Military Review

Volga airlock - for the first spacewalk

45

Unlike the Americans, who used complete depressurization of the spacecraft during the first spacewalks under the Gemini program, domestic designers made a fundamental decision to carry out the first spacewalk using a special gateway to maintain the tightness of the Voskhod capsule.


The problem was that the apparatus of the Voskhod spacecraft did not provide for the possibility of long-term operation in vacuum conditions, and the dimensions of the launch vehicle and the fairing used did not allow the launching of the airlock together with the manned capsule into orbit. At the same time, the short time (15-20 minutes) of the proposed spacewalk was a good help.


Various schemes of a telescopic airlock were worked out, but the specialists of Plant No. 918, renamed in 1964 into the enterprise "Zvezda" (now JSC "NPP" Zvezda "), proposed a scheme of an airlock chamber (hereinafter SC) with a soft inflatable shell, which expands only in orbit for the account of supplying gas to the chambers immediately before its application and subsequent shooting after the cosmonaut returns to the sealed compartment of the spacecraft. This solution made it possible to launch the spacecraft with the SC installed on it without significant modifications to both the Voskhod spacecraft and the launch vehicle fairing.


In parallel with the development of the airlock at the Zvezda plant, the Berkut spacesuit was also being developed for spacewalk. The joint work of designers from different departments dealing with the airlock and spacesuit made it possible to ensure a high compatibility of products and to work out an acceptable airlock scheme, despite the lack of experience in spacewalks.

Volga airlock - for the first spacewalk

The design of the "Volga" spacecraft


From the book "Space suits of Russia":

“... The Volga airlock for the Vostok-2 spacecraft consisted of an upper rigid part with a hatch for spacewalks and a lower mounting ring docked with the ship's flange. They were interconnected by a hermetic shell and a power frame, consisting of a system of longitudinal aerobeams in the form of inflatable rubber cylinders, on which a cover made of durable fabric was put on. The SL in folded form was attached outside the Voskhod-2 spacecraft above the spacewalk hatch. The chamber housed systems that ensure the deployment of the shell in orbit due to the pressurization of the aerobeams, a system for regulating the pressure in the airlock during airlock, a control panel, elements of insurance and fixation of the cosmonaut when leaving, a system for separating the airlock from the spacecraft after the program is completed ... "


For the first time, the Volga spacecraft was used in the automatic flight of the Voskhod spacecraft (Kosmos-57) on 22.02.1965, and literally a month later when A.A.Leonov went into open space, which took place on March 18, 1965. The remaining samples of manufactured products (5 more pieces) were used during tests at Zvezda, including at the LII in the air laboratory based on the Tu-104.

Three surviving non-flying samples can be seen in the museums of JSC NPP Zvezda (photographs of this particular gateway are presented in the article), as well as in the museums of RSC Energia and the Moscow Museum of Cosmonautics. Two more samples were transferred to foreign private collections.

What do they have?


The American firm Lockheed Nissiles end Space Co has also developed a telescopic air hatch for spacecraft. Its weight was about 16 kg, it was made of an elastic material with a thread winding and a gasket made of gas-tight rubber based on butyl rubber.


This device could be used in an emergency, when the standard airlock for any reason is out of order. With the help of this airlock, the astronaut could enter the spacecraft to carry out repair work or replenish supplies, but this project was never implemented, moreover, it cannot be considered a complete analogue of the Volga SC.
Author:
Photos used:
https://zen.yandex.ru/media/id/5ec81fa81c6c0b05eff079c2/shliuz-volga-dlia-pervogo-vyhoda-v-otkrytyi-kosmos-60100af3ede7353c0ab3bffd
45 comments
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  1. Blacksmith 55
    Blacksmith 55 20 March 2021 11: 07
    +8
    Leonov had big problems on his return.
    The suit was swollen, he had to bleed the air out of it to get through the hatch.
    Why did the author not mention this.
    Later, the designers changed the spacesuit.
    1. rocket757
      rocket757 20 March 2021 11: 10
      +7
      Everything was done for the first time!
      Problems appeared, our designers solved them.
    2. sergo1914
      sergo1914 20 March 2021 11: 17
      +2
      Quote: smith 55
      Leonov had big problems on his return.
      The suit was swollen, he had to bleed the air out of it to get through the hatch.
      Why did the author not mention this.
      Later, the designers changed the spacesuit.


