Military Review

"Cursed from Akhetaton": a pharaoh who never became great

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"Cursed from Akhetaton": a pharaoh who never became great
Pharaoh Akhenaten. Was he like that, or is this image of him a tribute to the new Amarnaian art? Alas, today we don't even know for sure ...


«Some are born great, others achieve greatness, to others it descends", - wrote about the greatness of William Shakespeare in his immortal comedy" Twelfth Night ". But how did the rulers of different countries and peoples actually become great?

“The Son of the Sun was the unlimited ruler of the city and country. He built dams and irrigated, distributed clothing and food from shops, appointed who needed land and livestock. Numerous officials were executors of his orders. Nobody could say, "This is mine," because everything belonged to the sun. Labor was sacred. Laziness was punishable by death. "
Aelita. A. Tolstoy

Great rulers. Today we begin the publication of materials dedicated to ... great rulers: both those who were awarded the nickname "Great" from the people, and those who were really great, but ... stories for some reason he didn’t, although he seemed to deserve it. But before talking about these people, let's establish the criteria by which this or that ruler could, in principle, become great. That is to say, the scale on which a given person could be considered as such.


It is he! Statue of Pharaoh Akhenaten from the Temple of Aten in Karnak. Cairo Egyptian Museum. Egypt

There are quite a few such conditions. Since the function of the ruler very often forced him to fight in the past, he could become "great" by waging successful wars of conquest for his country or by repelling the invasions of the enemy. That is, under him, the state should grow in territories, or at least not lose them. And the population of the country should increase, not decrease.

He had to take care of the welfare of his subjects, that is, the people with him should not starve, but be able to work and receive for their work a remuneration befitting time and traditions. That is, during his reign, the productive forces of their society should develop.

Of course, he should also encourage science, arts and crafts.
Be a wise legislator and rule fairly.
In carrying out reforms, he must rely on the opinion of the people in order to achieve support for these reforms in his opinion.
Have worthy companions who support him and give wise advice.
And a great ruler must also take care of the future of the state and the people, that is, to leave behind a successor of his work, to bring up a worthy successor or heir.


And this is also him, Akhenaten, in a blue crown "hepresh", Cairo Museum

These are the essential components of "greatness" factors. Although, on the other hand, all the same can be said a little differently, remembering the famous "Code of Tyrants" that existed in Ancient Greece. It said that the ruler, in order to stay in power, must prepare for war or wage war, because in this case the need for one-man power increases dramatically; build public buildings so that people have the opportunity to earn money; to arrange holidays, for when people sing and dance, they do not plot evil; and, finally, contain spies in order to know the true state of affairs. It is clear that these recommendations were not the key to greatness, but at least they should have helped the "tyrant" (as in Greece they called the rulers who came to power against the law) to remain in power, and then - to be great or damned - decided the goddesses of fate Moira!

Turning to history, we will see that there were not so few rulers with the nickname “Great”. Therefore, we will only talk about the greatest of the great, whose greatness is not questioned and has global significance. There will be no story about legendary personalities, such as the ancient mythical sovereign Yu in China, about Hayk I the Great, who is considered the progenitor of the Armenian people, or Hiram I the Great - the ruler of Tire and Sidon - his "power" was too small. Pompey the Great was not a ruler, like Gannon of Carthage, and Antiochus III, although he was “the Great,” but rather only as the heir to everything that Alexander the Great had done. So, not everyone will get into our history of the “great rulers” of antiquity. But, apparently, it will need to start with the history of the ruler, who went down in history as a truly great reformer, but ... he did not fulfill many of the above conditions of "greatness", and therefore not only did not fall into their number, but, on the contrary, was cursed. This man is Pharaoh Akhenaten!


Pharaoh Akhenaten together with his family bring gifts to Aton. Aton is represented by a solar disk with rays ending in palms. Prior to that, on all temple reliefs, Aten was depicted in the image of a man with a falcon's head, like the god Ra, but crowned with a solar disk. In the third year of Akhenaten's reign, the previous image was replaced with a new one - a disc with a royal snake (uraeus) and rays directed downward, ending in the hands of human hands. In the future, Aton was portrayed only in this way and in no other way. That is, his image has actually ceased to be anthropomorphic. Cairo Museum

Let's start with the fact that he belonged to the XVIII dynasty, bore the name Amenhotep IV ("Amon is pleased"), by which he was known until the fifth year of his reign, and he ruled for 17 years and died somewhere between 1336 and 1334 before n. e. He is known primarily for his unique reform - an attempt to introduce monotheism in Egypt, moreover, in the image of the Sun God. And the most interesting thing is that he carried out his reform extremely consistently and correctly, from the point of view of modern PR technologies, so it would be nice to learn from him for modern reformers.

He began with that, no later than the second year of his reign, he ordered to build a temple in Thebes for the little-known god Aten, who personified the solar disk, which, most likely, did not surprise anyone, since in Egypt now and then one god, then another, that , accordingly, and affected the income of their priests, so ... they had something to fight for. The only unexpected thing was that the rise of Aten began at the will of the Pharaoh, but who in this country and at that time could challenge the will of a living deity?


"Beautiful has passed" - this is (or approximately) the name of the wife of Pharaoh Akhenaten Nefertiti, who supported all his undertakings and was his reliable support. This bust was found in the ruins of his capital, Akhetatone, and is on display in Berlin's New Museum. You can look at it without stopping for hours ...

When people gradually got used to revere Aten along with other gods, the king, in the fifth year of his reign, raised his status to the level of the main deity, although the worship of all other traditional gods continued. Perhaps the main difference in the new cult was the absence of a roof in the temples of Aten. The sun god was served right under its rays, which was, in general, understandable and logical. The architects planned the temples to avoid shaded areas as much as possible. Even the lintels over the aisles - and they were now absent, so that the Sun God could see everything! Before Akhenaten, pharaohs became gods after death. Akhenaten declared himself a god during his lifetime and ordered to build temples in his honor. In fact, he equated himself with Aten.


Queen Tiya is Akhenaten's mother and wife of Amenhotep III. She led the state affairs of Egypt under her son Akhenaten. Cairo Museum

He changed his old name to a new one - Akhenaten ("Useful for Aton"), and 300 km north of Thebes ordered the construction of a new capital of his state - Akhetaton ("Horizon of Aton", now the settlement of Tel el-Amarna), which was supposed to become the main cult center of the new religion. New names were given to his wife and children, as well as all dignitaries and adherents, among whom, it is believed, were many descendants from the lower classes. That is, he again acted like our Peter the Great, who brought Aleksashka Menshikov closer to him, who was selling pies with hare at the bazaar.


A family scene from the royal life: Akhenaten kisses his daughter Maketaton, and daughter Meritaton sits on Queen Nefertiti's lap. The third daughter, Ankhesenaton, plays with her mother's earrings on her shoulder. New Museum. Berlin

By the ninth or tenth years of his reign, Akhenaten began persecuting the servants and the god of the outcast capital himself, Amun, whose name was forbidden, the temples were closed, and the priests were most likely killed and expelled. Around the twelfth year, Akhenaten's hatred of other gods reached the point that he banned the cults of all other gods, closed their temples, and dispersed the priests. The names of the old gods and even their statues were destroyed everywhere. The word "god" itself was now banned, and Aton was not called a god either, but, like Pharaoh, was called a ruler. According to the information that has come down to us, even if it is very vague, all those who disobeyed the will of the pharaoh were executed, and their bodies were to be burned, which was especially scary for the faithful Egyptians because it deprived them of their hope for eternal life.


Painted relief depicting the style of the Amarna period. It could be Akhenaten and Nefertiti, Smenkhkara and Meritaton or Tutankhamun and Ankhesenaton, which of them is not known for sure. New Museum, Berlin

Pharaoh's big mistake was that, busy with his reform, he completely stopped engaging in foreign policy. He stopped sending gold to his vassals in Syria and Palestine, and, naturally, they fell away from him. Egypt lost an influx of booty and slaves, which seriously hit the authority of Akhenaten, both outside the country and inside.


Clay cuneiform tablet EA 161 from the Amarna archives that gave the name to this era. It is from these tablets, written in the Babylonian language (the diplomatic language of that time!) From the "Correspondence of the Pharaoh" - the then Ministry of Foreign Affairs, that scientists learned about the international situation of Egypt under Akhenaten. Everything is here: requests to send gold, and complaints about neighbors, and real cries for help, which for some reason Akhenaten left unanswered. In total, more than 300 such tablets were found! Cairo Museum

And it turned out that the result of Akhenaten's rule was the weakening of Egypt, a political crisis that gripped the country, economic decline and corruption in the system of government. As for the cult of Aton, it only briefly outlived it. Those who ruled after Akhenaten - Smenkhkar, Tutankhamun, Ey, Horemheb - abandoned atonism and returned to worshiping the old gods.


The priest Eye (as indicated by the leopard skin) was the vizier of Akhenaten and Tutankhamun. Father Nefertiti. After the death of Tutankhamun, he claimed the throne, burying him and marrying Ankhesenaton. Wall painting in the tomb of Tutankhamun

Akhenaten's wife, the beautiful queen Nefertiti, gave birth to her husband six daughters, but could not bear him a son. Whereas the king certainly needed a male heir. So who were those people and what kind of relationship they were with Akhenaten - one can only guess about this. As for Akhetaton, it was abandoned, brought in by the sands of the desert, and in this form later appeared before archaeologists, who learned a lot of interesting things during its excavations. By the way, the famous bust of Queen Nefertiti was also found there, which is now the adornment of the New Museum in Berlin.


Neferneferure and Neferneferuaton in childhood. These are two out of six daughters born to Nefertiti. It is possible that Neferneferuaten was the one who may have become her father's co-ruler and ruled as a female pharaoh, although this is not known for sure. Ashmolean Museum. Oxford

The memory of the reformer pharaoh was especially fiercely pursued by the military leader Horemheb, who became pharaoh after the short reign of Tutankhamun and Ey. The name of Akhenaten was cursed and removed from official correspondence, where he was referred to only as "accursed" or as an "enemy from Akhetaton." It got to the point that in the Abydos list of rulers of Egypt, the name of Horemheb was put right after the name of Amenhotep III.


Queen Meritaton is the eldest daughter of Akhenaten and Nefertiti. She was the wife of Smenkhkare. She could also rule Egypt as a pharaoh and was one of the possible candidates for the role of pharaoh, Neferneferuaten. Louvre, Paris

So a man came and went, and the desert wind blew his tracks. However, in art, the consequences of Akhenaten's reforms persisted for a long time. Even the concept of "Amarna art" came into use, so much it differed from traditional Egyptian art in literally everything. So, the court sculptor Beck left us a note that Akhenaten asked artists to depict all objects as truthfully as possible, and not as before, when a person's legs were necessarily depicted in profile, the body unfolded in three quarters, and the face again in profile ... Now this is a thing of the past, along with the worship of the old gods, so that art, in particular painting and sculpture, has become much more alive and realistic.

The opinions of historians about the personality of Akhenaten today are diametrically opposed. Some consider him almost an ideal ruler, wise and peaceful, ahead of his time; to others he is seen as a kind of philosopher-dreamer, but the talents necessary for a statesman who is deprived; and someone frankly mentally ill. Akhenaten is one of the most cruel Egyptian pharaohs (there is also such an opinion), and to someone he seemed "the first person in world history", "fearlessly acting contrary to the immemorial tradition." There is also an opinion worthy of science fiction writers that Akhenaten's activities have clear signs of chronoclasm, which means that he ... was from the future!


Golden ring of Akhenaten and Nefertiti. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

However, it is believed that all of Akhenaten's reforms are nothing more than the first attempt in history to establish total power; and the deification of the tsar is only a manifestation of the cult of the personality, next to which no other cults could exist. What can you say about all this? That the truth is always out there somewhere ...

PS Fans of fictional historical literature can recommend the following books: “Pharaoh Akhenaten” by Georgy Gulia (World of Retail Books, 2011), “Sculptor of the Pharaoh” by Elizabeth Hering (Panorama, 1991) and a research book “Akhenaten. Apostate Pharaoh ”by Arthur Weigall (Tsentrpoligraf, 2010).

To be continued ...
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  1. Olgovich
    Olgovich April 10 2021 05: 53
    +6
    "Beautiful passed" - this is (or approximately) the name of the wife of Pharaoh Akhenaten is translated Nefertiti,


    thanks to the unique statuette, the name of Nefertiti seems to be more popular than the name of her husband.

    The opinions of historians about the personality of Akhenaten today are diametrically opposed.

    The primary sources for opinions are cuneiform?
    1. Richard
      Richard April 10 2021 06: 12
      +13
      Nefertiti's name translates as "Beauty has come"
      The primary sources for opinions are cuneiform?

      "Beautiful has come" - the hieroglyph - the name of Nefertiti from the cuneiform tablet EA 161 from the Amarna archive
      1. Sling cutter
        Sling cutter April 10 2021 09: 44
        +5
        Quote: Richard
        Richard (Richard)

        Greetings, Kamrad! hi drinks
        saw the new Cairo miracle? Pharaonic Parade
    2. kalibr
      April 10 2021 06: 38
      +9
      Quote: Olgovich
      The primary sources for opinions are cuneiform?

      Not only. Many things were found in Tel Amarna, on the site of the capital of Akhenaten. And today they continue to find!
      1. depressant
        depressant April 10 2021 08: 09
        +11
        By the way, I have repeatedly met the decryption: "The beautiful one has come." That is, not a beauty and did not pass, but just like that: a beautiful one came.
        Good morning, dear colleagues! )))
        1. kalibr
          April 10 2021 08: 46
          +11
          The fact is that the word NEFER in Egyptian just means beautiful. But the vowels were not written. Therefore, there was one hieroglyph in the form of a throat with a heart hanging on it, which conveyed the combination N-F-R. There were about 70 such three-vowel signs. "E" is inserted in consonance with the language of the Copts. The FEATHER sign - "Y", could be combined with the FEET sign - it turned out the "feather-feet" sign - to walk.

          Let's try to read, huh? - Pen - Y (alphabetical character), toothed rack - H (alphabetical character), further below the sign of the sun - RA and above the qualifier "woman". Then 4 times in a row N-F-R, then the hieroglyph Feather-legs - II - walk, then again the identifier woman + seated woman - MOTHER.
          I personally can only understand 4 times N-F-R that is, FOUR TIMES BEAUTIFUL WALKS (She is a woman). Why are the hieroglyphs Y and H and RA needed at the very beginning, I do not know.
          1. depressant
            depressant April 10 2021 09: 07
            +12
            And nobody knows! ))))
            Here you cannot really understand your era, let alone the mentality of the era of two thousand years ago and ... even more so!
            What do I have left from the many books, articles and films I have read on the history of ancient Egypt? A feeling of coolness and silence of giant semi-shaded rooms, a quiet echo of voices and the singing of the sands. And they, the sands, sing! The wind walks along the tops of the dunes, shifts myriads of grains of sand, and from their friction against each other a cumulative sound arises, similar to an endless mournful song of high pitch, like a funeral cry. In such conditions, a special idea of ​​life and the place of each individual person in it is formed.
            1. kalibr
              April 10 2021 09: 15
              +9
              Quote: depressant
              In such conditions, a special idea of ​​life and the place of each individual person in it is formed.

