Military Review

Uprising on the Right Bank or Koliivshchyna

17

At any stories There are reasons and very deep roots. The problems of Little Russian-Polish relations have been going on since Andrusov, since 1667. According to the truce concluded there, Little Russia was divided along the Dnieper - that which was to the west remained with the Poles, that which was to the east became a territory with broad autonomy as part of the Russian kingdom. Somehow it so happened that in the Left Bank Hetmanate it was quieter, calmer, freer and more satisfying, but on the Right Bank ... Throughout the end of the 17th and first half of the 18th centuries, Poland was in agony, the model of governance that existed there turned the state into something amorphous and anarchist. Neighbors began to look at this territory with unhealthy interest, and the people themselves were not enthusiastic about what was happening. As a result, the protege of Russia, Stanislav August Poniatowski, was elected king of Poland. This caused indignation among some of the gentry and magnates, and away we go.


Bar Confederation


The new Polish king, feeling the power of Russia behind him, decided on a terrible thing - to strengthen the central government at the expense of the magnates and the gentry. It is clear that the answer was a riot, a number of magnates with private armies gathered in the city of Bar in the Vinnitsa region and created a confederation. The rebellion is rather strange, in fact against the king, but officially against Russia, in order to stop the reforms, but the dissidents were the first to suffer. So in the Commonwealth they called those who were not Catholics. And the Confederates struck the first blow against them - priests were killed and imprisoned, people were tortured, villages and towns were devastated ... On a wave of atrocities, Koliivshchina was born, a phenomenon no less terrible than Polish punitive actions.

Different opinions


“The largest specialist in the history of memory Y. Yerushalmi notes that all the events of the mass murder of Jews in Ukraine during the uprising of B. Khmelnitsky and Koliyivshchyna are equated in Jewish sources with similar events of previous periods. In particular, to the pogroms after the first crusade.

And the Jews have a right to it, the massacre in Uman was terrible. The Poles also have their own opinion:

“For the Polish tradition, Uman has also become the main and practically the only place of memory associated with the Koliyiv region. Just as in Jewish historical memory, the Haidamak uprising for the Poles is, first of all, a terrible tragedy, a symbol of martyrdom.”

And among the Ukrainians, for whose historians this is a national liberation uprising without any semitones. The reality was more prosaic and scary. Economic oppression, multiplied by religious and national oppression, bore fruit - the people were terribly embittered, and the outright massacre that the Confederates staged on the Right Bank became the trigger. Hope for success was given by Russia's intervention in Polish affairs, and it flared up.

Leaders


There were two of them - Ivan Gonta, a court Cossack who joined the rebels in Uman and Maxim Zaliznyak, also a Cossack, but Zaporozhye. From the age of 15 in the Sich, he gathered a small detachment of Haidamak rebels and declared that he had a letter from Catherine II calling for an uprising and extermination of Poles and Jews. It flared up almost instantly, and soon the rebels approached the town of Uman. It was there that the local Cossacks, in the service of the magnate Potocki, went over to the side of the Haidamaks, and the city was taken. Then the horror began:

“... when the Haidamaks broke into the city, they first of all rushed at the Jews, who were rushing about in terror through the streets: they were brutally killed, trampled under the hooves of horses, thrown from the roofs of high buildings; children were lifted to the ends of peaks, women were tortured. A mass of Jews, numbering up to three thousand people, locked themselves in a large synagogue. The Gaidamaks put a cannon to the synagogue doors, the doors were blown up, the robbers entered the synagogue and turned it into a slaughterhouse... Having done away with the Jews, the Gaidamaks turned to the Poles; many they slaughtered in the church; the governor and all the other pans were killed. The streets of the city were littered with corpses or mutilated, unfinished people. About twenty thousand Poles and Jews died during this Uman massacre.

Justice for, no different from what the Confederates did a little earlier. According to Zaliznyak, the rebels were forced to leave the city because of the abundance of corpses. It is clear that St. Petersburg did not want to help the Haidamaks even before, and even after that it did not want doubly. Moreover, the scattered Haidamaks attacked the Ottoman Empire:

“After the capture of Uman, Maxim Zaliznyak sent a detachment of the centurion Vasily Shilo to the Polish-Turkish border, to the border with the Khan's Edisan to the Balta in Paliyevo Lake. 500 confederates were hiding there, who were just waiting for the help of the Crimean Tatars. The rebels attacked Paliyevo Lake. Fleeing, the Confederates crossed the Kodyma River and hid in the Turkish town of Balta. Vasily Shilo demanded from the Turkish commandant of the city Yakub-aga to extradite the Poles, but he refused. The Gaidamaks attacked Balta and slaughtered the non-Orthodox population.”

