How Dolgorukov stormed the Perekop line

39

Perekop fortress

General situation


During the Russian-Turkish war that began in 1768, our armies operated in two main directions - the Danube and the southern (Crimean). In 1770, under the influence of the military successes of Russia and the successful diplomacy of Count Peter Panin, the Nogai Tatars of the Budzhak, Edisan, Edichkul and Dzhambulak hordes decided to leave the Ottoman Empire and accept the patronage of Russia. This significantly weakened the Crimean Khanate.

In Crimea itself, there was no unity, there was a struggle for power. Among the nobility there was a strong party that did not want war with Russia and wanted to free itself from vassal dependence on Turkey with its help. In 1769, during the hostilities, Khan Kyrym-Girey suddenly died (possibly, he was poisoned). The new khan Devlet-Girey tried to organize the Crimean horde to fight with Russia, but his opponents thwarted a new mobilization. In 1770, Constantinople deprived Devlet of the throne. Another Khan Kaplan-Girey fought at the Danube Theater, was defeated at Larga, and after a number of other setbacks returned to Crimea. Under the influence of the pro-Russian party, which wanted to end the war and free itself from the power of the Port, Kaplan began negotiations with Russia. He was removed from office and summoned to Turkey, where he soon died. The new khan was Selim-Girey, an opponent of rapprochement with Russia.



In the meantime, Petersburg decided to complete the business of creating Novorossiya and occupy the Crimea. The annexation of Crimea crowned a long process of struggle between the Russian state and the Crimean Khanate and Turkey. It is necessary to pacify the last large fragment of the Golden Horde - the Crimean Khanate, eliminate the robber, slave-owning state formation, the Turkish strategic bridgehead and the base that threatened southern Russia. To complete the economic development of the former "Wild Field". To create a full-fledged fleet in the Black Sea and turn it back into the "Russian". Crimea was the key territory that ensured the domination of the Russian Empire in the Northern Black Sea region. This was the solution to one of the age-old key political tasks of Russia.


Operation plan


The task of conquering the Crimea in the campaign of 1771 was entrusted to the 2nd Russian army under the command of the general-in-chief, Prince Vasily Mikhailovich Dolgorukov. He is known for the fact that during the campaign of 1736 he was the first to break into the Perekop fortifications and survived. Before the assault on Perekop, Field Marshal Munnich promised that the first soldier who ascended the fortifications alive would be promoted to officer. The first was the young Dolgorukov, who received the rank of lieutenant for this. Earlier, the Dolgorukov family fell into disgrace, and Tsarina Anna Ioannovna ordered not to give any of the Dolgorukov ranks. Later, the prince was noted in a number of battles of the Seven Years War. In 1770 he replaced Panin as commander of the 2nd Army.

The Russian army (about 30 thousand regular troops and 7 thousand Cossacks) set out from Poltava on April 20, 1771 and moved south along the Dnieper. This time, the supply task, which was practically the main one in previous campaigns to the Crimea, was solved. The Dnieper and Don were used for supply. Stores (warehouses) on the Ukrainian fortified line and in the fortifications of the Elizavetgrad province were easily replenished. On the Dnieper, supplies were transported to the former Ottoman fortress Kyzy-Kermen, along the Don basin - to Taganrog, where the main store was, then from there the goods were transported by ships to the Petrovsky fortification on the river. Berde and other places. Azov, created during the war with Turkey flotilla under the command of Vice Admiral Senyavin in 1771, she gained combat capability and supported the offensive of the 2nd Army. The flotilla was supposed to cover the ground forces from the sea, where Turkish ships could appear, defend the points occupied in the Sea of ​​Azov and bring supplies.

The conquest of the Crimea depended on the occupation of its main points. Therefore, it was necessary to capture the Perekop fortress, a ditch with a rampart, separating the Crimean peninsula from the mainland, and fortified by forts and the Or-Kapu fortress. Kerch and Yenikale, as fortresses, connecting the Azov and Black Seas. Kafa (Feodosia), Arabat and Kezlev (Evpatoria), as seaside points that ensure domination in the Crimea.

