Military Review

How the USSR won the "gas war" for Europe

61

The obsession of Ronald Reagan's team was to disrupt the construction of a gas pipeline from Yamal to Europe. The United States did its best to undermine Moscow's oil and gas revenues. However, the USSR took over in the 1981-1984 gas war.


Artery Urengoy - Europe


By extending two strings of the gas pipeline to Western Europe, Moscow could receive guaranteed $ 15–20 billion a year and tied European consumers to itself. The countries of Europe fell into a strong energy dependence on the USSR. Combined with the powerful groupings of the Soviet army in Poland, East Germany and Czechoslovakia, which loomed over Bonn, Paris, Brussels and Rome, this was dangerous for the West. Moscow also received a new stream of hard currency, which in theory allowed the USSR to carry out modernization, making a new decisive breakthrough in the country's development.

Moscow made the decision to build the Urengoy - Pomary - Uzhgorod gas pipeline (Yamal - Middle Volga region - Western Ukraine) in the late 1970s. Europe (then the European Economic Community) was made an offer: you help us build a pipeline by providing loans and technologies, and we guarantee natural gas supplies for a quarter of a century ahead at fixed prices. In essence, this was a continuation of the gas-pipes deal of the century - a 1970 long-term agreement between the USSR and the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) on the supply of large-diameter pipes and other equipment to the USSR for the construction of a gas pipeline to Western Europe with payment for the supplied pipes and equipment gas from fields in Western Siberia. The first Soviet gas came to Germany in 1973. In 1975-1979. the Soyuz gas pipeline was built (or Orenburg - the Western border of the USSR). It passed through the territory of Russia, Kazakhstan and Ukraine.

The Europeans happily agreed and promised loans at reduced rates. In 1981, German banks provided a loan of 3,4 billion marks. Then loan agreements were signed with French and Japanese banks. The deal was beneficial for Europe. The Europeans received a new channel for the supply of hydrocarbons, independent of the Arabs, who are inclined to blackmail with higher prices. Moscow also won. The union could have built the pipeline itself, but preferred to take advantageous loans. Yuri Batalin, who was then First Deputy Minister of Construction of Oil and Gas Industry Enterprises of the USSR, noted that it was possible to agree on a gas price of $ 146 per thousand cubic meters. We also entered into another beneficial agreement: the Europeans built modern gas pumping (compressor) stations for us with a capacity of 25 thousand kilowatts, supplied them with turbines and the latest controls.

"Russians are coming!"


This prospect has caused great irritation in Washington. America struggled to undermine the position of the USSR, and the Europeans, it turns out, helped the Russians? The CIA prepared an analytical note in which it was noted that the USSR was able to put West Berlin, Bavaria and Austria in almost one hundred percent dependence on its gas. And all of Western Europe fell into 60 percent energy dependence on Russia.

In May 1981, the head of the CIA, William Casey, and the head of the Pentagon, Kaspar Weinberger, held a meeting at which the topic of the Russian gas pipeline was also raised. The Americans noted that this project must be disrupted, otherwise the Russians will receive a huge strategic advantage and provide a large influx of funds. We need to torpedo the energy project. Secretary of State Alexander Haig sent his deputy for economic affairs, Meyer Raschnish, on a tour of Western Europe. He offered the Europeans various alternatives that were stupid and disadvantageous to Western Europe. Like, instead of Russian gas, America will fill up Europe with coal. You can produce synthetic fuel from coal, as Nazi Germany did during the Second World War. Use Norwegian gas. However, these alternatives were so expensive and unrealistic that American ideas were abandoned in Western European capitals.

In the US, other ideas began to be worked out. For example, stretch a gas pipeline from Algeria or from Iran through Turkey and Greece. In parallel, the Reagan administration imposes a ban on the supply of high-tech American equipment to the USSR and begins to put pressure on Europeans. But Europe stubbornly refused to give up Russian gas. Even after the introduction of martial law in Poland and the emergency government of General Jaruzelski. Neither the Germans, nor the French, nor the Italians wanted to quarrel with the powerful Union.

Europe vs USA


The American administration has launched a campaign in financial circles. They tried to convince bankers not to give loans to Moscow at low interest rates. At first, things went wrong. Many financiers believed that the USSR ensures order and stability, therefore investments in the Union are profitable, there will be no default. For example, the French considered Russia a reliable economic partner and gave loans to Russians on very favorable terms - at 7,8% per annum, although at that time Western borrowers were given loans at no less than 17%. An attempt to create difficulties by not providing loans to Hungary, the German Democratic Republic and Romania also failed. The union helped these countries to pay off old debts.

The Europeans stubbornly refused to support the US gas war against the USSR. In general, they could be understood. They were good at counting. The project was very economically profitable for the countries of Western Europe. Western European countries at that time were on the verge of a crisis. In England, unemployment reached 14%, France and Germany were catching up with it. The gas pipeline created thousands of jobs, loaded the industry with orders. Gas from Russia strengthened energy security.

In January 1982, a meeting of the International Committee of COCOM - the Commission for Limiting the Export of High Technologies to the USSR - took place. The Americans suggested considering especially all contracts with the USSR and its allies if they exceed $ 100 million. The US wanted to get the right to block any deal between European companies and Russians. Especially those deals that were related to energy projects. France and England eventually agreed to cede to the Americans, but the FRG refused (the Germans had the greatest benefit from the agreements with Moscow). Then the NATO summit took place. Washington again raised the issue of Europe's abandonment of the Urengoy-Uzhgorod-Western Europe project. The Europeans offered a compromise. They say that the project will be continued, but within the framework of American sanctions. The Europeans will not conclude contracts with the Russians to replace those that the Americans canceled.

