Military Review

Monuments of the XNUMXth century in Estonia

54

Monument from the Livonian War


In total, on the territory of modern Estonia there is only one monument erected during the Livonian War on the site of the battle.


The modern look of the cross. Photo by the author

It is located in Tallinn on the corner of Tondi and Marta streets in a small square. And it's pretty hard to find.

This is a three-meter stone cross, erected in memory of Blasius Hochgreve, one of the richest merchants of Reval, who died on September 11, 1560 in the battle of the Revel militia on the Jerusalem hill near Reval.


Information stand. Photo by the author

Another monument, erected in 1590, is located next to the Tallinn-Narva highway, called the Kõrkküla kivirist. It is about 135 km from Tallinn. But this is a different war.

But it is interesting that both of these monuments are made in the form of a Maltese cross.

Sources about the battle on the Jerusalem hill: Denkelbuch or "protocol book of the brotherhood", "Chronicles of the province of Livonia" Balthazar Russov, Pskov chronicle. These are the main sources.

All sources describe the battle in different ways.

The book of the Brotherhood of Blackheads gives victory to the Revels, and the Livonian Chronicles and the Pskov Chronicle unequivocally assert that the victory was for the Russian troops.

What happened on September 11, 1560?

After the capture of the fortress-castle Fellin (Viljandi) on August 30, 1560, a regiment headed by boyar Ivan Yakovlev and Prince Grigory Meshchersky was sent to Revel with a proposal to surrender the city.

The regiment consisted of 11 hundred horsemen, which is about 1500 people.

Most likely, Russian troops arrived in the Reval area the previous day and camped a couple of kilometers from the city walls.

The rebels decided to use the factor of surprise: to attack the camp early in the morning.

Having gone 3/4 of the way the advance guard of the advancing, and these were mainly members of the Brotherhood of Blackheads, came across a guard detachment. And a fight ensued. The forces were not equal, but soon help arrived from the camp. And the attack was repulsed. Seeing full of excellent Russians, the people of Revel hurried to the outside of the city walls. Their main forces did not even have time to take part in the battle.

Why do I write "Reveltsy"? But because representatives of all urban classes and the garrison of the city took part in this adventurous outing.

This is described in an interesting way by Baltazar Russov:

“With the same detachment, the Muscovite, returning from Vic, appeared before Revel and camped first in the Garksky yard, one and a half miles from the city. Then the Revels, and noblemen, and non-noblemen, members of the magistrate, burghers, gesels, landsknechts and commoners on horseback and on foot early in the morning made a sortie from the city and took with them two field guns in the hope of catching the enemy by surprise. After about three-quarters of the way, they stumbled upon a detachment who was supposed to drive the cattle they had killed; they killed many of this detachment, took away from them all the spoils taken in Vic, which amounted to several thousand cattle and several prisoners, and ordered them to drive them to the city. But then the other Russians in the camp soon recovered, rushed at the Revelites and fought with them. But the Revels, by the number of Russians, had to retreat, hoping to get reinforcements from the Landsknechts and infantrymen who were left behind. But the landsknechts and infantrymen, seeing that the nobles were running, also ran into the bushes and swamps, wherever anyone could climb, and threw the cannons, which the Russians took along with the magistrate horses that were carrying them (after the battle) ... Then the Russians picked up their dead, drove them to neighboring villages and burned the villages along with the bodies and went to Wittenstein to another detachment. It happened in 1560, on September 11th. "

According to all sources, a different number of the enemy's deaths was noted, the numbers are clearly overestimated at times, but, most likely, the number of their losses is indicated correctly. And therefore, it is quite easy to establish true losses.

On the part of the Revelites, about 60 people died, including 11 brothers of the Brotherhood of Blackheads. Russian losses: 15 "children of the boyars" and if you add their servants who died with them, you get no more than 50 people.

I separately indicated the dead brothers, since they installed three crosses on the battlefield. One cross has survived.

Interestingly, one of the dead brothers, Master Hans, was an eye doctor.

The brothers also ordered an epitaph painting, which is now located in the Kiek in de Kök tower.