              I have the same impression of two places: Anapa - Vysoky Bereg outside the city and Hermonassa - which is Taman today. You stand there on the high bank, look at the sea, hear the rustling in the wind. And in the sea the ships of Magna Graecia under red sails ... That was, for sure, and the feather grass rustled as well ... But we will never see this ... And then it will rustle as well ...
              1. depressant
                depressant April 10 2021 10: 43
                +8
                In my dreams, something else came to me - either memories of the future, or of the past, under the influence of reality.
                You used to lie on the beach, and the sea suddenly begins to splash, rolls onto the shore and, picking up your clothes in a wave, carries them away from the shore. And on the horizon - not a single ship from which a wave could come! They say there are no tides in the Black Sea, because it is internal. But for many years spent on its shore, I became convinced that this is not so. There are tides, albeit weak.
                And now, under the impression of these constant tides, I dreamed for a long time - I dreamed for years, every night! It’s like I’m on a hill, below is my city, and from the horizon a huge wave is coming towards it, not similar in outline to a tsunami. It is like a huge black mountain rising from the depths of the sea. It was scary, there was a feeling of hopelessness, despair. I can imagine what the Egyptians felt from the singing of the sands. Yes, and sandstorms. There such walls rise, even now.
                1. Liam
                  Liam April 10 2021 10: 55
                  -2
                  Quote: depressant
                  And on the horizon - not a single ship from which a wave could come!

                  I hate to interrupt your lofty lyrical digressions, but the waves in the sea are from the wind, not from ships).
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish April 10 2021 16: 32
                    +5
                    It turns out that the wave that appears when the frigate passes under six thousand tons comes from the wind? Thank you for explaining. Hmmm ... but it seemed to me that only because this bastard, in violation of the rules of navigation, is forcing the turbines near the coast.
                    1. Liam
                      Liam April 10 2021 17: 05
                      -2
                      Quote: Sea Cat
                      but it seemed to me that only because of that

                      In such cases, people are less educated than I advise such learned nuggets to drink less and at the same time cross themselves. My innate politeness makes me think that you are the same competent expert in questions of the origin of waves in basins and puddles ...
                      1. Catfish
                        Catfish April 10 2021 17: 17
                        +6
                        ... advise such learned nuggets to drink less

                        Do not judge people by yourself, less often you will get into a mess, dear connoisseur of "the origin of waves in basins and puddles ..." laughing
                  2. Undecim
                    Undecim April 10 2021 20: 31
                    +4
                    Sea waves, depending on the factor of occurrence, are:
                    wind (mainly);
                    tidal, formed under the action of the tidal forces of the Moon and the Sun;
                    baric, arising from sudden changes in atmospheric pressure;
                    seismic (tsunami), formed as a result of earthquakes or volcanic eruptions;
                    shipborne, arising from the movement of the ship, but this is already the result of human activity, and not the forces of nature.
                    1. Liam
                      Liam April 10 2021 20: 47
                      -1
                      You can throw a stone into the water and get a wave, but hardly the first thought of a person who sees a wave at the sea will be who throws it with pebbles.
                      Well, except that with the exception of absolutely poetically melancholic shower
                      1. Undecim
                        Undecim April 10 2021 21: 16
                        +3
                        But the ancient Greeks believed that Poseidon with his trident could raise the seas.
                      2. Liam
                        Liam April 10 2021 21: 30
                        0
                        I respect the ancient Greeks)
              2. Aviator_
                Aviator_ April 10 2021 22: 33
                +3
                Lyudmila Yakovlevna, about the nature of the tides. The moon attracts not only the Earth, but also its liquid shell - the water of the oceans and seas. This hump of water follows the Moon as it revolves around our planet. And in the inland seas this is a mere trifle, even in the Red Sea it is not too large, although everything strongly depends on the bottom topography. About the memories - thank you very much.
              3. Richard
                Richard April 11 2021 02: 26
                +3
                depressant: I imagine what the Egyptians felt from the singing of the sands

                Yes, the dunes do not sing. But rather they creak - sigh and whisper - Sweat-sweat-sweat-sweat. At least in Turkmenistan in the Karakum Desert
                But beyond the river near Reg-Ravan, they made a sound similar to a pioneer drum - tr-r-r-rr. I was interested in the locals from what the sound in different places is different. Explained by the different composition of the sand and the presence of impurities of rocks in it.
                But when you walk through the desert sand, the sound is about the same everywhere - uh-uh-uh-uh
              4. The comment was deleted.
        2. Trilobite Master
          Trilobite Master April 10 2021 09: 25
          +10
          Quote: kalibr
          the word NEFER in Egyptian just means beautiful

          Well, then everything is clear. laughing
          It is quite obvious that the tsarina was Russian and had a spectacular bust. And why hasn't anyone figured this out yet?
          laughing
          1. Krasnodar
            Krasnodar April 10 2021 10: 01
            +7
            Quote: Trilobite Master
            Quote: kalibr
            the word NEFER in Egyptian just means beautiful

            Well, then everything is clear. laughing
            It is quite obvious that the tsarina was Russian and had a spectacular bust. And why hasn't anyone figured this out yet?
            laughing

            Greetings, Michael! hi
            size 4? By the way, in the Middle East, there are many more busty breasts than in the Slavic countries, although the beauty of Russian, Czech, Ukrainian and Belarusian women, of course, win
            1. Sling cutter
              Sling cutter April 10 2021 10: 09
              +8
              Quote: Krasnodar
              size 4? By the way, in the Middle East, there are many more busty breasts than in the Slavic countries, although the beauty of Russian, Czech, Ukrainian and Belarusian women, of course, win

              Greetings! hi
              On BV women, I would say, are generally puffy and short.
              In theory, among the northern peoples, the "volumes" of the busts should be larger due to climatic conditions.
              Foty in the morning I am ashamed to spread laughing
              1. Krasnodar
                Krasnodar April 10 2021 12: 22
                +4
                Greetings! hi
                There are enough long ones too
                1. Sling cutter
                  Sling cutter April 10 2021 12: 24
                  +6
                  Quote: Krasnodar
                  There are enough long ones too

                  Apparently, these are already hybrids. wassat
            2. Trilobite Master
              Trilobite Master April 10 2021 10: 57
              +15
              Good morning, Albert.
              Quote: Krasnodar
              size 4?

              Well, here, to whom that.
              Apparently the barbarian king-pharaoh was very impressed by the exterior of the overseas Russian beauty, which was brought to him to formalize the marriage relationship, and how the savage began to point his finger at the source of his impressions with inarticulate cries of "Nefer, nefer" ... Russian princess, who did not understand the barbaric Egyptian language when she saw where he was pointing with his finger, she explained:
              - This is titi. Tee-tee, do you understand, a little sick?
              - Nefer titi, nefer titi - only the unfortunate pharaoh could answer - Kom zu mir, meine kleine, but woo earth, go that trouble ...
              - Yeah, right now ... they won't write it down and don't dream. And remember, poor man, I am now your sun and your only deity, do you understand? And now you will build temples only in my honor without roofs, because, as I can see, your roof has been demolished specifically ...
              Well, just like that ...
              1. Krasnodar
                Krasnodar April 10 2021 12: 46
                +9
                Or maybe the pharaoh, stretching out both hands to the beauty of the beauty, rushed forward, and she said something like Impossible?

                Restoring the historical picture:
                The princess, all so dressed from Etruscans and Gauls, proudly descends from the Aegean boat that entered the mouth of the Nile.
                Pharaoh, with outstretched arms and convulsively clenching and unclenching palms, runs towards her.
                Russian beauty:
                - NeF (?) Er
                Pharaoh yells:
                - Titi
                And this was repeated four times, until the suffering lover was drawn to the Hittite notary and the beauty's Canaanite lawyer.
                Since it was difficult for an ardent Egyptian to prove something, it was written in the marriage contract:
                Nehertiti.
                Then, at the insistence of local lawyers, they corrected it to Nefer - because then, in the event of a divorce, there was room for maneuver and the opportunity to excuse himself from "half the kingdom and real estate in the South-East of the Britt Island."
                1. depressant
                  depressant April 10 2021 13: 04
                  +7
                  Like this! Someone also reproached me for trying to create an alternative history source. wassat ))))
                  1. Krasnodar
                    Krasnodar April 10 2021 13: 54
                    +6
                    Hello, Lyudmila Yakovlevna! hi
                    What do you want to say that the boat was built at the Teutonic shipyard?
                    1. depressant
                      depressant April 10 2021 14: 25
                      +4
                      Hello Albert! hi )))
                      I doubt that the Egyptian boats were built on the Teutonic Weths, the Teutons would not have pulled such a technique, even if we exclude the time variation laughing
                      For example, the remains of several floating facilities were found in the dungeons of the Cheops pyramid. These were the so-called "solar boats" built from cedar and other types of trees. What the boats were intended for, as well as the unusually complex technology of their manufacture, is still a mystery to scientists. One such rook was dismantled - 650 technical knots! And then they were reassembled and placed near the pyramid for viewing. It took 16 years to disassemble and assemble it. Consisting of 1224 parts, the "solar" boat is 43,6 m long and 9 m wide.

                      And why was such a strange thought attributed to me? ))))
                    2. Krasnodar
                      Krasnodar April 10 2021 14: 44
                      +4
                      These were small landing craft - a dowry Nehertiti Russian princess.
                      About the Teutonic shipyard? Not not Old Atzec after all request
                    3. depressant
                      depressant April 10 2021 15: 03
                      +4
                      Ah, that's how it means ... Hmm! Now, if the Aztecs had not drained their swamps, and they would have gradually turned into lakes, perhaps we would now be talking about Aztec shipyards. yes
                    4. Krasnodar
                      Krasnodar April 10 2021 15: 04
                      +4
                      Means ancient May. Or May Day?
                    5. depressant
                      depressant April 10 2021 15: 14
                      +5
                      Do you run into? wassat
                      Today any village with the name "Pervomaisky" is almost ruins, and there have never been any shipyards in them. Even if the areas with that name were located near the water.
                    6. Krasnodar
                      Krasnodar April 10 2021 16: 12
                      +4
                      By the way, after analyzing your post, I first discovered the regularity of the name and state of infrastructures laughing good
                    7. depressant
                      depressant April 10 2021 17: 13
                      +3
                      On the shore of desert waves
                      He sat full of great thoughts -
                      He thought how great he is, Akhenaten.

                      From Pushkin A.S.
        3. Trilobite Master
          Trilobite Master April 10 2021 15: 21
          +5
          The rook, as well as the submarines escorting it, which, of course, no one saw, were built in Arkona at the seventh shipyard. At the rest of the shipyards, aircraft carriers were being completed at that time.
          smile
        4. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar April 10 2021 16: 13
          +4
          Then it was easier with aircraft carriers - the carpet was a vertical takeoff plane ... Golovne, Schaub did not catch on to the mast ..
        5. The comment was deleted.
    3. Catfish
      Catfish April 10 2021 17: 09
      +4
      Why not? Actually, it is very similar. laughing
    4. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar April 10 2021 17: 58
      +3
      Greetings, Constantine! hi
      Is the Kriegsmarine boat chasing the Celts?
    5. Catfish
      Catfish April 10 2021 18: 13
      +4
      Hi Albert! hi
      Drives away just in case. And Madame five is on another boat. laughing
    6. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar April 10 2021 18: 17
      +4
      And let's call it Battleship Musashi neferTichi
    7. Catfish
      Catfish April 10 2021 18: 22
      +4
      Rather "Musashi-Sisi". laughing
      (von Langsdorff turns over his hump)
    8. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar April 10 2021 18: 52
      +3
      Zui Kaku is not a childish insult, as some ignorant citizens of history might think, but the name of a WWII Japanese aircraft carrier inhumanely sunk by the Americans.
    9. Catfish
      Catfish April 10 2021 19: 17
      +3
      Americans are generally crazy alcoholics, although the Japanese had so many different "Kaku" that the Yankees from so many "Poop" could simply brutalize and melt them out of harm. laughing

      Kirdyk Syo Kaku, if the caption on the photo is correct.
    10. Undecim
      Undecim April 10 2021 20: 12
      +4
      if the caption on the photo is correct.
      Wrong. This is the aircraft carrier Shōhō - Shoho, without any "kaku" during the Battle of the aircraft carriers in the Coral Sea.
    11. Catfish
      Catfish April 10 2021 21: 05
      +5
      The top was also labeled "Shokaku".

    12. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar April 10 2021 21: 09
      +3
      The sea is raging majestically
      Bukake do two yoongi
      And then water with fire in the cabin
      The Gyojins sank the kaku .. sad
    13. Catfish
      Catfish April 10 2021 21: 33
      +2
      "Zuikaku" went with him together,
      And after him and the cruiser "Kako".
      Only bubbles out of the blue
      Bad luck to all of them, however. " crying
    14. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar April 10 2021 22: 09
      +1
      On the spot Kaki float Kaki
      Bukake got the victory instead
      No salvation
      No Iwo Jima
      Time to rest
      To Hiroshima fellow
  2. Undecim
    Undecim April 10 2021 21: 24
    +6
    The top was also labeled "Shokaku".
    Shokaku - "Soaring Crane".
    In general, humor about the phonemes of a foreign language is not a very good thing, since the phonemes of the Russian language for foreigners are also, to put it mildly, dissonant. It is no coincidence that the Zhiguli car was sold for export under the Lada brand.
  3. Catfish
    Catfish April 10 2021 21: 38
    +6
    ... humor about the phonemes of a foreign language is not a very good thing,


    Yes, everything is true, the words of our song "Soldiers on the way, on the way, on the way ..." also cause an ambiguous smile from some of the foreigners. wink

    Zuikaku, if I'm not mistaken - "Sacred Crane"?

    PSVik, does Nasser have anything to say about the Iron Cross?
  4. Undecim
    Undecim April 10 2021 22: 03
    +5
    PSVik, does Nasser have anything to say about the Iron Cross?

    There is. Complete nonsense. The same as the order of Moshe Dayan.
  5. Catfish
    Catfish April 10 2021 22: 38
    +4
    And what about Dayan?
  6. Undecim
    Undecim April 10 2021 22: 54
    +5
    And what about Dayan?

    Order of the Battle Red Banner, according to Weller. This bike has been around for a long time.
  7. Catfish
    Catfish April 10 2021 23: 02
    +4
    Thank you. hi This is the first time I've heard, although listening to Weller or Zadornov is more expensive for me.
  8. Krasnodar
    Krasnodar April 11 2021 10: 12
    +2
    Quote: Undecim
    And what about Dayan?

    Order of the Battle Red Banner, according to Weller. This bike has been around for a long time.

    Quote: Sea Cat
    Thank you. hi This is the first time I've heard, although listening to Weller or Zadornov is more expensive for me.

