Military Review

Officer diploma deprived of state prestige

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Officer diploma deprived of state prestigeIn September, 2010, Robert Gates, stated that “... the Russian minister has an interest in professional military education,” noting that it is difficult to prepare defense and security professionals. It is difficult to argue with this, and the actions of Anatoly Serdyukov’s team evoke critical reviews from political and public actors.


Reforming the military education system is a challenge for any country. Let us analyze the plans and actions of the Russian Ministry of Defense in this regard.

FORMULATION OF THE PROBLEM

The state and quality of military education affect the security of the modern state. The German philosopher Schmitt believed that “the concept of a nation is a concept of education. Only an educated nation in the sense of such qualities as human will and human self-consciousness is a nation. ” These thoughts are fully realized in the politics of modern states, when the most educated and experienced people who understand the real will of the people and are aware of the essence of the national welfare fall into the elective authorities. Literate politicians and gosdeyateli understand that the reform of education is necessarily preceded by a consensus among all participants in the socio-political process.

A similar understanding of the preliminary scientific and social adjustment of any reform seems to have developed among the domestic elite. Rector of Moscow State University Lomonosov at the international conference Yaroslavl-2009 noted: "Every proposal in the education system should be accompanied by a wide discussion in the expert community, it is necessary to take into account the opinions of teachers, teachers, professionals and scientists." We will agree and pose a problem: why did the reform of the Russian military education start without public consensus? Why is the public poboku?

Indeed, the public and experts in our country "sound the alarm", constantly notice the "flaws" and "inconsistencies" in the actions of the Ministry of Defense, the illogicality of some steps. However, it seems that no one pays attention to public concern. Several September appearances on the central TV channels of the actual head of the military education system, Fraltsova, left some experts bewilderment and questions: is it really possible to reform the military education according to a single and clear plan? If there is a plan, then what is its essence? What is the realism of this plan?

In our opinion, there are several reasons why a public discussion of the military reform plan did not take place.

First, in our country, traditionally, the leading minority is convinced that, without prompting from below, he knows how to bring the “dark” majority to a bright future. So it was in 1917 and 1991.

Secondly, in Russia, any reformer believes that the success of transformations lies on the path of democratization, which is understood as a process that has not been known by anyone. Therefore, the reform of social relations, as a rule, is carried out at random.

Thirdly, the military initially never discuss orders in their midst, and with civilians, in their opinion, it’s simply seditious to discuss their problems. That is, the domestic military authorities and the officer corps were not psychologically prepared for drastic actions by the leadership of the state.

Fourth, we believe that the need for a radical reform of the armed forces and their control system was caused by the rather chaotic military campaign with Georgia of 2008.

VUZOV BECOMES LESS

The calculation of the number of military universities is simple and boils down to bringing the quantitative and qualitative parameters of the military education system in line with the structure, size and objectives of the Armed Forces. This is described in the RF Government Decree No. 352 on the federal program “Reforming the system of military education in the Russian Federation before 2010 of the year”. The reduction in military colleges is justified by the fact that from 1990 to 2001 there was a significant reduction in the number of aircraft, while the network of military schools was not reduced in the respective proportions.

But why the places for the service of officers were reduced, and their overproduction continued? How to explain such a disproportion on the part of the Ministry of Defense? Calculations about what was more profitable than cutting? The desire of the military department to intensify the adaptation of military education to the modern tasks of the Armed Forces and the transformation of society is understandable. At the same time, the foundations are being laid for the possible unification of military education to a single pan-European system of collective security. For the Ministry of Defense, management of universities is simplified and the competition increases when they enroll in them in the future, financial savings and a number of advantages are provided.

Will such actions of the Ministry of Defense be able to solve the real problems of the Armed Forces and military education? In our opinion, it is doubtful, since the place, role and functional duties of the officer in the new moral and organizational system of the troops are not defined, in which, according to the plan of transformations, the emphasis on teaching and educational work with the soldier during peacetime and wartime is transferred to the sergeant under the contract. But the sergeant is not yet prepared in the literal and figurative sense. They exist virtually, but they are not yet real. At the same time, the material and technical base is deteriorating in higher education institutions, the intellectual level of teaching staff is decreasing, and many of them still do not understand the essence of transformations, and intellectual teachers do not want to work for a penny.