Therefore, the 2nd Army was divided into three groups, which had their own tasks. The main forces under the command of Dolgorukov were to occupy Perekop and go to Kafa. The detachment of Major General FF Shcherbatov was supposed to force the Sivash with the help of the Azov flotilla, take the Arabat fortress and then go to Kerch and Yenikale. Major General Brown's third detachment was to occupy Evpatoria.

Senyavin's flotilla was based at the mouth of the Berda, at the Peter's fortress. In the event of the appearance of Turkish ships in the Sea of ​​Azov, the flotilla was supposed to stand at the Fedotova Spit and not let the enemy go to Genichesk. However, heavy Turkish ships, which had a deep landing, could not operate in the shallow waters of the Azov Sea coast. Also, the Russian flotilla could support the capture of Arabat, Kerch and Yenikale.

Also, part of Dolgorukov's army was left to defend the southern borders of the empire. Mostly light forces. They reinforced the garrison of the Elizabethan fortress, remained on the Ukrainian line, carried out patrol service between the Dnieper and the Sea of ​​Azov. A special detachment of General Wasserman covered the area between the Dniester and the Bug, from the side of Ochakov. This unit also linked the 1st and 2nd armies.

How Dolgorukov stormed the Perekop line
Remains of the Perekop shafts

2 Army Offensive


Having crossed the Vorskla River, Dolgorukov decided to go to the Crimea in a big roundabout way in order to avoid movement in the desert area. The troops followed the course of the Dnieper, moving away from it for several miles. On the left side of the Dnieper, there were small rivers, which solved the problem of water supply. The vegetation along the Dnieper provided fuel and food for the horses. Insignificant tributaries of the Dnieper could be forded without any problems and only occasionally built gates for the passage of artillery. To avoid the intense heat, the troops marched at 2-3 o'clock in the morning.

On April 23, 1771, the 2nd Army entered the Orel River, stood here until May 5, waiting for the collection of all troops. On May 7, the troops were at the Samara fortification, at the confluence of the Samara River into the Dnieper. Dolgorukov stayed here until May 13, waiting for the construction of a bridge across Samara. At this time, the soldiers were preparing assault ladders and other devices for a future attack on the Perekop line. On May 18, the army was at the Alexander Redoubt at the confluence of the Moskovka River into the Dnieper. Having given two days to rest, on the 21st Dolgorukov continued the hike.

Forcing the Horse Waters River, where they made a bridge on piles for the artillery, and two pontoon bridges for the infantry and cavalry, the troops went to the small river Mayachka, where they joined up with the detachment of General Berg, who was going from Bakhmut.

On May 27, the army was divided: Shcherbatov's detachment followed in the direction of Arabat, the main forces continued to follow the course of the Dnieper. On June 5, the troops were opposite Kyzy-Kermen. From here the road from the left stream of the Dnieper turned sharply to Perekop. Therefore, a strong redoubt, Shagin-Gireysky, was built in this place for several days. The main food warehouse of the army was located here, from where supplies were supposed to bring mobile stores. Two infantry companies, 2 Cossacks, several squadrons of carabinieri and cannons were left to guard him. A post of the same strength was set up in the direction of Kinburn.


Portrait of V.M.Dolgorukov-Crimean by Alexander Roslin (1776)

Storm Perekopa


On June 12, 1771, Dolgorukov's troops reached Perekop. The enemy cavalry set out from the fortress, the Cossacks and light troops started a firefight with the enemy. After that, the Tatars and Turks did not dare to set out in the field. The Perekop line stretched from the Black Sea (Perekop Bay) to the Sivash for about 7,5 km. The part of the line that adjoined the Sivash was severely destroyed by water. The strongest fortification protecting the road leading to the Crimea was the Perekop fortress (Or-Kapi). The fortress had a five-pointed shape with earthen walls lined with strong stones and quadrangular towers.

In the Perekop area there was a Crimean Turkish army led by Khan Selim-Giray III - 50 thousand Crimeans and 7 thousand Turks. At the same time, the Sultan's government planned to send an army to the Northern Black Sea region. However, threats from other directions forced Constantinople to abandon these plans. The Russian fleet (First Archipelago Expedition) destroyed the Turkish Navy in the Mediterranean and threatened the Dardanelles. Also, supplies of provisions by sea to the Turkish capital were interrupted, which caused the threat of a riot. The Sultan was forced to keep large forces in Constantinople and hastily strengthen the Dardanelles. The successes of the Russian and Georgian troops in the Caucasus forced the Porto to send additional forces to the Georgian front. As a result, the sultan was unable to send the forces necessary for the defense of the peninsula to the Crimea.