      There is generally a story with a continuation. How they tried to shove him into this chamber later on the ground in the pool. It was impossible to listen without tears.
    3. Virus-free crown
      Virus-free crown 20 March 2021 13: 39
      +6
      Quote: smith 55
      Leonov had big problems on his return.
      The suit was swollen, he had to bleed the air out of it to get through the hatch.
      Why did the author not mention this.
      Later, the designers changed the spacesuit.

      The problem of Leonov's return was in the spacesuit, not in the airlock - and the article about the airlock was still hi
    4. andretry
      andretry 20 March 2021 14: 14
      -2
      And about the adventures in spacesuits has already been here, why write a second time
      https://warspot.ru/19153-priklyucheniya-v-skafandre
    5. Proxima
      Proxima 20 March 2021 14: 17
      +7
      Quote: smith 55
      Leonov had big problems when returning ..... Why did the author not mention this.

      Probably because the world's first manned spacewalk - this is, at least, a separate large article. By the way, very often on the VO you can find replicas of dishonest and narrow-minded members of the forum that they say Leonov sold himself to the Americans confirming their landing on the moon. In the beginning, let these sofa specialists possess a millionth share of the knowledge and experience that Alexei Arkhipovich possessed. And then, on the basis of their meager minds of "decency", they make any conclusions.
      1. Blacksmith 55
        Blacksmith 55 20 March 2021 15: 53
        0
        I didn't say a word, I didn't even think that Leonov had sold out.
        1. Proxima
          Proxima 20 March 2021 18: 02
          0
          Quote: smith 55
          I didn't say a word, I didn't even think that Leonov had sold out.

          I do not blame YOU in any way! hi
      2. Simargl
        Simargl 20 March 2021 23: 57
        0
        Quote: Proxima
        that they say Leonov sold out to the Americans confirming their landing on the moon.
        Strange ... not a single minus yet ...
        1. Proxima
          Proxima 21 March 2021 10: 26
          +1
          Quote: Simargl
          Quote: Proxima
          that they say Leonov sold out to the Americans confirming their landing on the moon.
          Strange ... not a single minus yet ...

          It is gratifying that not all members of the forum are not brainwashed with lunar conspiracies.
          1. region58
            region58 21 March 2021 14: 45
            0
            Quote: Proxima
            not all members of the forum are not brainwashed with lunar conspiracies.

            Quote: Simargl
            Strange ... not a single minus yet ...

            Conspiracy advocates don't read such articles. yes
            1. Bshkaus
              22 March 2021 10: 28
              +1
              Conspiracy advocates don't read such articles.

              How they read it! On my canela, in the comments to articles about American programs, Mercury Gemini and Apollo are very active, they even write in private messages so that I stop writing all sorts of nonsense (I convey the general meaning, adapting words for educated people), they even threaten and then say that I am I impose my point of view)))
              1. region58
                region58 23 March 2021 10: 51
                +1
                Quote: Bshkaus
                How they read it!

                I have to disagree. On the one hand, they read, and this is good - people are interested in science and technology. On the other hand, if they do read, they either do not delve into the essence, or do not understand the meaning of what is written. Or they read very selectively, what coincides with their views. When you start to wonder on the basis of which books or documents they have read, they draw their conclusions, then most often you hear about videos on YouTube. That is, a person has watched a five-minute video and now it is ready - an opinion has formed. Any technical details are too complicated, they are bypassed ...