    Weller publishes this as Urban Legends. Dayan has never been to the USSR, except for the IDF and PALMAKH, fought for the British against the Syrians (they were on the side of the Nazis) and until the six-day war was a military commander among the Americans in Vietnam
  9. Krasnodar
    Krasnodar April 10 2021 22: 13
    +4
    Kaku is a crane?
    In principle, everything is correct. Not a pigeon - it won't, so little will not seem recourse
  10. Catfish
    Catfish April 10 2021 22: 20
    +3
    "Thank God that cows don't fly" (S. M. Gorky) winked
  11. Krasnodar
    Krasnodar April 10 2021 22: 31
    +3
    And if Pegasus really existed?
  12. Catfish
    Catfish April 10 2021 22: 36
    +4
    Nightmare. wassat
  13. Krasnodar
    Krasnodar April 10 2021 22: 37
    +4
    The Amazon looks at the lower forward gun of the plane and thinks:
    The male, however
  14. Catfish
    Catfish April 10 2021 23: 08
    +4
    Yeah, now he will feel it. We'll get it right now! fellow
  15. Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 April 10 2021 21: 59
    +3
    Viktor Nikolaevich, I heard from my grandmother: the car was immediately called "VIL" - in honor of Lenin, but due to the fact that VIL in Belgium is associated with a corrupt man.
    At one time the phone "Lumiya" was on sale - Finnish, "snowflake", from someone, I don't remember now - "a corrupt woman"
  16. Undecim
    Undecim April 10 2021 22: 26
    +6
    The car was not called "VIL". This name was offered to the Volga GAZ-24. Pionerskaya Pravda announced a competition for the name of a new car. One of the proposals was VIL-100, "Vladimir Ilyich Lenin - 100 years", this was exactly 1970.
  17. Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 April 11 2021 20: 07
    +2
    Viktor Nikolaevich, when I was in the second grade, saw a passenger car and on its hood: 3 white metal letters "VIL". At that time I understood the brands of cars like a ram in geometry, but I remembered the color: black as pitch
  18. Undecim
    Undecim April 11 2021 20: 30
    +3
    Still, my memory failed me. Indeed, there was a competition for the name specifically for the VAZ 2101.

    The magazine "Behind the wheel", No. 11 for 1967.
    Offered were "Katyusha", VIL-100 (in honor of Lenin's centenary), "Violet", "Avangard", "Sokol", "Ruslan", "Ataman", "Iskra", "Togliattynets", "Volzhanin", "Dream "," Friendship "," Zhiguli "," Lada ".
    We chose Zhiguli. And three letters - this is a lone handicraftsman.
  19. Bolt cutter
    Bolt cutter April 11 2021 16: 02
    +4
    "Lumiya" - Finnish, "snowflake", for someone, I don't remember now - "a corrupt woman"
    Spanish slang.
  20. Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku April 12 2021 10: 34
    +4
    Spanish slang.

    Alex, welcome!
    It got to the point that in the Abydos list of rulers of Egypt, the name of Horemheb was put right after the name of Amenhotep III.

    Reminded: "Richard III did not kill his nephews in the Tower, moreover, one of them became his heir - Richard IV!" (TV series "Black Snake", 1 episode of the 1 season). drinks
  21. Bolt cutter
    Bolt cutter April 12 2021 10: 48
    +2
    Good morning! With enviable regularity, Egyptologists argue about traces of cocaine in mummies. Like, South American exports. The open question is, did the test respond to cocaine or tropane? If tropane, then surely in Egypt grow (or grew then) plants containing tropane alkaloids - they are now common in Africa. Belladonna is growing in Russia too, if that. These plants were used by the Egyptians for mummification or for medicinal purposes. wassat .
    In addition, it is possible that at that time in Egypt there were plants containing cocaine, which subsequently disappeared due to diligent collection (like Sylphium in Greece) or climate change.
  22. Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku April 12 2021 10: 59
    +3
    In addition, it is possible that at that time in Egypt there were plants containing cocaine, which subsequently disappeared due to diligent collection (like Sylphium in Greece) or climate change.

    Interesting! I didn't think, to be honest ... good And in botany we have a specialist Sergey "Korsar4" - he knows everything for sure. drinks
    If the mummies were not so old, I would assume that the cocainum was brought in by either St. Brendan or Abubakar II. wink
  23. Bolt cutter
    Bolt cutter April 12 2021 11: 08
    +2
    I would assume that cocainum has brought
    I still believe that the pharaohs did not have a chance to check out any cocainum - the tests identified traces of tropane (a characteristic bicyclic compound). It is likely that the mummy was thrown with ibogaine - now (then most likely too) it is used in West Africa. Moreover, a Rusich, who died from poisoning with belladonna (belladonna), will show the same analysis results (if it is possible to find his undecomposed corpse) and will seriously puzzle historians - who brought the nut to Russia wassat
  24. Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku April 12 2021 11: 11
    +3
    Moreover, a Rusich, who died from poisoning with belladonna (belladonna), will show the same analysis results (if his undecomposed corpse) and will seriously puzzle historians - who brought the nut to Russia

    If the rusich is normal - this is to Michael (with Trilobite), and if the rusich is with haplogroups - then to the Operator. drinks
    It is likely that the mummy was pelted with ibogaine.

    Addict, what le? belay

    By the way, did not the Egyptians invented beer, in an hour?
  25. Bolt cutter
    Bolt cutter April 12 2021 11: 21
    +2
    Addict, what le?
    Yes, yes. Negroes use ibogu to communicate with the world of spirits - for about three days from one reception they communicate later. And the mood rises.
    By the way, did not the Egyptians invented beer, in an hour?
    In Mesopotamia, it seems. 5000 years ago, they paid with beer (according to the deciphered cuneiform) for work, so they also invented the magarych there. Isessno, Chinese scientists have established for certain that beer was invented in China yes 7000 years ago. And so, the showdown on the subject of the invention of beer is still going on. Such Israeli scientists have established for certain yes that in their edges kiroshinili wassat 13000 years ago, in the Rakefet cave near Haifa.
  26. Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku April 12 2021 12: 12
    +4
    In Mesopotamia, it seems. 5000 years ago, they paid with beer (according to the deciphered cuneiform) for work

    In the Hermitage there are miniature clay tablets with notes - to whom how much to allocate what. Beer was also mentioned there. A kind of "memo". yes
    Such Israeli scientists have established for certain yes, that in their area wassat was set up 13000 years ago, in the Rakefet cave near Haifa.

    It is necessary to ask Albert “Krasnodar” - he knows for sure. drinks
  27. Bolt cutter
    Bolt cutter April 12 2021 12: 14
    +2
    Beer was also mentioned there. A kind of "memo"
    There were times! By the way, Google's splash screen (they regularly change the splash screen on the topic of the event on memorable dates) completely forgot about Gagarin.
  28. Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku April 12 2021 12: 21
    +3
    There were times!

    There were! And each character had to be displayed on the plate ...
    By the way, Google's splash screen (they regularly change the splash screen on the topic of the event on memorable dates) completely forgot about Gagarin.

    I still have a link to YouTube under the search! Maybe this is an option for Russia?
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3Wa0jDAU5hg
  29. Bolt cutter
    Bolt cutter April 12 2021 12: 23
    +2
    Maybe this is an option for Russia?
    on my co.uk. no, although all sorts of negros appear there regularly.
  30. Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku April 12 2021 12: 32
    +3
    although all sorts of negros appear there regularly.

    Alexey, you understand, I don't want to offend anyone, and I will not ... but, apparently, your localization of the program is closer to the "life of black asses" (or whatever it sounds like) than the flight of Gagarin. request Each society has its own trends! drinks Blacks - hopefully not the Black Lord? laughing
  31. Bolt cutter
    Bolt cutter April 12 2021 12: 38
    +2
    hopefully not the Black Lord?
    Don't ... He's busy with Runet, a hard worker wassat Musicians, football players, human rights activists. whites also sometimes come across - the landing on the moon, for example, was noted by the Google people as it should.
  32. Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku April 12 2021 12: 45
    +2
    Don't ... He's busy with Runet, a hard worker

    By the way, the name of the Black Lord in the world is Ben Gunn. wink Just without your own treasure island. request For he is his own treasure! fellow
    Musicians

    I am deeply for Louis Armstrong and Trombone Shoti! good
    whites also sometimes come across - the landing on the moon, for example, was noted by the Google people as it should.

    Well .. every country has its own holidays! drinks
  33. Bolt cutter
    Bolt cutter April 12 2021 12: 47
    +2
    every country has its own holidays!
    In some Muslim countries, 9/11 is celebrated at the state level wassat .
  34. Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku April 12 2021 12: 51
    +2
    In some Muslim countries, 9/11 is celebrated at the state level

    Hmm .... this is what, I wonder? No, it's just that holidays are different, but celebrating an outright horror is kapets ... hi By the way, what is the point of celebrating 9/11, if then the Arab world got conflicts with hundreds of thousands of victims? request
  35. Bolt cutter
    Bolt cutter April 12 2021 12: 57
    +2
    Most likely Somalia, Afghanistan and the like. I read somewhere that in Pakistan, similarities of folk festivals are held unofficially (poor goats wassat ).
    what's the point of celebrating 9/11
    I think their life for the festivities is at least not rich sad
  36. Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku April 12 2021 13: 20
    +3
    I read somewhere that in Pakistan, similarities of folk festivals are held unofficially

    I see in the US is now a new national entertainment - "killed the nigger." wassat
    As in that song: "The Negro is lying, but hip-hop does not go dancing ..."
    https://news.mail.ru/incident/45916804/?frommail=1&exp_id=917
    Brooklyn Center police said police stopped Dante Wright's car for a traffic violation Sunday afternoon. After checking the driver's identity, they found that he was wanted.
    After they tried to detain Wright, he jumped into his car and tried to escape.
    One of the police officers shot at the driver who was Wright, after which his car drove a few hundred meters and crashed into another car. Police caught up with the car and found Wright dead.


    I did not understand another:
    Mayor Mike Elliot called the incident a tragedy. “Our state mourns another black man whose life was taken by the law enforcers,” said Minnesota Governor Tim Waltz.
    Hmm ... if he's a criminal ... why is it the police? hi This makes no sense! stop

    Well, and as usual - a popular celebration of the revolutionary masses! fellow
    Around the same time, a mall was robbed in the city, and firearms were fired at the door of a police station in nearby Brooklyn Park, according to local media reports. Reuters reported about the destruction of about 20 shops in the vicinity of the city.
  37. Bolt cutter
    Bolt cutter April 12 2021 14: 01
    +2
    Now it is for them for a long time - the Negroes felt impunity and the strength of the crowd. By the way, Biden suspended the commission for the supervision of the police and the review of cases - the old man does not want to remain without the police.
    Mayor Mike Elliot called the incident a tragedy.
    Try not to name it, and the mayor's office will be smashed. And where does the mayor get his pay? wassat Such merry-go-rounds polarize society even more strongly - even those who treated blacks normally join the slender ranks of racists.
  38. Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku April 12 2021 14: 09
    +3
    Such merry-go-rounds polarize society even more strongly - even those who treated blacks normally join the slender ranks of racists.

    It would be stupid if they didn’t replenish them, but played Tolstoyance - they turned their cheeks.
    Now this is for a long time with them - the blacks felt impunity and the strength of the crowd.

    We, of course, have our own rattles, but, thank God, not like that ...
  39. Bolt cutter
    Bolt cutter April 12 2021 14: 14
    +3
    but, thank God, not like that.
    Until. Growing diasporas almost always roll out large lists of their inalienable rights. They also demand the same - the crowd inspires strength in those who are not far away from the pack animals.
  40. depressant
    depressant April 12 2021 14: 19
    +4
    As far as I know, the teenagers Edward V and his brother Richard of York, the sons of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville, were killed in the Tower. There is a painting - John Everett Millais. Two adorable boys in black robes. I wonder who Rowel Atkinson is portraying? ))))
    I apologize for interrupting the conversation without permission.
    Good afternoon, dear colleagues, I will not interfere, I am leaving))))
  41. Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku April 12 2021 14: 28
    +2
    I wonder who Rowel Atkinson is portraying? ))))
    I apologize for interrupting the conversation without permission.
    Good afternoon, dear colleagues, I will not interfere, I am leaving))))

    Lyudmila Yakovlevna, this is the cult comic series "Black Viper" (or "Black Snake"). Atkinson in the first season portrays the son of the English king Richard IV - who never was.
  42. depressant
    depressant April 12 2021 14: 40
    +3
    Oh, like that! ... Unfortunately, I stopped watching serials - those on TV, since I haven't turned it on for a long time, although maybe there is something to watch. Expectation of the next episode is straining, and interest has already been lost. For example, I didn’t finish the last episode of the “President’s Annual Message to the Federal Assembly” - it’s boring, trite, the scriptwriters are useless. And now there will be a new one, and everyone already knows its content - leaks. And to watch something more interesting on a mobile phone - they require money)))
    So about Atkinson, I'm not in the know, that's how I lag behind cultural life wassat
  43. Krasnodar
    Krasnodar April 10 2021 22: 12
    +4
    Quote: Undecim

    In general, humor about the phonemes of a foreign language is not a very good thing, since the phonemes of the Russian language for foreigners are also, to put it mildly, dissonant.

    But the rhyme is so gorgeous:
    Like dogs instead of Bukake
    In August Nagasaki fellow
  44. Undecim
    Undecim April 10 2021 22: 27
    +4
    But the rhyme is so gorgeous

    To whom the bride and the mare ...
  45. Krasnodar
    Krasnodar April 10 2021 22: 32
    +6
    Who and the captive Chinese - a simulator for bayonet fighting and food yes
  46. Catfish
    Catfish April 10 2021 23: 13
    +4
    It depends on what kind of Chinese, damn it. Some people studied with us.
  47. Krasnodar
    Krasnodar April 10 2021 23: 34
    +6
    Holding the second cucumber? ))
  48. Catfish
    Catfish April 10 2021 23: 38
    +3
    As I say, they studied with us. laughing soldier
  49. Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku April 12 2021 11: 07
    +3
    It depends on what kind of Chinese, damn it. Some people studied with us.

    During the action of this poster, you served on the other side of the river, and drew cartoons on the Chinese people. And they called you a "revisionist", by the way. laughing drinks
  50. Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku April 12 2021 11: 04
    +4
    Like dogs instead of Bukake
    In August Nagasaki

    Your words, yes to Valery Leontiev! wink drinks Straight, as if:
    Kolorowуch jarmarkow,
    Blaszanуch zegarkow
    Рierzastуch kogucikow
    Balonikow na druciku

  51. Krasnodar
    Krasnodar April 12 2021 15: 05
    +2
    Leontiev lived, Leontiev is alive, Leontiev will live!
  52. depressant
    depressant April 12 2021 14: 44
    +5
    Albert, they say, in Finland, every lake or village is a toilet name. The embittered neighbors gave it, and it stuck)))
  53. Krasnodar
    Krasnodar April 12 2021 15: 06
    +3
    Finnish discount jopa
    Sale - jopa 30% fellow
  54. depressant
    depressant April 12 2021 15: 53
    +2
    So even in everyday speech laughing
    And about the names of settlements in Russia, you can find something that will please:
    Stupid, Suchkino, Bukhalovo, Lokhovo, Shitty ...
    Was there something like this in Ancient Egypt? I doubt it. There was probably greatness)))
  55. Krasnodar
    Krasnodar April 12 2021 16: 01
    +1
    If there was, we will not understand
  56. depressant
    depressant April 12 2021 16: 50
    +2
    Once we slept through it:
    Pots, Horns, Mosquitoes, Sparrows, Turkey, Chushka, New Armenia - in Siberia! )))
    Go ahead - I especially like it. Do you know what they call themselves? Go ahead! There is For the Motherland. And these - how?
    There are many wonderful things in the world! wassat
  57. Krasnodar
    Krasnodar April 12 2021 17: 11
    +1
    I like the names of the gorges in the Krasnodar Territory more - Narrow Shchel, Suhaya Shchel
  58. depressant
    depressant April 12 2021 17: 42
    +2
    Crammed into the Slots! Position in life is welcome!)))
  59. Catfish
    Catfish April 10 2021 22: 38
    +2
    And what happened to the Zhiguli? The guys said that Czech saleswomen reacted inadequately when they were asked to sell matches. laughing
  60. Undecim
    Undecim April 10 2021 23: 02
    +6
    And what happened to the Zhiguli?
    Consonant in European languages ​​gigolo.
    A pichka in Bulgarian is the same as a five-letter word in Russian.
  61. Catfish
    Catfish April 10 2021 23: 10
    +4
    Clear. As for the pichka, the Czechs seem to have the same thing.
  62. Liam
    Liam April 10 2021 22: 56
    +2
    Quote: Undecim
    It is no coincidence that the Zhiguli car was sold for export under the Lada brand.

