Military Review

Space anniversary: ​​50th anniversary of the launch of the world's first orbital station "Salyut-1"

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Today, April 19, 2021, the space jubilee is celebrated - 50 years since the launch of the first Salyut-1 orbital station, developed in the USSR. It is the world's first manned space station (orbital space station). Today, speaking about orbital stations, they a priori imply their "mannedness".


On this day, 50 years ago, a new type of spacecraft was launched in the Soviet Union, which opened up the possibility, both with human participation, and in an automatic mode, to conduct scientific research in conditions of a long space flight.

Salyut is represented by a series of manned orbital stations built in the USSR. Under this name, the stations were put into orbit within the framework of the civil program "Long-Term Orbital Station" developed by the Central Design Bureau for Experimental Mechanical Engineering (now it is the SP Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia), as well as under the military program "Almaz" developed by the Central Design Bureau mechanical engineering (now the Military-Industrial Corporation "NPO Mashinostroyenia").

The development of a long-term orbital space station began in 1969, the head of this project was chief designer Vasily Mishin, who headed virtually the entire rocket and space industry of the Soviet Union after the death of Sergei Korolev.

It was developed on the basis of the manned military station "Almaz", created in the Central Design Bureau of Mechanical Engineering, the chief designer of which was Vladimir Chelomey.

On February 16, 1970, the USSR Council of Ministers issued a decree on the development of orbital stations, and at the beginning of 1971 the station was already sent to the cosmodrome.

The Salyut-1 Orbital Station (OKS) consisted of two pressurized and one non-pressurized compartments. The transitional and working compartments were sealed, the transitional one was residential and was used for scientific experiments and research, its diameter was about 2 meters.



The design of the docking unit for the compartment made it possible to perform reusable docking of the station with a spacecraft in orbit and the exit of astronauts through the hatch. Inside the compartment was equipped with thermal control systems, life support and various scientific equipment.

Outside, the design provided for solar panels, various sensors, a temperature maintenance system, a telescope and much more. The working compartment consisted of two parts with a diameter of 2,9 and 4,2 meters, its length was 9,2 meters, it housed all the main instruments and control systems of the station - a communication system, life support, power supply. This compartment was used to control the movement of the station in space, scientific experiments, crew training, rest and food.

Behind the worker was an unpressurized aggregate compartment, an engine was installed in it to change the trajectory, containers with fuel, a station manual control system, main and backup low-thrust engines, as well as other systems and devices. 1400 different instruments were installed at the station.

Initially, they wanted to call the orbital station "Zarya", but since the Chinese satellite already had such a name, the station was called "Salyut", then this name was used for all devices of this type.

The Salyut orbital station was launched into orbit from the Baikonur cosmodrome by the Proton-K rocket on April 19, 1971. The expedition to the orbital station with cosmonauts Vladimirov Shatalov, Alexei Eliseev and Nikolai Rukavishnikov started on April 23, 1971 on the Soyuz spacecraft, the docking attempt was unsuccessful, the crew flew around the station and returned back to Earth.

The second crew consisting of Georgy Dobrovolsky, Vladislav Volkov and Viktor Patsaev, launched on June 6, 1971, successfully docked with the Salyut, and the world's first orbital station with a crew on board began its work.

In the course of the crew's work at the station, the cosmonauts carried out various scientific observations, tests of onboard systems and scientific equipment. The operation of navigation, control and maneuvering aids was also tested. Various biomedical studies have been carried out.

On July 29, the crew completed all scientific experiments and tests, transferred to the transport ship and undocked it from the Salyut station.

On July 30, when returning to Earth, the crew of the Soyuz-11 spacecraft died as a result of the depressurization of the descent vehicle. This was the last disaster that led to the death of people in the manned astronautics of our country.

Subsequently, the flight of the Salyut station took place in an unmanned mode, during which a number of various scientific studies and tests of scientific apparatus and equipment were carried out.

On October 1, 1971, as a result of measures to lower the station from orbit, it began deceleration and entered the dense layers of the atmosphere in a given area, after which it ceased to exist. The first orbital station was in orbit for 176 days.

After the death of the crew on the Soyuz-11 spacecraft, manned flights in the USSR were temporarily suspended. During the flight pause, activities were carried out to improve the reliability of the structure and ensure the safe operation of the Soyuz spacecraft.

The flight of the first Salyut station revealed a sufficient number of design flaws that hindered its efficient operation. As a result of the work carried out, the design of the following stations was improved.