The Americans tried again to strike at the financial line, but failed. Then Washington decided to concentrate efforts on the technological direction. The Americans decided that they would be able to disrupt the construction of the energy main if they introduced a ban on the export of turbine blades for gas pumping stations to the USSR. These parts were manufactured by General Electric, and they terminated the contract with the Russians. Then Moscow signed a contract with the French, who produced this part under an American license.

In the summer of 1982, the Americans proposed a new plan in France. Let the gas pipeline be built, but not from two lines, but from one. And on condition that the credit line to Moscow will be closed. Let the Russians build the highway at their own expense. Plus restrictions on technology exports to Russia. But Paris and Bonn again opposed the United States. Moreover, the French signed another loan agreement with Moscow. Then a meeting of Western leaders took place in the West German capital. Reagan again tried to convince NATO allies to abandon the Russian gas pipeline. Failure again!

Gas battle for Europe


The failure in Europe angered Reagan. America could not cope with the impending economic crisis in any way. The dollar was wobbling. Moscow, playing on the contradictions between the United States and Europe, advanced. Her foreign exchange earnings soon doubled. Then Reagan, with the support of the power bloc, decided to strengthen sanctions. Secretary of State Haig was against, did not want to irritate the allies, he was not listened to and was soon dismissed. The sanctions now extended to US licenses and overseas subsidies. That is, now the Europeans also fell under the sanctions.

The news of the expansion of the sanctions sparked an outcry in Western Europe. Even the head of Britain, Margaret Thatcher, who was the most reliable ally of the United States, expressed her dissatisfaction. Reagan's actions were considered an unheard-of challenge to the laws of the market. London and Paris have suggested that their companies ignore US sanctions, since US laws are not valid in Europe. The Western world is in a serious crisis.

Then the Americans struck a new blow. The United States announced that European firms violating the embargo would lose access to the American market. And that was already serious. In October 1982, US-European summit talks were held in Canada. However, even there, the Europeans resisted, not wanting to restrict loans to the USSR and put technology exports under control.

In November 1982, Reagan was forced to announce the lifting of the embargo on the supply of oil and gas equipment to the USSR. The Europeans made reciprocal concessions. They agreed not to sign new agreements with Moscow that accepted conditions for new gas purchases. At this time, the West had to find new sources of energy. Only one string of the pipeline was being built, and the Russians could control no more than a third of the energy market in Western Europe. Europe also strengthened control over the transfer of important technologies to Russia.

Soviet triumph


The Americans believed they were victorious. That Moscow will spend about $ 1 billion above the plan to complete the project. That the Russians cannot replace pipeline controls, gas taps, gas turbines and other "military-strategic" products. Soviet industry will not be able to independently produce equipment for pumping gas. However, the United States was defeated in this Cold War battle. They were unable to disrupt the construction of the Urengoy-Pomary-Uzhgorod gas pipeline.

Moscow had to agree to build not two lines to Europe, but one. American sanctions have become an incentive for the development of domestic industry. At the Nevsky plant in 1982-1985. launched the production of their gas pumping stations with a capacity of 16 thousand, and then 25 thousand kilowatts. The most important role in this was played by engine builders from the Kuznetsov Design Bureau in Kuibyshev (Samara). On the other hand, Italy sabotaged US pressure by supplying compressors. As a result, out of 40 stations on the Siberia - Europe route, 24 were Soviet-made, and 16 were Italian.

Soviet technocrats and the military-industrial complex successfully repelled an American attack with the aim of undermining the economy of the Soviet Union. The main organizer of this breakthrough was Yuri Batalin.

A target program was adopted, advanced methods of work organization were applied. According to Batalin, the great construction site has incorporated the most advanced construction and welding technologies. The country has saved about 5 billion rubles (the same billion dollars) due to innovations in construction. The track was built by special "labor detachments". They built 19 km of the highway per month against 7,2 km according to the old standards.

American opposition made the Russian builders especially angry. Now ours were pulling the track to annoy the enemy. By July 1983, all 4451 km were completely ready. In September 1983, gas was supplied to Poland and the GDR. The West Europeans were not ready for such a speed of the Russians; they expected the Union to complete construction in April 1984. Then you still need to test the pipe, fill it with gas. The Russians went their own way: completing each section of the highway, they immediately tested it and filled it with "blue fuel". Austria and France began taking gas in early 1984.

In 1985, the USSR surpassed the United States by one and a half times in natural gas production. This is how Soviet technocrats and industrialists won an important victory in the Cold War with the United States. They thwarted the plans of the Reagan Cabinet to ruin and collapse the USSR. They were able to ensure the expansion of Soviet gas to Europe, tying the Europeans to themselves. The country received an influx of large funds. At this time, Moscow received an excellent opportunity to use the new income wisely and sensibly. Invest them not in African "partners", but in the creation of new and breakthrough technologies, in advanced industries, in additional funding for science and education. In the modernization of the Soviet Union, to breathe new life into the society of knowledge, service and creation, the core of which was created under Stalin.

This made it possible to win the third world war (in the cold war), to wait for the crisis and agony of the United States, which were already brewing. Create a civilization of the future, a model for all mankind.

However, all these opportunities were buried by Gorbachev and his team. From the very first days of his reign, he began to perform monstrous experiments, terribly ruinous for the economy of the Soviet Union. He handed over all the positions of Russia in Europe and in the world, gained by hard work, sweat and blood.

Then the Urengoy - Pomary - Uzhgorod gas pipeline, built by Soviet technocrats and builders, became a "pipe", a "gold mine" for the rulers of Moscow and Kiev. "Trumpet", like other gifts from the USSR, nurtured the anti-Russian, thieves and Nazi regime in Kiev. Moscow, when Kiev became openly hostile, obeying the masters from Brussels, London and Washington, tried to rectify the situation with the help of the South, Turkish and North Streams.