    What's wrong with the Zhiguli?
  63. Undecim
    Undecim April 10 2021 23: 06
    +5
    Lada - gigolo
  64. Liam
    Liam April 10 2021 23: 12
    +2
    This is unlikely. In Italian, definitely no associations. Jiguli does not read like gigolo at all. .and even as a Lada is not pronounced. the letter j is read as Y and is almost never used. juventus is read as Juventus)
    In Spanish, it seems like the X is pronounced. Javer Solana-Javier Solana
  65. Undecim
    Undecim April 10 2021 23: 21
    +6
    And in Europe there are other languages ​​besides Italian. And in all, including in Spanish - gigolo - gigolo. By the way - in Italian too. It's not about the reading, it's about the sound. It was not by chance that I spoke about phonemes. Therefore, car names are always selected with this factor in mind.
  66. Liam
    Liam April 10 2021 23: 34
    +1
    the point is that no one reads jiguli as gigolo. Someone will read it like Iguli. Someone like Higuli. In German, gigolo is generally Stricher. The Zhiguli-Gigolo association can only be born in a Russian.
    I'm afraid this is just an urban legend, and the problem was only in the difficulty of pronouncing the word itself and marketing needed a simpler, easier-to-read name.
  67. Undecim
    Undecim April 10 2021 23: 44
    +4
    I'm afraid that only an urban legend
    Do not be afraid. When he was the head of the marketing department of Daewoo Motor Ukraine, the names of cars passed through our department. Accordingly, there were specialists and information.
  68. Liam
    Liam April 10 2021 23: 46
    +1
    Is the name Jiguli too?
  69. Undecim
    Undecim April 11 2021 00: 08
    +2
    And "Schiguli" too. And Mitsubishi Pajero, and Ford Probe, and so on. By the way, Lada also had problems in France. Therefore, there are special branding agencies dealing with these issues.
  70. Liam
    Liam April 11 2021 00: 10
    +1
    Out of sports interest ... is there infa how much Zhiguli sold the USSR in Western countries?
  71. Undecim
    Undecim April 11 2021 00: 20
    +2
    There is somewhere, you have to look. For example, in 1980, 328 passenger cars were exported from the USSR. To Austria - 782, to Belgium - 3443, etc. Somewhere there is a breakdown by model, obviously.
  72. Liam
    Liam April 11 2021 00: 28
    +1
    If you find, discard the link .. I would be grateful hi
  73. Undecim
    Undecim April 11 2021 00: 30
    +3
    For starters - http://istmat.info/node/21347. If I find anything else, I will throw it off.
  74. The comment was deleted.
  75. Liam
    Liam April 11 2021 01: 03
    +2
    Thanks. I found this table.


    https://genby.livejournal.com/267497.html

    By the way ... here I found:

    "Avtoexport" approached the supply of AvtoVAZ products abroad very seriously. First, the name "Zhiguli", on some Slavic languages ​​consonant with the word "gigalo", in fact, immediately replaced by a completely neutral Lada.

    Let's count it as a draw)
  76. Catfish
    Catfish April 10 2021 23: 41
    +3
    Therefore, car names are always selected with this factor in mind.


    Pajero - Pajero?
  77. Undecim
    Undecim April 10 2021 23: 51
    +5
    In Spain, these cars are sold as Mitsubishi Montero, because pajero is to masturbate.
  78. Catfish
    Catfish April 10 2021 23: 59
    +3
    Hmm, that's it, of course - yes "Mayakovsky immediately remembered:" Down with hockey, down with football, and other sports ... " drinks
  79. Phil77
    Phil77 April 11 2021 08: 11
    +3
    Good morning Konstantin! And this is ... about football, hockey, isn't it a stylization ... like Mayakovsky? recourse wink
  80. Catfish
    Catfish April 11 2021 08: 18
    +3
    I will not say for sure, but Vova was still a hefty bully and only then became a singer of the revolution. wink
    Well, look, the punks are punks. drinks
  81. Phil77
    Phil77 April 11 2021 08: 26
    +3
    I mean, it looks like a great job * for him *. Poem * Down with! *.
    Eh, something in the morning I * grumble * hit, the reason is banal. recourse
  82. Catfish
    Catfish April 11 2021 08: 31
    +3
    Losing is not a heart attack, they will win back. smile
  83. Sling cutter
    Sling cutter April 10 2021 23: 08
    +8
    Quote: Liam
    What's wrong with the Zhiguli?

    Could be confused with beer)))
  84. Undecim
    Undecim April 10 2021 23: 12
    +3
    Not with beer, but with gigolo.
  85. Liam
    Liam April 10 2021 23: 13
    +2
    You can't confuse Soviet beer at all)
  86. Krasnodar
    Krasnodar April 10 2021 21: 07
    +4
    This is when the Japanese have all Kaki ended)).
  87. Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku April 12 2021 12: 27
    0
    Shohyo, without any "kaku"

    It's not interesting without "kaku", Viktor Nikolaevich. stop By the way, what do you think about the feat of Timofey Khryukin, about whom it was said that he sank some Japanese aircraft carrier on the Yangtze in the 30s (fighting for the Kuomintang)? drinks
  88. Undecim
    Undecim April 12 2021 15: 57
    +1

    Legend. If he sank something, it was not a classic aircraft carrier.
  89. Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku April 12 2021 12: 25
    0
    Zui Kaku

    This is an ingenious team in the Japanese Poop Lover Society. They just don't have the letter "g". I wanted to tell the daimyo to my haimin - "chew kaku!", But it turned out "zui kaku!" laughing
  90. bubalik
    bubalik April 10 2021 18: 12
    +4
    Goodbye for a long time, port!
    We go into the vastness of the waters.
    "Let's find the caravan!"
    "That's right, captain!" (C)
  91. Catfish
    Catfish April 10 2021 18: 30
    +4
    Hello, Sergey! smile
    For many it turned out "goodbye to the port forever". request
  92. bubalik
    bubalik April 10 2021 18: 51
    +4
    Good day, Constantine!
    ,,, it was differently repeat
    U-1206
    On April 14, 1945, Schlitt discovered a toilet malfunction. He first called a repairman, but he was fixing the engine, so he had to call a seaman-minder. He tried to fix the toilet, but did not notice that the toilet valve was open, and as a result of his careless manipulations, the waste from the toilet, pushed by compressed air and seawater, fell on both sailors. A column of seawater under pressure of several atmospheres began to beat from the toilet bowl. A mechanical engineer hurried to the rescue, but the water column did not allow approaching the valve closing mechanisms. The officer of the watch, unaware of what had happened, ordered them to surface to periscope depth. The motorist closed all the valves after the pressure in the pipes dropped, but the water managed to reach the battery compartment.

    Salt water splashed onto the battery plates, releasing corrosive chlorine. Plumes of smoke floated through the submarine, and Schlitt ordered to surface immediately. With great difficulty, the commander opened the conning tower and ensured the flow of sea air, releasing clouds of gas overboard. However, at that moment, British aircraft discovered the submarine and dropped bombs on it. No direct hits were recorded, but the bombs exploded too close to the boat. Schlitt ordered to leave the ship, and the entire crew picked up the destroyer of the British fleet. The boat sank.
  93. Catfish
    Catfish April 10 2021 19: 21
    +4
    So don't believe the anecdotes after that. request Sinking a submarine with a toilet bowl, you have to figure it out. laughing
  94. Krasnodar
    Krasnodar April 10 2021 21: 12
    +4
    Ubermenchi Drowned in the Toilet
  95. Catfish
    Catfish April 10 2021 21: 38
    +3
    Poetic !!! good drinks
  96. Krasnodar
    Krasnodar April 10 2021 18: 54
    +4
    And hello Falhalla ...
  • Richard
    Richard April 11 2021 02: 39
    +2
    Albert: Or maybe the pharaoh, stretching out both hands to the beauty of the beauty, rushed forward, and she told him something like You can't

    - Beautiful stranger, let me touch you
    - Fuck off worried. Don't touch fucking titi. Only after the wedding
    Pharaoh did not know foreign languages ​​and thought that this was her name.
    So they began to call her smile
  • Doliva63
    Doliva63 April 10 2021 15: 58
    +5
    Quote: Trilobite Master
    Good morning, Albert.
    Quote: Krasnodar
    size 4?

    Well, here, to whom that.
    Apparently the barbarian king-pharaoh was very impressed by the exterior of the overseas Russian beauty, which was brought to him to formalize the marriage relationship, and how the savage began to point his finger at the source of his impressions with inarticulate cries of "Nefer, nefer" ... Russian princess, who did not understand the barbaric Egyptian language when she saw where he was pointing with his finger, she explained:
    - This is titi. Tee-tee, do you understand, a little sick?
    - Nefer titi, nefer titi - only the unfortunate pharaoh could answer - Kom zu mir, meine kleine, but woo earth, go that trouble ...
    - Yeah, right now ... they won't write it down and don't dream. And remember, poor man, I am now your sun and your only deity, do you understand? And now you will build temples only in my honor without roofs, because, as I can see, your roof has been demolished specifically ...
    Well, just like that ...



    laughing I almost choked on beer good
    1. Catfish
      Catfish April 10 2021 17: 21
      +4
      Be careful, colleague, Albert cannot be read without looking up from the circle. smile drinks
      1. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar April 10 2021 17: 59
        +5
        Quote: Sea Cat
        Be careful, colleague, Albert cannot be read without looking up from the circle. smile drinks

        This is how we made the Russian people drink fellow
        1. Catfish
          Catfish April 10 2021 18: 07
          +4
          And then! Do not get out! angry
        2. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar April 10 2021 18: 20
          +4
          And he sings:
          Let's get to the Red Sea
          To the fear and horror of enemies,
          And surely ours will be soon
          That distant city called Assuan.

          And let the peoples know
          The time will come when
          Will rise above the clear sky
          Six-pointed David's star.

          And our leader Golda Meir
          Spread out a nuclear fan.
          Then the war will end
          When a Jew, Jew, Jew takes Suez.
          fellow
        3. Catfish
          Catfish April 10 2021 18: 26
          +5
          Yavol, Minhertz! Suez will be ours !!! soldier
        4. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar April 10 2021 18: 32
          +4
          The great coming of Rommel, which the future Hero of the Soviet Union Gamal Abdel Nasser had been waiting for so long, did not take place. crying
        5. Catfish
          Catfish April 10 2021 19: 11
          +6
          But Nasser received the Iron Cross anyway. Looked great next to the star of the Hero of the Soviet Union on one uniform. laughing
        6. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar April 10 2021 21: 05
          +4
          To be honest, I've never read about Nasser's Iron Cross.
        7. Catfish
          Catfish April 10 2021 21: 09
          +4
          I didn't read it either, but in the sixties it was heard. Seryoga-Phil has now gone through no and also did not find anything, there is a Finnish order, a Yugoslavian one, but not a word about the Cross.
        8. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar April 10 2021 21: 13
          +4
          What's Finnish for? laughing
        9. Phil77
          Phil77 April 10 2021 21: 22
          +4
          Hello Albert! Yes, in general, a dark story. There is an award, there is no date of assignment. The same applies to the * Yugov * award. So it was possible to navigate by the date. recourse
          In general, I searched, searched and .... I did not find it. Sadness. And all this during hockey! Oh, this Konstantin! And why did I read his comments during the break?!?! bully Intrigued.
        10. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar April 10 2021 22: 07
          +2
          Greetings, Sergey! hi
          Probably for moral support in the defense of the Mannerheim line request
        11. bubalik
          bubalik April 10 2021 22: 29
          +2
          Lost true faith
          It hurts me for our USSR.
          Take the order from Nasser,
          Not suitable for the Nasser order.

          You can even cover the floor with a mat,
          Give gifts at random
          Calling Nasser our brother
          But to give a Hero is to give it up.

          Why is there no gold in the country?
          Give away, just give away
          Better to be given in the war
          And Nasser after forgive us.
          (Vladimir Vysotsky, 1964)
  • Richard
    Richard April 10 2021 23: 09
    +3
    Who is the world, meine kleine, but woo earth, go that trouble ...

    do not open your mouth on someone else's bed (c) Shishkov "Gloomy river" smile
  • Catfish
    Catfish April 10 2021 16: 41
    +6
    So that's it! "But then Jean entered and vulgarized everything" (c) laughing
    And then there are some who reproach me for too much attention to the female sex.
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar April 10 2021 18: 00
      +4
      In one word - Nefer Titi
    2. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku April 12 2021 10: 20
      +2
      And then there are some who reproach me for too much attention to the female sex.

      How you subtly pointed your finger at me ... repeat "Some" ... No, I do not reproach - I admire your devotion to the fair sex! good drinks
      1. Catfish
        Catfish April 12 2021 16: 14
        +2
        Well, with a finger, and not something else. laughing
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku April 12 2021 17: 24
          +1
          Well, with a finger, and not something else.

          Yes, indeed, and it is true that ... what but he could have shown it to others. With you will be! laughing
          1. Catfish
            Catfish April 12 2021 17: 42
            +2
            Don't judge people by yourself! laughing drinks
  • Alien From
    Alien From April 10 2021 12: 57
    +5
    Vyacheslav Olegovich! The Egyptian theme is extremely interesting! Please all of us with your work drinks hi
    1. kalibr
      April 10 2021 19: 39
      +4
      Quote: Alien From
      The Egyptian theme is extremely interesting!