And their statements that they were acting on behalf of Russia led directly to war. It was not difficult to predict what happened next, Russian troops entered the Right Bank, dispersed the Gaidamaks and captured Gonta and Zaliznyak. The first, as a foreigner, was given to the Poles, Zaliznyak himself was exiled to Siberia. They did not beat him with a whip, they did not pull out his nostrils, in this part the sentence was never executed. The Russian-Turkish war began. Relative peace reigned in the Commonwealth, the Russian regiments, like that forester, came and dispersed everyone.

The question remains - what was it? And if we look for answers in national myths, then we will get anything but the truth. And the truth is that a peasant uprising of illiterate and embittered people broke out, without any special goals, not considering revenge for everything. And in the end, everything ended in tragedy for the Poles and Jews, and for the Ukrainians. A tragedy that must be remembered, because the world is fragile, and national contradictions are often resolved with great bloodshed, and in the end there is no one to blame, everyone has their own truth.
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  1. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 22 February 2022 06: 08
    +4
    I do not know why Roman is looking for the truth where it lies in the most prominent place.
    When I was a schoolboy in a school on the territory of the Ukrainian SSR, then in the lessons of history and Ukrainian literature, then there was taught in black and white - a peasant revolt. "Senseless and merciless"...
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 22 February 2022 13: 10
      +2
      Hi, Igor! smile
      there black and white was taught - a peasant revolt.

      They even tried to portray, without any particular massacre.
      1. ee2100
        ee2100 22 February 2022 14: 02
        +3
        Hi Kostya!
        This is how history is written. Yesterday, a national hero, and for Ukrainians, is still considered a hero (they are considered heroes), they erect monuments, name streets, etc. But for others, the image is extremely negative.
        "... then we will get anything but the truth" (c) Everyone has their own truth and often not very pleasant.
        The Jews protested in connection with the erection of this monument in the city of Uman.
        But the most interesting thing is that in the immediate vicinity of this monument, the street named after. Sholom Aleichem.

        The monument itself
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 22 February 2022 14: 20
          +1
          But the most interesting thing is that in the immediate vicinity of this monument, the street named after. Sholom Aleichem.

          This makes no sense. request
          1. ee2100
            ee2100 22 February 2022 14: 28
            +3
            Even in Gogol's Taras Bulba, one of the brightest characters is a Jew from Uman. There was indeed a very large diaspora. They always lived nearby.
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 22 February 2022 14: 30
              +4
              If I'm not mistaken, this is Yankel, a negative character, and in the Soviet edition this character seems to have been blacked out.
              1. ee2100
                ee2100 22 February 2022 14: 38
                +3
                Yes, the one whom Taras once saved.
        2. Russian Bear_2
          Russian Bear_2 22 February 2022 17: 28
          +1
          Very original.
    2. RoTTor
      RoTTor 23 February 2022 00: 29
      +3
      NO ! Fragments from T.G. Shevchenko's poem "Haydamaks" were in the school course of Ukrainian literature in the 9th grade, and in Soviet times the haidamaks were displayed as heroes.
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 22 February 2022 06: 22
    +2
    The author, but nothing that the rebels fought against the Confederates? And besides, they wanted Pravoberezhnaya to become part of the Republic of Ingushetia, like Donetsk and Luhansk now? And they, for such Wishlist, someone to count, someone to Siberia, to remove the snow.
  3. ee2100
    ee2100 22 February 2022 06: 48
    +2
    As a schoolboy he lived in Uman. My favorite building is the local history museum.
    A whole exposition was devoted to the uprising of Gonta and Zaliznyak. There were a lot of exhibits of that time.
    And yes, the uprising was presented as a popular one against the Poles. The city center was literally pitted like Swiss cheese with underground passages from the time of the uprising. The height of the underground passage allowed the rider to move on horseback.
    Now Uman is a Hasidic pilgrimage center
  4. Olgovich
    Olgovich 22 February 2022 07: 08
    +2
    A mass of Jews, numbering up to three thousand people, locked themselves in a large synagogue. The Gaidamaks put a cannon to the synagogue doors, the doors were blown up, the robbers entered the synagogue and turned it into a slaughterhouse..
    not quite so: about three thousand Jews strengthened themselves in the synagogue and under the leadership of Leiba Shargorodsky and Moshe Menaker repelled the onslaught of the Gaidamakswho tried to take it by storm. The rebels destroyed the building with cannon fire and all the defenders died.

