Military Review

Headquarters of Napoleon's Grand Army

154
Napoleon with headquarters
Napoleon with the headquarters. Painting by Jean-Louis-Ernest Meissonier (Wikimedia Commons)


Regardless of Napoleon's Headquarters, the Great Army had headquarters of different levels. In wartime, several corps formed into an army that could sometimes act independently on the periphery of Europe: in Spain or Italy. To do this, they needed to form headquarters, independent of the Headquarters. Even the German Army of Marshal Louis-Nicolas Davout, separated from the Grand Army in 1810-1812, acquired its own headquarters.

  Structure


The headquarters was headed by a chief of staff with the rank of divisional or brigadier general. His deputy was a Brigadier General or Adjutant Commandant (former Adjutant General; Adjutant Generals were re-certified as Adjutant Commandant by decree of 27 Messidor VIII of the Republic or July 16, 1800). Several categories of officers served in the headquarters:

- adjutant commandants, as a rule, four;
- Adjutants in the rank of captains, there are twice as many adjutant commandants in the state;
- supernumerary officers in the rank corresponding to the commanders of battalions or squadrons who have not been assigned to line subunits;
- supernumerary officers in the rank of lieutenants;
- temporarily seconded officers, as a reserve of understudies of the dead staff officers;
- engineers-geographers, as a rule, five; their task was to keep the headquarters maps in order and constantly display the combat situation on them.

In addition, at the headquarters there were:

- General, commander of artillery, with his staff of artillery officers; they were obliged to constantly be with the commander of the army so that he could transmit his orders to them without delay;
- general or colonel sapper with his headquarters of military engineers; they were also ordered to be with the commander, but not as strictly as the artillerymen;
- numerous supernumerary officers of all ranks; could fill the places of retired line commanders; they were also entrusted with the administration of the occupied provinces and cities;
- quartermaster of the army headquarters, most often with the rank of colonel; his duties included maintaining internal order;
- a detachment of gendarmes under the command of a profos; the gendarmes carried out guard duty at the headquarters of the army and escort service at the headquarters officers.

At the beginning of the empire, there were companies of staff guides who played the role of escort and liaison for units on the march. When these companies were abolished, the escort service at the headquarters of the armies was carried alternately by cavalry regiments, which were allocated for this by consolidated companies. Sometimes these clans were united in consolidated squadrons.

There were also guides from local residents at the headquarters. Usually the French tried to recruit four horse and eight foot guides, but in the end everything depended on the degree of friendliness or hostility of the civilian population and the ability of the flying squadrons to "get language". The guides, of course, were not on the staff list; they were not trusted and always remained under the supervision of an intelligence officer and gendarmes.

All staff officers had their orderlies. They were divided into foot (for orders within the headquarters) and horse (for orders outside the headquarters). The staff of the headquarters also included three medical officers: a medic, a surgeon and a pharmacist.

Marshal Oudinot's headquarters
Marshal Oudinot's headquarters at the Battle of Friedland (Painting by Jean-Louis-Ernest Meissonier)

Corps commanders, in the rank of marshals or divisional generals, had the right to keep six adjutants with them, including one adjutant-commandant, one officer equal to the battalion or squadron commander, one captain and two lieutenants. The corps consisted of several divisions (usually from 3 to 5), each of which had its own headquarters under the command of the adjutant commandant (sometimes he could have a deputy). The division headquarters consisted of two or three officers. The entire headquarters (together with the artillery and sapper officers attached to it) followed the commander incessantly. On the battlefield at the headquarters of the division, there was usually a liaison officer from the headquarters of the corps. His presence was mandatory if the division was operating in isolation from the main forces.

In addition, at the headquarters of the division there were:

- duty officer (since 1809); it was his responsibility to transmit the orders of the division commander to the brigade commanders;
- one or two geographic officers;
- divisional artillery commander or his deputy;
- two sapper officers;
- supernumerary officers; in the event of the death of a brigade commander or regiment commanders, they could quickly replace them;
- three adjutants, one with the rank of major, the rest - captains or lieutenants;
- quartermaster with the rank of major or captain; he kept order at the rate;
- from 8 to 10 gendarmes under the command of a non-commissioned officer;
- a platoon of infantrymen as an escort; an escort was not provided for in the staffing table, but division commanders were allowed to have one at their discretion;
- two orderlies on foot and six horsemen;
- two horse and three foot guides from the local population in the custody of two gendarmes;
- three medical officers attached to the division.

Each division was divided into brigades, which could be from 2 to 5. The brigades also had their own headquarters, but purely formally limited to the required minimum. There were no chiefs of staff in the brigades; there were two or three adjutants and orderlies, seconded one from each regiment.

Adjutants of Marshal Berthier
Adjutants of Marshal Berthier (Knötel Uniformenkunde)

Adjutants


The most demanded staff officers were adjutants, which means those with whom commanders of all levels crossed paths. Each general had adjutants at his disposal. And, although their number was limited by the staffing table, in fact, the generals, at their discretion, could bring their number to a dozen or more. Often the tasks of adjutants were performed by supernumerary officers, in the absence of other activities. As a rule, the adjutants were officers with the rank of captains or lieutenants. In theory, it was forbidden to make warrant officers and cornet adjutants, but in practice, it was among them that generals selected adjutants for themselves in order to soon raise them in rank. In fact, it was a way of speedy promotion of the offspring of noble or wealthy families who interceded for them before the generals.

The more than it should be, the number of adjutants is explained by the fact that they were divided into two categories. There were permanent adjutants who served with generals for a long time, sometimes in several campaigns, and temporary adjutants assigned to generals for a period of time - usually for one campaign, but often for only a few days or weeks, or until certain assignments were completed.

Adjutants wore lush, multi-colored uniforms, decorated, except for aiguillettes, which had a practical purpose, with all sorts of non-statutory excesses. Thus, through the splendor of the uniform of their adjutants, the marshals and generals sought to emphasize their own splendor and significance across the entire army. Often the marshals themselves were engaged in the design of the uniforms of their adjutants or agreed to their whims, knowing full well that by doing so they were violating the charter.

The chief of staff of the Grand Army, Marshal Louis Alexander Berthier, partially jealous of his own magnificence and position in the army, tried to limit such pomp and imitation of his own adjutants, tried to curb the fashionable inclinations of his subordinates. Once, when Marshal Neia's adjutant rode up to him on the battlefield in red trousers reserved exclusively for Headquarters adjutants, Berthier ordered him to take off these trousers immediately. By order of March 30, 1807, signed in Osterode, Berthier secured exclusively for the adjutants of the marshals the right to wear hussar uniforms.

