Military Review

Mysteries of the megaliths

102

Megaliths of Taula (Balearic Islands)


Today we will continue the story started in the article "Stories with a Stone".

So, megaliths have long attracted attention, but by whom they were built and for what purpose, no one knew already at the turn of the New Era. Sources that have come down to us speak of some unknown people who once lived in these territories and left behind only these stones. Some legends and legends declare dwarfs to be the builders of megalithic structures, while others, on the contrary, claim that they were built by giants.

Many legends associate the construction of these mysterious structures with people who came from the sea. Indeed, when looking at the map, it is noticeable that the megaliths clearly gravitate towards the sea coasts. Moreover, the farther they are from the sea, the smaller their size. For example, here is a map of the dolmens of the Caucasian Black Sea region:

Mysteries of the megaliths

And the most ancient megalithic structures were found at the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean 40 km from the Bahamas and date back to the eighth millennium BC. Underwater megaliths have also been found near the Pacific Caroline Islands, at the bottom of the sea near the Japanese island of Yonaguni and at the bottom of Rock Lake in Wisconsin (USA).

Sometimes the versions about dwarfs and "people of the sea" merge. For example, in Adygea, the construction of incomprehensible stone structures is attributed to dwarfs who came out of the sea and rode hares.

The traditions of the various tribes of the Polynesian islands do not coincide. Some of them claim that the megaliths were left by dwarfs who descended from the three-tiered flying island of Kuaikhelani. Others talk about white, red-bearded gods emerging from the ocean. The Polynesians call megaliths the word "marae" - an altar.


Marae Manunu, Huahine Island

In the legends of the African Dogon tribe, it is said about some dwarf yebans, who are called the children of the Earth and the pale fox Yorutu.

Australian aborigines associate the megaliths with the mysterious sea people, whose people were depicted without mouths and with halos around their heads.

Celtic tribes of Western Europe attributed the construction of megaliths to fairies and elves. In the Irish sagas, for example, it is said that megalithic structures are a kind of portals connecting the world of people and the country of the “little people”. It is known that the megaliths in the same Ireland, as well as in Britain, were called "stones of the Druids". However, it is now considered proven that in their rituals the Druids used stones that had already existed for a long time, the origin of which, probably, they also did not know.

According to the medieval Dutch scientist Johan Picard, who drew on the earlier writings of Scandinavian authors, the megaliths were not built by dwarfs, but by giants who lived in northern Europe in prehistoric times. The inhabitants of Germany and the Mediterranean island of Sardinia are in solidarity with the Scandinavians. The Germans call such megaliths "graves of giants" (Hünengräber), the Sardinians - "graves of giants".


"Tomb of the Hun Giants", northern Germany


Megalith of Giants, Sardinia

And this is the largest dolmen in Europe, which can be seen in Spain - near the Andalusian city of Antequera.



Also in Spain, on the island of Minorca (Balearic Islands), you can see the impressive tomb of Naveta des Tudons, the walls of which are made of limestone blocks. Its height is 4,55 meters, length - 14 meters, width - 6,4 meters.



According to scientists, it was built between 1640-1400. BC.

Dolmen de Lacara is very unusual and beautiful, which is located in the Spanish province of Extremadura, 25 km from the city of Merida:



It is from 3 to 4 thousand years old.

But the largest megalithic complex in Europe is located in Ireland - in the Boyne Valley. He is a thousand years older than Stonehenge.


Megaliths of Bru-na-Boyne

The most famous building of this complex is the Newgrange Barrow (literally translated as "New Farm"). Sometimes it is also called the "Mound of fairies" and "the cave of the Sun" - its rays penetrate here on the day of the winter solstice.


Newgrange


Scheme of Newgrange Barrow


Newgrange Barrow Cave

It is this complex that is officially recognized by UNESCO as the largest and most important megalithic structure in Europe.

In the Senyuk region in the southeast of Armenia, about 3 km from the city of Sisian, you can see a whole group of megaliths called Zorats-Karer - "stone army". There are 223 megaliths in total, 80 of them have holes in the upper part, which is why they are called "singing stones" (of these 80 stones, only 37 continue to stand).


Zorats-Karer, Armenia

In India, some megaliths are considered the tombs of the Daityas (race of giants, asuras) and Rakshasas (demons). Other megaliths are associated with the gods of the Hindu pantheon. This one, for example, had the original Tamil name "Vaan Irai Kal" - "Stone of the Heavenly Deity."


However, it is now called Krishna's Butter Ball. The fact is that, according to the Hindu legends, this god in childhood stole butter from local peasants (it’s even interesting: is it really in such quantities?).


Krishna as a child

"Magical" properties of megaliths


In fact, magical properties and functions were often attributed to megalithic stones. In Brittany, for example, not far from the town of Essay, there is the famous dolmen alley, which the locals call "fairy stones". Here they believed that fairies can help in choosing a life partner. After the engagement, the young man and the girl on the night of the new moon walked around the old stones, counting them: the young man on the right, the girl on the left. If both had the same number of stones, their union should have been happy. The difference in one or two stones was also not considered critical, but those who, in their calculations, were mistaken by three or more stones, were strongly discouraged from playing a wedding. According to legend, these stones appeared here during the construction of the Roche-au-Fee dolmen by the fairies, which was mentioned in the article "Stories with a Stone".


Rosh-o-fe ("Fairy Rock")

They say that fairies wore stones in aprons, and then poured out the extra ones.