    And today, all Jews who represent the Bratslav movement of Hasidism consider it their duty to visit the grave at least once in their lives. Tzadik Nachman in Uman, who, at one time, specially came to Uman:
    "The souls of those who died there for their faith are waiting for me"
  5. Daniil Konovalenko
    Daniil Konovalenko 22 February 2022 09: 13
    +6
    Economic oppression multiplied by religious and national oppression,
    The maximum increase in the number of panshchina days (in different places up to 5 - 6 days a week). The peasants were forced to work on the lands of the gentry from morning till night, not being able to rest and cultivate their land near the house. The gentry and pans themselves were not particularly involved in the economy, Jews were invited to manage the estates. Mills and crafts were given to them at the mercy of the pans. .
    dispersed the Haidamaks and captured Gonta and Zaliznyak.
    Representatives of the Russian Empire at first supported the uprising, jointly acted against the Confederates. The position of Catherine II changed after the troops of Zaliznyak burned the city of Balta, which belonged to Russia. The head of the local military garrison received an order from the queen to strangle the popular struggle so that there would be no more negative consequences. Maxim Zaliznyak and Ivan Gonta were invited to a banquet. They went because they were sure that the Russians were allies. They were immediately arrested. The rebel detachments without leaders were no longer such a formidable force and gradually, over the course of about two months, they were defeated, as a result of the duplicitous and treacherous policy of the Russian Empire towards the uprising. And the consequences of the uprising were deplorable: the execution of most of the impaled, terror in the territories covered by the uprising, the renewal and tightening of the panshchina, extortions from the peasants in favor of the pan.
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 22 February 2022 12: 28
      0
      Their author:
      The Confederates crossed the Kodyma River and hid in the Turkish town of Balta.

      From you:
      Zaliznyak's troops burned the city of Balta, which belonged to Russia.


      The inconsistency turns out, Daniel request hi
      1. parusnik
        parusnik 22 February 2022 17: 32
        +2
        And they are both wrong. laughing Balta did not belong to Turkey, Russia, or Poland, the Nogai Horde roamed there, which was a vassal of the Crimean Khanate, the Khanate was a vassal of the Ottoman Empire, let’s say it belonged to the Tatars, there were no Turkish and Tatar populations, a sort of town with a Jewish and Orthodox population ( fugitive serfs lived in Balta, deserters from the Republic of Ingushetia, Poland), Haidamaks, it seems that a certain Shilo commanded them, yes, they pursued the Confederates, occupied the town, then a white furry animal would come to the Confederates, and they went to Turkey ... Gaidamaks contact they didn’t go with the Turks, but they didn’t leave without prey, they broke off on the Jews, staged a pogrom, they cut the Jews and left .. But .. there was still an Orthodox population. Then the Tatars attacked the town and slaughtered the Orthodox .. Shilo, having learned about this, returned, expelled the Tatars and crossing the Kodyma River, took some kind of Tatar or Turkish village, already on the territory of the Ottoman Empire. The Turks declared war on Russia, like because of Balta. But the capture of Balta, as one of the reasons. After the war, Balta moved away AND. There was nowhere for the serfs and deserters to flee.
        "- Complicated story
        -How true, Watson. laughing
  6. Timofey Charuta
    Timofey Charuta 22 February 2022 13: 07
    +2
    We were taught in the Soviet school that Koliyivshchyna is a popular revolt against all pans and Poles. Not a word about the Jews. It is also worth reading Shevchenko's classic poem "Haydamaki" - a Ukrainian view of this uprising. Especially the chapter of the poem "Gonta in Uman".

    In general, the stupidity of Russian tsarism is to give out the leaders of national uprisings to their fierce enemies. The Poles were given Gonta, the Austrians - the leaders of the Hungarian revolution in 1848. They only increased the number of enemies of Russia, not friends + discredit. Gendarme of Europe....

  7. Bogatyrev
    Bogatyrev April 13 2022 23: 42
    0
    The question remains - what was it? And if we look for answers in national myths, then we will get anything but the truth. And the truth is that a peasant uprising of illiterate and embittered people broke out, without any special goals, not considering revenge for everything.

    And what position did the literate part of Rusyn society, especially the Church, take? Did they take part in the uprising? Supported?