Having examined the fortress, Dolgorukov decided to take it on the move, without a long siege. The Russian command decided to bypass the strongest place of the enemy - the fortress. The main blow was delivered along the line that adjoined the Black Sea. Part of the cavalry and infantry planned to wade across the Sivash, bypassing the enemy's right flank. On the section of the rampart near Sivash, they decided to conduct a false attack. In addition, detachments of infantry and cavalry with cannons were deployed in areas where there were gates on the line to prevent the Crimeans from conducting sorties during the main assault.

On the night of June 13-14, a small detachment of infantry under the command of General Kakhovsky began shelling the fortified line near Sivash, diverting attention to themselves. The enemy knew that here he had the weakest point and concentrated his main forces here.

Meanwhile, the main assault column (9 battalions of grenadiers and 2 battalions of rangers), under the command of General Musin-Pushkin, secretly went to the rampart. The soldiers descended the stairs into the moat and climbed the rampart. As a result, our troops with a swift attack captured the fortifications from the Black Sea to the fortress.

At this time, the cavalry of General Prozorovsky crossed the Sivash, went to the rear of the Crimeans. The Tatars tried to counterattack with their entire mass of cavalry. Our cavalry withstood the attack, at which time the infantry approached. The Crimeans quickly lost heart and fled. Our cavalry pursued them deep into the peninsula for 30 miles. The Perekop line near Sivash was also captured.

The garrison of the Perekop fortress (over 800 soldiers) surrendered on June 15 after an artillery bombardment.

Over 170 cannons were captured in the fortress and on the rampart.

The losses of the Ottomans and Tatars amounted to more than 1200 people, the losses of the Russian troops - more than 160 people.

Thus, the Russian army opened its way to the Crimea.

The Crimean army fled to Kafa.

Having set up a rear base in Perekop, on June 17, Dolgorukov's army moved to Kafa. A detachment of General Brown (about 2,5 thousand people) went to Kezlev (Evpatoria).

To be continued ...
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  1. 0
    7 2021 June
    Dolgoruky!
    1. +22
      7 2021 June
      Vasily Mikhailovich Dolgoruks well done, it was not in vain that he received from Catherine II a sword decorated with diamonds, diamonds for the Order of St. Andrew the First-Called and the victorious title "Crimean".
      1. +8
        7 2021 June
        I confess that all my life I was confident in my version. sad
  2. +3
    7 2021 June
    ... To avoid the intense heat, the troops marched at 2-3 o'clock in the morning.

    On April 23, 1771, the 2nd Army entered the Orel River

    Wow the climate was.
    April - early May - intense heat!
  3. +11
    7 2021 June
    Sasha, what the hell is going on with you.
    It seems as if one writes the text, and the second inserts illustrations, and does so in such a way as to deliberately frame the author. request
    Every article is like this, here it is again today.

    This is not the Perekop fortress - this is a lithograph by T. Packer, 1855 withfancy image fortress Or-Kapy. That Packer himself does not hide, but honestly points to his lithography.
    The internet is full of plans and schemes of the fortress. For example:
    Perekop fortress scheme... Drawing from the Dutch edition of 1681.