Monuments of the XNUMXth century in Estonia
Epitaph painting

For some reason, the painting depicts only 10 dead brothers (where else were they going?). The painting is made in the form of an icon. In the upper left corner is the very first image of Tallinn, in the right - the battle itself. In the foreground are the dead, above them is their list of names, in the center under the cross is a scroll depicting the head of St. Maurice, the patron saint of the brotherhood.

Why did I turn to this minor episode of the Livonian War? Unfortunately, today we have few monuments of those events. And here you can literally touch stories.

Memorial cross to the boyar


We all know about the famous fugitive from the tyranny of Tsar Ivan IV, Prince Kurbsky, thanks to their epistolary "novel". But quite a few nobles fled with their families abroad from the domestic policy pursued by Tsar Ivan Vasilyevich. How to relate to this phenomenon? Probably everyone decides for himself. We know many worthy personalities who, of their own free will, went over to serve the Russian tsars.

A well-known practice: if during the wars a prisoner swore an oath of loyalty to the tsar, then he was left in the army, but was sent to serve in different regions of Russia, using the principle of extraterritoriality. If you are captured in the north-west - if you please serve in the south-east. What made people go into the service of an enemy or a former enemy? The question is not easy and in each case the answer may be different, but there are certain general factors.

After the end of the Livonian War, the Swedes drove the troops of Ivan Vasilyevich out of Livonia, but not all Russians left these lands. In 1584, the nobles Nasakins, Baranovs, Golovachevs, Roslandins, Romanovs, Putilovs appeared in the Swedish service. Some did not want to part with the lands on which they had already taken root. Others were afraid to return because of the death penalty for surrendered fortresses and lost battles. Someone fled from the oprichnina. For naming the Russian noblemen in the Swedish service, the word “bayor” was invented, most likely derived from the Russian word - boyar, which Western sources called all Russians.

The monument, about which the story will go, was installed just to the former Russian nobleman who fought on the side of the Swedes, Vasily Rozlandin.


Photo of the Kirkküla cross. Photo of the author

If you enter “Kõrkküla kivirist” into the Google maps search engine, you will see the place where this monument was erected. It is known that in June 1582, three Rozladin brothers (Peter, Fyodor and Vasily) came to Narva from Russia and entered the Swedish service.

Why the Rozladins left Russia, history is silent. Historian S. B. Veselovsky believes that Peter Rozladin could have been a cousin of the voivode Vasily Vasilyevich Rozladin-Kvashnin, a participant in the Livonian War. Like many other Russian nobles, he was executed by order of Ivan the Terrible in the period from 1570-1573. It is known that the entire Rozladin family fell into disgrace. Perhaps this was the reason for the flight of the brothers to the Swedes. At first, the Swedes paid the Russians for the service, and then, starting in 1584, they began to complain of lands. All this remained in the documents. At first, they were given land on the islands, mainly in Hiiumaa, they use the principle of extraterritoriality, that is, away from the Russian border, but then they began to receive land throughout Estonia, Sweden, Finland.

By order of Boris Godunov, the Russian-Swedish war began in 1590. After the capture of the fortress of Yam, Russian troops at the end of January appeared at the walls of Ivangorod. Narva and Ivangorod were defended by a Swedish garrison of about 1600 people under the command of Karl Horn. In addition, a field army of up to 5000 Swedes was stationed near Narva, commanded by Goran Boye. The Rozladin brothers were supposed to be in this compound. Having learned about the numerical superiority of the enemy, Boye left a small barrier in front of Narva, and he himself withdrew with the main forces to the Weisenberg area.

The regiment under the command of Prince Dmitry Khvorostin destroyed the Swedish barrier near Narva and headed deep into Estonia. On February 4, 1590, Goran Boye receives information that a Russian detachment of about 10000 people is moving in his direction. Boye comes forward. In the area of ​​the village of Kirkküla, a battle takes place, in which the Swedes won.

The battle site is located on the only section of the old Narva-Rakvere (Weisenberg) road, which coincides with the modern highway. The cross stands 3-4 meters from the edge of the road. And it is especially clearly visible when driving from the side of Narva. Some members of this site believe that the territory of Estonia was dotted with a network of roads as early as the 1808th century. The road from Rakvere to Narva was the only one. Below is a map of XNUMX.