Marshal Bernadotte's adjutants
Adjutants of Prince Pontecorvo (Bernadotte) (Knötel Uniformenkunde)

In theory, adjutants were supposed to wear uniforms according to the charter of 1 Vendemier XII of the Republic (September 24, 1803). In practice, the design of their uniforms was limited solely by the imagination of their owners and from the statutory elements. Only aiguillettes and armbands have survived, indicating whose adjutant this or that officer was. The blue band stood for the adjutant of the brigadier general, the red one for the divisional general, and the tricolor one for the adjutant of the corps or army commander. At this point, there could be no deviations from the charter.

The adjutants used the best horses, which they bought and kept at their own expense. Such horses had to be fast and enduring. Not only the lives of the adjutants, but also the fate of battles, often depended on the speed of the horses. Endurance was important because the adjutants could ride long distances all day long, transmitting orders and reports.

In the diaries and memoirs of contemporaries, you can find notes about the kind of records set by the adjutants, which quickly became known at the headquarters, so that other adjutants tried to break the records of their rivals. Marcellin Marbeau rode 48 kilometers between Paris and Strasbourg in 500 hours. In three days he rode from Madrid to Bayonne (that is, a little more - only 530 kilometers), but over the mountains and in areas teeming with Spanish partisans. Colonel Charles Nicolas Favier, sent by Marshal Marmont with a report on the Battle of Salamanca on July 22, 1812, arrived at Napoleon's Headquarters on September 6 just before the Battle of Borodino itself (this is reflected in the story "War and Peace"), crossing all of Europe: from Spain, through France, Germany, Poland and deep into Russia.

Adjutants, as a rule, moved independently, unaccompanied. Even one orderly could delay the delivery of an important message. But on the battlefield, marshals and generals usually gave the adjutants an escort, sometimes even an entire squadron. Otherwise, the report could not reach the infantry square or artillery battery, around which the masses of the Cossacks circled.

Based on:

J. Tulard, editor. Dictionnaire Napoléon... Fayard, 1989. J. Garnier, Etat-major.
B. Legris. Le service de santé de la Grande Armée... Thèse de médecine, 1981.
GF Lechartier. Les services de l'arrière a la Grande Armée en 1806-1807... R. Chapelot, 1910.
L. N. Tolstoy. War and Peace... Fiction, 1968.
JC Colrat. Les aides de camp du maréchal berthier. Briquet, (1), 1981. [Colrat1981]
Author:
Photos used:
https://www.pinterest.ca/domin817/first-french-empire/family-and-generals/
154 comments
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  1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 May 2021 05: 48
    +7
    Once, when Marshal Neia's adjutant rode up to him on the battlefield in red trousers reserved exclusively for Headquarters adjutants, Berthier ordered him to take off these trousers immediately.

    I always thought it was a historical anecdote!
    On the other hand, what could be more important

    ... - No, genatsvale! When a society has no pants color differentiation, then there is no purpose! And when there is no goal ...

    From the film "Kin-dza-dva"

    Thanks to the author for refreshing the memory of the headquarters of Napoleon's army!
    Although, about
    Otherwise, the report could not reach the infantry square or artillery battery, around which the masses of the Cossacks circled.
    Smiled !!!
    What can't you do to save red pants !!! tongue
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 6 May 2021 07: 40
      +8
      "what can't you do to save red pants" oh, these Cossacks, like wolves surrounded the battalion and are waiting for an opportunity to take off the red pants
      1. Richard
        Richard 6 May 2021 18: 37
        +2
        To bring to your women on scarves yes
        1. vladcub
          vladcub 6 May 2021 20: 40
          +1
          Probably so, or maybe on stripes?
          There is such a historical story.
          During the reign of Catherine the Great, they sent to the Don: "tsar's gifts" - a roll of red cloth, and then manufactories were in short supply.
          There was not enough fabric, but everyone wanted: "to have a gift from the queen" and someone suggested: the fabric was cut into ribbons, and the ribbons were sewn onto the trousers of the Cossacks. I liked the idea and since then the Don Cossacks have red stripes
          1. Richard
            Richard 6 May 2021 21: 09
            +1
            There was not enough fabric, but everyone wanted: "to have a gift from the queen" and someone suggested: the fabric was cut into ribbons, and the ribbons were sewn onto the trousers of the Cossacks. I liked the idea and since then the Don Cossacks have red stripes

            Eh, villagers. smile Here she is the kulak Cossack essence! It is imperative that I, like everyone else, be the same. fellow
            Gogol gave them the second volume of "Dead Souls" with his autograph, so they also shared it among all. The most unlucky ones on goat legs got cardboard pieces of book binding. Although they coughed and choked, out of respect for Nikolai Vasilyevich, everyone honestly smoked yes
    2. Richard
      Richard 6 May 2021 17: 00
      +2

      With this, Napoleon was in complete order yes
      The gendarmes at his headquarters wore noticeable yellow trousers from a distance, and in front of them they did a double ku laughing
      1. vladcub
        vladcub 6 May 2021 20: 42
        +1
        Otherwise, they will make a triple ku
  2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 May 2021 06: 02
    +8
    Now in order to restore justice to the "red banner trousers" in the army of the emperor Napoleon.
    At least in Napoleon's army, red pants were put to wear in two hussar regiments, the 7th and 8th.
    See the illustrations below.

    Layout of "pants" on the hussar regiments at the time of the invasion of Napoleon's army into Russia

    7th regiment.

    8th regiment.

    Amazing illustration.
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 6 May 2021 07: 10
      +5
      Namesake, greetings. For illustrations of merci.
      I liked the latter. Reminded Popandopolo, when, in secret from Pan-Ataman, changed the machine gun for pants
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 May 2021 08: 26
        +4
        Quote: vladcub
        Namesake, greetings. For illustrations of merci.
        I liked the latter. Reminded Popandopolo, when, in secret from Pan-Ataman, changed the machine gun for pants

        Hello Namesake, you can't put the chieftain's machine gun on the piers, but the scarlet trousers are just that! For reds - red, for whites - hussar !!! drinks
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 6 May 2021 10: 31
          +8
          Hello, hello! hi
          There is a small remark in terms of the continuity of generations.

          Looks like not one Berthier pulled off his pants from the adjutants laughing .
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 6 May 2021 12: 06
            +4
            Quote: Sea Cat
            Looks like not one Berthier pulled off his pants from the adjutants

            Did Berthier take a wife to the war? smile
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 6 May 2021 12: 09
              +4
              Well, judging by the fact that he ordered the adjutant to take off his pants ... I don't even know. request
              1. Trilobite Master
                Trilobite Master 6 May 2021 12: 28
                +6
                I think solely for the purpose of identification. smile Apparently, a story like this happened the day before:
                I'm coming back from work
                I put the rasp against the wall
                Suddenly someone flutters through the window
                Out of bed from my wife ...

                I couldn't make out the face, but I remembered the rest well ...
                Colleagues here clearly proved to us that red pants could only be a pretext. laughing
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 6 May 2021 12: 45
                  +5
                  ... but remembered the rest well ...