      It will continue, don't worry!
  • vladcub
    vladcub April 10 2021 17: 57
    +6
    On a fig primary sources. V. About said and good.
    In principle, it would be good to write something like this: some historians, Elizabeth Hering, and some others believe that Akhenaten is a genius, and Vasya Pupkin believes that Akhenaten is byaka: "tyry pyry is byaka"
  • Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka April 10 2021 05: 53
    +11
    New Saturday episode !!!
    Thank you Vyacheslav Olegovich, we will consider that the morning was successful. However, like the next ones, at least six months ahead - given the many "greats" in history !!!
    1. Richard
      Richard April 10 2021 06: 07
      +11
      The inscriptions in the tombs and cuneiform tablets of the Amarna Archives helped Egyptologists to build several hypotheses about where the queen was born. In general, the views of Egyptologists can be divided into 2 versions: the majority consider Nefertiti an Egyptian, others - a foreign princess. The hypothesis that the queen was not of noble birth and accidentally appeared at the throne is rejected by most Egyptologists.
      Foreign princess
      The name Nefertiti translates as "The Beauty Has Come", therefore, according to one of the versions, Akhenaten's wife was not an Egyptian. Allegedly, Nefertiti is the Mitannian princess Tadukhepa sent to the wife of Amenhotep III. Amenhotep III died soon after Tadukhepa's arrival at the Egyptian court, and the princess became the wife of his son Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten). However, Aye's wife, Tei, bore the title of Nefertiti's nurse, which refutes the identity theories of Taduhepa and Nefertiti, since the arriving princess did not need a nurse.
      Egyptian
      Initially, Egyptologists followed a simple logical chain. If Nefertiti is “the main wife of the Pharaoh,” she must be an Egyptian, moreover, an Egyptian of royal blood. Therefore, it was believed that the queen was one of the daughters of Amenhotep III. But none of the lists of the daughters of this pharaoh contains references to a princess with that name. Among his 6 daughters there is no sister Nefertiti - Princess Mutbenreth (Berenmouth).
      Some Egyptologists believe that Mutnejmet - the wife of Horemheb - is identical to Nefertiti's sister, since the name Mutbenreth can be read in the same way as Mutnejmet. However, there is not enough evidence in this theory. Also, Mutnejmet did not bear the title of "Pharaoh's Daughter", which casts doubt on the version of her relationship with Ay.
      There is an assumption that Nefertiti is the daughter of the nobleman Eye (one of Akhenaten's companions, later - Pharaoh), the probable brother of Queen Tiya, and his first wife. Consequently, the queen also came from Ahmim and could be Akhenaten's cousin. Tei, Ay's second wife, is referred to as the future queen's nurse and therefore cannot be her biological mother. That being said, Tei and Aye are nowhere mentioned by Nefertiti's parents.
      In general, there are more mysteries of its origin than answers.
    2. kalibr
      April 10 2021 06: 39
      +7
      Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
      considering the many "greats" in history !!!

      I hope so too!
  • Van 16
    Van 16 April 10 2021 05: 59
    +9
    Vyacheslav Olegovich constantly finds interesting and varied topics for his articles, which causes only respect. Thank you!
    As far as I remember, there were several reports about Nefertiti at one time that someone somewhere had finally unearthed her mummy, but there was no confirmation. This is true, by the way.
    The continuation of the cycle, of course, I will wait.
    1. kalibr
      April 10 2021 06: 41
      +7
      Quote: Van 16
      The continuation of the cycle, of course, I will wait.

      Well, I don’t think there will be anything else about Nefertiti, although about Egypt it will certainly be.
      1. Van 16
        Van 16 April 10 2021 06: 50
        +5
        I didn't mean exactly Nefertiti, I'm generally talking about the whole cycle of the Great Ones, the topic is very interesting hi
        1. depressant
          depressant April 10 2021 08: 49
          +4
          By the way, this famous bust of Nefertiti was found during excavations in the yard of the doctor of the pharaoh's family. The bust was just lying in a garbage dump)))
          1. Liam
            Liam April 10 2021 09: 07
            +4
            Quote: depressant
            By the way, this famous bust of Nefertiti was found during excavations in the yard of the doctor of the pharaoh's family. The bust was just lying in a garbage dump)))


            The bust was found in Tell el-Amarna during excavations in building P47,2 which was the laboratory of the chief sculptor Thutmose.
            1. kalibr
              April 10 2021 09: 17
              +3
              Read Elizabeth Hering's "The Sculptor of the Pharaoh" - just about Thutmose ... Very interesting!
              1. Liam
                Liam April 10 2021 09: 55
                +2
                Quote: kalibr
                Read Elizabeth Hering's "The Sculptor of the Pharaoh" - just about Thutmose ... Very interesting!

                Thank you hi
            2. depressant
              depressant April 10 2021 10: 09
              +4
              Actually, as far as I remember, several of these busts were found, but I remember exactly about the doctor. It struck me then, it must be a doctor, but he has an expensive bust of the queen. I thought maybe it somehow helped him in researching her illnesses.
              1. Liam
                Liam April 10 2021 10: 22
                +3
                Quote: depressant
                Actually, as far as I remember, several of these busts were found

                At the doctor?)

                All busts and figurines (including the face of young Nefertiti) were found where they should have been - in the sculptor's house / laboratory.
                In the courtyard of the sculptor's house, in a heap of rubbish, they also found a piece of ivory on which his name was "written"

                Reads like Thoth-ms-s and his titles are something like Favorite of the Pharaoh и Master of WorkOn the basis of this find, they determined who the building belonged to and what was done there.
              2. Warrior-80
                Warrior-80 April 12 2021 09: 01
                +2
                Even if it was a doctor, he was definitely a priest and these concepts were connected, and the priesthood at that time was one of the branches of government and they were far from poor
        2. kalibr
          April 10 2021 08: 59
          +5
          Quote: Van 16
          the whole cycle about the Great Ones, the topic is very interesting

          Of course, Ivan - that's why he took it!
      2. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar April 10 2021 10: 05
        +4
        Quote: kalibr
        Quote: Van 16
        The continuation of the cycle, of course, I will wait.

        Well, I don’t think there will be anything else about Nefertiti, although about Egypt it will certainly be.

        Hello, Vyacheslav Olegovich! hi
        I think everyone will be interested in Gamal Abdel Nasser, a charismatic and controversial figure
        1. kalibr
          April 10 2021 14: 06
          +4
          Quote: Krasnodar
          I think everyone will be interested in Gamal Abdel Nasser, a charismatic and controversial figure

          He's not on my list!
          1. Krasnodar
            Krasnodar April 10 2021 15: 02
            +3
            Let me guess - if Egypt, then three options:
            Some kind of pharaoh;
            Moses;
            Napoleon fellow
            Or else Umm Kul Tum
            This singer is so
            Inti's song Die
            The average duration of her songs is half an hour.
            Revered on BV, very, very)).
            1. depressant
              depressant April 10 2021 17: 23
              +3
              Let's stop here. In the early 2000s, in the middle of the night, I was listening to a wondrous song of extraordinary beauty, half asleep, but there was no singled out, clearly marked melody. A woman sang. And this song lasted for at least half an hour, but it was not announced who she was. And here you, Albert, called the name - is it really she? I remember this only case, this is not forgotten. I will search the Internet.
              1. Krasnodar
                Krasnodar April 10 2021 18: 03
                +2
                https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=Xd2HTVN0E1E
                Inti Omri - You (feminine, divided in Arabic and Hebrew) My World
                1. depressant
                  depressant April 10 2021 18: 09
                  +3
                  Thank you very much, I'll try to listen in the evening.
                  1. Krasnodar
                    Krasnodar April 10 2021 18: 21
                    +2
                    I hope this is exactly the song)).
                    1. depressant
                      depressant April 10 2021 18: 46
                      +3
                      I hope so too. You know, it was a special singing - calm, quiet, but with such sincerity that I had never met before or after. It was some kind of new art, literally burning out a trace in the soul and memory. I'll follow the link right now.
                      1. depressant
                        depressant April 10 2021 18: 58
                        +3
                        Looked through, listened ... No, that's not it. It was in English. Not Indian music and not Arabic. The accompaniment was ... as if it were quiet, floating sounds, like an echo in a cave. Not that. I will look for.
                      2. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar April 10 2021 22: 25
                        +2
                        So if in English - definitely not Umm Kul Tum)))
                      3. Aviator_
                        Aviator_ April 10 2021 22: 47
                        +2
                        I tried to listen to this song, but the most enjoyable was the advertisement for the song by Edith Piaf.
              2. Richard
                Richard April 10 2021 23: 25
                +2
                in the 80s in every Turkmen teahouse sounded
          2. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master April 10 2021 18: 36
            +5
            Egypt is Salah ad-Din and the Mamluks. But the respected author has already written about them, if my memory serves me ...
            And if you take Napoleon, then, first, you must mention Julius Caesar. But here we will again rest on the question of women.
            There is an opinion of authoritative researchers - historians Fomenko and Nosovsky wassat that Cleopatra is none other than Prophetic Oleg, respectively, Gaius Julius and Mark Antony are actually Roman getters Yulka Gaeva and Tonka Markova ...
            How are we going to deal with this?
            1. Krasnodar
              Krasnodar April 10 2021 22: 29
              +1
              Prophetic Oleg is the brother of Ermak-Cortes, sister of Mary Stuart. And their grandmother had a grandfather - their name was Antonina Markova, Yulka Geeva's roommate from Upper Hyperborea. So here:
              grandmother and grandfather had a hole under their arm
              There they were hiding from the bombing
              This is what the Zionists of the Egyptian people drove to
              Led by Nefertiti, in fact, none other than Golda Meir - the mother of Karl Marx (Yaroslav the Wise)
              1. Sling cutter
                Sling cutter April 10 2021 22: 36
                +5
                Quote: Krasnodar
                Led by Nefertiti, in fact, none other than Golda Meir - the mother of Karl Marx (Yaroslav the Wise)

                It's perfectly normal on Saturday. yes drinks
                1. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar April 10 2021 22: 38
                  +3
                  But who has this main scientific work of life? drinks
                  1. Sling cutter
                    Sling cutter April 10 2021 22: 57
                    +5
                    Quote: Krasnodar
                    But who has this main scientific work of life?

                    What is left here request , you just need to drink to the well-established main work of life wassat drinks We are in awe laughing
  • Doccor18
    Doccor18 April 10 2021 06: 10
    +8
    Thanks to Vyacheslav for the article.
    The history of Ancient Egypt is very interesting.
    While still in school, I managed to read the book by B. Prus "Pharaoh", literally in one breath ...
    1. kalibr
      April 10 2021 06: 41
      +10
      Film, film Polish 1963 see ...
      1. Doccor18
        Doccor18 April 10 2021 06: 51
        +6
        Thanks, I'll take a look.
    2. ANB
      ANB April 10 2021 13: 05
      +3
      Opals of Nefertiti.
      In the school, according to ancient history, only the name of Nefertiti was deposited.
      And from the book I just learned about her husband, Pharaoh Akhenaten. And about trying to create monotheism. Further, there was a fantastic hypothesis that the aborigines of Australia are the Egyptians who fled, led by Nefertiti. And a lot of details about Australia.
  • Richard
    Richard April 10 2021 06: 14
    +9
    From Akhenaten, Nefertiti gave birth to six daughters:
    Meritaton ("Beloved of Aton") (1356 BC). The main wife of Pharaoh Smenkhkara.
    Mockaton ("Held by Aten"): year 1-3 (1349 BC).
    Ankhesenpaaton ("She lives for Aton"; 1345 BC) (later changed her name to Ankhesenamun), married Tutankhamun, later, presumably, became the wife of Ay (See Dahamuntsu).
    Nefernefruaton-tasherit ("The Beautiful Perfection of Aten"): Year 7-10 (1344 BC).
    Nefernefrura ("Perfect perfection of Ra"): year 8-9 (1341 BC).
    Setepenra ("The Chosen Ra"): Year 9-11 (1339 BC).
  • Richard
    Richard April 10 2021 06: 24
    +8
    In the Berlin New Museum there is not only this famous bust of Nefertite, but also no less famous other images of her.
    a photo The head of a young Nefertiti, c. XIV century BC e. Limestone. Height 29 cm. New Museum, Berlin (inv. AE 21220)

    a photo Standing-striding figure of Nefertiti; Limestone; Amarna; New Kingdom, 18th dynasty; c. 1345 BC. Egyptian Museum Berlin, Inv. no. 21263

    They were discovered in Tel el-Amarna during the excavations of the ancient city of Akhetatona, carried out under the auspices of the German Oriental Society by an archaeological expedition led by Ludwig Borchardt. They were located in one of the rooms in the house of the ancient Egyptian sculptor Thutmose along with dozens of other items, including the famous bust of Nefertiti, sculptures depicting Pharaoh Akhenaten and his entourage, etc.
    1. kalibr
      April 10 2021 06: 44
      +6
      There is a very interesting book "Nefertiti lived here" by Mary Chubb about these finds and about the excavations in Amarna in general.
    2. Anton Yu
      Anton Yu April 16 2021 11: 11
      0
      She looked something like this
  • Richard
    Richard April 10 2021 06: 37
    +5

    the most famous find of Ludwig Borchardt during the excavation of the ancient city of Akhetatona
    And here is an expedition shot from December 6, 1912, when she was found.
  • Lynx2000
    Lynx2000 April 10 2021 06: 41
    +4
    what
    Nicknames or titles (as you wish) are given by contemporaries or descendants (Ivan 4 the Terrible, previously also called the Great) to outstanding personalities (rulers), possibly due to merits for the benefit of their homeland.

    Maybe regarding Ancient Egypt, the unifier of the Egyptian lands is worthy of attention, or, as it is believed (if I am not mistaken), the founder of the zero dynasty of the Old Kingdom. Narmer seems.

    Brothers or not, princes Kamos and Ahmose organized the struggle and liberation of Ancient Egypt from the Hyksos, and prevented the invasion of the Nubians.

    Ramses 2 Great A-nakhtu (Winner) is also worthy of attention ...
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka April 10 2021 07: 39
      +9
      Quote: Lynx2000
      Nicknames or titles (as you wish) are given by contemporaries or descendants (Ivan 4 the Terrible, previously also called the Great) to outstanding personalities (rulers), possibly due to merits for the benefit of their homeland.