The problem is that the "pipe" can no longer save Russia.

Today we need to rely exclusively on the development of domestic industry, technology, science, education and culture. Otherwise, we will face a shameful and disgusting extinction. And the once great civilization is in danger of becoming a colonial periphery of the West and East.

How the USSR won the "gas war" for Europe
Soviet economic and statesman Yuri Petrovich Batalin (1927-2013)
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  1. Vladimir_2U
    Vladimir_2U 7 May 2021 04: 57
    +3
    Moreover, the French signed another loan agreement with Moscow.
    Nuclear "Defense in all azimuths" allowed the French to bare their teeth in an illusory manner at the Americans.
    1. Stas157
      Stas157 7 May 2021 05: 32
      +25
      ... Soviet economic and statesman Yuri Petrovich Batalin (1927-2013)

      Honor and respect for Soviet leaders who, with their energy and creative labor, raised socialist construction projects.

      And what about Russia? Is there a similar creative force? Who is the pride of capitalist labor in our country?


      Only Chubais comes to mind, and Rotenberg (he cooks billions on government contracts at the expense of the king).
      1. tihonmarine
        tihonmarine 7 May 2021 08: 19
        +4
        Quote: Stas157
        Only Chubais comes to mind, and Rotenberg (he cooks billions on government contracts at the expense of the king).

        And others are not our people.
      2. lucul
        lucul 7 May 2021 08: 26
        -13%
        Honor and respect for Soviet leaders who, with their energy and creative labor, raised socialist construction projects.

        I do not know, I have a negative attitude to this pipe. If before the USSR was still selling industrial products of a high value added, then with the introduction of this pipe, they began to drive one raw material abroad.
        Thinking has changed accordingly. Why create industrial products, bother updating equipment, developing new product models - if you can stupidly drive raw materials for sale for the same money?
        How did Gaidar say - "why do we need to develop machine-tool building, if we will buy everything we need and so all the best."
        This pipe served as one of the main foundations of the causes of the collapse of the USSR.
        Therefore, I repeat - to drive any raw materials for sale abroad is a crime against descendants, I have a negative attitude towards this.
        1. Stas157
          Stas157 7 May 2021 09: 53
          +12
          Quote: lucul
          with the introduction of this pipe, they began to drive one raw material abroad.

          In the later period, the Soviet Union traded with 145 countries. The USSR exported practically everything abroad: from cardboard and fertilizers to buses and dry cargo ships. The share of the USSR in the world industrial products reached 20%.

          I have now begun to make repairs in the apartment. So I buy literally everything, from a hammer to a spatula - made in China. Electrics - French and German. The wires are only Russian. And I'm not sure! Where is the domestic one? Where did it go?
          1. parusnik
            parusnik 7 May 2021 11: 51
            +6
            [B]
            Where is the domestic one? Where did you go? [
            / b] ... hi It went to a distant cordon, in the 90s, and after them first came Western investments, and when, due to them, the young Russian democracy, the muscles were filled with strength, and she tried to pursue an independent policy, well, like to insert its wires into the German and French electricians , came sanctions. And the immortal is remembered: "Well, son, did your Poles help you?"
          2. Vadim237
            Vadim237 7 May 2021 14: 02
            -3
            And of them, 120 countries were supplied with everything free of charge - support for the regimes and in exchange for coconut barter - these countries did not have money to pay, and this provided the very same "The share of the USSR in world industrial production reached 20%" even if you look at civil aircraft For all their time, the USSR sold only 7 civilian aircraft for the currency, everything else went according to the principle described above, and the capitalist countries paid us for raw materials with the same currency for which the USSR later bought food equipment from the same capitalist countries, consumer goods machinery, and so on. Where is the domestic one? Where did it go? Most of the domestic production that is now produced is mainly exported to manufacturers, it is more profitable than trading within the country, but it is profitable for sellers inside the country to trade on what is more cooked on, the same cheap Chinese products, such a parsley, an open market economy.
          3. frog
            frog 7 May 2021 15: 00
            +3
            So, after all, they put anchors and chains on our trawls until it smelled)) And they are going to put an Italian wastewater treatment plant, EMNIP on the long-suffering one ... Although we can still do this ...
            1. Vadim237
              Vadim237 7 May 2021 21: 51
              0
              Here is the whim of the client - what they want is what they put. You can do anything you want, but everything domestic with a fully open market will not be bought for sure - this applies to all areas
          4. Ross xnumx
            Ross xnumx 8 May 2021 18: 06
            0
            Quote: Stas157
            And I'm not sure! Where is the domestic one? Where did it go?

            Karaulov has a film "Unknown Russia" (two episodes). Look at at least the first one:

            The persistence and haste with which the industry and economy of the treacherously destroyed USSR were destroyed speaks directly to who in the country was the enemy of the socialist statehood. It is not for nothing that all these pipes, which do not require (yet !!!) investments in repairs, have become the property of looters who have bided their time. And what will happen next? This will be told to you by those who suddenly breaks down the turbine, drowns the PD, space ships fall (or do not take off) and still grows personal well-being against the background of the impoverishment of the population.
          5. Terran ghost
            Terran ghost 11 May 2021 14: 47
            0
            The USSR exported almost everything abroad: from cardboard and fertilizers to buses and dry cargo ships