In the period from 1973 to 1986, six more Salyut orbital stations with international crews were launched into orbit, which carried out many scientific and technical experiments and research.

When creating the Mir orbital station, including the Russian segment of the ISS, all the accumulated experience in the development and construction of the Salyut station was used.

Now Russia has decided to abandon the operation of the ISS after 2024 and to develop its own orbiting space station. Undoubtedly, all the experience gained during the creation of the Mir and Salyut stations will be used in its creation.
Author:
Photos used:
YouTube / Kevin Gustafson
38 comments
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  1. Thrifty
    Thrifty April 19 2021 07: 23
    -9
    For the new station, you can use one of the old Soviet names "Mir 2M", "Salyut 8 R", the letter means Russian!
    1. The black
      The black April 19 2021 07: 29
      +7
      The Patriotic cosmonautics had a glorious past, I would like the future to be the same.
  2. tralflot1832
    tralflot1832 April 19 2021 07: 37
    +11
    Eternal memory to Georgy Dobrovolsky, Vladislav Volkov and Viktor Patsaev! I was a child at that time, but I remember the attitude of ordinary Soviet people to this tragedy of ours, to space exploration. In space exploration, the Volkov family dynasty turned out !!!
    1. qQQQ
      qQQQ April 19 2021 08: 51
      0
      Quote: tralflot1832
      Eternal memory to Georgy Dobrovolsky, Vladislav Volkov and Viktor Patsaev! I was a child at that time, but I remember the attitude of ordinary Soviet people to this tragedy of ours, to space exploration. In space exploration, the Volkov family dynasty turned out !!!

      Unfortunately, this tragedy was the result of haste, they wanted to send three cosmonauts who could only be accommodated without spacesuits, they hoped that the ships were reliable.
      1. tralflot1832
        tralflot1832 April 19 2021 08: 56
        +2
        My dad immediately said, although he did not stand next to space, they flew in tracksuits! It's a pity, the price of such a rush, three human lives.
        1. qQQQ
          qQQQ April 19 2021 08: 58
          0
          Quote: tralflot1832
          My dad immediately said, although he did not stand next to space, they flew in tracksuits! It's a pity, the price of such a rush, three human lives.

          My mother worked at a space communications station, talked about their negotiations with the Earth during the descent.
  3. Bshkaus
    Bshkaus April 19 2021 07: 38
    +11
    I don't even know what to say anymore. In that industrial and financial situation and with the attitude that we now have, both the leadership of the industry and the rank-and-file personnel, we simply cannot handle it.
    They cannot give me a trifling product for further preparation, all the deadlines are running out, you come to the assembly shop, and they returned the product with a comment and no one even itches to correct them. I come to another organization - there are no young people, old people are 75+ and complete degradation. They are not that they can no longer, they do not want to work for a long time. Sometimes there are such violations of technology that mom does not grieve.
    And for the uninitiated, a beautiful picture. Look, even on the monitor of the metro now on the way to work the same news about the first DOS.
    1. prior
      prior April 19 2021 08: 05
      +8
      Well, you said - work! What for? For what?
      Now is not the time for skilled workers and engineers.
      Now is the time of the Buzovs, Baskovs-Kirkorovs and other BloKhers ...
      And the question is not even about money.
      Great things are not done by slave, low-paid, unprofitable labor of workers and engineers.
    2. Narak-zempo
      Narak-zempo April 19 2021 08: 06
      -16%
      Quote: Bshkaus
      old people 75+ and complete degradation. They are not that they can no longer, they do not want to work for a long time

      Well, they receive a pension + a salary and eat, why do something.
      It is necessary to cancel pensions for working people.
      1. Volodin
        Volodin April 19 2021 08: 14
        +3
        Quote: Narak-zempo
        and fatten

        I hope this is a joke ...

        Quote: Narak-zempo
        It is necessary to cancel pensions for working people.

        Yeah. You can also cancel salaries, otherwise they will become completely bourgeois ...
        1. Starover_Z
          Starover_Z April 19 2021 08: 50
          +1
          Quote: Volodin
          Quote: Narak-zempo
          It is necessary to cancel pensions for working people.

          Yeah. You can also cancel salaries, otherwise they will become completely bourgeois ...