      In childhood, my soul was "scratched" by the nicknames of the rulers: "Terrible eyes", "Udatny", "Brave" !!! Although it must be admitted that this existed along with "Kartavy", "Blue nose", "Humpbacked", "Crooked", etc. laughing .
      The question is, in principle, debatable, whose "greatness" served the good of the Fatherland more! "Kalita" or "Bogolyubsky", "Long arms" or "Quiet", "Byzantine" or his grandson "Peacemaker" !!! It is debatable, but sometimes you wonder how well the “rogue” was marked by the submissions of their “anointed of God”!
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 April 10 2021 09: 03
        +6
        "Terrible Eyes" - good. With all the short tragic fate.
        1. Trilobite Master
          Trilobite Master April 10 2021 09: 42
          +8
          Formidable eyes are not a unique nickname for the Rurik people. Not to remember offhand which of the princes still had it, but it was definitely met. It seems that one of the Olgovichi wore it, but I could be wrong.
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave April 10 2021 19: 08
            +6
            Michael! hi
            Remember better, which of the princes bore the nickname "acne mug"? For a long time I have been interested in this question, somehow there was no reason to ask, and suddenly it grew together.
            1. Trilobite Master
              Trilobite Master April 10 2021 19: 21
              +4
              I say right away - there is nothing to remember - I don't know. smile I have never heard of such a nickname.
              If there was such a thing, then I suppose one should look for it among the Volyn Izyaslavichs - the rest of the Russian princes wore beards, and with a thick beard, earning such a nickname requires a special talent. smile
              And in Volyn and Galich, the princes have shaved their beards since the days of Roman Mstislavich, it’s easier there - any prince’s mug is available for viewing in full. smile
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave April 10 2021 19: 32
                +5
                Honestly, the information was gleaned from my father, 35 years ago. Father, in his arguments, most likely relied on the "revelations" of the "Technique-youth", of an earlier period ...
                I know what you will say now. "I was extremely young at that heroic time" (C) Me too.
              2. Richard
                Richard April 10 2021 21: 48
                +3
                any princely mug

                - "During the performance, a drunken officer's face appeared in the prompter's booth ... in the sense ... the face of the defender of the fatherland."
                - "Oh-oh-oh, yes you, Bubentsov, turns out to be a carbonarius"
                (C) laughing
            2. Trilobite Master
              Trilobite Master April 10 2021 19: 29
              +6
              Now we quickly googled - I found Prince Semyon Ivanovich Shakhovsky, nicknamed Kharya, but this is already the XNUMXth century, I know this period of history worse.
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave April 10 2021 19: 49
                +5
                I was looking for it too. Not found. Now you can't even ask where he got it from.
                1. bubalik
                  bubalik April 10 2021 20: 17
                  +5
                  Hello everyone! Anton, maybe a quote from there recourse [i] Sergei Nikolaevich Plekhanov. The lost horseman. Roman, 1989 [/ i
                  ,,, - In Ancient Russia, each person had a nickname, then they did not smooth out the truth for the sake of falsely understood decency - they determined a characteristic feature or an obvious sign with the utmost frankness. And no one was offended ... I remember when I was studying at the university, I met in some old chronicles a whole handful of nicknames, one more beautiful than the other. For example: Prince Semyon Zabolotsky Ugrevataya Kharya. ,, (c) what
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave April 10 2021 20: 21
                    +5
                    Maybe so, Sergei. hi
                    1. Undecim
                      Undecim April 11 2021 00: 52
                      +3

                      This is from the book Onomasticon S.B. Veselovsky 1974 edition.
                      The book itself can be downloaded here - https://www.booksite.ru/fulltext/onomastikon/text.pdf
                      1. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave April 11 2021 06: 00
                        +3
                        Thank you, Victor Nikolaevich! I know about this book, but somehow I did not think to turn to it
      2. kalibr
        April 10 2021 19: 54
        +4
        Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
        sometimes you wonder how well the "rogue was tagged"

        Nicholas II. First production of Pineapple!
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka April 10 2021 20: 57
          +4
          Quote: kalibr
          Nicholas II. First production of Pineapple!

          And not figs were pineapples from the palm tree wrapped in manifestos to throw !!! laughing
          1. Richard
            Richard April 10 2021 22: 33
            +3
            As a "curious example" characteristic of Nicholas I, Professor of St. Petersburg University E. I. Zelenev cites the following historical anecdote.
            Daria Fyodorovna Fikelmon, the wife of the Austrian envoy in St. Petersburg Karl Ludwig Fikelmon, at a reception in 1839, naively asked Nicholas I, where did he get such a strange nickname - "Palkin". The emperor, not for a second without hesitation, kindly took her by the arm, explained this in the best traditions of Lieutenant Rzhevsky: - "God, for the joy of all my subjects, awarded me with great dignity."laughing
  • NDR-791
    NDR-791 April 10 2021 06: 41
    +5
    There is an opinion that Akhenaten was odd destroying the old gods, not because he considered himself very great, but because of climate fluctuations. Droughts and cold snaps had to be explained to the people somehow and he scolded for these outrageous old gods for nothing. It takes a long time to paint here and now, there is no point in quoting. Just add to the list of references - Alexander Nikonov "The history of frostbitten in the context of global warming." There are many interesting things there. And about Akhenaten as well.
    Another link direct to the public library: https://booksonline.com.ua/review.php?book=68117
  • Richard
    Richard April 10 2021 06: 53
    +5

    Vyacheslav Olegovich, this is not the Golden Ring of Akhenaten and Nefertiti. Their tombs and mummies have never been found. (The unnamed mummy in Tomb KV1907 discovered by Edward Ayrton in 55 may be Akhenaten, although this assumption is rather controversial)
    The New York Metropolitan Museum of Art positions this exhibit simply as:
    "A ring with the image of King Akhenaten and Queen Nefertiti in the image of the gods Shu and Tefnut".
    per. - A ring with the image of King Akhenaten and Queen Nefertiti in the image of the gods Shu and Tefnut.
    1. kalibr
      April 10 2021 07: 04
      +7
      You are right, of course, but I thought that all this is too complicated: "in the image" Shu, Tefnut ... extra information. We'll have to explain that Shu is the god of air and sunlight, and Tefnut his wife is the goddess of dew ... Somehow they wrote to me about an article about Egypt that there are too many nefer and titi, it is difficult to perceive ...
  • Richard
    Richard April 10 2021 07: 08
    +7
    The idea that Akhenaten was the pioneer of the monotheistic religion that later became Judaism has been considered by various scholars. Sigmund Freud was one of the first to mention this in his book This Man is Moses. Based on his belief that the story of the Exodus was historical, Freud argued that the biblical Moses was the Egyptian priest of Aten, Atenist, who was forced to leave Egypt along with his followers after the death of Akhenaten. Freud argued that Akhenaten sought to promote monotheism. It is generally accepted that there is a strong stylistic similarity between Akhenaten's Great Hymn to Aton and Biblical Psalm 103, although this form of writing was widespread in Ancient Near Eastern hymnology both before and after this period.
    However, it is controversial that the aforementioned pharaoh is an adherent of monotheism. After all, other forms of the solar deity, spirits and demons, originally coexisted with Aton. It is rather genotheism.
    1. kalibr
      April 10 2021 07: 27
      +8
      Quote: Richard
      Sigmund Freud was one of the first to mention this in his book This Man is Moses.

      Now imagine if I inserted this from Wikipedia into an article? Did this serve to reveal the topic? Of course not. I also have the texts of the hymns to Aton, and I could have inserted them ... For beauty! But why? The material is perceived very well - 8000 characters. 14000 is the limit of perception! After 8000 and up to 14000% of perception decreases. And why do I need it? But the fact that you give it is just great. Someone will be very interested.
      1. depressant
        depressant April 10 2021 08: 26
        +5
        Vyacheslav Olegovich, how do you consider the signs? Imagined: a ruler like this, and on it not centimeters, but the number of characters. The numbers are colored. Green, yellow, orange, red. The ruler is vertically applied to the text. As soon as the text reaches the "orange" divisions in length, you immediately say "Oh!", Chop off the end and edit the article. Not serious, huh?)))
        And you are right about the length of the article. The article should be easily swallowed and not painfully chewed to the point of pain in the mental jaws.
        1. Korsar4
          Korsar4 April 10 2021 09: 02
          +8
          I learned to count the signs Word. Spaces are also counted.
          However, you probably remember 40 characters - 000 printed sheet.
          1. depressant
            depressant April 10 2021 09: 45
            +7
            Sergey... )))
            I remember?!? Why on earth! I write comments on the phone, no sign counting, of course, the phone does not. In PM there is an automatic counting, but I use a small number of characters there. For the first time I hear about forty thousand characters on a printed sheet. Unless memory tells me: in the student body, "thousands" were taken for credit, but even then I did not know how many of them were on a newspaper page, it was necessary to translate the given article, and that was all. We were given newspapers.
            1. Korsar4
              Korsar4 April 10 2021 09: 52
              +4
              If it was really necessary, then they counted the number of lines and the number of characters in a line.
              1. depressant
                depressant April 10 2021 11: 09
                +5
                Yes, I now remember with a laugh that sometimes the teacher used to say: "Here's a newspaper for you, choose an article yourself with the required number of characters and translate it!" It was, it was! I counted, marked in the margins, so as not to get lost. But I don’t remember if spaces were counted. If they were, then the approximate number of characters in the article could be calculated very quickly - the average number of characters in a full line multiplied by their number. And then go through the incomplete, there are few of them. But they did not do that.
            2. Aviator_
              Aviator_ April 10 2021 10: 09
              +4
              And the norms of pages per 1 printed sheet (16 pieces), which are used when accounting for printed works, are you really not familiar to you?
        2. kalibr
          April 10 2021 09: 06
          +6
          Signs are very simple to count. Everything is on the computer. You press - REVIEW - and you open the number of pages, and characters with and without spaces, and paragraphs ... For example, a modern novel for printing should have 400.000 characters - 10 author's sheets. One sheet - 40 thousand. That is, of course, I write without a ruler. But ... I keep track of the volume all the time, and if I'm "lucky" I cut all unnecessary things. Although, it happens that because of the captions under the pictures and photos, the text "swells". But this is no longer so critical. And there are sites where you have to give exactly 2000 characters or 1500 ... That's so difficult ...
          1. depressant
            depressant April 10 2021 09: 53
            +5
            Eh, no, Vyacheslav Olegovich, it's difficult - this is when there is no knowledge on the topic, but take out the article and put it down. So I think. And when there is a lot of knowledge, I suppose, a minor difficulty is only in correlating the level of seriousness of the article with the level of ignorance of the reader's circle and bring them to a consensus.
            1. kalibr
              April 10 2021 14: 10
              +5
              Quote: depressant
              So I think.

              You think this is right ...
          2. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave April 10 2021 18: 56
            +3
            And there are sites where you have to give exactly 2000 characters or 1500 ... That's so difficult ...
            It is really difficult to tell the main thing in a telegraphic style. And to intrigue readers.
            Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich!
    2. Operator
      Operator April 10 2021 14: 14
      +1
      The article clearly states that Akhenaten carefully translated the Egyptians from polytheism to monotheism - first he built a temple of Aton of a new type, then made Aton the supreme deity in the pagan pantheon, and only at the end declared Aton the only God (with the subsequent destruction of the temples of the former gods).

      Freud's speculation correlates precisely with the time of Akhenaten's reign and the exodus of the Habiru / Jews from Egypt.

      According to the Old Testament, Moses in infancy was thrown by his family into the Nile and was found in the river reeds by the daughter of the pharaoh, after which he was raised in the family of the pharaoh, became his advisor, was recognized as his biological mother, defended his fellow tribesmen as best he could, and after the death of Akhenaten he returned to habir.

      Moses, who grew up among the Egyptians, did not know the language of his fellow tribesmen well, so his elder brother Aaron, who became a high priest as a result, was his translator.
    3. Anton Yu
      Anton Yu April 16 2021 11: 30
      0
      Akhenaten started a reform and left to build a new capital during his father's lifetime. Since Amenhotep was still alive, Akhenaten was only a co-ruler and could not do it without the approval of the pharaoh. Most likely, the reform was needed to remove some influential priests of Amun, who, in terms of wealth and influence, caught up with the pharaoh's family and decided to put themselves on a par with them. After the defeat of the priesthood and the murder of the most influential, the reform itself, as well as the reformers, turned out to be unnecessary for the country. And there were always many contenders for the throne. IMHO of course.
  • A. Privalov
    A. Privalov April 10 2021 07: 58
    +9
    Greetings, Vyacheslav Olegovich.
    It seems to me that an anachronism has crept into your harmonious narrative.
    ... He stopped sending gold to his vassals in Syria and Palestine, and, naturally, they fell away from him.

    Somewhere, he apparently stopped sending gold, but the names Syria and Palestine will appear a thousand years after his death.
    The term "Palestine" was established by the Romans.
    In 135 A.D. the Romans suppressed a large anti-Roman uprising of the Jews under the leadership of Bar Kokhba. Emperor Hadrian decided to finally deal with the rebellious Judah. Jerusalem was renamed the Greco-Roman city of Aelia Capitolina, and Judea (Eretz Yisrael) was renamed Palestine or Palestinian Syria (Syria Palaestine).


    "Khurri is the Egyptian designation for the lands of Palestine and Syria (from the inscription of Pharaoh Merneptah, 1225-1215 BC).
    Pharaoh Amenhotep II (1448-1420 BC) calls these territories "Rutenu" "(John Gray, 2003).

    In the encyclopedia "Around the World" (2006) it is indicated that the Egyptians called this land Recenu (Rethenu), Puenet (Punt) and Tonetter. hi
    1. dzvero
      dzvero April 10 2021 08: 50
      +6
      "Those times, you can't do that" (c)
      Rutenu -> Ruthenia -> Russia ... Straight find for conspiracy theorists and alternatives smile
      And thanks for the information! In general, comments are a great addition to an interesting article.
      1. Richard
        Richard April 11 2021 03: 19
        +2
        "Those times, you can't do that" (c)
        Rutenu -> Ruthenia -> Russia ... Straight find for conspiracy theorists and alternatives

        There is an opinion that Akhenaten was actually called Anton Kitaytsev (Egyptian - Al Tsina) and before he was elected pharaoh he worked as director of the Sverdlovsk SMU "GlavPyramidStroy". And the name Akhenaten appeared as an incorrect modern interpretation of the translation of clay tablets with the materials of the Politburo of the All-Egyptian Congress of Priests, at which the new pharaoh invited the members of the Politburo to disown the old gods and follow a new democratic path.
        To which the main priest of the god Horus E-Horus answered him - "Eh, Anton, you are not right" wassat
        1. dzvero
          dzvero April 11 2021 20: 04
          +2
          Indeed it was!
          hi smile drinks
    2. kalibr
      April 10 2021 08: 56
      +6
      Well, you know, it's like with a ring that could belong to Akhenaten, or it could not belong ... Everyone knows Syria and Palestine, but writing to Rechen (Recen, Rutena), and Hurri - once again load people to no use! The article is not about the geography of Syria and Palestine in the era of the conquests of Amenhotep and Ramses, but about something completely different. And now someone will write that Amenhotep reads like Amenhotp, Ramses - Rameses, and Smenkhkara at all ... Semenkhkare, or Smenkhra ... And why go deep?
      1. A. Privalov
        A. Privalov April 10 2021 10: 24
        +7
        Without an elementary deepening, Peter I will begin to ascend in Leningrad, and the horrors of the Blockade will go to St. Petersburg.

        In order to "once again not load people to no avail," the Pravda newspaper published in 1938, on the occasion of the 120th anniversary of Karl Marx, the following picture:


        At one time, "Eugene Onegin" was staged on the stage of the Amsterdam Opera. There were shown the Bolsheviks, red stars, and Lensky, who looked like the leader of the world proletariat.
        The famous ball scene opened with folk dances and a parade of athletes. There was even a poster "USSR". hi
        1. Liam
          Liam April 10 2021 10: 35
          +1
          Quote: A. Privalov
          At one time, "Eugene Onegin" was staged on the stage of the Amsterdam Opera. There were shown the Bolsheviks, red stars, and Lensky, who looked like the leader of the world proletariat.
          The famous ball scene opened with folk dances and a parade of athletes. There was even a poster “USSR

          In your desire to "expose" someone's alleged "ignorance" you will flop a little into a puddle ... perhaps because of ignorance in the field of culture in general and opera in particular.