            For example, in 1980, the share of fuel and electricity in the total exports of the USSR was 46,9 percent; machinery, equipment and vehicles - 15,8 percent; industrial consumer goods - 2,5 percent. In the total volume of imports of the USSR for the same year, machinery, equipment and vehicles accounted for 33,9 percent, industrial consumer goods - 12,1 percent.
            For 1985, the alignment is about the same. The share of fuel and electricity in the total export of the USSR is 52,7 percent; machinery, equipment and vehicles - 13,9 percent; industrial consumer goods - 2,0 percent. In the total volume of imports of the USSR for the same year, machinery, equipment and vehicles accounted for 37,1 percent, industrial consumer goods - 12,6 percent.
            For comparison, as of 1999, in the structure of Russian exports, mineral raw materials accounted for 44,9 percent, machinery and equipment - 10 percent.
            In 2019, mineral raw materials in the structure of exports of the Russian Federation amounted to 62,1 percent. Machinery and equipment - 6,5 percent.
        2. Fan-fan
          Fan-fan 7 May 2021 10: 15
          +11
          Everyone who has a lot of gas is driving it for sale, it's not scary, but the fact that this is almost all of our exports is scary. And one more thing: in the days of the USSR, I was proud of the pipe, because the money went to the people, and the current pipes enrich a small group of people. What do the people get from these pipes?
          1. Vadim237
            Vadim237 7 May 2021 14: 04
            -3
            When did pipeline gas become all our exports? Stop writing crap.
        3. Doccor18
          Doccor18 7 May 2021 11: 16
          +10
          Quote: lucul
          This pipe served as one of the main foundations of the causes of the collapse of the USSR.
          Therefore, I repeat - to drive any raw materials for sale abroad is a crime against descendants, I have a negative attitude towards this.

          Yes, the pipe is not to blame for this. If there are large resources and there are states that need them, then why not sell them? It is necessary to develop international trade. But resources can be sold wisely, and natural gas can first be processed at home, and then driven abroad, and instead of oil, you can sell gasoline, kerosene and fuel oil, and instead of round timber - parquet, lining and cellulose ...
      3. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
        Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 7 May 2021 22: 48
        +3
        Quote: Stas157
        And what about Russia? Is there a similar creative force?

        There is, of course, a "creative" - ​​we pull the pipes, as in the Union. Hydrocarbons are still our everything. The bureaucratic shobla sitting on the trumpet pokhahata on the air of the first channel and FM news - the era of UV, they say, at least another 50 years will not end, calmly, rabble. And the plebs of this fucking Nord Stream is almost an epoch-making construction site of the century. Discussing this hemorrhoid over breakfast and a batch of dominoes in the yard. The Russian Orthodox Church has already connected, don't you know? This is a nationwide brace! laughing
        The trouble .... There was gas in exchange for pipes. And now we are changing to what?
        But, be that as it may, and whatever the outcome, the Samsonoid propagandists will declare "this" a triumph for Russia. What a boring job Samsonov has. Drinks, go, like the last homeless woman.
        1. volodimer
          volodimer 8 May 2021 21: 53
          +1
          Strange article. Samsonov managed to designate the fact of construction of the pipe as a victory of the USSR over the USA. And at the same time to define her as the "gravedigger" of the USSR.
          Undoubtedly, the matter is not in the presence or absence of pipes, but in how their presence / absence is used ... by us.
          Us: diplomats, politicians, and, although it sounds disgusting, businessmen ...
          And if this is for the good of the country, then why not use it, why not sell it.
          But if this is a "benefit" only for certain personalities, then it is not.
  2. alexey alexeyev_2
    alexey alexeyev_2 7 May 2021 05: 29
    +6
    SOVIET TECHNOKRAT-what a beautiful phrase. Not like the current stupid thief-manager. The author is fat like. What were the PROFESSIONALS. Damn this Judas Gorbachev
  3. Olgovich
    Olgovich 7 May 2021 06: 01
    +9
    In essence, this was a continuation of the gas-pipes deal of the century - a 1970 long-term agreement between the USSR and the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) on the supply of large-diameter pipes and other equipment to the USSR for the construction of a gas pipeline to Western Europe with payment for the supplied pipes and equipment gas from fields in Western Siberia.

    grandiose project length - 4451 km. The pipeline crosses the Ural ridge and more than six hundred rivers, including the Ob, Volga, Don and Dnieper. There are 42 compressor stations along the gas pipeline route.

    But I had to buy a lot for construction abroad ...
    In 1981-1982, supply contracts were signed compressors and pipes with Creusot-Loire, John Brown Engineering, Nuovo Pignone, AEG-Telefunken, Mannesmann, Dresser Industries, Walter Kidde and Japan Steel Works. Pipelayers and bulldozers purchased from Caterpillar and Komatsu, Liebherr and Kato truck cranes (C).

    Moscow got an excellent opportunity to use new income... Invest in the creation of new and breakthrough technologies, in advanced production, in additional funding for science and education. In the modernization of the Soviet Union, to breathe new life into a society of knowledge, service and creation, the core of which was created under Stalin


    first you need to close the current costsfor which there were not enough funds.
    1. Richard
      Richard 8 May 2021 02: 04
      +4
      gas pipeline Urengoy - Pomary - Uzhgorod