                  1. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 6 May 2021 13: 11
                    +4
                    “Because early in the morning
                    His wife
                    One of my Zhigans
                    I forgot my pants ”(c).
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 6 May 2021 13: 32
                      +3
                      "You can forget to wear pants here, but without a weapon - not a step" (c)
                      1. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 6 May 2021 13: 43
                        +2
                        “And don't forget: ten drops before shooting” (c).
                      2. Catfish
                        Catfish 6 May 2021 13: 57
                        +2
                        "I'll go and take three hundred drops of ethereal valerian." (C)
                      3. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 6 May 2021 14: 22
                        +2
                        "Drops of the Danish king
                        Drink gentlemen "(c).
                      4. Catfish
                        Catfish 6 May 2021 14: 43
                        +3
                        "Something is rotten in the state of Denmark" (c) request
                      5. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 6 May 2021 14: 45
                        +2
                        "Everything was confused in the Oblonskys' house" (c).
                      6. Catfish
                        Catfish 6 May 2021 14: 51
                        +2
                        "From that something, to know, is not cheerful
                        The house we live in
                        I need to hang a light bulb,
                        We will not collect all the money. "(C)
                      7. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 6 May 2021 15: 04
                        +2
                        "A bright personality -
                        March cat,
                        There is such one here ”(c).
                      8. Catfish
                        Catfish 6 May 2021 15: 06
                        +2
                        "Even with my cat a mile away
                        I had to meet the cat "(c)
                      9. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                        Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 May 2021 18: 59
                        +3
                        Quote: Sea Cat
                        "Even with my cat a mile away
                        I had to meet the cat "(c)

                        Do not push Uncle Kostya on the patient. And all because of them!

                        Team KOTOFILOV !!!
                      10. Catfish
                        Catfish 6 May 2021 19: 09
                        +2
                        Well, where can the poor animal go ?!
                        One thing remains!

                        "Fight, search, find
                        And don't give up! "(C) drinks
                      11. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 6 May 2021 19: 12
                        +2
                        Where is the primus?
                      12. Catfish
                        Catfish 6 May 2021 19: 46
                        +2
                        Where the golden chain is - in Torgsin, weapons are now expensive, although getting them is not a problem.
                      13. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 6 May 2021 20: 58
                        +1
                        "And to the rescue - One
                        To the store "(c).
                      14. Catfish
                        Catfish 6 May 2021 22: 18
                        +2
                        The cartridge did not fit into the store,
                        To know he was beguiled by a demon,
                        And from our window
                        Red Square is visible "(c)
                      15. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 6 May 2021 22: 25
                        +2
                        "Tailwind
                        As if the demon had beguiled.
                        He no longer finds sails ”(c).
                      16. The comment was deleted.
                      17. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 7 May 2021 00: 04
                        +2
                        “- Well done, but there will be many -
                        Two at once.
                        - So there are two ends "(c).
                      18. Catfish
                        Catfish 7 May 2021 10: 21
                        +1
                        It is clear that one end is the end of Gruppenführer Müller, and whose other? recourse
                      19. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 7 May 2021 11: 33
                        +1
                        Original reading of Tvardovsky.
                      20. Catfish
                        Catfish 7 May 2021 11: 39
                        +1
                        No matter how you read Tvardovsky, you will always rest against Tyorkin. And from him and to Mueller the end came. smile
                      21. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 7 May 2021 11: 41
                        +1
                        There is a monument in Smolensk. "Terkin" is a genius.
                      22. Catfish
                        Catfish 7 May 2021 12: 11
                        0
                        "Happy is he who is in the arms of a tender beauty
                        At night, he is far from the wisdom of the book! " (from)
  3. Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 6 May 2021 19: 26
    +2
    Colleagues, what are "drops of the Danish king"! Someone said it was: Zelenin drops.
  4. Korsar4
    Korsar4 6 May 2021 19: 30
    +4
    Salmon, anise, licorice root and licorice.
    The composition could change.

    Expectorant and respiratory stimulant.
  5. Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 7 May 2021 05: 58
    +1
    Thank. I'll know
  6. Korsar4
    Korsar4 7 May 2021 06: 19
    0
    There was also dill water (from fennel) in the composition.
  7. Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 7 May 2021 06: 31
    +1
    Yes, you are a pharmacist
  8. Korsar4
    Korsar4 7 May 2021 06: 36
    0
    Never. Already answering your question, I think whether it is possible to put an equal sign between licorice and licorice root.

    Or different types of licorice have different properties.

    But I am friends with some plants.
  • The comment was deleted.
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 6 May 2021 19: 18
    +1
    Konstantin, colleagues, good evening. I would venture to suggest that Rzhevsky entered Madame Berthier's bedroom, and Berthier himself entered there ..
    How do YOU ​​version?
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 6 May 2021 19: 38
      +1
      And Berthier, out of habit, stole his red pants! laughing
      In reconnaissance, one should not be distracted from the task at hand. So Vasil Ivanovich correctly noted that "Rzhevsky went to work, but it was unsuccessful to see ..."
      So the version is quite consistent.

      Good evening, Vera. hi
    2. Richard
      Richard 6 May 2021 23: 39
      +1
      Astra wild2 (Mom's joy): Colleagues, good evening. I would venture to suggest that Rzhevsky entered Madame Berthier's bedroom, and Berthier himself entered there ..
      How do YOU ​​version?

      Do you retell the series "Hussar" with Garik Kharlamov? The plot is one to one, and the characters are the same. Yes, and red pants are present


      1. Astra wild2
        Astra wild2 7 May 2021 05: 56
        +1
        Honest pioneer, I have not even heard of such a series
        1. Richard
          Richard 7 May 2021 06: 44
          0
          Then I recommend downloading it or watching it online. An interesting fascinating plot, there is no ordinary Kharlamov vulgarity. 19 episodes. you will laugh with your friends
  • Richard
    Richard 6 May 2021 20: 44
    +1
    scarlet trousers are the most! For reds - red, for whites - hussar !!!

    Yes, you can't imagine a better civil war
    And if you still write "adidas" on them with chalk, then the gopniks - "green" will take yes
  • bk0010
    bk0010 6 May 2021 15: 19
    +1
    Amateurs! According to the joke, the shirt should be red and the pants brown!
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 May 2021 19: 00
      +2
      Uh-huh the Scots went further by inventing a kilt. laughing
  • Olgovich
    Olgovich 6 May 2021 06: 55
    +3
    He rode from Madrid to Bayonne in three days (that is, a little more - only 530 tomiles), but in the mountains and in areas teeming with Spanish partisans. Colonel Charles Nicolas Favier, expelled by Marshal Marmont to report the battle of Salamanca July 22 1812 years, arrived at the Headquarters of Napoleon on September 6 just before the battle of Borodino


    Considering the distance from Spain to Moscow (more than 4 thousand km), he traveled to Borodino at almost twice the speed in Europe.