In Brittany, it was also believed that treasures lay under the ancient "standing stones" (menhirs), but they can be obtained only on one single day of the year. In Christian times, the night before Christmas began to be considered such a cherished time, when menhirs allegedly either rose above the ground, or, in general, left their place to the nearest source. To "rob" the menhir one had to possess a fair amount of dexterity and courage. Those of them that rose, strove to fall on the thief, who had gone to the source - they returned and chased him.

In Ancient Greece, magic stones were also subdivided into ophites ("Serpent stones", we will talk about them in the next article) and siderite ("Star Stones"), which were believed to have fallen from the sky. By the way, the famous Black Stone of the Kaaba in Mecca, judging by the available data, can be attributed specifically to the siderites.


Black stone of the Kaaba

Another, no less rare magical variety of megaliths, were the so-called moving stones. One of them, located on Mona Island, is mentioned by the medieval chronicler Giraldus Kambrenzis. They claim that this stone invariably returned to its place, despite all efforts to keep it in another. At the time of the conquest of Ireland by Henry II, Count Hugo Sestrenzis, wanting to personally verify the truth of this fact, ordered the famous stone to be tied to another, much larger one and both thrown into the sea. The next morning, the stone was found in its usual place. Later, this stone was laid in the wall of the local church, where it was seen by the scientist William Salisbury in 1554.

Moving stones include the famous Blue Stone near Lake Pleshcheyevo, which was described in the article Fulfillment of desires.


Blue stone at Lake Pleshcheevo

"Creeping stones" can be seen in the American National Park "Death Valley".


Scientists believe that they move thanks to the ice that forms around them during night frosts.

In Romania, however, there are trovant stones consisting of layered sandstone, which are capable of growing and even budding.


Geologists explain their growth by oxide or sulfate expansion of the internal structure of these stones under the influence of moisture. The fact is that magnesium and calcium hydroxides occupy twice the volume of the initial oxides, and the volume of hydrosulfoaluminate is 2,2 times greater than the volume of the initial components.

Another property of megaliths was considered their ability to heal the diseases of people who came to them. Recent archaeological research suggests that the main purpose of the famous Stonehenge (Stone Henge), the construction of which is associated with the name of Merlin, was to carry out healing rituals. Burials of people were found near this complex, the examination of the remains of which gives reason to suspect that they have serious diseases. Analysis of the teeth of the deceased found that many of them came from very remote areas, which indicates the great popularity of Stonehenge precisely as a "magic hospital". But modern researchers are skeptical about the famous version that Stonehenge is an ancient astronomical observatory. The fact is that this complex is not located on the top of a hill, but on its very gentle slope, which makes astronomical calculations very difficult.


The stones of Maine-en-Tol, located near the English city of Penzance, were also considered healing:


Stones of Maine-en-Toll, Penzance, England

To cure children from tuberculosis and rickets, local residents have long carried them naked through the hole in the stone three times, and then dragged them three times across the grass from west to east. And the adults were looking for relief from back and joint pain here: they had to crawl through the hole nine times from east to west.

And this is the "Ring of Brodgar" (Orkney Islands), the third largest stone circle in Great Britain:


One of the megaliths of this "Ring" was the "Stone of Odin" with an opening through which a young man and a girl who loved each other shook hands. This ritual was a sign of the seriousness of their intentions and was called "Odin's oath". There was also a belief that a child who crawls through the hole of this stone will be guaranteed from paralysis for the rest of his life. Unfortunately, the Stone of Odin was destroyed by Christian priests. Of the 60 stones of this cromlech, only 27 have survived to this day.

Megaliths were also considered healing in Brittany, where at the turn of the XNUMXth and XNUMXth centuries, sick people came to them from all the surrounding villages.

There are “healing stones” on the territory of Russia as well. For example, Kon-Kamen near the village of Koz'e in the Efremovsky district of the Tula region.


Popular legend claims that some Horde people who fled from the Kulikov field turned into him. Local residents believed that men, sitting on it, can increase potency, and women - get rid of infertility. He also helped against cattle diseases: it is said that until the middle of the XNUMXth century, peasants plowed the land around this megalith for this purpose in the spring.

“Healing stones” can be seen even in Moscow (in Kolomenskoye). These are "Maiden's Stone" and "Stone-Goose", which were described in the article Fulfillment of desires.

Catholic priests called the megaliths revered by the people "the thrones of the devil." The hierarchs of the Orthodox Church did not welcome the worship of stones either, to put it mildly. Over the centuries, the Church has made tremendous efforts to end mass pilgrimages to these pagan sites and structures. In the end, the "Christianization" of the megaliths began, on many of which crosses were installed (or carved on them), and over some of them even churches were erected. IN stories Russia can also find examples of such an attitude towards ancient sanctuaries.
For example, the wooden chapel of Arseny Konevsky on the Kon-Kamen Island of Konevets - on Lake Ladoga.


This saint, who lived at the end of the XIV century, having learned about the sacrifices at the megalith, walked around it with an icon of the Virgin and sprinkled it with holy water. After that, according to legend, the demons came out of the stone in the form of a flock of crows and flew to the bay, which has since become known as "Devil's". Then, supposedly, snakes ceased to be found on this island. The stone chapel was built in 1895.

A chapel was also erected near the megalith on Mount Maura in the Vologda Oblast (the territory of the Russian North National Park).


This megalith is called the "footprint": on it, as it were, one can see the imprint of a human foot, which is attributed to the Monk Cyril (founder of the Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery). Locals believe that a wish will come true if you make it by stepping on it.

In the Vologda region, by the way, there are other unusual stones. So, in the interfluve of the Kema and Indomanka rivers, you can see two granite boulders, which have depressions (up to 15 cm) and were probably used as altars for pagan sacrifices.