      urban-type settlement Urengoy .. I had to go there on service. Siberian Venice - in the spring all the yards are under water.
      a photo airport "Urengoy village"
  4. north 2
    north 2 7 May 2021 06: 25
    -10%
    the article very correctly noted that the "pipe" and other gifts from the USSR fed the anti-Russian, Nazi regime of Kiev. And in the Baltics too. It is worth noting here that the Bolsheviks and Communists of the USSR were a kind of ostriches that hid their heads in the sand, instead of studying and assessing the nature of the possible danger. Therefore, neither the Bolsheviks nor the Communists studied and did not rely on the experience of Tsarist Russia about the administrative divisions of Russia, but invented internationalism and the notorious friendship of peoples, and not strict provinces, without any divisions along ethnic lines. If it was learned and understood that it was the provincial division of territories in Tsarist Russia that did not allow the Ukrainian-Polish-Baltic Russophobia to multiply and threaten the state, and if Stalin, after the Second World War, would abolish all the republics by creating instead of the republics of the province on a geographical and economic basis, then today we lived would be in Russia within the borders of the USSR in 1945. I appreciate Stalin's contribution to the preservation of the Red Empire, in its industrialization and in the victory of the USSR in the Second World War. But maybe many do not know the fact that after the Second World War, Stalin suggested that the Kaliningrad region was annexed to the Lithuanian SSR to the USSR of East Prussia, which had departed as a trophy, and that Kaliningrad would not be called Kaliningrad, as it is called today, but Karaliauchus, as the Lithuanians called Koenigsberg before the Second World War. But then the first secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Lithuanian SSR Snechkus asked to postpone this ...
    From there would be beauty - Stalin Lithuania Kaliningrad, Khrushchev Ukraine Crimea !!! ... And all this is
    lands where Russian blood was shed, so that having these lands Russia would no longer be exposed
    aggression and invasions of enemies from these lands. So what is there to be surprised that then Gorbachev
    he left the gas pipe to Ukraine or the oil pipeline of Belarus for a gift, if entire peninsulas and enclaves of Russian lands were handed out and offered for free by Khrushchev and Stalin himself ...
    Of course, Stalin could have assumed that he had already either put all the enemies of the USSR in camps or put them against the wall. But no ... It turns out, no .. Perhaps he planted a little and put a little against the wall, and perhaps he did not plant a few of those and put a few of those against the wall ..
    1. Kronos
      Kronos 7 May 2021 10: 27
      +7
      In the Russian empire there were exactly the same problems, division has nothing to do with it. Finland, Poland, the Baltic states wanted to secede and immediately seceded as a chance was given in 1917. How did the presence of provinces prevent the emergence of a central council and the proclamation of Ukraine's independence, for example?
      1. north 2
        north 2 7 May 2021 11: 24
        -3
        Quote: Kronos
        In the Russian empire there were exactly the same problems, division has nothing to do with it. Finland, Poland, the Baltic states wanted to secede and immediately seceded as a chance was given in 1917. How did the presence of provinces prevent the emergence of a central council and the proclamation of Ukraine's independence, for example?

        your true thoughts and your true concept of Russia lies in the fact that in your commentary you write the words Finland, Poland, Ukraine, the Baltic States with capital letters, but the words "Russian empire" you write "Russian" with a small letter, not the Russian Empire ...
        As for Finland and Poland, they left the Russian Empire when a coup was made in Petrograd and the Russian Empire did not become, and not because a coup was made in Petrograd and the Russian Empire did not become, which, they say, Finland and Poland seceded from the Russian Empire.
        Regarding the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine and all the independence of the Baltic states, Lenin, seizing power in Petrograd in 1917, told them similar to what Yeltsin said to the same Ukrainians and Balts when he seized power in Moscow in 1991. Take as much independence as you swallow.
        1. Kronos
          Kronos 7 May 2021 12: 16
          +1
          In 1917 there was a revolution, in 1991 there was a counter revolution.
    2. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 7 May 2021 21: 47
      -5
      Quote: north 2
      But no ... It turns out, no .. Perhaps he planted a little and put a little against the wall, and perhaps he did not plant a few of those and put a few of those against the wall ..

      You, my dear, again confused valerian with hawthorn tincture. Eck you, my friend, got a kick out of it. More accurate, more accurate, dear man. Write a couple of denunciations on your neighbors, spit on TV, meditate on a portrait of Stalin ... in general - let off steam, calm down. Otherwise, it's not far from the stroke.
  5. Far B
    Far B 7 May 2021 06: 27
    +2
    It worked well for the first few years. Gorby got it all to hell
  6. IS-80_RVGK2
    IS-80_RVGK2 7 May 2021 06: 32
    +13
    The problem is that the "pipe" can no longer save Russia.

    She did not save even then.
    And the once great civilization is in danger of becoming a colonial periphery of the West and East.

    So we have been something like that for a long time.
    Otherwise, a shameful and disgusting extinction awaits us.

    So it does not wait, it is already underway. The average growth of GDP over 10 years of jerks without swinging in the region of one percent and a drop in the real and already beggarly incomes of the bulk of the population, the consequence of which is a shitty demographic situation. But 246 thousand dollar millionaires. This is what stability looks like. Stable immersion in the swamp.
    1. Vadim237
      Vadim237 7 May 2021 14: 28
      -5
      If you have not forgotten, but in the last 10 years Russia has been living in crisis conditions, the first world economic was 2008 - it was sadly half-and-half out of it in 2012, and even then not completely the second one began in 2014 after the well-known events after which trade restrictions were imposed on us, investors began bypassing this, budget revenues fell due to the fall in oil prices, which caused the ruble to float freely to replenish budget holes - the last crisis with the activities of the country's leadership is not at all connected with the economic decline by 5% in 2020, when the entire world economy stood up due to coronavirus in such conditions, no one who provided any economic growth, and this problem results in a high mortality rate in 2020 - and the corresponding economic growth for all these 10 years in the region of 1% and a drop in real incomes of the population, but the fact remains more than 5% of economic growth Russia in the next 10 years should not wait for it, it just has nowhere to come from and no one will create at least someoneplant in the government.
      1. Stas157
        Stas157 7 May 2021 17: 41
        +4
        Quote: Vadim237
        If you have not forgotten but in the last 10 years Russia in crisis conditions lives

        Is it a Patriotic or Civil War? What is the reason for endless cataclysms and crises in peacetime?