What will the sun give a numerical reduction in higher education? At the first stage, there are many difficulties in bringing the number of officers to the optimum. Already, officers who want to serve offer sergeant positions with no clear career prospects. In the following it should be assumed: 1) most likely - a shortage of young officers for the needs of the troops, especially in obtaining officers in rare specialties; 2) difficulties with motivation for the service of a large part of the officers; 3) increase of problems with recruiting officer positions in military units "beyond the Urals". Reflections on the problems that will result in a reduction in the number of universities, we have systematized in the tables that are offered to readers on page 7.

The plan of the Ministry of Defense, which consists in replacing a significant part of the officer positions in higher education institutions with civilian specialists, has been formed for many years. And when, after the next reform, there were not enough officers in the army, successful recruits were made from among students of non-military universities. Consequently, it is possible to repeat this experience, only the other way around: “drive off” a part of officer positions and replace them first with reserve officers, and later with civilian specialists in general. This is the plan of the Ministry of Defense.

But what will be the return? In our opinion, social benefits for military personnel will decrease, which will lead to financial savings. In many non-specialized posts of teaching staff, civilian teachers will appear, which will increase their mobility. At the same time, the number of officers, especially senior ones, will decrease, their motivation for teaching will be lost. Perhaps the initial significant decline in the quality of education in higher education. But at the same time, the existing problems of the army and military education will not go away. There will be a low social security of servicemen and civilian personnel, low remuneration of teachers. As a result, in the conditions of a shortage of funds for military reform, saving becomes an end in itself.

What is the result? It is possible that part of the teaching staff in higher educational institutions will be freed from the duties of military service and will be able to go to other universities, but the Ministry of Education and Science also makes reductions in them. Consequently, scientists and teachers in uniform are left to the mercy of fate, and the Ministry of Defense saves again. The officers have lost motivation for pedagogical activity. And we believe that very soon the Ministry of Defense will begin to order PPP to civilian universities for itself. Sad forecast.

OFFICERS NO NEED MORE?

The reduction of about 200 thousand officers demanded that the Ministry of Defense take emergency measures. Among them is the suspension of admission of applicants to military schools over the next four years. Universities gradually "die" themselves, and the dream of many boys to be officers became unrealizable. With such tough measures is the alignment of the number of officers in connection with the new look of the army.

In our opinion, this inevitably leads to problems with the succession of personnel officers in the military, the higher educational institutions simply do not have time to restructure themselves to the Bologna process, the attractiveness of military service in Russian society decreases. By the way, the Soviet society "shook" more than once when it allegedly did not need officers.

What is the result? Already today Russian military traditions are being violated, the threat to Russian military dynasties is real. The generation of today's 17 – 19-year-old young men is left without the possibility of going to school to get an officer’s rank, which reduces the educational level in general in the Armed Forces and creates new problems with the training of officers in the future. We also predict increased turnover of non-military PPS in higher education institutions.

What and who will benefit from this?

What is the interest of the Russian Ministry of Defense when it seeks to bring its institutions of higher education outside of Moscow and other major cities?

OBVIOUS MINUS

“Only that army in which military-scientific literature is flourishing can be good and reliable,” emphasized our compatriot A.A. Svechin. Without science and its development, not a single human sphere of life can successfully exist, and the army even more so. However, the Ministry of Defense is making an unprecedented reduction in the number of design and research structures in the Armed Forces. The interest of the Defense Ministry is clear: 1) reduce the number of senior officers and the cost of their social security; 2) eliminate mechanisms for the participation of officers in commercial and corruption schemes; 3) eliminate a group of non-combat officers; 4) release real estate for sale.

However, how is the Defense Ministry going to eliminate the pronounced lag of the domestic military-industrial complex in scientific, research and development activities? How can this neutralize the inability of the Ministry of Defense to organize effective scientific and research work in the Armed Forces? So far no one has heard the answers to these questions.

In our opinion, the result of reducing the number of design and research structures in the Russian Armed Forces will be a further reduction in the impact of internal scientific, research and development work. At the same time, the significance of the joint-stock scientific research institutes and design institutes, as well as enterprises and scientific research institutes of the military-industrial complex, is greatly increasing for the Ministry of Defense. We believe that it is expedient for the Russian defense ministry to urgently create an outsourcing structure in the military administration system.