                PS I don't remember where, I took it to my notes (usually I indicate the source, but then I lost it, may the author forgive me):
                Amazing this phenomenon, "Lunar conspiracy"! It is difficult to say who among the authors of materials on this topic are more - clever provocateurs or real ignoramuses, but the main interest is not they, but the fans of their publications. They, for the most part, are completely sincere people - they ardently DO NOT WISH the Americans to be on the moon. Reality in their case is not a relevant concept - only the desire is relevant so that it does not exist; most likely, a special form of patriotism .. The logic of this psychological phenomenon is simple - we cannot change the present, where in space we are okay that we are not the first, but not the second, so let's change the past!
                And retroactive modeling begins, the creation of a parallel reality - the conspiracy of the USSR Politburo with the World Behind the Scenes, cardboard models in the pavilions of Hollywood and similar funny kunstyuk. In accordance with the paradigm, the theses of the Lunar conspiracy cannot be refuted by anyone or anything - neither the sold-out Leonov, nor the rest of the cosmonauts put together, nor the president of the country, who in a TV interview suddenly "speaks out with humor, like a private person" (!), Nor telemetry records, nor images of lunar modules. That is why parallel reality is terrible - there are no arguments for it. And to the smallest degree, of course, these theses are refuted by eyewitnesses and participants in the flights, they have no faith by definition. Thus, the ingenious idea of ​​Bill Kaysing, shamelessly "licked" by domestic authors of numerous publications, turned out to be a kind and very accurate test - for the stability of the psyche to emotionally significant circumstances of reality.
    6. mister-red
      mister-red 20 March 2021 16: 38
      0
      Quote: smith 55
      Leonov had big problems on his return.
      The suit was swollen, he had to bleed the air out of it to get through the hatch.
      Why did the author not mention this.
      Later, the designers changed the spacesuit.

      Actually, the story is about a gateway, not a spacesuit.
    7. Bshkaus
      20 March 2021 18: 14
      +8
      Leonov had big problems on his return.
      The suit was swollen, he had to bleed the air out of it to get through the hatch.
      Why did the author not mention this.
      Later, the designers changed the spacesuit.

      The author did not mention this due to the fact that he is trying to separate flies and cutlets))).
      This article is directly about the "Volga" gateway, and the article about the "Berkut" spacesuit itself for some reason still hangs on moderation, although I wanted to publish these articles by March 18 - the day of A.A. Leonov into open space.
      As for the "blowing up the spacesuit", the question is very slippery, and I myself came out of AA. I am not going to touch on Leonov in principle:
      Even now you will start to beat, but:
      All spacesuits before the "Berkut" had an operating mode of excess pressure of 0,27 atmospheres (like all American ones to this day), and starting with the "Berkut" they made 2 modes:
      1st worker 0,42 atmospheres
      2nd emergency 0,27 atmosphere (and in fact the same as in all previous SC).
      The SC at a "new" pressure of 0,42 kgf / cm2 compared to 0,27 really seemed more inflated, and when Leonov spoke about strong inflation, it meant a "new" operating mode of pressure of 0,42 kgf / cm2 at which the characteristics really are mobility was significantly lower than at 0,27.

      The second reason for the conventional "myth" is that after Gagarin's flight, every student knew the characteristics of the East, flight time, orbital angle, perigee and apogee, etc. little things including the pressure of the spacesuit.
      And suddenly there are conversations (Leonov himself says) that "The pressure in the UK was too great and impeded mobility, therefore, I relieved the pressure"
      In fact, Leonov went into open space with an operating mode of 0,4, which in practice turned out to be inconvenient due to miscalculations or improper fit of the spacesuit itself before the flight (the exact reason is for sure who will tell you when from principle) and made it difficult to work, so he did not hesitate switched to emergency mode 0,27. and this regime was originally provided.
      And then the earth is full of rumors ... They already say that the pressure in the suit was more than 1 atmosphere !!!!
      I will give just one argument refuting all these rumors.
      When the article about the spacesuit itself comes out, pay attention to the fact that on the pressure gauge the maximum scale ends at 0,4 atmospheres, therefore, firstly, Leonov simply could not record large readings. the arrow will simply go off scale and secondly, there was a pressure regulator on the spacesuit, and when the pressure reached more than 0,42, it simply began to bleed the excess out.
      I wrote an article about this as a response to a publication in one of the journals Science and Technology, and what is most important for me is that Kitaev-Smyk wrote to me in a personal note and agreed with this point of view)))
    8. Shuttle
      Shuttle 21 March 2021 18: 48
      0
      Quote: smith 55
      Leonov had big problems on his return.
      The suit was swollen, he had to bleed the air out of it to get through the hatch.
      Why did the author not mention this.
      Later, the designers changed the spacesuit.