        You don't need only long and abstruse explanations. The answer is short, in two words - poor management. This is all there is to know about our elite.
        1. Vadim237
          Vadim237 7 May 2021 22: 02
          0
          Yes, yes, bad management - unfortunately management is standard, but the economic conditions are special, and they are imposed from the outside, and since Russia has long been integrated into the world economy and is dependent on export supplies and world demand, internal management does not influence external factors in any way - money is out of thin air you will not appear, but in order for them to appear, markets for investment and freedom of action in foreign markets, alas, there is nothing of this at the moment, respectively, whoever you put at the top, the result will be the same and it cannot be avoided. And short, slurred answers are only good for idiots.
  7. parusnik
    parusnik 7 May 2021 07: 29
    +8
    Soviet industry will not be able to independently produce equipment for pumping gas.
    ..Author, why not Russian industry.? laughing You will somehow decide on the terminology laughing
    1. Doliva63
      Doliva63 7 May 2021 19: 35
      +1
      Quote: parusnik
      Soviet industry will not be able to independently produce equipment for pumping gas.
      ..Author, why not Russian industry.? laughing You will somehow decide on the terminology laughing

      At that time, Soviet and Russian were synonymous throughout the world, Comrade Marshal.
      1. Reptiloid
        Reptiloid 8 May 2021 07: 29
        0
        This is, as it were, a continuation of the topic that Alexey, who wrote the comment, began in the previous article of the Author
        Quote: Doliva63
        Quote: parusnik
        Soviet industry will not be able to independently produce equipment for pumping gas.
        ..Author, why not Russian industry.? laughing You will somehow decide on the terminology laughing

        .
        sometimes the Author, speaking of the USSR, its inhabitants or events, refers to them as Russians, and sometimes, in this phrase --- Soviet ..... What is the difference?
        1. Doliva63
          Doliva63 8 May 2021 19: 34
          0
          Quote: Reptiloid
          This is, as it were, a continuation of the topic that Alexey, who wrote the comment, began in the previous article of the Author
          Quote: Doliva63
          Quote: parusnik
          Soviet industry will not be able to independently produce equipment for pumping gas.
          ..Author, why not Russian industry.? laughing You will somehow decide on the terminology laughing

          .
          sometimes the Author, speaking of the USSR, its inhabitants or events, refers to them as Russians, and sometimes, in this phrase --- Soviet ..... What is the difference?

          We called ourselves Soviet, the foreigners called us all Russians. Maybe the word "Soviet" was bad for them, I don't know.
          1. Reptiloid
            Reptiloid 8 May 2021 20: 20
            0
            I see you are not talking about that. It is about the Author, and not about what happened then ... When the USSR had successes, the Author uses the word ---русские
            In the above quote --- industry can not The author calls her Soviet
            That is why Alexei has sarcasm -parusnik
            1. Doliva63
              Doliva63 9 May 2021 18: 27
              +1
              Quote: Reptiloid
              I see you are not talking about that. It is about the Author, and not about what happened then ... When the USSR had successes, the Author uses the word ---русские
              In the above quote --- industry can not The author calls her Soviet
              That is why Alexei has sarcasm -parusnik

              Yeah, got it. )
              1. Reptiloid
                Reptiloid 9 May 2021 18: 31
                +2
                Happy holiday to you! laughing Our most important holiday!
                1. Doliva63
                  Doliva63 10 May 2021 19: 14
                  0
                  Quote: Reptiloid
                  Happy holiday to you! laughing Our most important holiday!

                  drinks
  8. Woodman
    Woodman 7 May 2021 08: 10
    -6
    The news of the expansion of the sanctions sparked an outcry in Western Europe. Even the head of Britain, Margaret Thatcher, who was the most reliable ally of the United States, expressed her dissatisfaction. Reagan's actions were considered an unheard-of challenge to the laws of the market. London and Paris have suggested that their companies ignore US sanctions, since US laws are not valid in Europe.
    And now they enthusiastically support sanctions on any of the most delusional reasons. One word - "Tobacco" ... And only Germany in the question of the next "pipe" timidly tries to snap.
  9. tihonmarine
    tihonmarine 7 May 2021 08: 16
    -4
    And the once great civilization is in danger of becoming a colonial periphery of the West and East.
    It was necessary to think about it twenty years ago. Now the last opportunity will not turn into a colony of the West, and it should not be missed in order to preserve our civilization.
  10. Ryaruav
    Ryaruav 7 May 2021 09: 29
    -1
    this is the russia we have lost
  11. north 2
    north 2 7 May 2021 10: 07
    -5
    [quote = tihonmarine] [quote] And the once great civilization is in danger of becoming a colonial periphery of the West and East. [/ quote] It was necessary to think about it twenty years ago. Now the last opportunity will not turn into a colony of the West, and it should not be missed in order to preserve our civilization.
    If we talk about Russian civilization as a metaphysical component of world civilization, then it certainly relied more on and hoped for Putin. But it turned out that Putin has virtually no imperial genes, for which commercial genes are off scale. He is now driving Russia along this path. Moreover, speaking of imperial genes, Putin does not manifest them even from imperial ambitions, if God did not give them them, as the main idea and thought for the leader of Russian civilization.
    There is a giant turning point in Europe and in the Western world as a whole, because the West realized that Russian civilization in the world and in Russia has not yet perished, that Russia has not yet been killed or dismembered, and that after Putin, someone with imperial genes will prevail over commercial genes. Therefore, the West, as long as the imperial Putin is not in power in Russia, will try to destroy Russia and Russian civilization. After all, after Putin, someone can come to power in Russia who understands that in the non-imperial statute of Russia, neither Russia nor Russian civilization in the world and in Russia can exist. And there is nothing imperial to want from Putin. It must be remembered that he is an officer's pupil of the KGB office of the Andropov spill. And just the collapse of the Empire of the USSR began and developed when the Andropov cadres took care of the state security, who, like Andropov himself, were more dear to commerce than concepts of Russian civilization and only the imperial path of Russia ...
  12. KCA
    KCA 7 May 2021 11: 59
    +3
    Money remains money, businessness was able to count it and is able, despite all the screams, the SP-2 will be completed and launched, in the days of the USSR, for the first time I played the game Xonix on the PDP 11/70 computer terminal, which fell under both COCOM and amended Jackson-Broom, but somehow, she got into the Union, and this is not a smartphone, and even the Americans served it until our electronics engineers got up and realized that the Americans were simply bred for loot for every little thing, increased productivity by two Once one specialist with a screwdriver, simply removing one fee, Bosch-Siemens stopped cooperation with the USSR only during the wars, I'm not sure about the termination during the First World War, here is a living example - gas turbines were installed in Crimea, yes, sanctions, oh, give it back, but the turbines are standing and working, and Siemens climbs into Russia through any cracks, for more than 100 years of pumping money out, no US administration will cross out
  13. Knell wardenheart
    Knell wardenheart 7 May 2021 12: 20
    +4
    In this whole story, I am VERY surprised by a few moments ..
    1) The USSR at the end of the 70s, having the most powerful steel, rolling, military and space industries, COULD NOT produce pipes by itself ?! Even so - none of the countries in the CMEA was able to do this - neither the NDP, nor Czechoslovakia, nor the GDR - had to buy it from the West ?! It's just worth meditating on this point, an industrial resource superpower is not able to make ordinary pipes, simultaneously stimulating jobs and its industry.
    2) Western loans ?! What nafig loans? Was it not the USSR that was the main piggy bank for the CMEA? And in such a structure, we don’t have our own money to finance a super-profitable, long-term resource project that promises 20 lard in income per year?
    3) We needed Western technologies. BUT WHAT DO YOU PLEASE THINK - in a country that had tremendous experience in creating turbines for hydroelectric power plants, rocket engines and jet aircraft - what, there was no competence to create your own turbines for pumping gas ?! It turns out some kind of sick paradox - a resource-producing country, which is the second or third (at the beginning of the 70s) generator of technologies in the world, has no adequate groundwork either for pipes, or for compressor stations, or for turbines ?!