          And then why not suggest:
          On the financial crisis: Two bosses meet:
          - Do you give out your salaries? - No.
          - Me neither. Do they still go to work?
          - They do.
          - And mine go. Maybe we will make the entrance fee?
          ...
          The entrance was paid. A week passes.
          - Well, do yours still go to work?
          - Yeah, they save the current, you bastards !!!
          -?!
          - On Monday they come, and on Friday they leave ...
    3. codetalker
      codetalker April 19 2021 09: 26
      -7
      For Russia, there has never been a problem in production (I'm talking about non-managerial) personnel. The old ones do not want to, there will be new ones. There are always fewer warm places than those who want to take them.
      1. Bshkaus
        Bshkaus April 19 2021 10: 42
        +2
        For Russia, there has never been a problem in production (I'm talking about non-managerial) personnel. The old ones do not want, there will be new ones

        Excuse me, are you ready to develop a technical specification tomorrow, say, for a new lunar spacesuit, and do it competently, so that the requirements in the technical specification are adequate in terms of technological capabilities, functionality and ergonomics in such a way that it does not turn out to be a bunch of rubbish with dubious characteristics?
        If we talk about the problem of cleanliness in the courtyards, then I completely agree, replacing the janitor's grandmother with an Asian migrant will not be a problem, but in high-tech industries even higher education is not enough, it takes years, sometimes even a decade to prepare a high-class and thinking specialist who knows the history of the issue well , modern technology and understands the philosophy of the raging one.
    4. Knell wardenheart
      Knell wardenheart April 19 2021 11: 36
      0
      I agree that it will be difficult economically, and our times are not the best now - it is hot in all directions. But besides this, it is worth considering - is it justified? We have been engaged in some kind of activity at these inhabited stations for 50 years for half a century already, really, haven't all these tiny experiments in microgravity exhausted themselves? The ISS was, in general, in order to move from the era of relatively small-scale such experiments to larger ones. And for 23 years on the ISS they have been doing this. And so, in fact, the national station proposes to return to the era of these small experiments - because to the level of the ISS we need to increase the volume of batteries, internal space - not in order to reach something new and breakthrough - to enter the "old ISS" level. Is it worth it? Wouldn't it be better, by hook or by crook, to hold out the operation of the ISS until 2030, carry out all the most important and large-scale activities by that time, and finally take up the Moon?
      I am right with all my paws for the national station, because international cooperation in space has already ended in essence, but will it be useful?
      1. Bshkaus
        Bshkaus April 19 2021 12: 03
        0
        But besides this, it is worth considering - is it justified?

        justified at least from the side that industry and people work. Not in the sense that they earn money, you can make money both in space, so balabolya on Yandex Zen, but in the fact that regular work allows you not only to maintain skills and keep technology at least at the level that it is, but still gradually upgrade something. After all, if now we close the topic of orbital flights, then people will find something to do, and when they feel the urge to fly to the moon, they will have to recreate everything from scratch. all technological chains will collapse and, most importantly, experience will also be forgotten. On my own, I will say that when we flew 4 manned flights a year, it was 12 people, work went on all year round and serial products were handed over once a quarter. Now flights on the Unions have been reduced by 2 times to 2 times (on average) and typical work is already being handed over not once a quarter, but once every six months. It would seem nonsense, but it's one thing when you do everything to automatism, and quite another, when you still need to scratch your turnip for a minute and figure out what is there and how. It is not for nothing that doctors every 5 years are obliged to take advanced training courses, otherwise they will simply forget or go into stagnation without receiving information about new technologies (unless of course they themselves are not interested, and people are different).
  4. apro
    apro April 19 2021 07: 42
    +3
    On February 16, 1970, the USSR Council of Ministers issued a decree on the development of orbital stations, and at the beginning of 1971 the station was already sent to the cosmodrome.

    How .... this is not possible ... without a priest with a censer ... without effective managers ... and responsible owners ... and foreign investment.
    Victories of the USSR today. As a mute reproach to Russian sloppy heirs.
    But they are only capable of mocking Soviet cosmonautics. The name of the country was not on the helmet, then the cosmonautics dragged the Russian people into poverty.
  5. knn54
    knn54 April 19 2021 07: 45
    0
    We need hundreds of billions of rubles. Development (practically from scratch, because there are already few specialists) of the Design Bureau named after. Khrunichev will take about 7 ... 8 years. And also put the modules into orbit, assemble. Plus COVID, sanctions.
    The station (dual-use, of course) is certainly needed. The Yankes, who bear the main costs of maintaining the ISS. For the new (and these were private funds) will not give money. They are occupied by the Moon and Mars.
    And the PRC is stepping on its heels.
    1. qQQQ
      qQQQ April 19 2021 08: 56
      0
      Quote: knn54
      For development (practically from scratch, because there are already few specialists) KB them. Khrunichev will need 7 ... 8 years