          The intertwining of times and epochs in the new production receives hypertrophied forms only in order to reveal the scale of the consequences of this Russian spiritual determination ... The duration of Eugene Onegin in Herheim covers a period of almost two hundred years - from the 20s. XIX century to our days. We see the royal court, the October coup, and the civil war, during which Onegin is destroying his own poetic illusions in the person of his insulted and devoted double, the idealist Lensky

          Read at your leisure for general development why the director chose such a production and why.

          https://www.operanews.ru/11071001.html
          1. A. Privalov
            A. Privalov April 10 2021 11: 25
            +5
            In your desire to "expose" someone's alleged "ignorance", you yourself found yourself in a puddle.

            For what, how and why Stefan Herheim - a mocker and a provocateur puts his work, I know quite well. I watched his production of "Lulu" by Alban Berg 5-6 years ago in Copenhagen.
            So, leave, my dear, worries about my general development until better times. I would be very grateful to you. hi
            1. Liam
              Liam April 10 2021 11: 34
              +3
              ))) In this case, you are reminiscent of the very numerous figures here who look for grammatical errors like commas, etc. in texts or comments and begin to tediously teach spelling ... and they do it with errors)
              Herheim may be a scoffer and a provocateur .. You also brought his production as an example of ignorance. So do not la la.
              And a request not to react to the nonsense that you sometimes write is rejected ... don't blame me) hi
              1. A. Privalov
                A. Privalov April 10 2021 12: 08
                +3
                Herheim's staging is presented only as an example of anachronisms, in fact, like my remark to the text of Vyacheslav Olegovich. It is a pity that you did not understand this, but began to pester me tediously and teach me just as tediously.
                Of course, I'm a nasty person, but you shouldn't put all the dogs on me.
                Now, allow me to take my leave. The fact is that I ran out of beads, and I got tired of hewing stakes too. So, accept, etc. hi
                1. Liam
                  Liam April 10 2021 12: 20
                  -1
                  Quote: A. Privalov
                  bother me

                  Pestering girls on the sidewalks ...
                  In what context did you write your opus about anachronisms, it is clear to any objective reader. And pitiful babbling about beads and cola is just that pathetic babbling. ... Ignorance in some areas is inherent in any normal person. Do not be offended, there will not be enough nerves. hi
        2. kalibr
          April 10 2021 14: 12
          +5
          Quote: A. Privalov
          Peter I will begin to ascend in Leningrad, and the horrors of the Blockade will go to St. Petersburg.

          There are certain boundaries in everything. This is a matter of general and historical culture. No more. The events of the Ancient World can take place in Syria and Palestine. Peter the Great cannot rule in Leningrad. That's all.
          1. A. Privalov
            A. Privalov April 10 2021 14: 52
            +3
            Quote: kalibr
            The events of the Ancient World can take place in Syria and Palestine.


            That's right!
            They took place there (on the topic of your article) 1000 years before these places began to be called Syria and Palestine.
            In exactly the same way, Peter the Great ruled in the place that will be called Leningrad after about 220 years. (True, not very long by historical standards. Only 67 years old.)

            As for "questions of general and historical culture", this is a separate large topic for sad reflections ...


        3. Liam
          Liam April 10 2021 14: 31
          +2
          Quote: A. Privalov
          In order to "once again not load people to no avail," the Pravda newspaper published in 1938, on the occasion of the 120th anniversary of Karl Marx, the following picture:

          Before being clever and accusing someone of anachronisms, it would be nice to make sure yourself what you write ... otherwise it will turn out funny at least ...


          This is a photo from the alleged Pravda newspaper in 1938 - a caricature of Yugoslavian (Bosnian origin) writer, artist and cartoonist Zuko Џumhur from 1951. First published in German Stern.
          .

          Likovni Simbol јDne Epoh


          A caricature of a koјa јe vizelni symbol of a scattering of the Titov regime by sa Stagin and Informbiroom naslikao јe right - Zuko umhur It was added in 1951. at Kizhevnim Novinam ”, and onda јu је pre-knot„ Politics ”, together with e and ауте and„ embarrassing propisao ”on the pages of our sheet.

          In the caricature, Karl Marx is at the table, and the worn out by him for the zidu is the uramљena slick Stagin. Ova lucidni order to the ideoloshka inversion beat је right caricature is folded out of the "nail veil" kјu јe add some trap leaf (German women "Stern"), and uvrstena је and at the brone anthology. In Kusturichin's film "Otats on a Service Putu", more than a kada, the main face of Mehmed Mesha (tumachi ha Miki Manoјloviћ) has a commentary to Zukin a caricature of the speech "E val ha preћerashe"
          .
          http://www.politika.rs/scc/clanak/467781/Hodoljublja-Politikinog-covekoljupca-Zuke-Dzumhura

          ))) In this case, you are reminiscent of the very numerous figures here who look for grammatical errors like commas, etc. in texts or comments and begin to tediously teach spelling ... and they do it with errors)


          You can be offended again) hi
        4. Korsar4
          Korsar4 April 10 2021 15: 25
          +7
          And now in the Bolshoi Theater Sadko is running around the stage in jeans and a T-shirt. What is it like?
  • depressant
    depressant April 10 2021 08: 53
    +4
    ... That is, under him, the state should grow in territories, or at least not lose them. And the population of the country should increase, not decrease.

    He had to take care of the welfare of his subjects, that is, the people with him should not starve, but be able to work and receive for their work a remuneration befitting time and traditions. That is, during his reign, the productive forces of their society should develop.

    You are burning, Vyacheslav Olegovich! good ))))
    1. kalibr
      April 10 2021 09: 09
      +5
      Quote: depressant
      You are burning, Vyacheslav Olegovich!

      And what, isn't it right? By the way, I thought about these definitions for half a year ... even in the summer I conceived this series and began to select material.
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master April 10 2021 10: 12
        +8
        About the criteria of greatness, one can argue up to the seventh roosters. smile
        And the first question I would ask would be what kind of greatness are we interested in? Greatness for contemporaries or for posterity? What is more important to be loved by your subjects during your reign or appreciated by your descendants centuries after your death?
        The second question is a matter of luck. Is this criterion taken into account when determining greatness? For example, there was a talented ruler with all the inclinations to become great, and a series of crop failures or some kind of pestilence.
        Ivan III the Great collected the land and freed himself from the Horde in such a period of history, when the lands themselves, like droplets of mercury, were drawn to each other, and the Horde itself was falling apart, that is, the case itself was like a sleigh rolled down a hill. Lucky. But Mstislav Vladimirovich, also the Great, was forced to roll these sledges, on the contrary, uphill, that is, he collected and kept the decaying lands. He was not lucky. smile
        The third question: what about those historical figures who were considered "great" yesterday, but not today, and vice versa?
        And the last question: is "great" an absolute category or a relative one? Is it possible to be "a little great" or "very great", more or less great, or great can only be "to be or not to be", that is, either you are great or not.
        This does not mean that I am going to dispute the "greatness" of the characters chosen by the author, just like that, reflections on the topic ...
        1. kalibr
          April 10 2021 10: 17
          +5
          Quote: Trilobite Master
          And the last question: is "great" an absolute category or a relative one? Is it possible to be "a little great" or "very great", more or less great, or great can only be "to be or not to be", that is, either you are great or not.

          Ha ha! When I was preparing the materials for the cycle, I made a list of the great ... It turned out to be ... well, very great. The slightly great and the very great were interspersed. I threw out first those who were "a little", then the dukes - they were also great ... in a word, threw out a lot. And yes, many deserve it, but ... did not become great ... But there will be about them!
      2. depressant
        depressant April 10 2021 10: 17
        +4
        He had to take care of the welfare of his subjects, that is, the people with him should not starve, but be able to work and receive for their work a remuneration befitting time and traditions. That is, during his reign, the productive forces of their society should develop.

        Of course, he should also encourage science, arts and crafts.
        Be a wise legislator and rule fairly.
        In carrying out reforms, he must rely on the opinion of the people in order to achieve support for these reforms in his opinion.
        Have worthy companions who support him and give wise advice.


        Vyacheslav Olegovich, you are a Jacobin! )))
        good drinks wassat
        1. Richard
          Richard April 10 2021 14: 00
          +5
          Yes, madam, I, God forgive me, am not some kind of Jacobin to call you down the aisle. I just just want to make you my intimate friend (s) laughing
        2. kalibr
          April 10 2021 14: 15
          +6
          Oh! Oh my God! he's carbonari!
          Chatsky
          No, the light is not like that today.
          FAMUSOV
          Dangerous man!
          1. depressant
            depressant April 10 2021 14: 36
            +5
            At first, everyone went to see him;
            But since from the back porch
            Usually served
            Him a Don stallion,
            Only along the main road
            Their home friends will hear, -
            Offended by such an act,
            All friendships ended with him.
            "Our neighbor is ignorant; he is mad;
            He is Freemason; he drinks one
            A glass of red wine;
            He does not fit the ladies;
            All yes and no; won't say yes
            Or no, sir. That was the general voice. "
            Pushkin, "Eugene Onegin"
          2. The comment was deleted.
  • Korsar4
    Korsar4 April 10 2021 09: 00
    +4
    It's funny. Just yesterday, without saying a word, I recalled Charlemagne and Albert the Great aloud.

    Obviously, one of the signs of greatness is a large number of children.
    Church hierarchs are not counted.

    And who else will say a kind word about parents for history.
    1. kalibr
      April 10 2021 09: 10
      +5
      Quote: Korsar4
      Obviously, one of the signs of greatness is a large number of children.

      That's exactly what the next article is about. Can I take these words of yours as an epigraph?
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 April 10 2021 09: 29
        +4
        Конечно.
        It is quite a sign - the success of an individual in nature.
        However, their survival is also important.
        1. depressant
          depressant April 10 2021 10: 26
          +7
          And you, Sergei, are absolutely right. More than once or twice I have come across the statements of biologists that the priority in the survival of species belongs to those who have a high reproduction rate, the offspring of one litter are numerous and, as a result, the highest degree of adaptability to unfavorable environmental factors. Therefore, it is believed that in the event of any astronomical cataclysm or atomic bombing, only cockroaches will survive from the ground)))
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 April 10 2021 10: 29
            +6
            This is an r-strategy. And then there is the k-strategy - with a high survival rate.
            Although, of course, this theory is not universal.
          2. Sling cutter
            Sling cutter April 10 2021 10: 32
            +8
            Quote: depressant
            Therefore, it is believed that in the event of any astronomical cataclysm or atomic bombing, only cockroaches will survive from the ground)))

            It is believed that the rats will survive. hi
            1. dzvero
              dzvero April 10 2021 13: 35
              +3
              Those who can eat cockroaches and reproduce at the same time will survive smile
              1. Richard
                Richard April 10 2021 14: 10
                +5
                Rats and those who will eat cockroaches will also eat
                1. Sling cutter
                  Sling cutter April 10 2021 17: 23
                  +8
                  Quote: dzvero
                  Those who can eat cockroaches and reproduce at the same time will survive

                  Quote: Richard
                  Rats and those who will eat cockroaches will also eat

                  Chinese? belay
                  1. dzvero
                    dzvero April 10 2021 17: 33
                    +4
                    Chinese?

                    They've already learned Zen smile They eat everything that moves, and what does not - kick and eat ...
    2. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave April 10 2021 18: 39
      +4
      Hmm? Alexander the Great would not agree ...
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 April 10 2021 21: 42
        +2
        The empire has not survived. Philip did his best in the field of childbirth. And he is also remembered.
  • Senior seaman
    Senior seaman April 10 2021 09: 30
    +6
    And the most interesting thing is that he carried out his reform extremely consistently and correctly, from the point of view of modern PR technologies, so it would be nice to learn from him for modern reformers.

    In the voice of the poet Soyev from "Pokrovskie gates": - he finished badly!
    P.S. As for me, Cyrus was really great in the ancient world. Although he didn't end well either, the power he created outlived its creator.
    1. kalibr
      April 10 2021 10: 20
      +4
      Quote: Senior Sailor
      really great in the ancient world was Cyrus.

      Exactly. And, of course, there will be a very detailed article about him. But he finished, yes, in the form of a severed head in a sack of blood. Horror!
    2. Hantengri
      Hantengri April 10 2021 12: 56
      +6
      Quote: Senior Sailor
      And the most interesting thing is that he carried out his reform extremely consistently and correctly, from the point of view of modern PR technologies, so it would be nice to learn from him for modern reformers.

      In the voice of the poet Soyev from "Pokrovskie gates": - he finished badly!

      I believe that the most effective part of this successful PR company was the creative advertising activities, under the slogan: "You still don't love Aton? Then we are coming to you!":
      By the ninth or tenth years of his reign, Akhenaten began persecuting the servants and the god of the outcast capital himself, Amun, whose name was forbidden, the temples were closed, and the priests were most likely killed and expelled. Around the twelfth year, Akhenaten's hatred of other gods reached the point that he banned the cults of all other gods, closed their temples, and dispersed the priests. The names of the old gods and even their statues were destroyed everywhere. The word "god" itself was now banned, and Aton was not called a god either, but, like Pharaoh, was called a ruler. According to the information that has come down to us, even if it is very vague, all those who disobeyed the will of the pharaoh were executed, and their bodies were to be burned, which was especially scary for the faithful Egyptians because it deprived them of their hope for eternal life.

      And if PR managers approached the matter with all their hearts and "put the squeeze" on the target audience, and did not cut the budget, as usual, then Akhenaten would have finished much better. laughing
      1. kalibr
        April 10 2021 14: 21
        +6
        Quote: HanTengri
        And if PR managers approached the matter with all their hearts and "put the squeeze" on the target audience, and did not cut the budget, as usual, then Akhenaten would have finished much better.

        In Elizabeth Hering's novel "The Sculptor of the Pharaoh" this is just described. Who did Akhenaten lean on? For temporary workers! Devotees, but stupid. Those in a hurry to fill their pockets ... Therefore, at the slightest slack, in particular, the death of the lord, everything collapsed. A bad system is sharpened for one ruler and relies on temporary workers!
        1. Hantengri
          Hantengri April 10 2021 23: 44
          +3
          Quote: kalibr
          A bad system is sharpened for one ruler and relies on temporary workers!