    Russia is not some Europe for them: there are roads and Cossacks ...
  • Korsar4
    Korsar4 6 May 2021 06: 57
    +6
    Completion: "around which the masses of the Cossacks circled" is perceived as a French cliché.
    1. Richard
      Richard 6 May 2021 16: 07
      +2
      Louis Alexander Berthier

      Louis Alexander Berthier, November 20, 1753, Versailles - June 1, 1815, Bamberg) - Marshal of the Empire (from May 19, 1804), Colonel General of the Swiss (from June 13, 1810 to April 22, 1814) and Vice Constable (1807) ) Napoleonic France, sovereign Prince of Neuchâtel (also from 1805 Duke of Valangen and from 1809 Prince of Wagram) In 1799-1807 - Minister of War and at the same time in 1799-1814 - Chief of Staff of Napoleon I. Developed the fundamentals of staff service used in many European armies .ertier was with Napoleon for 20 years. He made a significant contribution to the planning of almost all of Napoleon's military campaigns up to 1814. However, Berthier's special merit should be considered the grandiose march of 9 gigantic corps of the Great Army in the fall of 1805 from the shores of the English Channel to the Austrian plains. The result of this throw was the famous Battle of Austerlitz (December 2, 1805).
      1. Richard
        Richard 6 May 2021 16: 25
        +6
        It was Louis Alexandre Berthier who was responsible for the development and introduction of the line-of-staff command structure, which is now widely used in the army and commercial structures around the world.

        This is what the author should have focused on, not the color of the adjutant pants.
        PS For me, as a former staff officer, this article with a promising title, but in fact - "about nothing" did not arouse much interest
        1. depressant
          depressant 6 May 2021 17: 27
          +4
          Dmitry, so you are a staff officer ...
          Clear. Hence your high culture.
          And the line-of-staff management structure means Berthier. It is not without reason that even now one can often hear: the headquarters of the organization is located there.
        2. Korsar4
          Korsar4 6 May 2021 17: 55
          +3
          And before Berthier, there was no such thing anywhere?
          1. Richard
            Richard 6 May 2021 19: 20
            +5
            It is difficult now to say whether Berthier himself invented it, or borrowed it somewhere, and then improved it and brought it to the form that we all use today. In his writings, as well as disadvantages of linear structure:
            • inevitable operational problems (“turnover”);
            • a tendency to red tape and shift responsibility when solving problems that require the participation of several departments;
            • low flexibility and adaptability to changing the situation on the ground at the lower levels;
            • the criteria for the effectiveness and quality of work of subunits and the army as a whole are different;
            • tendency to formalize the assessment of the efficiency and quality of work of departments;
            • a large number of "control floors" between the soldiers fighting and the decision-maker;
            • overload of top-level managers;
            • increased dependence of results on qualifications, personal and business qualities of top managers.
            and undoubted advantages:
            • a clear plan of action for each grassroots unit in the key of the upcoming battle;
            • the possibility of clear planning and operational manipulation of the necessary means of fire support, ammunition, food and materiel for the development and course of the upcoming battle both in the army as a whole and in its and lower subdivisions;
            • a clear system of mutual relations of functions and departments;
            • a clear system of one-man management - one leader concentrates in his hands the leadership of the entire
            a set of processes with a common goal;
            • clearly expressed responsibility;
            • quick reaction of executive units to direct instructions from their superiors.
            • the minimum required number of executive divisions on direct instructions from higher superiors with maximum efficiency.
            • the possibility of independent reaction and planning of lower-level executive units to promptly change the situation in their combat area in accordance with the instructions of higher-level ones.
            Linear communications are the essence of the relationship regarding the adoption and implementation of managerial decisions and the movement of information between the so-called line managers, that is, persons who are fully responsible for the activities of the army or its structural units from top to bottom.
            Louis Alexander Berthier

            link Berthier Alexander / Linear and line-staff OSU of the army, Divisional OSU, Brigade (functional) OSU / Military encyclopedia: [in 18 volumes] / ed. VF Novitsky ... [and others]. - SPb. ; [M.]: Type. t-va I. D. Sytin, 1911-1915
            1. Korsar4
              Korsar4 6 May 2021 19: 25
              +2
              Very interesting.
              In this case, I did not think about the primary sources.
              1. Richard
                Richard 6 May 2021 20: 11
                +4
                The line-of-staff management structure of Berthier today is not only in the army, but also at every enterprise, and so far there is no alternative to it
                1. Korsar4
                  Korsar4 6 May 2021 21: 00
                  +1
                  Yes. I had to deal a little with the management scheme of various enterprises.

                  One of the chiefs was an economist with a specialization in human resources management.
      2. Korsar4
        Korsar4 6 May 2021 17: 54
        +2
        Yet the old adage that the king is played by the retinue can explain a lot.
  • Boris55
    Boris55 6 May 2021 07: 12
    -14%
    Quote: M. Arushev
    Headquarters of Napoleon's Grand Army

    On the eve of our victory over fascism, they again sniff us about the "great" army of our enemy ... Yes, we smashed it to smithereens and our soldiers were in Paris, not theirs in St. Petersburg!

    Praise and glorify Napoleon can only be those who applauded him when he returned slavery in France and who secretly dream of driving all of humanity there again.

    Whig you to your whole face!
    1. A. Privalov
      A. Privalov 6 May 2021 07: 35
      +9
      Quote: Boris55
      On the eve of our victory over fascism, we are again sniffed about the "great" army of our enemy

      "The Great Army" is just the name of a unit of the Napoleonic army in 1805-1808 and 1811-1814. Well, "the name is" (c). It is no better and no worse than any name, any other army, any country. hi
      1. Boris55
        Boris55 6 May 2021 07: 37
        -10%
        Quote: A. Privalov
        It is no better and no worse than any name, any other army, any country.

        Any country and let it glorify its army, why should we glorify the murderers who came to our land? So after all, soon we will begin to praise Hitler.
        1. A. Privalov
          A. Privalov 6 May 2021 07: 43
          +8
          Quote: Boris55
          So after all, soon we will begin to praise Hitler.

          Boris, I understand your angry message, but let's be realistic and don't throw out the child with water. hi
          1. Boris55
            Boris55 6 May 2021 07: 46
            -11%
            Quote: A. Privalov
            let's be realistic

            I am disgusted with subservience to wild Europe, and even more disgusting are all those who promote this into our consciousness.
            1. A. Privalov
              A. Privalov 6 May 2021 08: 04
              +7
              Quote: Boris55
              I am disgusted with subservience to wild Europe, and even more disgusting are all those who promote this into our consciousness.