    Diagram of the Or-Kapu fortification ... Drawing by Witzen

    Here is the plan of the fortress for Dolgorukov

    and finally myself plan of attack on her
  4. +14
    7 2021 June
    The construction of a fortification on the isthmus is usually associated with the Scythian kingdom, which sought to block the road to the peninsula for the Sarmatians advancing from the mainland. In ancient times, there was more than one "rekop" in the Crimea: at least four huge ditches also crossed the Kerch Peninsula from north to south. They swam with the earth a long time ago, their ramparts collapsed, and now only barely noticeable traces in the fields remain of these fortifications. A similar fate would have awaited the ditch on the isthmus - however, unlike in Kerch, it continued to serve future generations, and therefore it was constantly repaired, deepened and strengthened. The giant moat was such a remarkable geographic feature that the entire country extending south of the isthmus got its name from it. According to one version, this happened in the 13th century, during the Golden Horde, when the word "kyrym" (meaning "ditch" in the Turkic language of that time) began to be called the entire peninsula. At the end of the fifteenth century, Crimea was several times subjected to devastating Horde attacks, so the Crimean the khans took up seriously the strengthening of their borders.
    Mengli Giray erected a whole chain of fortresses on the approaches to the peninsula: Tavan, Dzhan-Kermen and Islyam-Kermen rose on the banks of the Dnieper, and on the Isthmus of Perekop in 1509, the khan erected a fortification, which in Arabic was called Ferrakh-Kermen, and in Crimean Tatar - Or-Kapy. Mengli Giray managed to defend the Crimea and defeat the last Horde khans, but even after that, many self-styled heirs of the Horde, hostile to the Crimean khans, still wandered in the Caspian steppes. In 1523 the peninsula was again devastated by the invasion of the Trans-Volga hordes, and in 1548, as already mentioned, Sahib I Giray only with great difficulty was able to recapture them from Perekop. This sad experience forced Sahib I Giray to thoroughly rebuild the fortifications erected at Perekop by his father, Mengli Giray. The ancient moat was deepened and lined with stone, powerful walls with seven towers rose on the ramparts, and in the middle of the wall, on the road to the Crimea, a fortress gate was erected, into which it was possible to enter only by a folding bridge that was thrown over the moat on chains. The fortress was not only well fortified, but also decorated. A stone owl was carved above its entrance gate: the symbol of Genghis Khan, the distant ancestor of the Geraevs. Eyewitnesses wrote that other unusual images were carved on the walls of the fortification: an elephant, a dog, a leopard and a floating siren, and ancient stone statues from Scythian or Kypchak mounds were embedded in the masonry of the fortress walls as building blocks. Not far from the gate stood a small rectangular citadel with the commandant's house and an ammunition depot. There was always a garrison of Ottoman Janissaries with cannons in it. Or-bey was also assigned to the fortress - this rank was given by the khans to the commander of the local Nogai militia. As soon as a conditional alarm signal was given from the walls of Or-Kapa with a cannon shot, the Nogai cavalry immediately gathered from the steppes to defend the fortress. It cannot be said that the fortress was completely impregnable: during internal rebellions and strife in the Crimean Khanate, it happened more than once that the rebellious mirzes overcame Perekop and approached from the Dnieper steppes to Bakhchisarai itself. But as for external adversaries, for two hundred years not a single foreign army was able to penetrate this barrier.
    1. +10
      7 2021 June
      The significance of Perekop for the Crimean Khanate was enormous. The commandant of Or-Kapu - Or-Bey, must have been a representative of the Girey family. He occupied the fourth step in the hierarchical ladder of the Crimean Khanate after kalga-sultan (heir to the khan), nureddin-sultan (second heir) and sultans (princes from the Girei clan). And only after him were the vizier, the head of the clergy, ministers and beys.
  5. +11
    7 2021 June
    In 1736, the army of the Tsar's Field Marshal Minich approached its walls. Minich sent an ultimatum to Khan Kaplan I Giray demanding to submit to Russia. Khan refused, Minich successfully stormed Perekop, led his army to the Crimea and ravaged the peninsula. During the assault on Or-Kapa, ​​the field marshal announced that the soldier who first climbed the wall would be promoted to officer. The first on the wall was a young man from a noble but disgraced family: Vasily Dolgorukov, who received the title of lieutenant for his skill. This was the beginning of the officer's career of the commander, who 35 years later, in 1771 (already in the rank of general-in-chief and at the head of a large army), returned to the walls of the Perekop fortress, captured it and destroyed it.
    1. 0
      October 2 2021
      In 1736 Dolgorukov received the rank of ensign, then it was the first officer's rank. He received the lieutenant later.
  6. +14
    7 2021 June
    a photo.German aerial photograph 1941-44
    Moats and ramparts at the site of the citadel of the Or-Kapa fortress.
    1. +10
      7 2021 June
      Fine, Dima! good So he took it and immediately wrote a second article. Listen, you don’t think it’s time to write articles yourself, and not just comment on others. To me, and not to me alone, this is exactly what it seems. Good philonite, write come on, people expect real articles from you! You have no right to shirk and offend the team. laughing
      1. +9
        7 2021 June
        I join. Many people have been talking to him about this for a long time. Where to sign the petition with the requirements
        write come on, people expect real articles from you!
        The good authors will arrive in the regiment.
        Good philonite
        Dmitry!
      2. +8
        7 2021 June
        Good philonite, write come on