Map of Estland and Livonia 1808

According to Boye, they pursued the retreating enemy three miles to the manor of Aa and captured many Russians and Tatars. However, the Swedes also lost many soldiers. Vasily Rozladin died in this battle. Whether Vasily died in battle or was taken prisoner is not known for sure. There are several versions.


Drawing "Cross in Kirkküla" (source Johhann Christoph Bortze.Estonica)


Cross pattern on both sides

Cross made of limestone. On both sides of the cross there were inscriptions in German and Old Russian. The inscription, in German, stated that

"On February 4, 1590, when the Russians attacked the Swedish camp, the noble husband Vasily Rozladin was killed."

The Old Russian text, restored by the professor of philology Alexei Gippius, says:

"In the summer of 7098, on the day of memory of Sidor Pelusiodsky (February 4), the servant of God, Vasily Volodymyr, son of Rosladin, was killed at this place."

With the Russian text, the cross is facing east. This memorial cross was most likely installed by the relatives of the deceased. At present, the outer layer has completely crumbled. It is not known how and when the cross lost one ray, but in the XNUMXth century it was already without it.
Author:
Photos used:
photo from the Internet. photo of my crosses
54 comments
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  1. Proxima
    Proxima 29 March 2021 18: 54
    +17
    Strange, of course, the criteria of the VO editorial board. A quite solid historical essay was posted in the OPINION section. And vice versa, the historical opuses of the Samsonov brothers, where there is zero historical information content, but there is only OPINION, are placed in the HISTORY section. request
    1. ee2100
      29 March 2021 18: 56
      +11
      Third time in a row am
    2. sergo1914
      sergo1914 29 March 2021 19: 03
      +6
      Quote: Proxima
      Strange, of course, the criteria of the VO editorial board. A quite solid historical essay was posted in the OPINION section. And vice versa, the historical opuses of the Samsonov brothers, where there is zero historical information content, but there is only OPINION, are placed in the HISTORY section. request


      The author should have mentioned Great Tartary at least once. With her - history, without her - opinion.
      1. ee2100
        29 March 2021 19: 11
        +10
        I will consider next time
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 29 March 2021 20: 34
          +6
          The author is definitely a plus! I liked the article !!!!
          Thank you very much, Alexander, although due to the placement in the Opinions section, he almost missed it.
          1. ee2100
            29 March 2021 22: 59
            +3
            Good evening. Thank.
            I sent it to them the day before yesterday and posted it today. Maybe a shortage with authors?
        2. Richard
          Richard 29 March 2021 22: 30
          +4
          Don't try it, Alexander. It's very interesting to read you without tartaria. Always something new with a twist.
          But the administration of the site should seriously think about it. Why are the clearly historical articles of the Author marinated in "opinions?"
          1. ee2100
            29 March 2021 22: 57
            +3
            Hi Dmitry! So little is left, will have to "take" for Tartary
        3. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 30 March 2021 09: 48
          +2
          I will consider next time

          Consider the super-duper ethnos too, Alexander. wink Yes - there was no Mongol! There were Scythian-Slavs. drinks
      2. Phil77
        Phil77 29 March 2021 19: 15
        +5
        +++++++ !!!! laughing laughing laughing
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 30 March 2021 09: 50
          +1
          +++++++ !!!! laughing laughing laughing

          Oh, you, who came! wink Penalty Phil! So that you no longer have 'Phil'onival from visiting the site. drinks Glad to see Sergey!
    3. Undecim
      Undecim 29 March 2021 19: 12
      +8
      Strange, of course, the criteria of the VO editorial board
      So Samsonov is the editorial office. He is the head of the "History" department.
  2. Phil77
    Phil77 29 March 2021 19: 02
    +4
    Thanks to Alexander for your * Estonian * mini-cycle of articles. I liked it! Although perhaps not a mini-cycle? hi I will write to you about today's hockey in * PM *. wink
    1. ee2100
      29 March 2021 19: 11
      +6
      The worst thing is that I'm on the road. I'm going to St. Petersburg
      1. sergo1914
        sergo1914 29 March 2021 19: 12
        +5
        Quote: ee2100
        The worst thing is that I'm on the road. I'm going to St. Petersburg