              You have every right to your personal speculative conclusions regarding certain historical figures and events.
              It seems to me that nothing threatens your consciousness. hi
              1. Boris55
                Boris55 6 May 2021 08: 24
                -12%
                Quote: A. Privalov
                It seems to me that nothing threatens your consciousness.

                It's too late for my mind to be afraid of something, but for fragile minds - yes.
                But let's not talk about personal - it always ends badly.

                The West is a narrow-minded Pithecanthropus living at the expense of someone else's labor, someone else's wealth, someone else's lives. A person who has not lost his connection with God (conscience, shame) will never desire this.

                All wars came to us from the West:
                - Cyrus;
                - Darius;
                - Alexander;
                - Rome;
                - Swedes;
                - French people;
                - Germans;
                - ANTANTA;
                - Germans;
                - USA (perestroika).

                Glorifying the warriors of the West is blasphemy against the memory of our heroes.

                ps
                In the Baltics, in Ukraine, the fascists are practically already glorified. How long will we wait when this process will begin with us? Each such article brings this time closer ...

                1. BAI
                  BAI 6 May 2021 08: 44
                  +4
                  There were also from the East:
                  Genghis Khan (not himself, but messengers);
                  Batu;
                  RYAV;
                  CER;
                  Hasan;
                  Khalkhin-gol;
                  End of WWI.
                2. A. Privalov
                  A. Privalov 6 May 2021 08: 49
                  +1
                  Quote: Boris55
                  It's too late for my mind to be afraid of something, but for fragile minds - yes.

                  These "minds" will not be easy to help. They do not go to VO, they do not read historical literature.
                  Quote: Boris55
                  The West is a narrow-minded Pithecanthropus living at the expense of someone else's labor, someone else's wealth, someone else's lives.

                  This is a mossy, moldy and hardened stamp of fifty years ago. Yes, and about the arrival of all wars from the West and about the rest of the theses of your comment can be discussed, but this is not the place and not the time, which I am desperately sorry for. Good luck to you. Save you, L-rd. hi
                3. Ulrih
                  Ulrih 6 May 2021 09: 32
                  +11
                  Itself is not ashamed of being scattered about clichés? And your list of "wars that came from the West" is just ridiculous:
                  1) Cyrus - what does Russia or Russians have to do with it? And the Persians are just Asia (East)
                  2) Darius - the same
                  3) Alexander and Rome - is it just how to treat Russia sideways?
                  4) Swedes - what period? For example, Peter I started the North, while he put together a secret coalition against the Swedes.
                  5) French? And nothing that before 1812 there were foreign campaigns of the Russian army against revolutionary France and then Napoleon, who just did not care about Russia and who wanted to be friends with Alexander.
                  6) The rest of the points are also quite controversial.
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 6 May 2021 09: 46
                    +5
                    Leave it, colleague!
                    In our freak show, not such individuals are found yet. True, several cliohackers have been crushed recently. There used to be monsters!
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 6 May 2021 10: 39
                      +6
                      But they are always easy to identify by the shape of their clothing and facial expression. laughing

                      The theme of red pants is unfading.

                      Hello Anton! hi
                      1. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 6 May 2021 10: 43
                        +3
                        More in the ability to speak "about cosmic things, with cosmic stupidity" (C)
                        Hi Uncle Kostya! hi
                      2. Catfish
                        Catfish 6 May 2021 11: 05
                        +4
                        It is useless to explain it to them. request
                      3. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 6 May 2021 11: 35
                        +2
                        Interestingly, only Humboldt could set the task "Embrace heaven and earth."

                        Nevertheless, the “swing of the ruble” may have its advantages.
                      4. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 6 May 2021 11: 37
                        +2
                        I am more inclined towards a Socratic vision of the world.
                      5. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 6 May 2021 11: 38
                        +2
                        Probably too.

                        But on the forum, for example, I break away from this.
                      6. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 6 May 2021 11: 48
                        +2
                        In fact, I have never concealed that apart from professional skills (local, by the way), I more or less understand two phenomena.
                      7. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 6 May 2021 11: 58
                        +2
                        I also think about my skills.
                        Peter the Great is clearly far away.
                      8. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 6 May 2021 12: 10
                        +1
                        I think the idea of ​​Peter's skills is somewhat exaggerated. A multi-talented amateur.
                      9. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 6 May 2021 13: 05
                        +1
                        Yes. And there were always professionals nearby. It's one thing to sketch a drawing. Another is to build a church.
                      10. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 6 May 2021 13: 10
                        +1
                        This saved me. And so, the syndrome of distracted attention and hyperactivity - on the face.
                      11. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 6 May 2021 13: 22
                        +1
                        At least this was the case with the Decrees. First the decree. And soon the next one, as amended.

                        However, in modern lawmaking it is not much better.
  • Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 6 May 2021 12: 21
    +5
    laughing
    Quote: Ulrih
    Rome is just how to treat Russia sideways?

    Have you read a series of articles about the Bosporan Kingdom? Mithridates, the Pontic king, owned the Crimea, which means he was Russian. In Russian, Prince Dmitry Veselchak, have you heard of this? Rome attacked him vilely, unleashing the so-called. "Mithridates wars".
    laughing wassat laughing
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 6 May 2021 12: 29
      +4
      You, Mikhail, this is ... be careful. A colleague on the forum recently and may not understand the humor.
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 6 May 2021 12: 30
        +2
        I am sorry, I corrected myself. laughing hi
      2. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 6 May 2021 12: 43
        +2
        That's good! And now Albert will come up ... wassat
  • Richard
    Richard 6 May 2021 14: 41
    +4

    Trilobite Master (Michael): Did you read a series of articles about the Bosporan Kingdom? Mithridates, the Pontic king, owned the Crimea, which means he was Russian.

    Mithridat Mitridatovich was Russian only by his mother Laodike. And for my dad, like Vladimir Volfovich, he was a lawyer. His father was Mitrtdat Farnakovich Everget yes
    1. Trilobite Master
      Trilobite Master 6 May 2021 16: 27
      +5
      As for my mother, in general, all Russians are - it is known that Russian women are the most beautiful, intelligent and, if necessary, the horse will be roasted in the hut. Therefore, the eastern people, the steppe inhabitants, could not refuse horse meat freshly baked right in the hut and ... got married. At kyzdyrga yakshi belme, which in translation from their Basurmans means nothing other than "a young filly baked in an oak frame - you will lick your fingers, so let's go to marry Russian girls."
      Quote: Richard
      Mitrtdat Farnakovich Everget

      it's just an operational alias. So that the enemies do not guess. In your opinion, Max Otto von Stirlitz is also not Russian?
      smile
    2. Richard
      Richard 6 May 2021 16: 40
      +2
      Misha, my compliments hi
      The cunning quiet man Stirlitz, unlike Everget, did not protrude at all corners his "eastern" origin from the Jerusalim branch of Dariyev And Mitridat Farnakovich even indicated this in his title smile
      a photo Mithridates V Everget. (State Hermitage)
    3. Trilobite Master
      Trilobite Master 6 May 2021 17: 21
      +2
      Greetings, Dima.
      It seems to me that this is an attribution error, and a gross and obvious one. Judging by the presence of a bust on the figure, her headdress (kokoshnik) and, in general, alongside (do not tell me that this cloak is a thin airy sundress!) - this is the very thing, a Russian lady, explaining to the savage barbarians of the Collective West what advantages she should possess a man claiming her favor. Or do you mean to say that Mithridates is actually Demetrius?
      smile
    4. Richard
      Richard 6 May 2021 17: 35
      +3
      Judging by the presence of a bust in the figure

