level.

So the new - “The Federal State of Russia and Belarus” - has been forgotten old. But this time for what stop?

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  1. taseka
    taseka 26 September 2012 15: 45
    Together - we are force! Fear us !!!

    1. aspirin02
      aspirin02 26 September 2012 15: 51
      + 1 ... Ukraine, Russia, Belarus - and not whom we no longer need !!!
      1. biglow
        biglow 26 September 2012 15: 57
        and native Russian lands in other territories, such as Kazakhstan, our people live there too and they cannot be abandoned
        1. tm70-71
          tm70-71 26 September 2012 16: 24
          To you +10000000
        2. AK-74-1
          AK-74-1 26 September 2012 16: 48
          What does it mean like Kazakhstan. How can the city of Semipalatinsk be called abroad or the same Baikonur. And Tashkent and Samarkand.
      2. Manager
        Manager 26 September 2012 17: 19
        Quote: aspirin02

        + 1 ... Ukraine, Russia, Belarus - and not whom we no longer need !!!

        Kazakhstan forgot !!!!!!!
        1. smrus
          smrus 26 September 2012 17: 38
          There is BRICS, I hope soon when Ukraine pulls itself into a single economic space will appear - BROOK (Belarus Russia Ukraine Kazakhstan)
          1. patline
            patline 26 September 2012 22: 28
            I want to live in a multi-ethnic and multi-religious state, located between the four oceans, the connecting factor of which is and will be the Slavs. Really want to...
      3. INTER
        INTER 27 September 2012 08: 11
        Quote: aspirin02
        + 1 ... Ukraine, Russia, Belarus - and not whom we no longer need !!!

        + Kazakhstan! good
  2. Tersky
    Tersky 26 September 2012 16: 19
    No comment ...
    1. Dmitry23RUS
      Dmitry23RUS 26 September 2012 20: 56
      My National Socialist views have changed a bit after this text. belay

      It directly turned everything in my head. BUT, as I was always convinced, Khrushchev was a mu.d.p.a.s., which was actually confirmed. winked
      1. Ross
        Ross 27 September 2012 00: 14
        The article confirms the materials about the Stalinist policy described in the last book of Georgy Sidorov "Neo-Stalinism or the Secret Project of the Leader".
        1. Dmitry23RUS
          Dmitry23RUS 27 September 2012 01: 28
          Quote: Ross
          The article confirms the materials about the Stalinist policy described in the last book of Georgy Sidorov "Neo-Stalinism or the Secret Project of the Leader".

          Several popular nationalists in the country asked me for sources of this text, I did not find any contacts with the Author. Without sources, they don’t believe a word. For it turns the whole world in the eyes of the modern National Assembly.
          1. biglow
            biglow 27 September 2012 09: 09
            these facts from the article were always cited in the same fragmentary way, from the words of some people who were familiar with the question. And there are probably no primary sources. During the Khrushchev many archives were destroyed, so only bits of information remained
    2. Vodrak
      Vodrak 26 September 2012 22: 30
      thanks for saying
  3. AK-74-1
    AK-74-1 26 September 2012 16: 46
    Great article. The union of fraternal Slavic peoples suggests itself due to the centuries-old cultural and religious unity.
    The only opponents of such a union are the Angles and their current Amer creature.
    1. taseka
      taseka 26 September 2012 18: 04
      AK-74-1 The Britons hate-hate and will hate Russia - this is their policy!
      And we are under their breath !!
      1. bachast
        bachast 26 September 2012 22: 29
        Well, the Czechs are generally Slavs. Yes, and the example specifically with Jagr is unsuccessful. And Leshenka Emelin himself falls so often,as if a sniper is sitting in the stands (s) wink
        1. taseka
          taseka 28 September 2012 15: 54
          Jagra didn’t specifically want to go under the hood - this is an example !!!
    2. raider
      raider 26 September 2012 19: 42
      And small-town, corrupt ki
  4. baltika-18
    baltika-18 26 September 2012 16: 52
    And that the idea of ​​Stalin was not bad. It will not be bad to try in the near future, given the not great nuances of today's geopolitical situation.
    1. donchepano
      donchepano 26 September 2012 21: 31
      Anglo-Saxons with acid "even aqua regia" will begin to write without stopping.
      no, we look back to the West as always BECOME
    2. Volkhov
      Volkhov 27 September 2012 00: 42
      The geophysical situation is steeper than the geopolitical one, so soon you can try it, I can offer the capital - the city of Volkhov, Leningrad Region. and the population - Petersburgers, Novgorodians and Karelians (who has time to get there).
      The rest will have to be done anew, with rare exceptions.
  5. Badger
    Badger 26 September 2012 17: 05
    Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia, Ukraine! And then, we definitely do not need anyone. Only the current rulers of Ukraine do not understand this.
    1. montemor
      montemor 26 September 2012 18: 29
      they all understand perfectly, therefore they are not in a hurry. staggering back and forth between Europe and Russia they simply drag time and rob people
    2. aleksandroff
      aleksandroff 26 September 2012 23: 54
      I think they understand. it’s just easier to catch a fish in troubled waters. we also had troubled times, thank God they are leaving. maybe they will have a smarter generation.
  6. erased
    erased 26 September 2012 17: 16
    Many Stalinist ideas did not go into business, much to our regret. This is especially evident in our beautiful democratic time.
  7. LTL70
    LTL70 26 September 2012 17: 28
    Much of Lenin and Stalin was not realized by the party bosses of the following years! They profiled the "world revolution"!
  8. Alexey Prikazchikov
    Alexey Prikazchikov 26 September 2012 17: 39
    I watched the video under the article all the same Goblin is a very adequate man. I wish him success in his work and indeed in everything.
  9. wax
    wax 26 September 2012 17: 40
    We must take a course on the confederation of Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia, Ukraine (alphabetically). Like Switzerland.
  10. Straus_zloy
    Straus_zloy 26 September 2012 18: 09
    One of the greatest politicians in world history, the last (so far) Russian Tsar.