      Here, boldly add the time for training these specialists, and the quality of the one who will teach them is not yet known, that is, you need to recreate the high school, plus the time for the formation of these newly minted engineers. In my opinion, another 15, or even 20 can be added.
    2. codetalker
      codetalker April 19 2021 09: 32
      -3
      We are far from starting from scratch. Money is said to be 400-500 billion at a minimum. It's time to rejoice. Well, not without looking back, of course.
  6. Boris55
    Boris55 April 19 2021 08: 02
    -13%
    The construction of the new space station will be under the control of Kozhubetovich, which instills confidence in its future.
    1. qQQQ
      qQQQ April 19 2021 09: 05
      -3
      Quote: Boris55
      The construction of the new space station will be under the control of Kozhubetovich, which instills confidence in its future.

      Personally, I am concerned about whether there will be another temple instead of the station, only in orbit, and all spacesuits will be all in chevrons, badges, in general, the place will not be empty.
  7. From Tomsk
    From Tomsk April 19 2021 08: 02
    +2
    After the flooding of the MIR, Russia asked the Americans for money to finish the Soviet reserve for the ISS, which they did. Since then, more than 20 years have passed since the second Russian module Science is rotting on Earth and cannot take off. And then tomorrow they will make a new station :)
    1. Boris55
      Boris55 April 19 2021 08: 51
      -9
      Quote: From Tomsk
      And then tomorrow they will make a new station

      Do not hesitate - since the Ministry of Defense (Shoigu) has taken up this issue, they will do it efficiently and in the shortest possible time.
      1. qQQQ
        qQQQ April 19 2021 09: 07
        +3
        Quote: Boris55
        Do not hesitate - since the Ministry of Defense (Shoigu) has taken up this issue, they will do it efficiently and in the shortest possible time.

        I don’t understand why such confidence? What did the Ministry of Defense do in the shortest possible time, besides the endlessly changing form, temple, park?
        1. Boris55
          Boris55 April 19 2021 10: 32
          -5
          Quote: qqqq
          I don’t understand why such confidence?

          Over the past 6 years, the arsenal of the RF Armed Forces has received:
          - 109 Yars intercontinental missiles;
          - 108 ballistic missiles for submarine weapons;
          - 3 submarine missile cruisers Borey;
          - 57 space satellites;
          - 7 modern submarines;
          - 17 missile complexes of the coast guard Bal and Bastion;
          - more than 3 units. new and improved armored vehicles;
          - more than 1 aircraft and helicopters;
          - 161 surface ships ....

          As a result, 12 missile regiments were re-equipped for the Yars complex, 10 missile brigades for the Iskander complex, 13 aviation regiments received modernized 4 ++ generation MiG-31BM, Su-35S, Su-30SM and Su-34 brigades, 3 army aviation brigades and 6 helicopter regiments - Ka-52 and Mi-28 helicopters, 20 anti-aircraft missile regiments are now armed with S-400 air defense systems ...

          In general, the RF Armed Forces have updated their armament by 70% -80%. Our army is the most combat-ready army in the world, capable of protect us from any adversary - even Biden understands this.

          If a clan of security officials takes on something, then it brings this matter to the end. Proven by practice.
          1. qQQQ
            qQQQ April 19 2021 10: 55
            +1
            Quote: Boris55
            Over the past 6 years, the arsenal of the RF Armed Forces has received:

            This is all great, but what does it have to do with development? How long has any product from the above list been in the R&D stage? Almost all the equipment has touched the USSR. As an example of Shoigu's speed, one can cite the decision to create shock UAVs, the production of which was only now decided to force up, after Karabakh, but the temple was built quickly and they do not forget to change the shape every few years.
            1. Boris55
              Boris55 April 19 2021 10: 56
              -2
              Quote: qqqq
              Almost all the equipment has touched the USSR.

              And weren't the developments in tsarist Russia used in the developments of the USSR?
              Let's remember who took the stone first, and who took the stick? laughing

              In the 90s, the entire industry of the USSR was destroyed, and first of all - the military-industrial complex.

    2. codetalker
      codetalker April 19 2021 09: 30
      -2
      Who said tomorrow? It was said not less than 10 years later.
    3. slipped
      slipped April 19 2021 14: 43
      +1
      Quote: From Tomsk
      After the flooding of the MIR, Russia asked the Americans for money to finish the Soviet reserve for the ISS,


      Wrong. These are the Americans, 10 years before the sinking of the Mir, came out with a proposal to unite their Frid station, which they had nothing to do with our Mir-2 station.