      So much for you belay But there really is a bust, just now I noticed. But the picture is nevertheless real

      Here it is imperative to wait for the clarification of the Sea Cat. yes
      Kostya is not only a museum worker, but also an experienced man who is well versed in gender psychology
    5. Trilobite Master
      Trilobite Master 6 May 2021 18: 07
      +4
      Quote: Richard
      Here you must definitely wait for the clarification of the Sea Cat

      I propose to arrange a general plebiscite in general.
      Dear colleagues!
      We kindly ask you to take part in an art history survey about the gender of the person depicted in this sculpture. Your feedback is very important to us! Make each of your scientific discoveries right now and get an award - the extraordinary title you like best! Call yourself this title and consider yourself worthy! Only today there is a promotion - if you participate in the survey, you can assign yourself any title in double the amount! Do not miss your chance!
    6. Richard
      Richard 6 May 2021 18: 21
      +3
      The winner of the competition will receive a miniature tabletop plaster figurine of Mithridates V Everget by Zurab Tsereteli (the total height of the figure is 18 m), and a recipe for the famous "Mithridat's" soldier's porridge from A. Samsonov smile
    7. Korsar4
      Korsar4 6 May 2021 21: 04
      +1
      Is this a variation of the white bishop?
    8. Richard
      Richard 6 May 2021 21: 22
      +1
      Wow chess piece - one and a half meters high and a quarter of a ton in weight. Although, on the other hand, it is not a royal job to move the figures on the board. So it could very well be the white bishop from his road chess. Loved Mithridat Farnakovich on the train with fellow travelers to play chess on scrambled smile
    9. Korsar4
      Korsar4 6 May 2021 21: 25
      +2
      And try to feed, ensure safety, security. Suddenly someone passing in a knapsack will put it.
  • Korsar4
    Korsar4 6 May 2021 17: 59
    +2
    Typical Slavic name. "Dick" - just emphasizes liberty. Of course, the liberty of nature, not mores.

    And "Lao" is a combination of Slavic Love and Chinese Tao, which emphasizes the Eurasian roots.
  • Richard
    Richard 6 May 2021 18: 33
    +3
    Typical Slavic name. "Dika" is just liberty

    Dmitry Ivanovich Yavornitsky pointed to this in his work on the archeology of the Wild Field
  • Former naval person
    10 May 2021 15: 15
    0
    Quote: Ulrih

    Mithridates, the Pontic king, owned the Crimea, which means he was Russian.


    tse hello or peremoga?
  • parusnik
    parusnik 6 May 2021 11: 19
    +2
    We sometimes also glorify Nazism, fascism, especially in the latest films about the war. T-34, Zoya.
  • Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 6 May 2021 12: 16
    +4
    Quote: Boris55
    All wars came to us from the West:

    Khazars, Pechenegs, Polovtsians, Mongols, the Golden Horde, Japanese "militarists", "Chinese military" ... Well, we, of course, only went to the east and west and south with goodness. We would also go to the north, but there is nowhere to go there - the ocean. Although, here is Prince Yaroslav Vsevolodovich, and after his son Alexander, Peter the Great and Stalin managed to fight in Finland too ... So we also went to the north to do good things, we will not belittle the dignity of our ancestors.
  • Ulrih
    Ulrih 6 May 2021 09: 20
    +3
    History section! Don't like it, don't read ...
  • A. Privalov
    A. Privalov 6 May 2021 07: 16
    +10
    The figure of Napoleon is controversial in today's France.
    The "Napoleonites" - supporters of the emperor, see him as one of the greatest military leaders in history, an outstanding statesman who laid the foundation for the education system, legal and administrative system and encouraged talents and science.
    For the "anti-Napoleonists" - he is, first of all, the murderer of hundreds of thousands of Frenchmen, the monarch clinging to power, who led France as a result of a coup and destroyed the First Republic. Recently, the question of his restoration of slavery in the colonies has been actively discussed, and his disdainful attitude towards women, etc., is also remembered.

    French President Emmanuel Macron, yesterday at a commemorative ceremony dedicated to the 200th anniversary of the death of Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte, said:
    We must take responsibility for all his actions, because he is a part of ourselves. Napoleon was both a monster and an eagle, Alexander and Nero, the soul of the world and the demon of Europe. This is not a solemn, but a commemorative ceremony.
    ... Celebrating the bicentennial, we honestly and in simple language declare that we reject the temptation to arrange an anachronistic trial, where the past is judged according to the laws of the present. We want to understand what we are as a French people.


    PS To the author - Mikhail Arushev, the "Napoleonic" series was clearly a success, in contrast to the declared third day, under the guise of Paul Neumann - "Schindler's" series. hi
    1. Korsar4
      Korsar4 6 May 2021 07: 36
      +3
      After all, in our country, before the Patriotic War, there were opponents and supporters of Napoleon (the same "War and Peace" shows well).

      I don’t know how many years must pass after the war to begin to be sympathetic.
    2. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 6 May 2021 09: 42
      +3
      remember his dismissive attitude towards women, etc.
      If it turns out that he also didn't like cats - oh, what will begin! laughing
      My compliments, Alexander! hi
      1. A. Privalov
        A. Privalov 6 May 2021 09: 50
        0
        And I greet you! hi
        Napoleon, like the Macedonian, Genghis Khan and Caesar did not tolerate cats. This phobia even has a scientific name - ailurophobia. It was in Napoleon that this disease developed at the age of 6 months, when a cat jumped on him in the garden. This phobia was even taken advantage of by Nelson, who unleashed a flock of cats on the battlefield before the battle. Napoleon was frightened and lost the tactical duel. lol
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 6 May 2021 09: 59
          +5
          aylurophobia
          I'll tell you more! It was she who caused the tragic romance between Richelieu and Anna of Austria crying
          1. A. Privalov
            A. Privalov 6 May 2021 10: 11
            +3
            Quote: 3x3zsave
            Richelieu and Anna of Austria ...

            Well, the Duke's love for cats is common knowledge. By the way, his favorite - little white, was called Miriam.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 6 May 2021 10: 15
              +2
              Just about, and the queen was allergic to cat hair.
              1. A. Privalov
                A. Privalov 6 May 2021 10: 19
                +1
                Quote: 3x3zsave
                Just about, and the queen was allergic to cat hair.