  11. gambit
    gambit 26 September 2012 18: 09
    Slavs let us live in peace !!! Together - we are force
    1. Nikita
      Nikita 26 September 2012 22: 25
      one hundred percent
  12. Sinbad
    Sinbad 26 September 2012 18: 20
    An interesting and necessary article, but the topic is much more voluminous. The struggle to reduce the role of Slavic peoples in the history of the development of mankind has not been going on for the first century. For the sake of this, and also, for the sake of exaltation of the western, Anglo-Saxon branch of mankind, the whole story is radically rewritten. Is it any wonder that some Soviet leaders (sometimes illiterate) followed official Western history, with corresponding conclusions.
    In addition, do not forget who and why (and whose money) arranged the Russian Revolution.
  13. omsbon
    omsbon 26 September 2012 18: 24
    Whatever anyone says, but I.V. Stalin was a great politician!
    The idea of ​​a Slavic union is good, but with the current leaders it is not feasible, ambitions will not give.
    Only the Russian Orthodox Church can help in this matter! It seems to me.
  14. aksai61
    aksai61 26 September 2012 19: 12
    Give yours, not yours! wink
    "Unharness, lads, horses ...." drinks

    Article +!
  15. uizik
    uizik 26 September 2012 19: 41
    The article is interesting and necessary, but I want to remind you that the USSR was ruined by ambitious and irresponsible politicians. There were many kings in those years, and the Soviet Union was one. Here are the bastards and divided. Now it will be difficult to unite these estates, no one wants to lose power and a feeding trough.
  16. v53993
    v53993 26 September 2012 19: 58
    "30.08.2012/XNUMX/XNUMX. The State Duma adopted a law on the regulation of NGOs."