        Wink to help. Hockey is there.
        1. ee2100
          29 March 2021 19: 14
          +4
          Still at the border, and then yes
    2. ee2100
      29 March 2021 19: 13
      +6
      Forgot to add to the article that the cross of Kyrkyul, Kozintsev inserted his "Hamlet" so he will like it
      1. Phil77
        Phil77 29 March 2021 19: 18
        +4
        This episode?
        1. ee2100
          29 March 2021 19: 19
          +4
          Right! But they say that this is a props.
          1. Phil77
            Phil77 29 March 2021 19: 23
            +5
            I have no such information, but there is a larger shot.

            Sorry, but the action is starting! I'm going to the TV box! Rooting for the army team. wink
            1. Richard
              Richard 29 March 2021 22: 21
              +2
              Thank God. Sergei appeared after a time-out. So his "branded" illustrations will again decorate comments VO
              1. Phil77
                Phil77 30 March 2021 06: 38
                +2
                Good morning Dmitry! Thank you for the kind words! I will try. But for now ...
                2-0! And we play with SKA. There will be a battle, but that's a completely different story. Off topic. laughing
                1. ee2100
                  30 March 2021 08: 47
                  +2
                  Good morning! I am for SKA am
  3. Korsar4
    Korsar4 30 March 2021 08: 25
    +2
    The epitaph painting turned out to be the most interesting. The key to her is also important to speak.
    1. ee2100
      30 March 2021 08: 46
      +2
      Good morning!
      The picture is really interesting. In the upper right corner, where the battle itself is, there, in front, the riders of the brotherhood ride three in a row, which probably corresponds to the truth. A narrow road led them to the guard detachment and they could not realize their advantage. There was no space. While the first were beaten by the last, and this is the garrison, they had not yet left the city. Right! Where to hurry. In reality, everything was decided on emotions, and this is a 100% gamble. And the force was a huge 1,5 km column with a person in a row and the distance between the rows was 5 - 3 meters.
      Drawn very truthfully.
      From the left, the tower of the Oleviste church is clearly visible. In general, the picture is drawn on four boards.
      Clothes, armor, weapons are interesting.
      In the battle scene, it seems like the Revelites are winning, the foreground, and in the background, their colleagues are already looking towards the city!
      A wounded Russian on the ground. Leans with one hand on the ground with the other to defend itself. He is in a caftan and red boots.
      1. ee2100
        30 March 2021 08: 52
        +3
        More about the artist of the painting. Not a special master. Riders on horseback sit somehow "not right", and horses and proportions .... In a word, not Aivazovsky! But he did his job. And thanks to him for that!
      2. Korsar4
        Korsar4 30 March 2021 09: 00
        +2
        Good morning!
        Sometimes, looking at the icons of a complex composition, you understand that there is a whole world there. But not everything is revealed.
        1. ee2100
          30 March 2021 09: 03
          +3
          I agree. I wonder where the 11th can not give the money for him to the artist?
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 30 March 2021 14: 47
            0
            But we won't know this anymore. You can only build guesses.
  4. Hantengri
    Hantengri 30 March 2021 08: 51
    +3
    Thank you, Alexander. Very interesting stuff.
    But I still have a couple of questions:
    On the part of the Revelites, about 60 people died, including 11 brothers of the Brotherhood of Blackheads. Russian losses: 15 "children of the boyars" and if you add their servants who died with them, you get no more than 50 people.

    I wonder why you, for each of the boyar children, counted 2 servants? Did they all have 300 people of the "land good and pleasing" and you know this for certain?
    Narva and Ivangorod were defended by a Swedish garrison of about 1600 under the command of Karl Horn. In addition, a field army of up to 5000 Swedes was stationed near Narva, commanded by Goran Boye. .......
    On February 4, 1590, Goran Boye receives information that a Russian detachment of about 10000 people is moving in his direction. Boye comes forward. In the area of ​​the village of Kirkküla, a battle takes place, in which the Swedes won.