Other megalithic structures of Russia


In Gornaya Shoria in the south of Kuzbass, the Surak-Kuylyum megalithic complex was discovered quite recently (in 2013). It is located in a hard-to-reach area at an altitude of 1015–1200 meters and has not yet been fully explored.


One of the megaliths of Mount Kuilum

Very interesting megaliths can be seen on Mount Vottovaara (Karelia). Here they are called "seids".



But there are especially many megalithic structures in the Caucasus - from the Black Sea coast to Adygea.


Volkonsky Dolmen near Sochi


Dolmen in the Bay of Inal, Tuapse region

In the tract "Bogatyrskaya Polyana" (Adygea) near the village Novosvobodnaya, there are 360 ​​dolmens, many of which, unfortunately, have been plundered and destroyed. Only two have survived well: No. 100 and No. 158.


Dolmen No. 100 "Bogatyrskaya Polyana"

Dolmens can also be seen in Crimea (72 dolmens, but most of them are poorly preserved), in Siberia and in the Kuban region.

About 60 dolmens were found in Abkhazia, 15 of them are located near the village of Verkhnyaya Eshera. One of the Escher dolmens stands at the Museum of Local Lore in Sukhumi (Abkhazia).


It was taken apart and brought from Esheri in 1961. During assembly, one of the walls was broken, and a gap is now visible between the roof and walls.

Unfortunately, many of the dolmens (both Russian and foreign) have been destroyed and lost forever.

In the next article, we will talk about "serpentine stones" and "stones of fate".
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  1. c2020
    c2020 April 22 2021 05: 20
    +3
    .
    .
    More about Stonehenge

    As for Stonehenge, the Egyptian roots of the structure have recently been strictly established. This is the ancient Egyptian temple of the sun god Atum-Ra. This explains its astronomical orientation to the Sun. At Stonehenge, Egyptian hieroglyphs have been discovered and deciphered, Egyptian mythology takes place, and the method of lifting stones to great heights using Egyptian hydraulic technologies has been explained. Skepticism about astronomy and high technology at Stonehenge is due to the low educational level of skeptics. The article can be read at the link below. Its author is a candidate of technical sciences, a mathematician with a triple higher education, including the Lomonosov Moscow State University and the Bauman Moscow State Technical University:

    https://newizv.ru/news/science/24-03-2021/evm-iz-drevnego-egipta-rossiyskiy-matematik-razgadal-taynu-stounhendzha



    This is a fragment of the dictionary of Egyptian hieroglyphs of Stonehenge



    This is the vicinity of Stonehenge from the standpoint of Egyptian mythology. The alley depicts the goddess of the sky Nut. Kursus - the border of heaven and the underworld Duat of the ancient Egyptians


    Three concentric basins for the construction of Stonehenge. The water level in the pools was gradually raised from outside to inside with the help of Egyptian water-lifting devices - shadufs. In this way, the stones on the rafts floated to the required height and then precisely dropped into place when the water level dropped. That is, during the construction of Stonehenge, a powerful hydraulic device (the principle of a jack) was used, and not primitive levers, as historians previously thought.
    .
    .
    1. tlauicol
      tlauicol April 22 2021 08: 05
      +5
      I read the article, there were questions:
      1. Where did this mathematician find Egyptian hieroglyphs? Thousands of researchers for thousands of years have not found a single inscription on the stones. Or the ancient builders knew how to write only by adding multi-ton cubes
      2.Where are the gateways? There are grooves, holes .. and locks and canals ??
      3. Shadufs, rafts - ok! And how were the megaliths placed vertically on the rafts? The mathematician is silent.
      4. Does he know in general that it was built in three steps for a thousand years?
      1. c2020
        c2020 April 22 2021 18: 05
        -1
        The mathematician has been researching Stonehenge for thirty years. He is not silent. He probably does not consider it necessary to answer the children's questions that you "dug up" in a couple of minutes of your own research. Read like this mathematician the works of J.F. Champollion, books by Gerald Hawkins, scientific monographs of famous Egyptologists, graduate from three universities, defend your Ph.D. thesis. And children's questions will disappear by themselves. By the way, in a large scientific article by mathematician, published in English, Stonehenge is also considered as a fortification with three protective water barriers. This is the question of the "Military Review". It was not easy to take such a fortress in ancient times.
        1. tlauicol
          tlauicol April 23 2021 04: 07
          0
          I addressed my children's questions to you, having read this link by you in the hope of getting answers ... alas, one blah blah
          1. c2020
            c2020 April 23 2021 06: 39
            -1
            What is the level of children's questions (blah? Blah? Blah?), So are the answers.
            1. tlauicol
              tlauicol April 23 2021 06: 46
              0
              So what about hieroglyphs and gateways. Can you give one more link?
              1. c2020
                c2020 April 23 2021 17: 47
                0
                What about hieroglyphs and gateways? Give a link.
    2. Operator
      Operator April 22 2021 10: 01
      +3
      Stonehenge was built in the 6th millennium BC, and the first Egyptian pyramid was built in the 3rd.

      When the British carriers of the haplogroup G were building Stonehenge, the Egyptian carriers of the haplogroup E were just picking with digging sticks in the mud from the Nile floods.
      1. c2020
        c2020 April 22 2021 18: 14
        +2
        You are greatly mistaken. Stonehenge was built in three phases between approximately 3000 BC and 1500 BC.
        1. Mwg
          Mwg April 23 2021 03: 44
          0
          Stonehenge was built in the 50s of the 20th century. And they don't hide it. But they shout about its antiquity. And this is business.
          1. c2020
            c2020 April 23 2021 06: 55
            0
            You are cheating. Corrected a few stones - yes. Everything else was not touched at all during the restoration of Stonehenge.
    3. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka April 22 2021 11: 27
      0
      Three concentric basins for construction
      too tricky and time consuming. It must be remembered that without iron tools, a person will have to spend at least a day "cutting" the trunk of solid wood, followed by its processing.
      And it is not easier for a person of that period to operate with earthen embankments, levers and ropes.
      1. c2020
        c2020 April 22 2021 18: 32
        -1
        And it is not easier for a person of that period to operate with earthen embankments, levers and ropes.