        Kostya, why? A. Samsonov's article turned out
        interesting not bad, quite self-sufficient. In principle, there is nothing to add on the topic.
        The fortress itself deserves a separate article, but here I pass - I have to ask the Crimeans for this, they know more.
        1. +10
          7 2021 June
          SERGE ANT: Come on, people expect real articles from you!

          Not in fig smile Let Grandfather writes - he has more knowledge Yes

          Andrei Olgovich Yesterday I already carried out a whole "investigation". I shoveled both Russian and English Wiki on this topic. I found the stupidest mistake in Russian and as a result confirmed the correctness of the phrase I quoted from Gardiner S. R "A history of England under the Duke of Buckingham and Charles I, 1624-1628" smile
          As it turned out Grandfather not only did I not read Gardiner, but also Vicki herself with her ridiculous mistake. And the most interesting thing is that he was given -7 grateful pluses for this comment laughing
          So the flag is in his hands. And somehow I will interrupt with comments wink
          1. +7
            7 2021 June
            So we will write it down, you don’t respect the team, Sharapov, but he’s a mountain for you. Eh ...
            As it was said there at one time - "did not justify the trust." I'm sorry. request
            1. +8
              7 2021 June
              Friends, no offense. drinks
              I have already answered more than once that for a long time I specifically vowed not to write articles on VO. The experience of two, three or four years ago, publications to this prompted. One article was about Khasbulat, the other about Ataman I.D. Volzhensky. The most "modest" comments were like - There is nothing to write about the Cossacks, they were bastards - White Guards, they drank blood from the working class and whipped the proletariat with whips.
              Nobody bothered to explain what connection Volzhensky and Cherkassky have with the White Warders, but they guided the minuses from the heart and recorded them in the crushers laughing
              PS. And for articles you need VikNik, and Olgovich to unwind here who has universal knowledge
              1. +6
                7 2021 June
                Dim, if you keep looking back at the de bilov and go from the houses, then it is better not to leave the house either. And you write for normal, reasonable people, they are here and there are much more of them than stinking hamsters and urya-patriots. smile drinks
        2. +3
          7 2021 June
          And I, by the way, did not mean this article, that is enough without Perekop, and Dedkastary will not write articles, he is already old and he has sikilirosis. laughing
          1. +5
            7 2021 June
            Kostya. There is one interesting topic!
            But not from History, but from Arms. The truth is with the photo trouble. But the stuff is a miracle. I’m not going to put it together for an article.
            Let me send it to you. You will write the article yourself.
            1. +4
              7 2021 June
              Dima! Are you kidding me? Immediately to print! And we will find a photo, tell me what you need.
              1. +5
                7 2021 June
                Are you kidding me?

                No, seriously - get busy, please.
                I now have a complete time trouble - the long-awaited steering rack for the Dodge has come to an end. Dear, zero! Yes, and my house is private - business in the summer is not a cinch. I'm just torn.
                Write. And I'll send you all the materials. You can put together the article itself. The material is fire!
                1. +5
                  7 2021 June
                  "Chukchi is not a writer, a Chukchi reader", write in a personal what the topic is and what kind of photos you need to look for. We’ll think of something, we’ll connect Nikolai.
                  1. +4
                    7 2021 June
                    write in a personal what the topic is

                    Sent in PM
      3. +6
        7 2021 June
        Kostya, hello! And count me! Let Dmitry write, it's high time.
        1. +3
          7 2021 June
          Sasha. great! You write to him, otherwise he already has an article almost ready, and we are nervous. wassat
          1. +3
            7 2021 June
            I can tell about myself. It is quite difficult to decide to publish it there (here) where you know that your opus will immediately be analyzed, almost under a microscope.
            And the comments will not always be friendly.
            Itself must ripen.
            I would advise him to take a narrow and little-known topic, not politicized. And better about the area where he lives.
            I hope Dima will read my comment. drinks
            1. +2
              7 2021 June
              I'll give you a personal answer.
            2. +6
              7 2021 June
              Greetings, Sasha
              I would advise him to take a narrow and little-known topic, not politicized. And better about the area where he lives.