    5000 vs 10 ... Either there is something wrong with the numbers of troops, or Goran Boye is an extremely brave commander and, moreover, a rather modest person. After all, he could, following the example of the Stash of the Livonian Rhymed Chronicle, report that every Swede fought at least 000 Muscovites, but did not ... laughing
    1. ee2100
      30 March 2021 09: 01
      +2
      Good morning.
      I will try to answer
      1. The annals say only about 15 "boyar children" and I figured it out that it would be more real that there were servants with them, and so I counted. I think this is real.
      2. Indeed, Boye is an experienced warrior and he did not dare to make direct contact in the "open field" where he actually had no chance. And then this road! It is rather narrow and on the one hand there is a cliff, I think that he had chosen a convenient place for himself in advance.
      Of course, he is lying that he drove the Russians to myiza Aa. There on the road 5-6 km and across the river Purtse a bridge. Maximum to the bridge. This is a couple of kilometers.
      1. Hantengri
        Hantengri 30 March 2021 09: 56
        +2
        Quote: ee2100
        I will try to answer
        1. The annals say only about 15 "boyar children" and I figured it out that it would be more real that there were servants with them, and so I counted. I think this is real.

        With 100 people of the earth, kind and pleasing, the nobleman, or "do" the boyar was obliged to exhibit his beloved in full armor and odocuon (this is ideally ... but in reality, often full armor consisted of a tegilai and a paper cap, plus a saber, a bow and two "Mongolian" horses), with 200 couples - oneself + one more person, also in armor and ovukon, with 300 - himself and two people, back armed and equipped with horses, with 400 - 3, etc. So how do you get confidence about having combat servants? Maybe all these boyar children with 100 thin couples left, with a bare bottom, covered only with a tegil and a paper hat?
        Quote: ee2100
        2. Indeed, Boye is an experienced warrior and he did not dare to make direct contact in the "open field" where he actually had no chance. And then this road! It is rather narrow and on the one hand there is a cliff, I think that he had chosen a convenient place for himself in advance.

        So Dmitry Ivanovich Khvorostinin, too, by that time, was not a boy and, in military affairs, far from mediocre. In addition, if Goran Boye and Gustav Banner, unknown to me, are one person, then Russian sources claim that Khvorostinin's advanced regiment, the Shevedam, under his (Gustav Banner's) leadership, numbering 4000, near Ivangorod, on February 4 still stuck, forcing them to retreat to Rakovoru.
        1. ee2100
          30 March 2021 10: 15
          +2
          It is not the purpose of the article to determine the historical "truth" that the very fact of the battle in a given place is not disputed. The German inscription on the cross indicates that the Russians were the first to attack.
          And the number of Russians killed at Revel is my estimate.
        2. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 30 March 2021 10: 37
          +5
          So Dmitry Ivanovich Khvorostinin, too, by that time, was not a boy and, in military affairs, far from mediocre.

          I would like to insert my own five cents. drinks Prior to that, in 1582, Khvorostinin beat the Swedes near Lyalitsy (a village on the St. Petersburg-Narva highway, east of Yama-Kingisepp), which was one of the reasons for the end of the Livonian War. hi
          1. Mordvin 3
            Mordvin 3 30 March 2021 10: 43
            +3
            Quote: Pane Kohanku
            a village on the St. Petersburg-Narva highway,

            Is this highway E-95?
            https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jq0L1NzjnQY
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 30 March 2021 10: 45
              +5
              Is this highway E-95?

              Vladimir, hello! Of course, Kinchev glorified the track ... drinks No, "Narva" is E 20 or A-180.
              1. Mordvin 3
                Mordvin 3 30 March 2021 10: 53
                +2
                Quote: Pane Kohanku
                this is E 20 or A-180.

                And we have the Don track. They also became famous. They robbed with might and main. fellow
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 30 March 2021 11: 34
                  +3
                  And we have the Don track. They also became famous. They robbed with might and main.

                  Tatars Scythian-Rus? Or the Cossacks who joined them? wink
                  1. Mordvin 3
                    Mordvin 3 30 March 2021 11: 39
                    +2
                    Quote: Pane Kohanku
                    Or the Cossacks who joined them?