    To summarize on these issues - a very strange deal in fact, in general in the 70s and 80s we had enough strange deals with the West, we liked to conclude some idiotic contracts, buy some crude lines, literally from a hangover (the same story with pyramid packaging for milk or the story of aluminum cans for beer purchased before the Olympics-80). In the CPSU, people were obviously very tough on the subject of business, in the end it is not surprising that this eventually buried the economy.
    1. Kronos
      Kronos 7 May 2021 14: 16
      +3
      There was nothing strange about the necessary technologies in the USSR, alas.
    2. bk0010
      bk0010 7 May 2021 14: 33
      +1
      Quote: Knell Wardenheart
      1) The USSR of the late 70s, having the most powerful steel, rolling, military and space industries COULD NOT produce pipes by itself ?!
      What other projects needed pipes of this diameter? To build a special plant just to create this gas pipeline is not an idea.
      Quote: Knell Wardenheart
      an industrial resource superpower is unable to make ordinary pipes, simultaneously stimulating jobs and its industry.
      These are not ordinary pipes, these are large diameter pipes. Look - the armor was cooked, but there was no normal steel for paper clips - it was not critical.
      Quote: Knell Wardenheart
      And in such a structure, we don’t have our own money to finance a super-profitable, long-term resource project that promises 20 lard in income per year?
      You needed a currency, what does the CMEA have to do with it?
      Quote: Knell Wardenheart
      We needed Western technology. BUT WHAT DO YOU PLEASE THINK - in a country that had tremendous experience in creating turbines for hydroelectric power plants, rocket engines and jet aircraft - what, there was no competence to create your own turbines for pumping gas ?!
      Yes, it was not found: the project is unique. It took - we did it.
      1. Knell wardenheart
        Knell wardenheart 7 May 2021 14: 45
        +5
        Well, that's why everything was blown away - over the years it became less and less sense to do anything at all or do it normally, why? Why make normal paper clips - after all, you can buy from the West? And why normal clothes - buy zhezh. Why make a lot of good movies - we buy Western films, and there is no need to keep up with the world stage - they make music in the West, and okay. And the fact that we had our own casino here with blackjack and the Warsaw Pact - well, okay, let's buy it from the Germans or the Americans - from the damned imperialists in short. And we ourselves will continue to blow into the pipes about how the west is rotting.
        Oh dear God, large-diameter pipes were not needed - well, yes, we did not pump gas, sick ones, for our cities. Water was not pumped into the cities under pressure, for the hydroelectric power station all this was not necessary, which we were so proud of.
        Nemchura stupidly greased someone who should be, deceived, so to speak, so it went - all reasonable arguments have absolutely nothing to do with it. We intended to gasify the country, build 100500 enterprises, trade gas, etc. - but yes, it was not comme il faut to invest in our own pipe production against this background!
        Why did we need currency? To feed the cows? Why did we mess up this whole lost social bloc at all, if we did not want and could not organize cooperation inside it, producing even such garbage? But this is garbage, this is not some kind of high-tech.
        1. bk0010
          bk0010 7 May 2021 16: 06
          -1
          Quote: Knell Wardenheart
          Oh dear God, large-diameter pipes were not needed - well, yes, we did not pump gas, sick ones, for our cities.
          Are you now seriously comparing a pipe for a city and for the whole of Europe?
          1. Knell wardenheart
            Knell wardenheart 7 May 2021 16: 17
            +1
            I am pointing out the basic technology required for the production of pressure resistant and durable specimens. You know, large, stable and highly profitable projects USUALLY contribute to the development of the corresponding industries IN NORMAL COUNTRIES, if they have something to develop on. But our country was "with peculiarities", apparently, we preferred to buy this garbage.
        2. bk0010
          bk0010 7 May 2021 16: 09
          -2
          Quote: Knell Wardenheart
          Why did we mess up this whole lost social bloc at all, if we did not want and could not organize cooperation inside it, producing even such garbage?
          You have heard such a term as "flight time". The main task of the "social bloc" was to increase the flight time from NATO missile launchers and airfields, everything else was secondary.
          1. Knell wardenheart
            Knell wardenheart 7 May 2021 16: 19
            +5
            You have heard such a term as "flight time". The main task of the "social bloc" was to increase the flight time from NATO missile launchers and airfields, everything else was secondary.