                Of course, who can constantly endure "unreasonable" tears (this is how she reacted to the cat's hair). Richelieu quickly lost interest in the constantly crying Anna. crying
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 6 May 2021 10: 32
                  +2
                  Have you read Andrey Balabukha?
                  1. A. Privalov
                    A. Privalov 6 May 2021 10: 47
                    +1
                    Quote: 3x3zsave
                    Have you read Andrey Balabukha?

                    I heard about such a person, but did not read anything.
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 6 May 2021 10: 56
                      +4
                      Science fiction writer, publicist, literary critic. The last book, published as a separate edition, "When History Textbooks Lie" is a collection of literary processed the most odious folkhistorical fakes. The story about Richelieu and Anna is from there.
                      1. A. Privalov
                        A. Privalov 6 May 2021 13: 26
                        0
                        Quote: 3x3zsave
                        The story about Richelieu and Anna is from there.

                        Interesting ...
                        Long remembered where I heard the name of Balabukh.
                        This is a pioneer hero. The pioneer squad of our school was named after him. True, then, in 1964, it was renamed Panfilov.
                        We were bad kids, we were offended, the boy-hero was somehow closer to us and everyone asked why the general had a mustache like Hitler's ...

                        It's good that our classroom at least somehow explained to us that it was not a mustache.
                        And I will look for books by Andrey Dmitrievich. Thanks for the tip. hi
                      2. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 6 May 2021 13: 40
                        +2
                        I recommend, meanwhile, the prefaces and comments to the first complete Russian-language collection of works by R. Heinlein, for his authorship. Publishing house "Terra fantastica".
                      3. A. Privalov
                        A. Privalov 6 May 2021 14: 45
                        +1
                        I remember his "Stepsons of the Universe" ...
                        Found the preface.
                        Democracy loves pompous titles - a weakness noted by Alexander Dumas the father.
                        I will definitely read it in the evening. hi
                      4. The comment was deleted.
                    2. A. Privalov
                      A. Privalov 6 May 2021 20: 40
                      +1
                      Was reading. That's all right. And there is. Heinlein is great.
                      The preface is easy, aphoristic and entertaining. good
      2. Okolotochny
        Okolotochny 7 May 2021 13: 05
        +3
        By the way, his favorite - little white, was called Miriam.

        And then the hand ... of pre-Masons? laughing Poor Armand. Just don't tell Samsonov about it))
        1. A. Privalov
          A. Privalov 7 May 2021 15: 46
          0
          Quote: Okolotochny
          there is a hand ... of pre-Masons? Poor Armand. Just don't tell Samsonov about it))

          From Samsonov will not lose. laughing
          Moreover, the Freemasons appeared in France 45 years after the death of the cardinal. Accordingly, the cat's nickname cannot have anything to do with them. negative
          The future cardinal studied philosophy at the Calvi College, then continued his studies at the Navarre College, after which he completed his bachelor's degree in theology at the Sorbonne. Already someone who, and he knew well who is who in the Old Testament. hi
    3. parusnik
      parusnik 6 May 2021 11: 23
      +4
      It was she who caused the tragic romance between Richelieu and Anna of Austria
      ... Which was partially reflected in the Soviet cartoon "Dog in Boots" laughing
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 6 May 2021 11: 29
        +4
        My respect, Aleksey! hi
        Don't be dashing! Now our catophiles will run in and tear me into a thousand little puppies! laughing
        1. parusnik
          parusnik 6 May 2021 15: 14
          +2
          Don't be dashing!
          hi Judging by the comments, woke up laughing
    4. Korsar4
      Korsar4 6 May 2021 11: 35
      +2
      Was it developed in the cartoon "Dog in Boots"?
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 6 May 2021 11: 41
        +4
        Uh-huh.
        "Let's turn, perhaps, a kennel,
        We are in the soap factory today! "(C)
        Nice song, from a children's cartoon ...
        1. Korsar4
          Korsar4 6 May 2021 11: 56
          +2
          There, all the songs are small masterpieces.

          For example, the
          “We are poor sheep,
          Nobody grazes us ”(c).
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 6 May 2021 11: 58
            +3
            "Mary had a lamb" (C)
            1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 May 2021 12: 48
              +4
              Quote: 3x3zsave
              "Mary had a lamb" (C)

              Uh-huh Buddy!
              “The priest had a dog
              he loved her
              she ate a piece of meat
              he killed her ... "
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 6 May 2021 12: 53
                +4
                "But for this, father, you can put your party card on the table!"
                1. The comment was deleted.
                2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                  Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 May 2021 13: 36
                  +4
                  "The dog barks, but the caravan moves on."
                  Photo specially of Anton - catofoba !!!


                  Reflections on why Napoleon did not capture Russia, and Genghis Khan did not reach the last sea? They did not like koteeks !!! laughing
                  Here is the prophet Muhamed koteek loved and his name is honored by every fifth person on earth !!! hi
  • depressant
    depressant 6 May 2021 10: 02
    +3
    It has already begun! Macron's speech about Napoleon was extremely interesting. At least me. Will we wait for reparations under the terms of the Tilsit Agreement? wassat
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 6 May 2021 10: 11
      +3
      In terms of the "cat index"?
      1. depressant
        depressant 6 May 2021 12: 24
        +2
        You can also take aircraft carriers. Taking into account the fact that France, which has now undertaken to expose Napoleon, in this case acted with us in his best traditions. You can't drink the acquired skills! Fill up at least some wine.
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 6 May 2021 12: 31
          +2
          You can also take aircraft carriers.
          Have already tried. "Mistrals".
          1. depressant
            depressant 6 May 2021 12: 34
            +3
            So I am about them! But there is a suspicion that something has already been quietly taken instead of Mistral ... Possibly greyhound Labradors.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 6 May 2021 12: 36
              +1
              Rather dwarf Newfoundlands.
              1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 May 2021 13: 42
                +3
                Quote: depressant
                So I am about them! But there is a suspicion that something has already been quietly taken instead of Mistral ... Possibly greyhound Labradors.

                Quote: 3x3zsave
                Rather dwarf Newfoundlands.

                You think correctly gentlemen and ladies, cats walk by themselves and are not for sale !!! Well, if only for a sausage, a very large sausage. But this is just a temporary concession, while there is a sausage, and when it is not there. Cats are not for sale !!!! laughing
                1. depressant
                  depressant 6 May 2021 13: 48
                  +2
                  Vladislav ... You want to say that not everyone will take a sausage by a cat? Well, maybe made from frayed horns, hooves, cartilage, chicken heads and soybeans. And so ... It clings to the natural, hangs on it and does not unclench its teeth, simultaneously releasing a furious threatening growl. Epic so!
                2. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 6 May 2021 13: 52
                  +3
                  Cats are not for sale
                  They sell very well, the main thing here is to choose the right packaging! The Russian people have succeeded in this
                3. Korsar4
                  Korsar4 6 May 2021 18: 56
                  +2
                  Strictly speaking, the first episode from "Dog in Boots" with the prototype of Porthos.