      Quote: From Tomsk
      More than 20 years have passed since then ...


      The ISS is in orbit.

      Quote: From Tomsk
      the second Russian module Science rots on Earth and cannot take off.


      The second module is called FGB "Zarya". But it became the first, since the Zvezda SM module was delayed by two years in launch.

      "Rotting on Earth" laughing sixth the Russian module MLM-U "Science" is preparing for the launch at the MIC "Baikonur":



      Quote: From Tomsk
      And then tomorrow they will make a new station :)


      In 2025, according to plan.
  8. S. Viktorovich
    S. Viktorovich April 19 2021 08: 04
    -2
    Why do you need a new station? Meaningful tasks for astronautics have not been formulated, and the development of the corresponding technologies is not visible. Again propaganda.
  9. Holuay T.O
    Holuay T.O April 19 2021 08: 51
    +2
    That's it, we don't have Space, we have lawyers, journalists, economists ... Mathematicians are not accepted for State Duma deputies, showmen and artists and Valuev say they are needed
  10. Dmitry V.
    Dmitry V. April 19 2021 09: 38
    +2
    An expedition to the orbital station with cosmonauts Vladimirov Shatalov, Alexei Eliseev and Nikolai Rukavishnikov started on April 23, 1971 on the Soyuz spacecraft, the docking attempt was unsuccessful, the crew flew around the station and returned to Earth.


    In fact, an abnormal emergency occurred when the docking process was not completed and the station did not "release" the docked ship:
    More about this Boris Chertok, Rockets and people book 4. ch. "The first space station entered orbit"
    - I am "Granite", I observe the target well and clearly. This was the last report from the ship before leaving the communications zone. Bashkin approaches Rauschenbach and whispers something.

    - Bashkin, Rauschenbach, do not be secret, but tell us why the rapprochement is so slow. This is your logic. According to the calculation that they gave me, they should have reached the touch even in the communication zone, '' says Mishin.

    “We've checked the supplies,” Rauschenbach replied. - On board, for the rendezvous, there are only 13 meters per second of fuel reserves for the SKD and 20 kilograms for the DPO. If they now enter [280] our zone without docking, it is necessary to make a decision on cancellation. You cannot risk the fuel supplies for the descent.

    I reassure the minister:

    - They understand everything there perfectly. We managed to discuss this situation with Eliseev. He will not risk it. With Shatalov, I am sure they will make the right decision.
    The 30-minute break of the communication zone drags on painfully.
    - Attention! We begin the session of the 83rd loop, the readiness is 5 minutes!
    - "Granite", I am 36th. I give the bill: one, two, three, four ...
    - I am "Granite", I can hear you well! At 4 hours 47 minutes a manual docking was performed. Touch and mechanical capture passed. The contraction began. But at the 9th minute, the SSVP mode stopped, the contraction was not completed to the end. Docking does not work. Why, we do not understand. Watch telemetry. Tell me what to do?
    - Where are the dockers?

    Zhivoglotov, Bakunin and Syromyatnikov appeared. Pale, worried. They did not expect that out of all the supposed possible failures, there would appear one that no one expected, and nothing like that happened during ground testing.

    Stuttering with excitement, Zhivoglotov explains to the silenced audience:

    - The pin, that is, the rod of the “active” docking station, has been fully extended before docking. The entire stroke for complete retraction with the ball screw is 390 millimeters. The retraction started normally on the command of the automatics. Passed 300 millimeters and stopped. The tightening mechanism worked and tried to pull, but the gap between the planes of the "active" and "passive" units did not decrease. It is 90 millimeters. Possible reasons, very preliminary:

    an error in setting the centering pins to 180 degrees;
    a technological error when aligning the axes, which is unlikely;
    hydraulic connectors rested against each other, however, this is not 90, but 50 millimeters;
    electrical connectors, if rested by housings, give only 30 millimeters;
    the node rested on additional reinforcing brackets, we call them balconies. But this was tested very carefully in the factory;
    possible dirt on the screw. True, a lot of dirt is needed to firmly stop the propeller;
    ice formation during spacewalk. But there was no rain at the start. And under the pressure of the screw, the ice would melt; [281]
    finally, the side arms may break. There was a very strong side roll right after the capture.