            If you believe it would be the dumbest and most costly defensive plan in history)
            Despite the fact that we have already overtaken the West many times in strategic vehicles.
    3. Vadim237
      Vadim237 7 May 2021 14: 38
      +1
      In the USSR, a lot of things were not produced by gas turbines of high power MRI matrices for thermal imagers high-precision machining centers gantry cranes of large lifting capacity floating docks modern powerful ship diesel engines there was an attempt to localize foreign ones, but it failed, etc. and it is not surprising that we had problems with large-diameter pipes. so almost the entire civilian sector limped on both legs, but what did not limp is just the military-industrial complex and everything that was connected with it since the 60s thanks to Ustinov it was put in the foreground.
      1. Knell wardenheart
        Knell wardenheart 7 May 2021 14: 48
        +2
        This is what causes me the deepest surprise - here many adherents of the USSR, foaming at the mouth, like to prove from time to time what kind of paradise it was and only the "damned humpback" ruined everything. Here it is - the real price of the USSR paradise - for the multibillion-dollar benefits, the pipe project could not be done. And then it "couldn't" everything grew and grew - and naturally matured. Even before the "accursed Gorbachev".
        1. Vadim237
          Vadim237 7 May 2021 22: 06
          +2
          They are great at embellishing reality - but the reality of the USSR, as it turned out, was very mundane.
    4. gsev
      gsev 7 May 2021 22: 00
      +4
      Quote: Knell Wardenheart
      To summarize on these issues - a very strange deal in fact, in general in the 70s and 80s we had enough strange deals with the West, we liked to conclude some idiotic contracts, buy some crude lines, literally from a hangover (the same story with pyramid packaging for milk or the story with aluminum cans for beer purchased before the Olympics-80)

      Indeed, this deal allowed Europe to switch from coal to gas. As a result, Thatcher was able to carry out her reforms, strangle trade unions. As a result, the USSR strangled its Arab allies and broke their policy of pressure on Western countries. If the Urengoy-Pomary-Uzhgorod project had not existed, the Arabs would sell their energy carriers at exorbitant prices, and with the proceeds they would buy Soviet weapons and prepare or wage wars with Europe, Japan, and the United States to protect their resources. In addition, high-ranking leaders have children who dreamed of working at Stankoimport and not at the Sterlitamak machine-tool plant.
  14. north 2
    north 2 7 May 2021 15: 22
    +1
    as soon as in any article you find a statement that, they say, gas and oil export pipes kept the USSR from collapse, it means that such a statement is those pasta on the ears of fools, so that they would not look for the real culprits who destroyed the USSR. And when he claims that even the gas export pipe no longer helped, then I just want to ask, -
    and why did not Stalin have to rely on any gas-oil pipeline to turn the USSR from the plow into an industry giant and to assemble the dissolved territory of the Russian Empire by Lenin into the same territory again, but the Red Empire of the USSR. The Great Creators did not need any gas export pipes there ...
  15. Glagol1
    Glagol1 7 May 2021 15: 43
    0
    History repeats itself, only now with the SP-2 ...
    1. Vadim237
      Vadim237 7 May 2021 22: 13
      +1
      What is repeated with SP 2? Our vessels are laying pipes of large diameter. Russia itself makes 33% of pipes produced by OMK 27% produced by ChTPZ.
  16. Petrol cutter
    Petrol cutter 7 May 2021 20: 17
    +1
    "and tied European consumers to itself. The countries of Europe fell into a strong energy dependence on the USSR."
    This is just wonderful!
    "Also, Moscow received a new flow of hard currency, which in theory allowed the USSR to carry out modernization, making a new decisive breakthrough in the country's development."
    Great plan.
    "This prospect has caused great irritation in Washington."
    I believe.
    "A target program was adopted, advanced methods of work organization were applied. According to Batalin, the great construction site incorporated the most advanced construction and welding technologies. The country saved about 5 billion rubles."
    I readily believe. Even at our factory, my unfortunate mother was an engineer for the scientific organization of labor. I have never seen anything like this anywhere else. Apparently I will not meet again. Around only work for the wear and tear of personnel.
    "This made it possible to win the third world war (in the cold war), to wait for the crisis and agony of the United States, which was already brewing. To create a civilization of the future, a model for all mankind."
    Maybe. Although...
    "Today we need to rely exclusively on the development of domestic industry, technology, science, education and culture. Otherwise, we will face a shameful and disgusting extinction."
    I agree.
  17. Stanislav82
    Stanislav82 8 May 2021 08: 32
    0
    And Batalin does not even have a Hero of Socialist Labor. And he did a great job.
  18. Basarev
    Basarev 8 May 2021 14: 06
    0
    Pyrrhic victory. The Soviet Union sat down even more tightly on the raw material needle. Europe's dependence on hydrocarbons turned out to be mutual, and, possibly, the Union depended even more on gas exports than Europe on imports. It was necessary not to go there initially, not to build Friendship. Now we are reaping.
  19. Sunstorm
    Sunstorm 3 June 2021 17: 36
    0
    Triumph? .... "Just don't throw me into the Thorn Bush, do with me what you want Brother Fox ... just don't throw me into the Thorn Bush" ... I wonder what the "damned capitalists" needed - resources and lack of competition in production ... TRIUMPH, that's whose?