                    No, they stood under the bridge ... Tulyaks, their mother's leg ...
                    1. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 30 March 2021 11: 43
                      +3
                      Tula

                      With a samovar in one hand and a gun in the other? wink And who was robbed? drinks
                      1. Mordvin 3
                        Mordvin 3 30 March 2021 11: 49
                        +2
                        Quote: Pan Kohanku
                        Tula

                        With a samovar in one hand and a gun in the other? wink And who was robbed? drinks

                        The Tula loved to stand under the bridge. And they robbed the merchants. Here Tulyakov is called bridge-builders.
                      2. Mordvin 3
                        Mordvin 3 30 March 2021 12: 34
                        +2
                        Quote: Pane Kohanku
                        And who was robbed?

                        Merchants ... The merchants were driving on carts, and we stood under the bridge ...
              2. Mihaylov
                Mihaylov 30 March 2021 10: 59
                +4
                Quote: Pane Kohanku
                Of course, Kinchev made the track famous ... drinks No, "Narva" is E 20 or A-180.

                Good afternoon Nikolai,
                E-95 is the same Kiev highway, at Kinchev's dacha somewhere near Luga hi
                1. Mordvin 3
                  Mordvin 3 30 March 2021 11: 25
                  +4
                  Quote: Mihaylov
                  Kinchev has a dacha somewhere near Luga

                  He lives in the village.
                2. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 30 March 2021 11: 45
                  +4
                  Kinchev has a dacha somewhere near Luga

                  Hello Sergey! You and I, as usual, "come to a nodding analysis," as Corsair says4. drinks About Kinchev not in the know, but Knyazev from "KiSh" and spent his childhood in Golubkovo - still near Luga. yes
                  1. Mordvin 3
                    Mordvin 3 30 March 2021 11: 52
                    +2
                    Quote: Pane Kohanku
                    but Knyazev from "KiSh" and

                    Who is Knyazev?
                    1. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 30 March 2021 13: 14
                      +2
                      Who is Knyazev?

                      The second soloist of "The King and the Fool".
                  2. Mihaylov
                    Mihaylov 30 March 2021 12: 00
                    +2
                    Quote: Pane Kohanku
                    About Kinchev not in the know

                    I looked on the Internet: Kinchev has a house in the village of Saba, Luga district, next to Osmino.
                    As I understand it, you can go along the Narva highway and along the Kiev highway, approximately in the middle between them, but judging by the song "Route E-95" apparently - along the Kiev highway. Although the Narva highway was made several years ago, it used to be very difficult to drive along it - only holes, now it is in order. hi
                    1. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 30 March 2021 13: 24
                      +3
                      Although the Narva highway was made several years ago, it used to be very difficult to drive along it - only holes, now it is in order.

                      If we had done Gostilitskoye, more excursions would appear in Koporye, I think. By the way, the route could be built on Kingisepp later.
                      1. ee2100
                        30 March 2021 13: 53
                        +2
                        Gostilitskoe is that "drunken road?
                      2. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 30 March 2021 16: 06
                        +2
                        Gostilitskoe is that "drunken road?

                        Not so drunk, in general ... There are bends, but you can accelerate. The question is, there are a couple of places where the highway was well gouged a couple of years ago. I don’t know if it was patched or not. drinks
                      3. ee2100
                        30 March 2021 17: 58
                        +2
                        It was called that before. There were traffic police posts on the new highway, and everything was from the dachas, if they were per million they were driving along it. In fact, the road is dead, although beautiful, but what is new.
                      4. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 31 March 2021 09: 59
                        +1
                        In fact, the road is dead, although beautiful, but what is new.

                        Historical places. There used to be a number of estates nearby. Including the property of our Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov. yes
                3. Mihaylov
                  Mihaylov 30 March 2021 14: 08
                  +3
                  Quote: Pane Kohanku
                  If we had done Gostilitskoye, more excursions would appear in Koporye,

                  Dak Koporye is still closed and apparently for a long time.
                  For Kingisepp, I drove my wife's aunt to the dacha for several years: at first the speed was 20-40 km / h, you can't accelerate through the pits anymore, then they did it, it became a normal highway, but now she has already sold the dacha, so I don't go there anymore. hi