        No, it’s not easier. The stones were placed with astronomical precision. With earth embankments, levers and ropes, you won't achieve this precision. As Gerald Hawkins wrote in his book, even a boy could steer a raft with a heavy stone on it. Only with this, water-based installation method, with minimal effort, was the huge positioning accuracy of the raft with the stone achieved. As for the laboriousness, you are right, and Gerald Hawkins calculated: for the ancient man, the construction of Stonehenge in terms of labor costs was comparable to the modern space program.
        1. tlauicol
          tlauicol April 23 2021 04: 29
          0
          The stones settled for several more years after installation; they had to be constantly adjusted with ropes and levers. And you poured water, put it on - and it's done, everything is accurate. Then the sluices were erased with an eraser
          1. c2020
            c2020 April 23 2021 06: 49
            -1
            There is solid chalk and for four thousand years the stones there have not settled one iota. And in your country they "settle" in a few years. Don't make people laugh.
            1. tlauicol
              tlauicol April 23 2021 07: 21
              0
              yeah, they didn't settle so much that most of them had to be dug out (such is a chalk swamp). After being installed in the pits, they settled and corrected. Or do they still stand on the board like chess?
              ps So what about hieroglyphs and gateways?
              1. c2020
                c2020 April 23 2021 12: 39
                -1
                Your "aha" betrays a great intellectual in you. Stonehenge stones were installed in holes previously dug for them, and not "settled". Your attempts to troll are obvious, but your knowledge of Stonehenge is nil.
                1. tlauicol
                  tlauicol April 23 2021 12: 54
                  +1
                  Quote: c2020
                  Stonehenge stones were installed in holes previously dug for them,

                  I know this, in them they settled and heeled, and corrected themselves, and orientated themselves. The question is: if this land is flooded ... oh, no, is it chalk limestone or what have you got there?
                  1. c2020
                    c2020 April 23 2021 17: 48
                    0
                    what have you got there?

                    What about you?
            2. tlauicol
              tlauicol April 23 2021 07: 45
              +1
              If there was chalk, your quasi-Egyptians would stupidly zababakhali pyramid, since the materials are under their feet. But, no, give them difficulties.
              And the locks and canals are now in the chalk sandstone sanded probably? They left the holes in the ground, and this?
              1. c2020
                c2020 April 23 2021 12: 45
                -1
                the quasi-Egyptians would have stupidly fiddled with the pyramid

                You have already "zababahali" so many nonsense that where there is to the Egyptians ... Tell you about the locks, so they will also "settle" with you. After all, it is important for you to troll, and not get answers to any questions. "Aha"?
                1. tlauicol
                  tlauicol April 23 2021 12: 55
                  +1
                  Quote: c2020
                  the quasi-Egyptians would have stupidly fiddled with the pyramid

                  You have already "zababahali" so many nonsense that where there is to the Egyptians ... Tell you about the locks, so they will also "settle" with you. After all, it is important for you to troll, and not get answers to any questions. "Aha"?

                  Yes you do not tell, just give a reference. I will read. Then I will ask more questions.
                  But you are as silent as a stone.
                  Where are the locks, Karl? In limestone
                  1. c2020
                    c2020 April 23 2021 17: 56
                    -1
                    don't tell me ...
                    But you are silent as a stone ...

                    That is why I am silent as a stone because you are asking not to tell.
                    You first understand yourself, take a walk, breathe fresh air, learn elementary logic, clearly express your thoughts, then write. I will read. Then I will give more answers.
  2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka April 22 2021 05: 44
    +12
    Thank you! It seems you know a lot, read about many things and looked about many things, but what a pleasure it is to read a well-presented, beautifully illustrated and fairly systematic work !!!
    Thanks again!!!
    1. depressant
      depressant April 22 2021 11: 24
      +7
      Hello everyone on this great article! )))
      Here I am in the same way: so much has been read for each type of stones, and what is put together strengthens each of the previously disparate impressions and makes you again admire the amazing variety of natural and man-made wonders on planet Earth.
  3. Van 16
    Van 16 April 22 2021 05: 50
    +11
    Yes, there are many interesting and mysterious things in the world. And beautiful (the photos in the article are wonderful). I read it with pleasure hi
  4. Korsar4
    Korsar4 April 22 2021 05: 58
    +8
    I liked the story of counting stones. Not a bad test. Is the girl capable of housekeeping. And spend not much more than what the earner brings.
    1. Catfish
      Catfish April 22 2021 06: 22
      +10
      Sergey, hello! I cling "to you, so as not to suffer. smile

      Good morning everyone, and thanks to Valeria for the luxurious material! good

      And the most ancient megalithic structures were found at the bottom ...


      Yonaguni complex - mysterious underwater ruins near Okinawa


      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 April 22 2021 06: 27
        +5
        Hi Constantine!

        And wherever they are found.
        I wonder what they looked like when the world was young.
        1. Catfish
          Catfish April 22 2021 06: 34
          +8
          It would be interesting to know.
          Here's another interesting photo: "Bimini Road". Bahamas.