Thus, changes in the domestic system of military education have matured long ago. But, unfortunately, all branches of state power, the public and the media were out of the preparation and implementation of these changes. These changes already affect the military security of Russia. We do not support the desire to save on military education. At the same time, real informatization, computerization and Internetization of military universities will be a blessing.

Reforming military education is not an internal affair of the Armed Forces. The Ministry of Defense will have to reckon with the requirements of the Bologna process for national educational systems and it makes sense to seek support for their actions from the public and the media. It remains to understand: is the Russian Defense Ministry ready for this?

Table 1 Analysis of the reduction in the number of universities of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation (according to the Association of Military Political Scientists)
The interest of the Ministry of Defense What will it give to the Armed Forces (VS) The real problems of the Armed Forces and military education Estimated result of the reform

1. Adaptation of the military. education for the socio-economic needs of society. 2. Preparation of military unification. education to the European system of collective security.
3. Simplify management of higher education.
4. Reducing the number of officers.
5. Financial savings.
6. In the future, an increase in the competition for admission to universities.
7. Creating a new faculty to improve
quality training officers

1. Difficulty in getting officers
2. Most likely - the lack of young officers for the needs of the Armed Forces.
3. Problems with the motivation to serve a large part of the officers.
4. The growing problems with the recruitment of officer positions in military units "beyond the Urals".

1. The place and role of the new officer in the Armed Forces system are not defined.
2. Faced with difficulties, especially young officers do not want to serve.
3. The officer does not see the prospects for his activities commensurate with his civilian colleagues.
5. The deterioration of the material and technical base of higher education.
6. Reducing the intellectual level of PPP.
7. Most PPPs do not yet understand the essence of transformations.
8. Low pay for teaching staff in higher education institutions.
9. Military system Education remains closed to society.
10. Lack of funds for the implementation of the plan.

1. In the future, the status of the remaining higher education institutions will be raised.
2. Concentration of the Ministry of Defense resources.
3. Perhaps - a temporary decline in interest in military service.
4. Reduced interest in pedagogical activities in higher education.
5. Possibly - updating the material and technical base of the remaining higher education institutions.
6. Dissatisfaction with the governors and mayors of large cities where there were universities.
7. The fall of the prestige of the Armed Forces officer in society.

Table 2 Analysis of the “disbanding” of faculty members in higher education institutions of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation (according to the Association of Military Political Scientists)
The interest of the Ministry of Defense What will it give to the Armed Forces (VS) The real problems of the Armed Forces and military education Estimated result of the reform

1. Refusal to help the professional career of officers PPP.
2. Reduce the cost of social benefits for military personnel.
3. Certain financial savings.
4. Perhaps - increasing the mobility of teaching staff (in collaboration with civilian universities).

1. Reducing the number of officers. officers, especially senior officers
2. Loss at the official. composition of motivation for military educational activities.
3. Problems with the motivation to serve a large part of the officers
4. It is possible to reduce the quality of education in higher education.
5. Demonstration of greater openness of higher education institutions and the armed forces.

1. Low social security of servicemen and civilian personnel of the RF Armed Forces.
2. Low pay for teaching staff 3
3. Military system Education is quite closed to society.
4. In the conditions of lack of funds for the military. reform savings can be an end in themselves.

1. Most of the faculty in higher education is exempted from the duties of the military. service.
2. In the case of a good wage, it is possible to increase the interest of the teaching staff of the country in pedagogical activities in higher educational institutions.
3. Officer The squad will lose its motivation for military pedagogical activity.

 

Table 3 Analysis of the actual termination of the enrollment of students in higher education (according to the Association of Military Political Scientists)
The interest of the Ministry of Defense What will it give to the Armed Forces (VS) The real problems of the Armed Forces and military education Estimated result of the reform

1. Reducing the number of officers. composition in accordance with the new look of the aircraft.
2. Reducing the cost of social benefits.
3. Certain financial savings.

1. The complexity of career growth young officers. in terms of reducing the official. posts.
2. More employment opportunities for officers in possession.
3. Difficulties in working with the military. on appeal.
4. Falling succession in personnel officers

1. Reducing the status of the officer and the attractiveness of the military. services in the Russian society.
2. The inability of universities to quickly restructure their activities in the framework of the Bologna process.
3. Reduction of teaching staff, many years working in high schools.
4. The dismissal of officers in high schools.
5. Destruction in the Armed Forces of the system of training PPP (military) for their own universities.
6. The absence in the Armed Forces of the system of training PPP (not military) for their own universities.