      Because the article is not about Leonov's exit, not about the spacesuit in general, incl. not about Leonov himself and not about Leonov's spacesuit. The article is about the airlock. That is why the author did not mention what everyone already knows.
    9. militarist63
      militarist63 22 March 2021 03: 35
      +1
      Quote: Blacksmith 55
      Leonov had big problems on his return.
      The suit was swollen, he had to bleed the air out of it to get through the hatch.
      Why didn't the author mention this

      In case you haven't noticed, here we are talking about an airlock! laughing What side to her spacesuit problems ?! wink
  2. Vladimir_2U
    Vladimir_2U 20 March 2021 12: 44
    +5
    Unlike the Americans, who used complete depressurization of the spacecraft during the first spacewalks under the Gemini program, domestic designers made a fundamental decision to carry out the first spacewalk using a special gateway to maintain the tightness of the Voskhod capsule.
    Leonov was the first to enter space, so this "Americans are unlike us".
    1. mister-red
      mister-red 20 March 2021 16: 41
      +5
      Leonov was the first to go into space, so these are "Americans, unlike us."

      Somewhere I came across a post on the forum where they smeared Voskhod with an inflatable airlock, like the Americans are so cool, they were able to get out without an airlock. I gave them a photo of Gemini and asked them to think about where the airlock could be attached. I received no answer.
      1. Reviews
        Reviews 20 March 2021 17: 32
        0
        Quote: mister-red
        the Americans are so cool, they were able to get out without a gateway. I gave them a photo of Gemini and asked them to think about where the airlock could be attached. Received no response. [Center]

        The Americans are not tough, they did an order of magnitude more rational. They did not sculpt a hefty airlock to a small ship (and Voskhod-2 is also very small), which is also an extra risk factor - a link that can fail at any stage - exit or entry, as well as when shooting - to us a whole automatic Kosmos-59 had to be launched just to make sure that the airlock could detach normally from the ship. In addition, their entire Gemini program was tailored for the future Apollo, in which there is no airlock on the lunar module, so abandoning the airlock is a smart decision. By the way, ours were not going to make a lock on the lunar ship either. And the experience of an inflatable airlock was not needed, because there were no inflatable airlocks on the DOS and should not be.
        1. mister-red
          mister-red 22 March 2021 21: 04
          0
          The Americans are not tough, they did an order of magnitude more rational.

          They acted in the only way possible for them. It is impossible to attach an airlock to such a ship structure.
          1. Reviews
            Reviews 23 March 2021 11: 24
            0
            Quote: mister-red

            They acted in the only way possible for them. It is impossible to attach an airlock to such a ship structure.

            The cart is ahead of the horse. They simply did not set themselves the goal of making a gateway. And they did the right thing. Our "Voskhod" is larger, but there is little sense from it. The normal ergonomics of the cab were not done and they introduced into the process, I repeat, an additional hefty unit, which increased the risks of exit, but then was never used again. In addition, all the same, the emergency scenario provided for the depressurization of the ship to help Leonov Belyaev.
            Amers, on the other hand, have a normal cockpit of an airplane layout, intuitively understandable for current pilots, which positively works for the success of an exit in unfamiliar space flight conditions, where there are already many unknown factors.
            1. Bratkov Oleg
              Bratkov Oleg April 7 2021 18: 31
              0
              Amers have a scout-level craft.
              The Americans first flew into space in 1981, 20 years after Gagarin ...
              Well, how would you know such memorable dates in the history of mankind ...
              1. Reviews
                Reviews April 8 2021 09: 03
                -1
                Quote: Bratkov Oleg
                The Americans did an order of magnitude more rational. In general, they filmed all their flights, until 1981, in the pavilion, and did not soar with the threat to the life and health of the astronauts.

                Amers have a scout-level craft.
                The Americans first flew into space in 1981, 20 years after Gagarin ...
                Well, how would you know such memorable dates in the history of mankind ...

                It’s good ...
                1. Bratkov Oleg
                  Bratkov Oleg April 11 2021 17: 29
                  0
                  Quote: Avis
                  ...
                  It’s good ...