          And this is generally incomprehensible what it is. Fossilized Flying Saucer? Who would have explained. smile
          1. tlauicol
            tlauicol April 22 2021 07: 25
            +2
            photoshop is such a photoshop yes like the last "Japanese" picture with a pyramid and an Olmec statue
            1. WHAT IS
              WHAT IS April 22 2021 07: 51
              +9
              You can't write off everything on Photoshop, all over the world there are a lot of interesting megaliths with clearly not natural origin, and how all this was built thousands of years ago is unclear ...
              1. tlauicol
                tlauicol April 22 2021 07: 58
                0
                Quote: WHAT IS
                You can't write off everything on Photoshop, all over the world there are a lot of interesting megaliths with clearly not natural origin, and how all this was built thousands of years ago is unclear ...

                I do not write off everything, but specifically the presented photos. in fact, all these objects look completely different. and half of the photos are just drawn from scratch
            2. Undecim
              Undecim April 22 2021 10: 29
              +1
              This is not Photoshop, this is 3Ds Max.
              1. tlauicol
                tlauicol April 22 2021 10: 56
                +1
                It is Photoshop. Because there are dozens of options for such "rendering", naturally with a million differences. They just paint who is in what is much
                1. Undecim
                  Undecim April 22 2021 12: 04
                  0
                  Well, try to repeat in Photoshop. Show the result.
          2. Undecim
            Undecim April 22 2021 10: 20
            +4
            And this is generally not clear what it is ... Who would explain?

            I explain. This is rendering - obtaining an image from a model using a computer program.
            The model, in this case, is the Baltic Sea object, the image of which was obtained in 2011, or rather, its hydroacoustic image.

            What kind of render was used in this case - I can't say, but most likely built into 3Ds Max Mental Ray.
            More vivid images of the object have not yet been obtained, but the clickers, greedy for sensations, have already rang out that this is a flying saucer.
          3. Mwg
            Mwg April 23 2021 03: 45
            +2
            "Millennium Falcon" by Captain Han Solo. Drowned ...
      2. Vol4ara
        Vol4ara April 22 2021 22: 33
        +2
        Quote: Sea Cat
        Sergey, hello! I cling "to you, so as not to suffer. smile

        Good morning everyone, and thanks to Valeria for the luxurious material! good

        And the most ancient megalithic structures were found at the bottom ...


        Yonaguni complex - mysterious underwater ruins near Okinawa



        Wow, I've never heard of this, thanks!
  5. Olgovich
    Olgovich April 22 2021 06: 06
    +11
    Unusual, interesting, high-quality, colorful article.

    There is only one question - to the ancient builders: how did they turn all these stones? request
    1. Andobor
      Andobor April 22 2021 09: 18
      +4
      Quote: Olgovich
      There is only one question - to the ancient builders: how did they turn all these stones?

      A hundred years without cranes to train and we will succeed, but they trained more.
    2. Trilobite Master
      Trilobite Master April 22 2021 11: 32
      +4
      Somewhere recently a hypothesis came across that in order to erect such a stone to such a height, embankments were made. Everything nafig was covered with sand to the very tops, pebbles were delivered on rollers and wheels to the resulting mound, neatly laid on top of the sand, and then the sand was taken back ...
      I just don't remember where I got it. request
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich April 22 2021 13: 03
        +3
        Quote: Trilobite Master
        then in order to erect such a stone to such a height, embankments were made. Everything nafig was covered with sand to the very tops, on the skating rinks and on wheels pebbles were delivered to the resulting mound

        I read it on the technology of building the Egyptian pyramids.

        a scaffolding system is possible, where the element was suspended on belts. The belts were twisted, lifting it, put up stands, etc. recourse
        1. Trilobite Master
          Trilobite Master April 22 2021 13: 28
          +3
          The system of scaffolding, hoists of levers and counterweights is trite, the first thing that comes to mind. smile The solution with the embankment just seemed to me original and relatively simple, but it does not come to the head of a modern person in the first place.
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich April 22 2021 14: 18
            +3
            Quote: Trilobite Master
            The system of scaffolding, hoists of levers and counterweights is trite, the first thing that comes to mind. The solution with a mound just seemed to me original and relatively simple,

            It seems to me that it is the embankment that is banal, but the system of scaffolding, slings and levers is already an art that requires knowledge and experience.
      2. Vlad world
        Vlad world April 22 2021 14: 23
        +3
        Well, our Railways are ancient technologies for moving especially heavy loads. Only at a different technological level. And there were no wheels. There were Rollers. Logs rounded to a cylinder. The wheels will get stuck and the Axles are needed.
  6. WHAT IS
    WHAT IS April 22 2021 06: 20
    +13
    Thanks to Valery for the interesting material and high-quality photographs! Solovki and Bolshoi Zayatsky Island are also very curious in this regard, but unfortunately you cannot grasp the immensity within the framework of one article, unfortunately ..
    1. VLR
      April 22 2021 06: 40
      +11
      I wrote about Solovki and the Big Hare Island in the article "Labyrinths of the World". I didn’t repeat myself.
  7. parusnik
    parusnik April 22 2021 07: 46
    +7
    The secret exists, the keys to this secret have not been found.
    1. Trilobite Master
      Trilobite Master April 22 2021 11: 24
      +5
      Quote: parusnik
      The mystery exists

      Also a secret to me. smile
      Goldbach's binary problem is a mystery. But for some reason, the problem of its disclosure does not interest anyone ... request
      1. parusnik
        parusnik April 22 2021 12: 59
        +4
        The section is history, not mathematics. The author has not yet mentioned Malta. Who, how, why? There are different hypotheses. Alien is swept aside smile
        1. Trilobite Master
          Trilobite Master April 22 2021 13: 24
          +5
          There are secrets both there and there, but there is a journal "Secrets of history", and the journal "Secrets of Mathematics" is either not there at all, or almost nobody knows about it. smile
          Quote: parusnik
          Alien is swept aside

          smile
          And the Scythian-Rus of the boreal world? Nothing better. smile
          And the Atlanteans and Hyperboreans?
          I am simply offended for history, the whole trouble of which is that it is outwardly more attractive than mathematics, and indeed other sciences, and therefore everyone who is not lazy flocks to it. smile
          Now there are practically no such people left, but some time ago they would have thrown a bunch of photos of varying degrees of quality and reliability, and a cart like "historians lie everything", "one hundred thousand million years of Russian history", etc.
          And this is just one of the many mysteries of one of the many sciences, nothing more ... smile
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku April 22 2021 14: 39
            +4
            And the Scythian-Rus of the boreal world?