              Which one? "Seasonal water level in the Podkumok River"? Or "Dad can. - How to cook chikhir at home"? laughing
              1. +5
                7 2021 June
                Hi!
                The second topic is very interesting and useful. I hope the article about chikhir will be published in the "opinion" section laughing
                I saw the offer to Konstantin.
                Be of good cheer!
                The paucity of authors on the site begins to strain.
              2. +3
                8 2021 June
                I am pleased to read about the Podkumok River.

                For some reason I think that history may well begin to study local lore.
                His own, dear.
                1. +2
                  8 2021 June
                  Sergei hi I fulfill your request.
                  Our country owes a podkumku to the emergence of the first hydroelectric power station on the territory of Russia. In 1903. the military council of the Terek KV made a decision to build a hydroelectric power station on the Podkumka river. They announced a competition for the project, purchased turbines and the necessary equipment, hired specialists and for just 3 (three months) built not only the "White Coal" hydroelectric power station itself, but also an 800-kilometer power transmission line.
                  Here. So! And then some with a clever look wrote about the traditional inertness of thinking and homeliness of the Russian Cossacks wink
                  a photo:Prokudin-Gorsky. “The first in Russia hydroelectric station“ White Coal ”. Power - 990 hp from. (740 kW). TKV, Essentuki, launched on May 24, 1903. "

                  Postcards with this photo of Prokudin-Gorsky were very popular at that time in RI:
                  1. +2
                    8 2021 June
                    Thank you, Dmitry!
                    The country's first hydroelectric power station is worth a lot.
      4. +3
        8 2021 June
        When the Government is in exile, it is understandable.
        And here the author is hiding among the commentators.
  7. +6
    7 2021 June
    And in the picture, exactly the Perekop Fortress? Vague doubts plagued. In terms of the style of writing the picture, its creation can be attributed to the 19th century. By that time, the fortress was practically gone.
    1. +6
      7 2021 June
      And in the picture, exactly the Perekop Fortress?

      A lithograph by Thomas Packer was published in The Times, London in 1855. This is how the British imagined the destroyed Perekop fortress
      ..This is probably the Tatar Khan's citadel Or-Kapa fortifications Perekop, destroyed in 1771 by the Russian Imperial army of General-in-Chief Basil Dolgorukov ....

      (English) probably - (Russian) probably, most likely, probably
  8. +4
    7 2021 June
    In 1770, under the influence of the military successes of Russia and the successful diplomacy of Count Peter Panin, the Nogai Tatars of the Budzhak, Edisan, Edichkul and Dzhambulak hordes decided to leave the Ottoman Empire and accept the patronage of Russia.


    The Budzhak horde was subordinate, first of all, to the Crimean Khanate, was led by the representative of the Crimean Khan clan Gireyev and was one of its main shock units.

    In order to weaken the khanate, Russia won the independence of the hordes from the khan's rule.

    And it worked.

    At the same time, the Budjak horde faithfully served Turkey until the last moment and left after its retreating borders.

    The last Nogai left Budjak in 1812 after the liberation of the region from Turkey
    1. +4
      7 2021 June
      Andrey, good morning hi
      A couple of years ago you already gave interesting comments about the Budzhak Belgorod Horde. That would be a little piece from you on this topic?
      1. +3
        7 2021 June
        The Budzhak Horde has nothing to do with Belgorod Dnestrovsky, except for the fact that they were close. In addition, the fortress was then called Ackerman. And it was the center of the Turkish raya. And the Tatars occupied the central budjak, where there were no cities. Akkerman was subordinated to the Ottoman Empire and the Budjak horde to the Crimean Khan
  9. +1
    10 2021 June
    Our Crimea is always a bold plus of Russia!
    But Crimea is not ours - always a fat minus ...
    Well, there is no other way ...
    And only Yeltsin gave it away easily as the Kemsk volost did. Still, even Khrushchev's art in this regard is even so, part-apparatus pampering.

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