    - Why pitching? Where are the speakers? Rauschenbach! Why were there hesitations? - Mishin demands an answer.

    An unpleasant thought struck me. I asked Pavel Popovich, who was in direct contact with Granit:

    - Inquire "Granite", what were the vibrations during pulling?
    - No need to ask. Eliseev reported that after the "capture" the "Nozzles DPO" transporter lit up and blinked for 30 seconds. At this time, the ship was swinging strongly.

    I realized that further interrogations of the dockers would not yield anything, and after consulting with Rauschenbach and Tregub, I laid out my version of what had happened to Mishin and Kerimov:

    - Most likely, mechanical failure has occurred due to large lateral vibrations. We did not turn off the control system. Immediately, as soon as the touch occurred, the disturbance passed, which the angular velocity sensors tracked. The control system tried to remove the angular deviations, but the "capture" had already taken place, instead of calming down, swaying began, but not around the center of mass, but on the bar, which meshed with the DOS in the receiving socket. We broke something. It is useless to continue trying to dock. It is necessary to make a decision on undocking.

    However, it turned out that it is not so easy to give a command to undock, that is, it is possible to give a command, but this does not mean that the spacecraft will undock from the DOS. According to the electrical diagram, over which Zhivoglotov, Vakulin bent over, and Tregub and I squeezed in between them, it turned out that to undo the connection we had to "dance from the stove." Undocking will take place if the electrical connectors have been docked before and the SSVP mode - the docking and internal transition system - has been fully completed.

    The system was developed in a purely automatic version, and no human intervention was involved in the process of performing intermediate operations. The logic of the automation was formally correct. After the head of the rod of the "active" node fell into the receiving socket of the cone of the "passive" node, it was captured by the latches, which gave a signal "capture". On this signal, the contraction of the "active" and "passive" parts began. The rod was pulled into the "active" assembly with a ball screw. Pulling was carried out before the docking of the electrical and hydraulic connectors. After joining the connectors, the final tightening was carried out with special hooks, which were pulled out of the "active" node and attracted the "passive" one, ensuring the tightness and strength of the connection of the two space objects. Only after that the latches were opened, which held [282] the head of the rod in the receiving socket of the cone. The bar was completely retracted into the "active" node.

    The undocking command could have been given via the command radio link from the Earth or from the Soyuz spacecraft console. At this command, the tightening hooks were removed, the ship was freed from the mechanical connection with the DOS. DPOs were included in the "tap" and spacecraft were bred. In this long chain of operations, there was no provision for undocking if the entire docking cycle had not been completed. The “undocking” command is not able to release the rod, which is firmly held by the latches of the “passive” part of the docking unit. True, an emergency undocking was provided for such an abnormal version. On an emergency command with the help of squibs, the bar was fired from the "active" part. But at the same time she remained in the "passive" cone and the repeated docking of the other ship was already impossible.

    - Well, you are great, you "figured out" the unit in which "mom" does not let go of "dad", - Andrey Karas hurt us.
    - There is a reliable emergency option - shooting the docking assembly. True, in this case we will free the ship, but the bar with levers will remain on the DOS "at the mother's".
    “This amputation will not work. Do you want to lose the first space station? Look for a way to cheat your super-smart scheme, - said the minister.
    The situation was developing in an architragal way. We cannot separate the ship from the DOS so that another ship can try to dock again.
    - There is an option, - Zhivoglotov said timidly. - We need to get close to our device in the utility compartment of the ship, find the Ш28 / 201 connector on it and put a jumper on the 30th and 34th pins of the plug on the side of the device. Then give the command to dock from the remote control and remove the jumper. A team will follow the scheme, removing the stops, for which the pin is held in the receiving socket of the cone. We will kind of unlock the door on the other side.
    “Brilliant idea, but who on board the ship would be able to do such an operation?
    - Rukavishnikov, being not yet an astronaut, but an electronic engineer, did not do such tricks. Not in space, though, ”I said.
    We wrote detailed instructions for an hour and a half and handed them on board.
    - You are understood, - replied "Granites", however, without any enthusiasm. [283]
    And suddenly one of the dockers remembered that there was another option. Allegedly, you can give a command not to the ship, but to the DOS, and this command will release the latches and thus release the bar.
    - All is well, but now the entire mass of the ship hangs on these latches and the drive simply does not have enough strength to unlock this lock.
    - Let's try. Maybe during the time the team is in action, the ship will wobble and the force on the latches will be small.
    These were the arguments. We grabbed onto this straw. On the 84th orbit, an operation unprecedented at that time was performed, and on the 85th orbit at 8:44 am the undocking command passed.
    - Undocking took place, DPOs switched on the diversion, - at the same time, reports were received from the "board" and from the analysis group.
    The Soyuz-10 spacecraft with the Salyut orbital station flew docked for almost five hours. Few believed in our adventure with a safe undocking. Therefore, reports of undocking caused an explosion of delight, more than would have been with a normal docking.
    1. Dmitry V.
      Dmitry V. April 19 2021 09: 40
      +2
      On April 26, already in Star City, we heard the reports of the cosmonauts. The first to report was the commander of the ship Shatalov:

      - The ship has good maneuverability, it is very obedient when manually controlled. All dynamic operations were performed without any comments. However, when the “Igla” took control of the approach, it was a little uncomfortable from the frequent turns and activations of the ACS. At a distance of 140 meters, I took over the docking control. Manual docking was done immediately, without any comments. It was easier for me than on Soyuz-4 and -5. The touch was soft, without rattling or grinding. As soon as the capture was over, the ship swung to the right by as much as 30 degrees, then swung to the left. The oscillation period was seven seconds. We were afraid of losing the docking station altogether. Then the hesitation calmed down. What happened during the pulling together, we did not understand. The undocking went smoothly. Visually, the station is in good condition. It is a pity, of course, that we did not manage to get [284] inside. The landing was carried out in complete darkness. There was a somersault over my head.

      Eliseev, while still in flight, realized a fundamental mistake that was made in the dynamics of docking control. He spoke more temperamentally than Shatalov.

      - Everything was fine, and the "board" generally worked fine. But why, after touching, the banner "DPO Nozzles" burned and we were wound from edge to edge? It shouldn't have "burned". They rocked us like that. I wonder why we didn't completely break the docking station. I tried to correct the ARS emergency range measurement system, developed in Leningrad, based on the background. The mark walked from two to two and a half kilometers. It is necessary to work out the method of setting up the APC. "Earth" left us with its instructions very little time to prepare the correction.

      Rukavishnikov complained:

      - At a temperature of 20 degrees in the ship, it is very cold to sleep in a flight suit. We only slept for two or three hours. Instead of sleeping, you sit and tremble. I need sleeping bags. Communication in the area was good. But when they left the zone, they were left without communication - this is bad. When large fluctuations began, there was a desire to turn on manual control and compensate for these disturbances with the handle, but we were scared.

      Shatalov interrupted Rukavishnikov:

      - We approached with practically zero misalignments of the axes of the ship and the station. Therefore, they did not expect such fluctuations to begin. The rod entered the receptacle gently, without any impact. And suddenly something began that we did not expect at all. Before docking, the pressure in the DPO cylinders was 220 atmospheres, and after that it was only 140 atmospheres. An incredible amount of money was spent on this turbulence.

      After frank conversations with us, the crew met with correspondents eager for space news.

      Everything was presented to them as if the transition to the station was not supposed. There was only a rehearsal, and it showed the reliability of all systems.
      1. Dmitry V.
        Dmitry V. April 19 2021 09: 44
        +1
        When we returned from Zvezdny to Podlipki, we gave free rein to self-criticism.

        - What are we mugs! - Rauschenbach was indignant. - Nobody saw that immediately on touching it is necessary to turn off the control system, and even turn off the DPO and even more so.

        By the end of the day, a list of improvements was discussed with Lev Vilnitsky, Viktor Kuzmin, Vladimir Syromyatnikov, Vsevolod Zhivoglotov. The bar should only start retraction after the ship's vibration has calmed down. You need to be able to manually control the bar: pull up and retreat. To duplicate the entire automation with manual control! Speakers reduce the impact speed to 0,2 meters per second. Install a special remote control on the ship for manual control of the docking. And most importantly, God protects those who are careful, - apart from the alignment levers around the bar, they decided to build a kind of "frill", only not lace, but a good steel collar that takes on the load during vibrations.

        - Start everything immediately! When will the documentation for revisions be? Was a common question.

        - Taking into account the night work, we will give an official note and squirrels tomorrow evening, - answered Vilnitsky.

        - Okay, we call Khazanov.

        Khazanov immediately ordered the shop technologists to unite with the designers.

        “It’s not more than a week to finalize units and devices,” he ordered.