            "Boreal World" ... Burn .... what
            It turns out that the Scythian-Rus are somehow connected with Borrel? And with whom? With the medieval counts of Barcelona, ​​or with a modern muddy cedar without handshaking? what Michael - talk in riddles! request drinks
            1. Trilobite Master
              Trilobite Master April 22 2021 15: 25
              +2
              Quote: Pane Kohanku
              which?

              These - with a non-handshake, unambiguously.
              And I'm not talking in riddles - it was Samsonov who relayed Petukhov with his boreal Rus to our brains back in the days when I was young and naive, and opened his articles and tried to read. However, maybe he is still doing this, I don’t know.
              1. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku April 22 2021 15: 30
                +2
                These - with a non-handshake, unambiguously.

                Hyperborelians? Borellaria?
                Samsonov relayed Petukhov

                I do not know. I associate all these "arias and hyperboreans" only with the Ahnenerbe and other Thule societies (banned in Russia). negative
          2. parusnik
            parusnik April 22 2021 14: 57
            +3
            The world is full of secrets, that's why it is interesting. And there is enough nonsense. Atlanteans, Hyperboreans? This is not known to science, it is a pity a lot of speculation.
          3. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave April 22 2021 15: 21
            +3
            Now there are practically no such people left
            Hmm, the cliohackers are crushing it now ...
            1. Trilobite Master
              Trilobite Master April 22 2021 15: 28
              +2
              Quote: 3x3zsave
              cliohackers ...

              Cliohackers?
              Much honor. Kliomasturbants, perhaps.
  8. Undecim
    Undecim April 22 2021 08: 16
    +7
    And the most ancient megalithic structures were found at the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean 40 km from the Bahamas and date back to the eighth millennium BC.

    The Atlit Yam megaliths at the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea, in the Haifa region, are at least a thousand years older.
  9. The comment was deleted.
  10. Bolt cutter
    Bolt cutter April 22 2021 08: 19
    +4
    the stones of Maine-en-Toll, located near the English city of Penzance
    Cornwall Penzance can only be formally considered English.
    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku April 22 2021 10: 51
      +7
      Alexey, welcome! Yes, and everyone else - too, welcome! drinks
      The most famous building of this complex is the Newgrange Barrow (literally translated as "New Farm"). Sometimes it is also called the "Mound of fairies" and "the cave of the Sun" - its rays penetrate here on the day of the winter solstice.

      Valery seems to have connected to my information field. wink A month and a half ago, I read with enthusiasm about this complex (and others like it) on Wikipedia.
      1. Bolt cutter
        Bolt cutter April 22 2021 10: 53
        +3
        Good morning! In Penzance itself, for the "English city" they can stuff the face completely in a workers 'and peasants' way.
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku April 22 2021 10: 57
          +3
          In Penzance itself, for the "English city" they can stuff the face completely in a workers 'and peasants' way.

          But whose city is this, in the opinion of local workers and peasants? belay Unusual ... "Vika" writes that since the Middle Ages, Barbary pirates landed there, and at the end of the 16th century - the Spaniards! did not know about such subtleties in the history of Britain ... hi
          1. Bolt cutter
            Bolt cutter April 22 2021 11: 04
            +5
            Cornish are Bretons with a touch of Normans. They have their own language and their own traditions of government. The British are alien there. (By the way, the Romans did not look there either - before the large-scale road construction of the Victorians, it was an almost inaccessible mountainous island separated from Devon by the Tamar River). The British buy second cottages, while the locals find it difficult to buy a single one.
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku April 22 2021 11: 45
              +4
              The British buy second cottages, while the locals find it difficult to buy a single one.

              Unfortunately, this is the case everywhere. Is Cornwall so poor? About invasions - the last invasion of England was in 1797, when the revolutionary French landed a small force in Wales. True, unsuccessful.
              1. Bolt cutter
                Bolt cutter April 22 2021 11: 57
                +3
                Salaries there are about a third lower than in London, and if earlier this compensated for the affordability of housing, now this factor is gone. It is worth adding that there is simply little housing there, as well as the population.
                the French landed a small force in Wales.
                Again, not in England, but to "sheep lovers" (as the English call the Welsh). The Nazis occupied the Norman Islands-deurey part of Britain and even included them in the line of defense of the Atlantic Wall.
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku April 22 2021 12: 25
                  +6
                  The Nazis occupied the Norman Islands-deurey part of Britain and even included them in the line of defense of the Atlantic Wall.

                  It was one of the most controversial occupations in history. The Germans treated the local people rather softly. As far as I understand, part of the administrative structure has remained unchanged.
                  What can not be said about Soviet prisoners of war, who also ended up on the islands ...
                  The feeling from the stripes that the German is from "shupo", respectively, "bobby" is his "colleague".