    After the Law came into force, November 23, 2012, and even better before that, all actively opposing members of NGOs should be invited to leave the country, whose laws do not agree.
    And the representatives of the West, if they are really yeltmen for whom they pretend to be, are simply obliged to accept them on their territory and ensure their maintenance. Then the moment of truth will come, we will all see how much the West needs our liberal party.
  17. X-55
    X-55 26 September 2012 20: 44
    Stalin is certainly a great man, modern "national leaders" look pitiful against his background. And, most importantly, Stalin appreciated the Russian people, and did not score on him, as they do today.
    It seems to me that when uniting it is better not to focus on Orthodoxy, after all, Russia is a secular country, and there are very few Orthodox who go to church at least once a month. Any other ideas are needed.
    I liked the video with the Goblin, briefly and clearly expressed his position.
  18. Helge
    Helge 26 September 2012 21: 27
    Yes! the idea of ​​uniting the Slavs is essentially interesting! you just look at everyone and think - is it necessary for the Slavs? It seems to me that even without the Russian Federation everyone lives normally, each to himself is king! by the way, though mini but such an association already exists! this is the Kaliningrad region! and you know they live in friendly enough, spat on Russia, Maloros (I can’t stand the word Ukraine), Belarus! our country is too big! what cares people on one end doesn't mean what cares on the other! Yes, and to be honest, what should concern ???? I recall, internationalism is the highest form of fascism! the destruction of their culture, population for the sake of others, under the guise of good goals! so here! Belarusians have their own state, Malorosses have the same thing, I won’t list them all, it makes no sense, only we Russians do not have their own territory, it’s not designated as !!! that's why we are Russians! sad ..... but it would be his own and it would be in order, others might reach out!
  19. studentmati
    studentmati 26 September 2012 22: 04
    Imperial ambitions - it seems to me, although very attractive, but utopian. I see an analogy in the current behavior of the States in an attempt to create a "world democracy."
  20. Vodrak
    Vodrak 26 September 2012 22: 17
    As for Kazakhstan, living here I can say that the majority is for an alliance with Russia. There are, of course, nationalists and terrorists, but in reality there are very few of them. Apparently this is due to the mentality that has developed historically on this earth. People with different faiths live here, but respect for a foreign religion is always present here. the time of the 90s has passed, when the Russians were "conquerors" and the "national pride" of the "enslaved people" was ahead of all. Now I personally just do not meet this, provided that I communicate with Kazakhstanis throughout the republic.
  21. Call Sign Half Fifteen
    Call Sign Half Fifteen 26 September 2012 22: 20
    Brothers, and indeed the picture in the first post reflects reality ... as if who and where did not say.
    Strong positive article, and indeed useful information.
    P / S / citizen domokl or whatever they call you, your komenty in the studio, just be careful, read your posts three months ago, hehe, I also have a strategy and analtech ...
  22. darkman70
    darkman70 26 September 2012 23: 44
    Informative article. Once again amazed at the vision of Stalin.
    Well ... in the meantime, the Slavs suffer one defeat after another: the Russian people are divided into three parts, Czechoslovakia is divided into two, Yugoslavia is generally torn to pieces, Bulgarians and Macedonians die out and surrender their positions to Muslim peoples, they made an anti-Russian dog from Poland. Shorter retreat on all fronts. And most importantly, politicians rule in all countries, instilling Western consumer values ​​alien to the Slavs and views on the world order. This is the worst thing.
  23. zelenchenkov.petr1
    zelenchenkov.petr1 27 September 2012 00: 34
    Dreamers!!! "Slavic Union Confederate State" (SJSS) ???
    A number of authors clearly expressed the reasons for the programmatic centrifugal changes that occurred with the USSR; they also will not allow the formation of the HCC. It is known that any EMPIRE is held at the expense of the authoritarianism of the formal LEADER-dictator, and any informal leadership (like dissent) is brutally suppressed! Dear, Russia, a multinational and multiconfessional state is an empire, but truncated, it also somehow keeps itself only due to the authoritarianism of our formal leader - V.V. Putin. which we observe, against which our FRAUDERS are fighting !!! Do not be authoritarian and Russia will scatter into many fragments, and AMERA has long understood this, and therefore it works MULTI-PLANED against it - to bite ... at least somehow, at least for something !!!

    The Confederate Constitutional Monarchy with this or that sauce is our way out; what finished in 17, then it should continue after some time! With democracy, like 7 nannies, a child without an eye! It seems to me there is NO other way out !!!
  24. Prospero
    Prospero 27 September 2012 06: 01
    The idea is good, but with those in power it’s scary to think about what the execution will be.
    They haven’t drunk it yet. They will always be few. Somewhere I heard the correct dictum — a person needs quite a bit of money for a normal life, all that is more is for show-offs.
  25. understudy
    understudy 27 September 2012 09: 40
    Great Leader, Great Deeds, Great Ideas ...
  26. Patriot
    Patriot 27 September 2012 14: 16
    Quote: Understudy
    Stand-by (1)
    Great Leader, Great Deeds, Great Ideas.



  27. Uncle
    Uncle 27 September 2012 23: 53
    The Communists in words are beautiful, but things are completely opposite. I mean the Gulag, collectivization, the Red Terror.
  28. understudy
    understudy 28 September 2012 23: 43
    Quote: Straus_zloy
    the last (so far) Russian Tsar

    A lot of advantages!