          Vyacheslav Olegovich, in this case, Akhenaten's "revolution" is not yet an independent system, it is a temporary bug, a "virus" that has emerged in a well-oiled, stable system of a higher level. And, as a result of Akhenaten's "experiment", it turned out that it possesses excellent durability.
          No, of course, the idea to gradually lead Egypt out of polytheism, through monolatry to monotheism was undoubtedly bold and progressive and even great, but the timing of implementation ... Trying to run the path that takes several centuries in 20 years is a maneuver on the verge of genius and debilism.
  • Denimax
    Denimax April 10 2021 12: 25
    +3
    Could be called great and simply because of growth, what is not an option ?! Peter the first is also the Great, but not small in stature either. IMHO
    1. Astra wild2
      Astra wild2 April 10 2021 21: 37
      +2
      Probably, Vyacheslav Olegovich will not be on the list: Ivan the Terrible, Soviet leaders, Fidel Castro, General Peron and some other leaders
  • Undecim
    Undecim April 10 2021 12: 47
    +6
    Today we are starting the publication of materials dedicated to ... great rulers: both those who were awarded the nickname "Great" by the people, and those who were really great, but ... for some reason did not become such in history, although they seemed to deserve it. But before talking about these people, let's establish the criteria by which this or that ruler could, in principle, become great. That is to say, the scale on which a given person could be considered as such.
    It seems to me a super task to formulate such universal criteria that would be equally objective both in the pre-axial and in the axial time. In any case, no one has succeeded so far.
    The individual is a sacralized personality (Great) insofar as he occupies a key place in the system of vital relationships of contemporary people and their moral attitudes.
    That is, our assessment will be a pure subjective anachronism if we use modern criteria both in the field of relationships and in the field of moral attitudes.
    To penetrate into the way of thinking of representatives of past times seems difficult to me.
    In view of this, I propose not to re-evaluate the values ​​and not to expand the list of the "Greats".
    1. kalibr
      April 10 2021 14: 22
      +5
      Well, you have to be guided by some criteria ...
      1. The comment was deleted.
    2. vladcub
      vladcub April 10 2021 18: 43
      +5
      Victor Nikolaevich, good evening. In my opinion, V.O. is intent: "Not to rub the greats", but rather to reduce: "only about the greatest of the greats"
      1. Undecim
        Undecim April 10 2021 19: 03
        +2
        rub

        In what sense is "rubbing"?
        1. Astra wild2
          Astra wild2 April 10 2021 21: 31
          +1
          Judging by the fact that Vladkub froze and did not return to explain. Two options: ran away on a date.: "Love of all ages is submissive" or he tasted thoroughly.
          1. Undecim
            Undecim April 10 2021 21: 52
            +2
            His text often contains "foreign inclusions".
            1. vladcub
              vladcub April 11 2021 05: 55
              +5
              Alas, I am far from perfect.
            2. Astra wild2
              Astra wild2 April 11 2021 08: 26
              +1
              He is probably in a hurry and does not check the autocorrector. It happened so often with me: I type one, and the machine gives out a similar word and if I don't check it, a mistake will come out
        2. vladcub
          vladcub April 11 2021 05: 58
          +4
          You should read: "expand". We got a proofreader error
  • Operator
    Operator April 10 2021 13: 47
    -1
    Akhenaten's most valuable civilizational legacy is the world's first monotheistic religion.

    It was during his reign in Egypt in the family of Middle Eastern migrants habiru (future Jews) Moses was born (raised from childhood in the family of a pharaoh), who spread the idea of ​​monotheism among his fellow tribesmen and brought them out of Egypt after the death of Akhenaten.

    True, in order to get the idea of ​​monotheism into the minds of the pagans habiru, Moses had to drive them half-starved for 40 months in the Sinai desert, but the result was worth it laughing
    1. kalibr
      April 10 2021 14: 23
      +3
      Quote: Operator
      Akhenaten's most valuable civilizational legacy is the world's first monotheistic religion

      That's it!
      1. Liam
        Liam April 10 2021 17: 16
        +2
        Quote: kalibr
        Quote: Operator
        Akhenaten's most valuable civilizational legacy is the world's first monotheistic religion

        That's it!

        This is by no means monotheism, but, according to Max Müller's classification, a typical genotism (enotism) from Latin henotheismus.
        a state of religious consciousness in which one of the supreme and most powerful god is worshiped or singled out from the pantheon of numerous gods or deities.

        Genotheism differs from monotheism, monotheism (μονος "only") in that the selection of one most powerful god does not exclude the veneration and worship of other gods from the existing pantheon. The religious-philosophical fusion of all gods in one definite one, which we find, for example, in the later Orphic hymns to Zeus, should not be confused with henotheism. Genotheism occupies an intermediate position between polytheism and monotheism. It precedes polytheism and monotheism in stages and contains tendencies towards evolution either towards the first or towards the second.

        Along with the concept of "henotheism" in religious studies, the concept of "monolatry" is used - serving one supreme god while the worship of any other gods is prohibited
        1. kalibr
          April 10 2021 19: 48
          +3
          Other gods in Egypt were forbidden however ... The name of Amun was scraped off, like others ...
          1. Liam
            Liam April 10 2021 20: 07
            +1
            Quote: kalibr
            Other gods in Egypt were forbidden however

            No, for example Pharaoh "left" the gods
            Shu and Tefnut (Gods of Ancient Egypt: Shu, su ancientegyptonline.co.uk)
            Quote: kalibr
            Amun's name scraped off

            Replaced one main god with another.
    2. Richard
      Richard April 10 2021 15: 36
      +3
      To get the idea of ​​monotheism in the minds of the pagans habir, Moses had to drive them half-starved in the Sinai desert for 40 months

      Quite a bold interpretation of the Old Testament. There, EMNIP, the tour time is indicated a little longer
      1. Operator
        Operator April 10 2021 15: 41
        +3
        The modern Hebrew word for year, and the Hebrew word for the year 1300 BC. denoted the lunar month (28 days).

        This incident also gives rise to the implausible longevity of the Old Testament patriarchs of the Habiru / Jews.

        A common thing for the development of languages, for example - synonyms "freak" in Polish and "beauty" in Russian, "mouth" (the beginning of the river, from the mouth) to the 17th century and "mouth" (the confluence of the river into another body of water) from the 17th century In russian language.
        1. Richard
          Richard April 10 2021 15: 53
          +3
          I give up request Not strong in Hebrew
          1. Operator
            Operator April 10 2021 16: 52
            +2
            The month / year aberration in Hebrew occurred during the spread of writing among the Jews 500 years after the exodus from Egypt. Prior to this, the religious elite used the writing of other languages. In particular, the stone tablets of the Covenant were most likely carved in Egyptian hieroglyphs.

            But after the conquest of the Promised Land, in the process of recording previous oral traditions in their native language, something went wrong laughing
  • Nestor Vlakhovski
    Nestor Vlakhovski April 10 2021 15: 59
    +2
    The measure of "greatness" is exclusively subjective, and depends both on the value ideas of an individual person and on the cultural environment. The author judges from the modern point of view, although traditionally the interests of the people were not taken into account at all.
    How not to remember the "good emperors" of Rome.
    1. vladcub
      vladcub April 10 2021 18: 23
      +5
      Nestor, I agree with you: "the measure of" greatness "is exclusively subjective, and if so V. Oh, it can be biased.
      Therefore, in the future, perhaps, I will argue with him.
      1. kalibr
        April 10 2021 19: 45
        +3
        Quote: vladcub
        if so V. Oh, it can be biased.

        Nothing great is accomplished without passion! (C) Georg Hegel (1770-1831)
        1. vladcub
          vladcub April 11 2021 05: 50
          +3
          Against Hegel I pass
      2. Astra wild2
        Astra wild2 April 10 2021 21: 23
        +3
        "I will swear with him." Vyacheslav Olegovich swearing will not work: the immunity has been worked out.
    2. kalibr
      April 10 2021 19: 40
      +2
      Quote: Nestor Vlahovski
      The author judges from a modern point of view,

      How should I judge? I did not live with the pharaohs.
      1. Astra wild2
        Astra wild2 April 10 2021 21: 20
        +2
        Witty said
      2. Nestor Vlakhovski
        Nestor Vlakhovski April 11 2021 00: 35
        0
        But there is evidence of what their contemporaries thought more of the “greats”. And this point of view, at least, should be mentioned, if only as a reminder of the plasticity of human thinking.
        1. kalibr
          April 11 2021 05: 46
          +2
          Quote: Nestor Vlahovski
          But there is evidence of what their contemporaries thought more of the “greats”. And this point of view, at least, should be mentioned, if only as a reminder of the plasticity of human thinking.

          Do you have such information about Akhenaten? I do not have ... Although there is this: "The criminal from Akhetaton", this is the testimony that has come down to us! But I gave him. Do you know more? Share ...
  • vladcub
    vladcub April 10 2021 18: 13
    +4
    "he stopped sending gold to his vassals in Syria and Palistina" ie he stopped supporting mercenaries and they turned their backs to him: "no money, no Swiss" (c).
    As they say with such: "friends" and enemies are not necessary
  • Alexander Betonkin
    Alexander Betonkin April 10 2021 18: 18
    +1
    In many images, the pharaohs are depicted with attached beards. An interesting point - neither facial hair (beard, mustache), hair on the head (if any, it looks more like wigs) in other people on sculptures and images is virtually absent. It turns out either the religion was like that or the previous rulers had beards and then they died out (or they were destroyed).
    1. kalibr
      April 10 2021 19: 44
      +3
      Quote: Alexander Betonkin
      former rulers had beards

      What is not, attracts to that! Do you know how the Polynesians seduced their men? After all, they appeared before them very little covered. For example, Cook described a Polynesian woman with a shell in front on a string and that's it ... Everything else is in plain sight. And how to seduce? Seduced ... with a neck, usually covered with thick hair!
      1. Alexander Betonkin
        Alexander Betonkin April 10 2021 20: 47
        +2
        Still, there are many inconsistencies in history. Last summer the "permafrost" began to melt and a boat with forged nails appeared. It is on the river bank near Naryan-Mar. And the boat is not small - ten meters. So it turns out - either the "permafrost" was not so long ago, or people lived with mammoths. https://zen.yandex.ru/media/sibved24/na-severe-pod-sloiami-vechnoi-merzloty-naiden-drevnii-korabl-60367535084cc34524a3c8a7
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 April 10 2021 21: 18
    +1
    Colleagues, good evening
    From 8,40 I was going to read it, but ... On weekends I have to: wash, iron, clean, go shopping. 2,5-3 hours for unexpected guests. I am enraged by these: like on business, but in fact out of boredom. Kicking out seems to be not polite, but counting the minutes when it leaves ?!
    After the vaccine, NONE of the acquaintances who knew about the vaccination did not come in for 8 days! Even my "baby" just called: I want to drop by, but urgent matters. But now: he runs 2-3 times a week. Fight off the parasite! This is what he did to himself at the end of March.
    Hopefully tomorrow, if Valery or Vyacheslav Olegovich is there, I have more time
  • Mike_E
    Mike_E April 10 2021 23: 24
    +3
    It is strange that in the parameters of "greatness" there is no murder. History knows many similar Great Ones. And without a combination with the listed advantages, including. And in our history, by the way, a couple can be traced.
    1. kalibr
      April 11 2021 05: 48
      +2
      Quote: Mike_E
      It is strange that in the parameters of "greatness" there is no murder.

      I proceed from the fact that it is contrary to human nature ... And if there are people who have noted on this path, this will be discussed separately.
  • Barmal
    Barmal April 11 2021 00: 31
    0
    Pharaoh Akhenaten. Was he like that, or is this image of him a tribute to the new Amarnaian art? Alas, today we don't even know for sure ...
    "Some are born great, others achieve greatness, to the third it descends", - wrote about the greatness of William Shakespeare in his immortal comedy "Twelfth Night".




    Dodgy schimans have done a lot for the development of world tourism and filling private and public collections with remakes, providing work for historians and archaeologists, and at the same time earning good money on their "excavations" on expeditions around the world.
    1. kalibr
      April 11 2021 05: 53
      +2
      Quote: Barmal
      Dodgy schimans have done a lot for the development of world tourism and filling private and public collections with remakes, providing work for historians and archaeologists, and at the same time earning good money on their "excavations" on expeditions around the world.

      Can you imagine the scope of work? "Much that ..." LABOR VOLUMES THE STATE OF THEIR GDP FOR LONG YEARS - that's how much was spent on "fakes". And no one let it slip, everyone supports the deception? It doesn't work that way. Nobody will make pots, beat them and bury them all over the world. 90% of finds are NOT INTERESTING TO TOURISTS. So tie up with conspiracy theories. And fakes fail 100%. Modern methods of research allow us to say where the material came from, where and when it was taken, processed ... in a word, alas, but the days of forgers are long gone
      1. deddem
        deddem April 11 2021 19: 09
        0
        +100
        Moreover, by the way, some fakes are quoted not much lower than the originals - for example, the Milanese jewelry of the 1910th century "under Etruria", due to the repeated loss of the gold grain technology in the XNUMXs.
      2. Barmal
        Barmal April 11 2021 21: 03
        0
        yes, times have allowed traces of coca to be found in ancient Egyptian mummies. What is it like? But, in general, the history of the ancient world has many oddities, for example:
        I have Diogenes Laertsky on my table, a pocket edition of the ABC of the classic, 2020, St. that's interesting, how many thousand bovine skins it is necessary to produce one such book and how much space it will take.
        taken here https://lengvizdika.livejournal.com/?skip=10

        I do not want to offend anyone with my statements. But in fact, all the ancient Greek authors came to us not in the original, but as a retelling or copies, translations. The 19th century was the century of the rise of literature and art, not just steam and iron.
        1. kalibr
          April 11 2021 21: 08
          +1
          Quote: Barmal
          But in fact, all the ancient Greek authors came to us not in the original, but as a retelling or copies, translations.

          But they began to print them, as they find, not in the 19th, but in the 15-16th centuries. that's why this time is called the Renaissance. You also say that "Luttrell's Bible" was written in the 19th century, or Bayesian canvas was embroidered ... Although, yes, four Englishwomen embroidered it. A copy of the guy with the quirks wearing blue underpants! There is a "carpet museum" in Bayeux, but there is also in England!
        2. kalibr
          April 11 2021 21: 13
          +2
          Quote: Barmal
          yes, times have allowed traces of coca to be found in ancient Egyptian mummies. What is it like?

          And the British aristocrats indulged in this almost without exception. And for a long time. And the fashion to travel to Egypt arose long ago, from the time of Champolion ... During this time, it was possible to sneeze on the mummy with everything possible. And for the future, live journals are not a source. It's like wiping your hands instead of wet wipes with toilet paper used for its intended purpose. And by the way - in which particular mummy, and when, and by whom were the traces of coca found? Which university or laboratory confirmed this?
          By the way, I read the "shit". There are, of course, no links, but there is a "superethnos of the Rus" (this is Samsonov, he is here with us on this topic, he is cooler), but emotions are overflowing. Once again I was convinced - not a source!
          1. Barmal
            Barmal April 11 2021 21: 37
            0
            https://paranormal--news-ru.turbopages.org/paranormal-news.ru/h/news/zagadka_sledov_nikotina_i_kokaina_v_drevnikh_mumijakh/2018-04-10-14553

            Without much effort in a search engine for "traces of coca in ancient Egyptian mummies." And not in the form of drops on the "bandages", but under a layer of resin. But the history textbook cannot explain this.
            1. kalibr
              April 12 2021 17: 05
              +1
              Quote: Barmal
              But the history textbook cannot explain it.

              And the textbook is not intended for this. Let's insert into it how Seth filled Osiris' salad with his sperm so that he could taste it and ... lose the right to the throne, or ... examples of darkness. Are they all in the tutorial so he can explain? And I read the article and did not find anything criminal or overturning the story. We swam far - it is known, but where exactly and what they brought - God knows!
  • Mike_E
    Mike_E April 11 2021 13: 19
    0
    Quote: kalibr
    Quote: Mike_E
    It is strange that in the parameters of "greatness" there is no murder.

    I proceed from the fact that it is contrary to human nature ... And if there are people who have noted on this path, this will be discussed separately.

    This is precisely the true human essence. Everything else is superficial civilizational.