                  It is strange that the British did not recapture their territory for the remainder of the war. The islands were liberated only after the surrender of Germany. hi
                  1. Bolt cutter
                    Bolt cutter April 22 2021 12: 32
                    +3
                    They did not want casualties among civilians, there was information that the invaders treat non-Jews quite normally.
                    1. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku April 22 2021 12: 41
                      +5
                      They did not want casualties among civilians, there was information that the invaders treat non-Jews quite normally.

                      Quite possible. They wrote about it on VO in 2017:
                      https://topwar.ru/110224-paradoksy-istorii-okkupaciya-germaniey-britanskih-territoriy.html
                      During the entire period of the occupation, 562 people were arrested and sent to correctional camps in Europe (not to be confused with concentration camps!). For curfew violations, theft and other felony. 6 people ended up in concentration camps: three local communists and three Jews.
                      In short, they took away the most "not suitable for the Nazis" ...
                      On an excursion in Zakynthos in 2019, we were told the following: when the Germans demanded to hand over the Jews, they were handed a list with two names - the local head of administration and the local bishop. Jews are grateful to the Greeks for this!

                      In December 1943, the commander of the German garrison that occupied the island of Zakynthos demanded to give him the names and addresses of all local Jews. From Mayor Lucas Carrer and Metropolitan Chrysostom, he received a list of only two names - their own: “If you decide to take away the Jews of Zakynthos, take us away too. We will share their fate. " They were both saved from being shot by a letter from Berlin, in which Jews were allowed to remain on the island under the personal responsibility of the metropolitan and the mayor. In 1978, Israel recognized them both as Righteous Among the Nations, and Zakynthos itself was recognized as "the island of the righteous." During the entire period of the Nazi occupation until September 1944, all 275 Jews were saved here.
                      https://www.ng.ru/ng_religii/2017-12-15/100_greecejews.html

                      And so ... Although the Germans later on the neighboring island, Kefalonia, shamelessly slaughtered their former allies - "Slaughter of the Acqui Division" ...
                2. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave April 22 2021 13: 04
                  +3
                  The situation in the occupied Channel Islands is well reflected in the movie "The Club of Lovers of Books and Potato Peel Pies", the action takes place on the island of Guernsey.
  11. The comment was deleted.
  12. Operator
    Operator April 22 2021 09: 10
    +2
    Purely concretely the territory of indigenous residence of 100% carriers of haplogroup G
  13. Mihaylov
    Mihaylov April 22 2021 10: 38
    +9
    attributed to dwarfs who came out of the sea and rode on hares.

    These ones?
    hi
    1. Trilobite Master
      Trilobite Master April 22 2021 11: 16
      +5
      Greetings, Sergey.
      Is this a marginality?
      So this is what they are - knight-dogs ... smile
      1. Mihaylov
        Mihaylov April 22 2021 11: 53
        +7
        Quote: Trilobite Master
        Is this a marginality?
        So that's what they are - knight-dogs.

        Good afternoon Mikhail,
        these are the famous medieval war hares:




        These guys were very belligerent, they were "nightmares" wassat
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku April 22 2021 12: 53
          +5
          These guys were very belligerent, they were "nightmares"

          Apparently, this is the invention of the lobotomy? Soothing Mace?
          1. Mihaylov
            Mihaylov April 22 2021 14: 25
            +2
            Quote: Pane Kohanku
            Apparently, this is the invention of lobotomy.

            "Elite lobotomy: expensive and very painful!" wassat
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku April 22 2021 15: 54
              +2
              "Elite lobotomy: expensive and very painful!"

              Signature: "Hares - mace beaters"! yes
              1. Mihaylov
                Mihaylov April 22 2021 16: 06
                +2
                Quote: Pane Kohanku
                Signature: "Hares - beating with a mace"!

                The result is an unpretentious advertisement from the 13th century. wassat
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave April 22 2021 16: 38
                  +3
                  "Hares rumbled across the field"
                  Bertrand de Born (from unpublished)
                  1. Mihaylov
                    Mihaylov April 22 2021 16: 58
                    +3
                    Yandex delivery: we have the freshest!
                    1. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku April 22 2021 17: 03
                      +2
                      Yandex delivery: we have the freshest!

                      On the logo of the medieval delivery club there was not an ostrich (which the Europeans had not yet discovered), but a green hare! drinks
                      1. Richard
                        Richard April 22 2021 18: 35
                        +1
                        Men in the smoking room told me in secret that in America there is supposedly such a magazine with naked aunts, I forgot what it’s called, because it has a hare - a logo. fellow
                    2. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave April 22 2021 19: 16
                      +2
                      Rabbit pies ???
                      "That's all that's left of poor Snoppy!" (FROM)
        2. Bolt cutter
          Bolt cutter April 22 2021 13: 31
          +3
          these are the famous medieval war hares
          It was necessary to get so drunk so that later to fight with war hares wassat
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku April 22 2021 14: 10
            +3
            then to fight with war hares

            Rather, get a bastard from fighting hares. laughing Three-meter armored carriage. fellow drinks
          2. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave April 22 2021 14: 12
            +3
            I remember Hitchcock's "Birds"
    2. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku April 22 2021 11: 30
      +4
      Sergei, why do hares kill knights in medieval pictures? Does it have something to do with the Battle of Courtray?
      The medieval chronicle emphasizes: "Since this defeat, the honor, significance and glory of the ancient nobility and ancient French courage have fallen significantly, since the color of the then chivalry was defeated and humiliated by its servants, the lowest people in the world: clothiers, fellers and other artisans who are nothing did not understand in military affairs and which all nations despised for their ignorance, calling nothing else but dirty hares... But with that victory, their courage and arrogance increased to such an extent that one foot Flemish with a godendag in his hands would have boldly resisted two French equestrian knights. " (Svechin).
      Although in modern Internet publications a different version of hares is given.
      1. Mihaylov
        Mihaylov April 22 2021 11: 58
        +4
        Quote: Pane Kohanku
        Sergei, why do hares kill knights in medieval pictures? Does it have something to do with the Battle of Courtray?