        The whole world has been notified of this. And suddenly the crew of the transport ship, having brilliantly accomplished the approach and docking, could not enter the station. How to explain it there, "above"? Brezhnev will still understand. Kosygin will say that it is sloppiness again, and huge amounts of money are being spent. But the rest simply won't understand what's what. Our failure was very painfully perceived in the apparatus of the Central Committee and the military-industrial complex.

        Two and a half years have passed since the docking at Beregovoye failed. During this time, Shatalov flew two times. Ensured successful docking for the first time. The second time the docking failed, allegedly due to the fault of the radio engineering system. Now, at last, Shatalov docked, but he could not get into the station. “Who is organizing all this there? Who checks? " - such questions asked Kosygin.

        After Mishin explained and showed the distinguished guests what could have broken in order to prevent the contraction, Serbia asked:

        - And who did this with you? Show me the constructor.

        Lev Vilnitsky did not wait until he was pushed forward from the crowd of the assembled leadership, and, having entered the "line of fire", decided to seize the initiative from the "attacking side".

        - Head of department Vilnitsky. Allow me, I will report, - the former captain introduced himself in a military manner. - This docking unit has been radically altered in comparison with those already tested three times in flight. It is combined with an internal transport design. We must not only connect the ship to the DOS, but also ensure the sealed structure of the transition tunnel. We calculated the strength of all mechanisms using the experience of the meeting speed, lateral speeds and possible deflection angles, which we obtained at the three previous docks. Preliminary, on this installation, we carried out a whole series of dockings for testing. After the experiments, many details were finalized. Docking started normally. But when pulling in, the Soyuz swung relative to the DOS at much greater angles than we expected. Here, on this setup, we reproduced a similar mode and found a weak point. Everything is clear to us, and [287] the already modified unit will be submitted for testing in a week.

        - So, would you like to issue a TASS message that Comrade Vilnitsky was mistaken? In a week he will correct himself, and the next crew will make their way through the hatch to the Salyut?

        - It is an honor for me to get into the TASS report, but the next connection will be normal, I give my word.

        - All of you here know how to give the floor, and then break the deadlines, hoping for complete impunity.

        Vilnitsky did not have time to react. Ustinov intervened:

        - Whom and how to punish, the minister will deal with them without us, and you will show us which hatch we need to get from the ship to the DOS.

        Now Khazanov, rescuing Vilnitsky, quickly climbed the stepladder to show how the manhole covers in the docking unit open.
        1. Dmitry V.
          Dmitry V. April 19 2021 11: 13
          0

          docking station diagram

          stages of docking.
          On salute-1, the docking was interrupted at the moment of retraction
  11. Kaw
    Kaw April 19 2021 10: 04
    -3
    The Americans are going to build a station on the moon, and we are going to build a new station in orbit. Despite the fact that we do not have enough money for this either.
    In my opinion, this is an announcement about the construction of a new station, just to distract people from the fact that the era of manned space exploration in our country is ending. Where to fly then? The Americans themselves will soon abandon the ISS, it is not interesting to them.
    1. slipped
      slipped April 19 2021 14: 53
      +1
      Quote: Kaw
      The Americans are going to build a station on the moon


      Near the moon. It is called Getway. But the money is gone.

      Quote: Kaw
      and we are going to build a new station in orbit.


      And on the surface of the moon shared with China.

      Quote: Kaw
      Despite the fact that we do not have enough money for this either.


      You? lol We have enough.

      Quote: Kaw
      In my opinion, this is an announcement about the construction of a new station, just to distract people from the fact that the era of manned space exploration in our country is ending.


      More than 10 serial spaceships on the slipway. New lunar spacecraft in production. New big station module too.

      Quote: Kaw
      Where to fly then? The Americans themselves will soon abandon the ISS, it is not interesting to them.


      Buying through a commercial firm bypassing Congressional seats on our Unions? laughing Well, you drive bullshit ...
  12. Dzafdet
    Dzafdet April 20 2021 18: 02
    0
    Quote: qqqq
    Quote: tralflot1832
    Eternal memory to Georgy Dobrovolsky, Vladislav Volkov and Viktor Patsaev! I was a child at that time, but I remember the attitude of ordinary Soviet people to this tragedy of ours, to space exploration. In space exploration, the Volkov family dynasty turned out !!!

    Unfortunately, this tragedy was the result of haste, they wanted to send three cosmonauts who could only be accommodated without spacesuits, they hoped that the ships were reliable.


    I was told that they brought the CA for testing and ours broke it. And those are ours: are you, we have people in orbit ... Everything is in a hurry and a desire to bend ...