                  Yes, if only there were brains, and not an empty head, clogged with propaganda from the TV. You can study the construction of Gemeni and Mercury. The Americans seated the actors as they would sit in the cockpit of a fighter jet, and set this cockpit upright. As a result, the actor's head is at the very bottom, five minutes at acceleration, five - and the troupe is ready from a cerebral hemorrhage. In the USSR, both Gagarin, and everyone else, lie obliquely, at such an angle that when accelerating five, the heart pumps blood to the head with the effort that is necessary for the same. The designers thought about this, the scientists, but the Americans did not have time to think about it, they had to frantically fake it out that they, too, can fly into space. Yes, in a catapult from an aircraft carrier, the acceleration will be more, it only lasts a couple of seconds.
                  1. Reviews
                    Reviews April 11 2021 18: 08
                    0
                    Quote: Bratkov Oleg
                    Quote: Avis
                    ...
                    It’s good ...

                    Yes, if only there were brains

                    This is definitely not about you.
        2. Bratkov Oleg
          Bratkov Oleg April 7 2021 18: 29
          0
          The Americans did an order of magnitude more rational. In general, they filmed all their flights, until 1981, in the pavilion, and did not soar with the threat to the life and health of the astronauts.
      2. Bshkaus
        20 March 2021 18: 00
        +3
        Sunrise with an inflatable airlock, like the Americans are so steep, they were able to get out without an airlock. I gave them a photo of Gemini and asked them to think about where the airlock could be attached. I received no answer.

        I have not heard such a version yet. Excuse me, are they Losers chtoli? It is not required to depressurize the spacecraft compartment, but it is much more difficult to create an additional compartment (airlock), to maintain the tightness of the ship, in the end it will be much more difficult to throw excess weight into orbit. In electronics, the Americans won, in the design of Jenimi they lost.
        1. Sergey Sfiedu
          Sergey Sfiedu 20 March 2021 20: 34
          0
          At that time they were losing in launch vehicles, because Dzhemeni is much smaller than Voskhod. And in terms of functionality "Gemeni" is much cooler.
          1. Bratkov Oleg
            Bratkov Oleg April 7 2021 18: 34
            0
            You are talking pure nonsense. The properties of the spaceship mockup in the film studio are always nothing in front of the real spaceships of the Soviet Union. You would have compared it with some Babylon-5, or with the "Stargate", what can you say on trifles, like, the Americans walk through the gates throughout the galaxy, the Ra ship was captured, and the USSR was able to launch only a couple of people into orbit.
        2. Intruder
          Intruder 22 March 2021 04: 16
          0
          In electronics, the Americans won, in the design of Jenimi they lost.
          Well, this is a very bold assumption !? winked Especially in hardware they lost ..?, Although, I always respectfully rejoice at your articles, they are good, honestly !!!
          And so, for comparison, they have:
          Gemini was equipped with:
          - an orientation and maneuvering system (OAMS) containing sixteen motors to control movement in all three perpendicular directions. axes (forward / backward, left / right, up / down), in addition to orientation controls (pitch, yaw, and roll) as in Mercury. The broadcast control allowed changing the orbital inclination and altitude needed to perform rendezvous with other ships and docking with a Target Vehicle (ATV) with its own rocket engine, which could be used for large orbit changes.
          - in early short-term missions, electricity was provided by batteries; later endurance flights used the first fuel cells in manned spacecraft.

          we have:

          - a system of gas nozzles for orientation, consisting of two autonomous systems of jet nozzles (8 pcs. in each), operating on compressed nitrogen coming from balloon-cylinders located on the instrument compartment;
          - a propulsion system for deceleration from orbit (dry weight 396 kg), including a liquid jet engine with a thrust of 1,6 tf, fuel tanks, a fuel supply system and a stock (280 kg) of two-component fuel; the stabilization of the spacecraft during engine operation was carried out automatically according to signals from gyroscopes using the steering nozzles of the propulsion system;)
          - had a backup reserve braking powder jet engine weighing 145 kg, installed in the upper part of the spacecraft;
          1. Bratkov Oleg
            Bratkov Oleg April 7 2021 18: 51
            -1
            We have: real spaceships, real people in space, orbiting the Earth, conducting real scientific and military experiments.
            From the Americans: In order not to lose face, the Americans shoot flights into orbit in the pavilion, and give them out as real.
            This is what the gang of Brezhnev's liberals breached like dogs to the peoples of the USSR about the supposedly irreconcilable struggle against US imperialism, while they themselves were preparing to seize power so that the factories could be inherited, and with the help of the United States they did it ... It took a lot of things, and glorification nonexistent achievements of America, such as confirmation of a flight to the moon, and the deliberate creation of shortages and queues in the USSR, a deliberate ban on the production of good goods, this is in a planned economy!
            In a planned economy, the deficit could only be planned, drawn up and prepared in the USSR State Planning Committee. Everything was calculated, checked, and it is known exactly who will not have enough soap, buckwheat, or pants. It was a planned economy !!!
            Rockets with a payload of more than 100 tons into low orbit were created twice, the United States has never been able to do this. They just managed to destroy the first, N-1, before it took out the payload, and the second, Energy, was destroyed after it removed the Buran ... And the liberals, the licks of the American backside, nevertheless won. And the Energy was destroyed, and the USSR was destroyed, and now they are in power, and it is unlikely that Russia will dare now overtake America, otherwise they will impose sanctions on officials, and they will not be able to visit relatives in America, or else they will arrest American bank accounts.
            In other words, the United States succeeded in everything, everything worked out, and we waged an irreconcilable struggle against US imperialism under Brezhnev, until the very moment when his gang, the Central Committee of the CPSU, put us in cancer before America.
            1. Intruder
              Intruder April 7 2021 19: 39
              0
              And the Energy was destroyed, and the USSR was destroyed, and now they are in power, and it is unlikely that Russia will dare now overtake America, otherwise they will impose sanctions on officials, and they will not be able to visit relatives in America, or else they will arrest American bank accounts.
              Quickly destroyed, strange isn't it !? And then, where were all these "patriots", from the spiritually illuminated and unconquered population, or maybe there are no longer those who could not submit to the decaying West with its values ​​??, sold for green candy wrappers with foreign presidents and for factories in privatization ??? Loot won - an indisputable fact already in the past of one country in Eurasia, while it is easy and for a long time already, 30 years have passed and everything is going in the same vein ...
              we have put cancer before America.
              Duc, they knew that it was easy to put (in this pose) and no one would utter a word ... wink
              1. Bratkov Oleg
                Bratkov Oleg April 11 2021 16: 51
                0
                On the one hand, under socialism, many things were invented and created, the most advanced social system was on Earth. On the other hand, this social system was never able to get rid of the parasites in its head, which finished it off.
                And the leadership of the country trained the people very competently. Germany failed to destroy, destroyed by internal traitors, Khrushchev, Brezhnev. It was impossible for the writers to write the wrong stories, it was impossible to shoot the wrong movie, it was impossible to make the wrong clothes, it was impossible to make the wrong cars, and which one was correct was determined by the Central Committee of the CPSU, and try to release a brightly colored, fashionable, attractive chintz at the factory, the directors will be jailed for:
                - Promotion of the Western way of life
                - Inappropriate use of people's property
                - Embezzlement of people's money
                And a few more articles will be added. But it is quite another matter when they brought canvas pants from the USA, or boots from Italy, they throw them away at the Central Department Store, create a queue and envy, "Why can't they do that?" And we cannot do this, it is forbidden, otherwise the director, who dares to produce this at the factory, will be assigned several criminal articles, and will be imprisoned with confiscation. This is how the era of "Brezhnev's stagnation" worked.
      3. ycuce234-san
        ycuce234-san 20 March 2021 18: 17
        0
        Now a new problem is about to be posed by scientific and technological progress - lunar sluicing.
        If something is built on the Moon, then the local inhabitants will be flooded there very intensively, maybe several times a day, under the influence of abrasive moon dust.
        Transport there may be sealed and with an internal atmosphere, and if it is used intensively, then a gateway will be needed, since all the time pumping out air means that everyone will need to leave it from the inside.
        1. Bshkaus
          20 March 2021 20: 43
          +3
          Transport there may be sealed and with an internal atmosphere, and if it is used intensively, then a gateway will be needed, since all the time pumping out air means that everyone will need to leave it from the inside.