        Good afternoon Nikolai,
        to be honest, I didn’t think about whether the medieval miniaturists put any conscious meaning into these drawings or simply drew pictures that were funny in their opinion.
        In principle, it is quite possible that they invested: a similar passage is described by U. Eco in "Name of the Rose": "an inverted world", taking its traditions in the carnival. hi
        1. Mihaylov
          Mihaylov April 22 2021 12: 26
          +4
          On half of the sheet, filled with text, the artist marked out the contours of the drawings in the margins. Glancing at the other, ready-made sheets, Wilhelm and I gasped. In the margins of the Psalter was shown not the world to which our senses are accustomed, but turned inside out. As if on the eve of a speech, which, by definition, is the speech of the Truth itself, another story was conducted, tightly linked with that Truth by hints in aenigmate [24], a crafty story about the world upside down, where dogs flee from hares, and doe chase lions. Heads on bird legs, animals with human hands turned onto their backs, heads bristling with legs, zebra-like dragons, creatures with snake necks braided into a thousand impossible knots, monkeys with deer horns, hymenoptera sirens, armless people who have on their backs like humps, other people grow, and bodies with toothy mouths below the navel, and people with horse heads, and horses with human legs, and fish with bird wings, and birds with fish tails, and one-body two-headed monsters, and two-headed one-headed; cows with rooster tails, with crank wings, wives with scaly faces, like fish flanks; two-headed chimeras, related to lizard-faced dragonflies, centaurs, dragons, elephants, mantichors, pinnipeds, stretching out on tree branches, griffins, from whose tails archers in combat weapons emerged, hellish fiends with endless necks, strings and human-like cattle and there and then were placed, on the same page with them, pictures of agriculture, where he was depicted with wondrous vividness, so that one could believe in those figures as if they were alive, all the work of the peasant: the field suffering, and plowing, and gathering, and mowing, and the twisting of wool, and sowing; and in the midst of all this economy, foxes and white-haired women, armed with crossbows, attacked the multi-turreted monkey cities. Somewhere the initial letter of the initial on top formed an L, at the bottom ended in a dragon's back; somewhere the capital V, which opened the word "Verba", let around itself, as grapes let loose vines, thousand-ringed snakes, from which, in turn, new creeping reptiles budded, like new clusters and shoots budding from branches.
        2. Trilobite Master
          Trilobite Master April 22 2021 13: 01
          +5
          Quote: Pane Kohanku
          why hares kill knights

          Quote: Mihaylov
          "upside down world", taking its traditions in the carnival.

          I also heard the opinion that the hare in the medieval sense is a symbol of carnal sin or sin in general. Hence, apparently, the Playboy emblem. That is, the drawings symbolize the victory of the sinful principle over a person. A sort of warning.
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku April 22 2021 13: 19
            +2
            I also heard the opinion that the hare in the medieval sense is a symbol of carnal sin or sin in general.

            So I read about this recently. hi
            1. Trilobite Master
              Trilobite Master April 22 2021 13: 38
              +3

              The video is long, a little boring, but informative.
              1. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku April 22 2021 14: 08
                +4
                The video is long, a little boring, but informative.

                Sea Cat and I are concerned about one question ... about succubi - will it be? repeat
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave April 22 2021 14: 15
                  +3
                  Will be! Composition "Orlandina" ...
                  1. Pane Kohanku
                    Pane Kohanku April 22 2021 14: 18
                    +2
                    Will be! Composition "Orlandina" ...

                    I prefer South Park! drinks


                    - I tell him that he is a Loch Ness monster, and he tells me - "Trip, trip!" wassat
            2. The comment was deleted.
          2. Mihaylov
            Mihaylov April 22 2021 16: 03
            +4
            Quote: Trilobite Master
            I also heard the opinion that the hare in the medieval sense is a symbol of carnal sin or sin in general.

            Hence the expression: "My bunny" - acquires a slightly different, I would say a specific shade ... wassat
        3. Richard
          Richard April 22 2021 18: 44
          +1
          Sergei, why do hares kill knights in medieval pictures?

          Greetings, Kolya hi
          I have this version. Because this is an allegory.
          The hare is a hare. The Russians are killing the knights! And they drew them so that the knights knew their place and did not climb to Russia wink
          1. Richard
            Richard April 22 2021 18: 49
            +3
            Hares and knights

            drawings from medieval miniatures








            1. Richard
              Richard April 22 2021 18: 51
              +3
              Hares and knights
              drawings from medieval miniatures (continued)









  14. Vlad world
    Vlad world April 22 2021 14: 33
    +3
    And there will be something about the Yenisei Valley and about its stones. This is the valley where Mercury wandered from time to time, with gifts or for gifts smile
    1. Richard
      Richard April 22 2021 20: 32
      +3
      And there will be something about the Yenisei Valley and about its stones

      Extremely interesting places. Several photos for seed
      The left bank of the Angul - in the foothills of the Kuturchinsky White Mountains

      Black hill with megaliths
  15. Picus
    Picus April 23 2021 03: 49
    +2
    As far as I know, the Talayot ​​and Dotalayotic cultures in the Balearics have not been properly studied ... And we saw almost hundreds there ... And in Malta, Sardinia ...