                  However, cats are probably a little more careful.
    2. Former naval person
      10 May 2021 15: 23
      +1
      the military has already delivered an ultimatum to the macron, so we will rather wait for 18 Brumaire again.
  • vladcub
    vladcub 6 May 2021 07: 34
    +4
    "the report could not reach the infantry square or artillery battery, around which the masses of Cossacks circled" how many Cossacks: they surrounded every battalion, every battery. Note that everywhere in Europe and in Russia.
    The author, in fact, the commander of the reports sends to the higher headquarters, and orders to the battery or battalion.
  • Undecim
    Undecim 6 May 2021 08: 42
    +6
    Once, when Marshal Neia's adjutant rode up to him on the battlefield in red trousers reserved exclusively for Headquarters adjutants, Berthier ordered him to take off these trousers immediately.

    The author clearly did not master the red trousers in Napoleon's army. There is a proposal to write a separate article on this issue, since red trousers were obviously worn not only by Stavka's adjutants.

    As you can see, there are engineering personnel in red trousers.
  • Korsar4
    Korsar4 6 May 2021 08: 51
    +3
    So I thought: who could benefit from the invasion of the French.

    Sort of:
    “In my judgment
    The fire contributed a lot to her decoration ”(c).

    There is such a story - unconfirmed, that a printing press for bank notes fell into the hands of the Old Believer community.

    Since they all had their own, they used them successfully.
  • Ulrih
    Ulrih 6 May 2021 10: 18
    +3
    By the way, about red pants:
    "God knows how many years I have not gone to the inspections, because I do not approve of many things. I do not approve of the red leggings of the infantrymen. Previously, the infantry fought in white leggings. And the red ones must be worn by the cavalry." - The Adventures of Brigadier Gerard.

    Offhand red pants were worn by the Shevollezers of the Guard (Polish and "red" lancers), Mamelukes, Lithuanian Tatars of the Guard, regiments of the Honorary Guard, various regiments of the allied forces (Westphalia, etc.)
  • Tavrik
    Tavrik 6 May 2021 15: 22
    0
    The article is scanty. Nize.
    Where is the organization of the headquarters? Which departments did what? About the "adjutant-commandants" apparently did not understand at all.
    I'll open the topic in the evening ...
  • Tavrik
    Tavrik 6 May 2021 19: 53
    +3
    His deputy was a Brigadier General or Adjutant Commandant (former Adjutant General; Adjutant Generals were re-certified as Adjutant Commandant by decree of 27 Messidor VIII of the Republic or July 16, 1800)

    To begin with, since 1790, special officers called "adjudants-generaux" were introduced to carry out staff work. The most correct translation is "general assistant". The Russian "adjutant general" is categorically inappropriate here.
    If the person was called adjudants-generaux, then it was a staff colonel. If after the "adjudants-generaux" was added, for example, "chef de bataillon" (battalion commander, but this is not a position, but rank!), so it was a staff officer in rank battalion commander.
    Adjudant-general (and later adjudant-commandant) was both a rank and a position. A person with the rank of "colonel" (colonel) could only be a regiment commander. Adjudant-generaux were later renamed adjudant-commandant.
    Below in the staff hierarchy were "adjoints a l'etat-major" - the captains of the staff. The concept "adjoints a l'etat-major", or literally "assistants to the headquarters", means, if it is not associated with the name of a special rank, "captain of the headquarters". In the event that a particular rank is added to the phrase "adjoints a l'etat-major", such as "chef de bataillon" or "lieutenant", it means an officer of this rank, who is at the headquarters.
    Here they are, these unfortunate people, on S. Letin's tablet from the book "Napoleon's Army" by OV Sokolov.
  • Tavrik
    Tavrik 6 May 2021 20: 16
    +5
    The chief of staff, for example, a corps, was subordinate to all staff officers assigned to the borough (departments in our opinion). There was a General Bureau and the Administrative Bureau subordinate to it (in our opinion - the operational department), Borough of the state of the troops (Troops service and personnel department), Police Bureau (military police), Topographic bureau (maps, diagrams, sketches of the area, photo-video presentation laughing ). In addition, early. headquarters was subordinate to the Administration (in our opinion, the headquarters of the rear), which included officials responsible for the treasury, hospitals, post office, fodder, provisions.
    Interestingly, the chief of artillery and chief of engineers with their headquarters of artillery and headquarters of engineers were directly subordinate to the corps commander.
    For example, here is what the General Bureau was doing (I quote from "Napoleon's Army"):
    1. Organization of the corps (army), the appointment to certain posts of all generals, senior officers and
    staff officers, the formation of garrisons, individual detachments and posts on the communication
    line.
    2. Edition of orders concerning marches and movements for all military units that make up
    corps, edition of orders for combat operations, instructions for these orders. The bureau was also
    responsible for the delivery of orders.
    3. The location of the army in apartments, in particular in winter apartments.
    4. Appointment of generals and officers on duty, as well as camp posts.
    5. Sending a password and a slogan.
    6. Editing and distribution of general orders for the corps (army) or orders for the day (ordres du jour).
    7. Correspondence with the Minister of War.
    8. Correspondence with the commander-in-chief.
    9. Correspondence with generals, commanders of artillery, cavalry and engineering troops, as well as with generals, commanders of divisions, individual formations, military governors of provinces, commandants of cities located in the zone of action of the corps (army), sending them orders and instructions.
    10. Edition of special orders for artillery and engineering troops.
    11. Organization of a convalescent depot, organization of cavalry depots.
    12. Edition of orders for special missions: reconnaissance, reconnaissance and groups intended
    to act in the rear of the enemy (parties). Choosing a place for the camp.
    13. Offers for promotion.
    14. Edition of orders for detachments leaving the corps (army).
    15. Edition of orders on the issue of weapons and ammunition from warehouses to replace damaged
    samples and replenishment of ammunition.
    16. Editorial bulletins and historical report.
    17. Sending laws, decrees and other government acts and ministerial circulars to the troops,
    fighting armies.
    18. Distribution of various service tasks between divisions and detachments.
    1. Okolotochny
      Okolotochny 7 May 2021 13: 07
      +2
      You have a good comment. hi
      1. Tavrik
        Tavrik 10 May 2021 20: 09
        +1
        Thank you! hi
        I won't write about the headquarters of the Great Army, everything was even more complicated there.
  • Nurdom
    Nurdom 14 May 2021 10: 16
    0
    Great article. Lots of smart and useful additions in the comments. good