          To save gas reserves, a double lock can be used: i.e. two installed side by side, in the first one there is an atmosphere equal to the station's atmosphere, the second "empty" cosmonaut enters the lock # 1 and the pressure is transferred to the lock # 2. The cosmonaut goes to the surface, and returns either to lock # 1 (if it is empty) or to # 2, if after him someone used a similar method to leave lock # 2, and the pressure was transferred to lock # 1
          And after all, this is from one glass of wine, diluted by a third with water, such ideas come to mind))))
          1. ycuce234-san
            ycuce234-san 20 March 2021 20: 54
            +1
            The pressure and gas reserves will be halved each time, or a pump will be needed and this is the point of failure due to its complexity. To save money, it should be made as compact as possible, in the style of a "space mummy sarcophagus" filled with ball filler.
            But for mobile transport this is not a solution - only for buildings.
    2. militarist63
      militarist63 22 March 2021 03: 37
      +1
      Quite right! They ached to catch up with us at any cost ... laughing
  3. Alien From
    Alien From 20 March 2021 12: 51
    +4
    Thanks to the author for an interesting topic. good
    1. Pete mitchell
      Pete mitchell 20 March 2021 21: 22
      +3
      Quote: Alien From
      Thanks to the author for an interesting topic. good

      As always informative and understandable good
  4. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 20 March 2021 15: 44
    +2
    Two more samples were transferred to foreign private collections.

    Well, hardly donated. Sold out, rather.
    1. Reviews
      Reviews 20 March 2021 17: 33
      +2
      Quote: Aviator_
      Two more samples were transferred to foreign private collections.

      Well, hardly donated. Sold out, rather.

      If sold in the same way as the "Lunokhod", then this is the same as donated.
  5. Intruder
    Intruder 22 March 2021 03: 50
    0
    Unlike the Americans, who used complete depressurization of the spacecraft during the first spacewalks under the Gemini program, domestic designers made a fundamental decision to carry out the first spacewalk using a special gateway to maintain the tightness of the Voskhod capsule.
    A little pretentious, if we take into account the correspondence of other flight performance characteristics of the Voskhod spacecraft itself, with the Gemini project !?, it may happen that he overtook him a little in his capabilities at that time, and a complete loss the internal atmosphere, and they could not even bother and could afford to replenish the entire volume, in contrast to the reserves at Voskhod, plus the design of the Gemini's cabin itself was not originally designed for the airlock segment, from the word in general ...! !!
    Gemini's goal was to develop space travel techniques to support the Apollo mission. It thus allowed the United States to catch up with and surpass the leadership in manned spaceflight that the Soviet Union gained in the early years of the space race, demonstrating: a flight duration of just under fourteen days, more than the eight days required to fly to the Moon and back; methods of performing off-board activities (spacewalk) without fatigue; and the orbital maneuvers necessary to achieve rendezvous and docking with another spacecraft, the twins were robust enough that the US Air Force planned to use them in the Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL) program, which was later canceled. In addition, in this project, for the first time, an onboard radar and an artificial horizon in flight were used.
    1. Bratkov Oleg
      Bratkov Oleg April 11 2021 17: 15
      0
      The absence of an airlock on Gemeni is another confirmation that Gemeni is a complete American mess that has never been in real space. And this is really so, for the first time the Americans got into space 20 years later, after the flight of Gagarin. Americans know how to lie avidly, this is their national trait, they are brought up and taught this from childhood.
      And the reason for the lag is very simple. The United States has military bases in Europe, Turkey, the Middle East, and Japan, from where it can deliver atomic bombs on the long-range bombers it already has, to almost any point in the USSR. Von Braun played with medium-range missiles, which solved some tactical issues, and their range of 500 ... 1000 kilometers was quite enough for the alleged military action against the USSR. There was no need to create intercontinental missiles, from the word at all.
      For the USSR, the situation was different, for a bomber to fly to any city in the United States, and return back, a flight range was required 10 times more than that of the United States. And the USSR did not have such aircraft. Therefore, the USSR developed intercontinental missiles, and only when Sputnik-1 flew over the United States, beeping to them that the US territory was within reach for a nuclear retaliatory strike by the Soviet Union, and the aggression against the USSR would not pass without leaving a trace for America, only then in the United States began developing rockets capable of launching a satellite, or a person, into space. We started from scratch. Of course, they had tactical missiles, but the road from the V-2 to the ICBM is very long.
  6. Orkraider
    Orkraider 25 March 2021 11: 24
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    Thanks so much for the article!
    Interesting and good photos, in addition, the author is directly related to the Star, which is especially valuable.

    I will wait for new articles.