1. There is a gap in the system of succession of generations of officers. Violation of the military traditions of Russia. The threat of war. the dynasties of Russia.
2. For 17-19-year-old Russians - reducing the possibility of entering the military. service (in official positions).
3. Decrease in educational level as a whole in VS.
4. Increased mobility and turnover is not military. PPS vvuzov.
5. Extension for the future of problems with the preparation of the official. for sun.

 

Table 4 Analysis of the elimination of higher education institutions outside Moscow and other major cities (according to the Association of Military Political Scientists)
The interest of the Ministry of Defense What will it give to the Armed Forces (VS) The real problems of the Armed Forces and military education Estimated result of the reform

1. Release of property for sale.
2. Reducing social spending (primarily housing) and other compensatory benefits associated with living in the capital, other cities, and major cities.
3. Higher education institutions will become more closed to society.
4. Strengthening control over cadets and teaching staff in higher education institutions.

1. Reducing the use of cultural and educational resources of the capital and major cities (libraries, museums, theaters, etc.).
2. Transferring intellectual centers to the province.
3. The decline in the intellectual level of higher education and official. composition (the majority of doctors and candidates of science will not go to the province).
4. The emergence of problems in the preparation of new scientific personnel in moving institutes of higher education.
5. Reducing the popularity of military. service.

1. Low attractiveness of the military. service.
2. Military Education is not listed on the Russian labor market.
3. The constant decline in the intellectual level of war. frames.
4. The desire of the Ministry of Defense to minimize the discussion of military in Russian society. service and condition of the Armed Forces.
5. The inability of the Ministry of Defense to solve the social problems of servicemen.
6. The high growth of corruption in the military system. management and inefficient spending of budget funds.

 

1. Lack vvuzov in large garrisons.
2. Improving the conditions for training cadets and students of higher educational institutions in the field.
3. Perhaps - a closer contact between higher education institutions and military units.
4. A significant reduction in the number of servicemen. in the capital and major cities.
5. The possibility of creating in the so-called provinces. "Military clusters".
6. Increase in budget expenditures (on transfers to higher educational institutions to the provinces).
7. The decline in the popularity of officers. service in major cities and metropolitan areas.
8. The remoteness of higher education institutions from cultural centers is to be replaced by information resources.

 

Table 5 Analysis of the process of formation of a new look of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (according to the Association of military political scientists)
The interest of the Ministry of Defense What will it give to the Armed Forces (VS) The real problems of the Armed Forces and military education Estimated result of the reform

1. Reduce the amount of social security for military personnel
2. To reduce the urgency of the social problems of officers and ensigns, mainly housing problems.
3. Optimize the military control system.
4. Increase the appeal of the military. services at the Russian society.
4. Reduce and optimize the cost of maintaining the Armed Forces.
5. Strengthen financial control of budget spending on defense.
6. Prove effective political elite.

1. Reducing the number of officers. and the command staff of the Armed Forces.
2. The increase in the medium term prepared official. reserve for the sun.
3. In the future - the professionalization of the Armed Forces.
4. Perhaps - an understanding of the official. composition of the prospects for the development of the sun.
5. Increased support from the political elite and government.
6. Optimization of the military system. management.
7. Perhaps - great support by public opinion of the sun.

1. Reducing the attractiveness of the military. service.
2. Reducing the quality of military. education.
3. Reduced intellectual level military personnel.
4. The aggravation of relations between the leadership of the Armed Forces and the Russian society (in the conditions of the “demographic hole” and the refusal of prioritization of contract service)
5. The inability of the Ministry of Defense to quickly solve the social problems of the military.
6. The high growth of corruption in the military system. management and inefficient spending of budget funds.

1. Perhaps - optimization of budget spending on the maintenance of the Armed Forces.
2. The possibility of reducing social problems for the rest of the war., Including a significant increase in the money allowance.
3. Continuation of the course on modernization and innovative development of the Armed Forces.
4. The political elite can be convinced of the ability of the Ministry of Defense to fulfill a political order.
5. Perhaps - the increased criticism of the actions of the Ministry of Defense by the expert community.
6. Perhaps - over time, increased criticism of the actions of the Ministry of Defense (if promises are not fulfilled) by the public and the media.

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