Military Review

Bosporan Kingdom. The heavy hand of Rome

Bosporan Kingdom. The heavy hand of Rome

In the middle of the XNUMXst century BC. e. after the collapse of the Pontic state and the death of Mithridates VI Eupator, his son Pharnaces II was entrenched in power in the Bosporus. By betraying his father and raising a revolt against him, he hoped thereby to arouse favor with the Roman Republic and to keep at least part of the territories in his hands.

As a confirmation of his affection for the Romans, he embalmed his father's body and sent it to the commander Pompey. With a request to leave in his possession the former lands of Pontus or at least the Bosporus kingdom.

Friend and ally of the Roman people

The republic at that time had no time for the northern lands of the Black Sea.

And Pharnacs, having received the status, took over the reins of the Bosporus kingdom. However, given whose son the new king was and how he treated his father, Guineas Pompey limited his power in advance, granting autonomy to the largest city in the Asian part of the Bosporus - Phanagoria and the adjacent settlements.

Pharnaces had no choice but to agree to the proposed terms.

He was well aware that his position (as a king) was very precarious at that moment. And the throne could slip out of hand at any moment. Moreover, given the fact that there were no Roman troops in the region.

In other matters of politics, little limited the power of the ruler.

During his early years on the throne, Pharnaces were mainly concerned with restoring trust among the Greek cities and suppressing the separatist sentiments of the barbarian tribes. In his policy, the young tsar openly condemned the actions of his father in the last years of his life and condemned the general taxes and harsh duties with which Mithridates VI Eupator imposed the inhabitants of the Greek city-states.

Along the way, flirting with Rome and literally imposing his loyalty to him, Pharnaces gradually strengthened his power in the region, hatching more serious plans than ruling the Bosporan kingdom.

Betrayed once, betrayed the second

Increased tensions in Rome, the threat of civil war, and the beginning of the struggle between the triumvirs Caesar and Pompey in the 50s. e. prompted Pharnaces to start decisive military actions aimed at restoring the territories of the Pontic kingdom.

Having subjugated Phanagoria, the king left a certain Asander as governor. And in 49/48 BC. e. went on a military campaign.

Having conquered Colchis, Lesser Armenia and Cappadocia with relative ease, Pharnacs abruptly changed the vector of friendship.

Refusing the call for help from Pompey, he expelled all his supporters from the conquered lands. In his new political game, the Bosporus king tried to win Caesar's favor and enlist his support in the further unification of the lands of the Pontine kingdom.

However, the great commander had his own views on the situation.

Busy with the restoration of power in Egypt, Caesar instructed the Roman commander Dominius Calvin to secure the return of the lands taken from them to the friends of the Romans.

Under the command of Calvin, the XXXVI legion, two legions created by the Galatian king Deiotar according to the Roman model, two hundred horsemen, a legion of recruits from Pontus and auxiliary troops from Cilicia came forward.

"The number of soldiers in the legion varied in different periods, but in the time of Julius Caesar, including auxiliary troops, it could reach 6000 people."

The number of Pharnaces' troops in the battle with Dominicus Calvin is unknown. However, of course, the initiative for the battle was in his hands.

At first, the king tried to use military cunning. Located in a gorge beyond the pass from the positions of the Romans, he collected a large number of livestock from the local population and released them for free range. Pharnace's plan was simple. Having set aside an ambush, he hoped that the Roman troops would try to capture the herds, scatter over the territory and it would be easy to kill them, delivering unexpected blows from several directions.

In parallel with these preparations, Pharnaces did not stop sending ambassadors to the Roman camp with an offer of peace and friendship.

In his subsequent actions, the Bosporus king will constantly resort to this maneuver. Having seized territories, he will each time send ambassadors to the enemy's troops with a proposal for peace, thereby acting as a victim in the person of the local residents, who, despite the desire to end the war, is forced to defend against Roman aggression.

Image of Pharnaces on a gold coin. Source:

Despite the tricks of Pharnaces, the ambush failed.

And the soldiers who were there had to be recalled. Only then did Dominius Calvin come closer to Nicopolis, where the Bosporus king settled. And set up camp right in front of the city.

In response, Pharnaces led his troops into battle formation, offering battle. The Roman commander was in no hurry to accept the battle, lining up part of the army in front of the defensive rampart. While the rest of the warriors were completing the fortification of the camp.

The stand could drag on. However, Pharnace was lucky.

At night, his troops managed to intercept the letter, from which it became clear that Caesar demanded that Calvin immediately send him military aid to Alexandria, where he found himself in a difficult situation. As the Roman general was forced to leave soon, Pharnaces chose a different tactic.

The tsar ordered to dig two ditches at a short distance from each other, more than a meter deep. Between them, he lined up his infantry, and placed numerous cavalry on the flanks outside the ditches.

The Roman army could no longer be under the protection of the camp. And I was forced to fight. The most reliable XXXVI legion took up a position on the right flank. Recruited from the inhabitants of Pontus - on the left. The other two occupied the center of the formation. Auxiliary cohorts formed a reserve.

After the signal for battle from both sides, a fierce battle unfolded, proceeding with varying degrees of success. The XXXVI legion struck at the royal cavalry, pushed it back, forced the ditch and struck the enemy's rear. The Pontic Legion on the left flank was not doing so well. Pushed aside from his positions, he made an attempt to strike and cross the moat. But he was fired upon by the enemy. And almost completely died.

The central groups of forces with difficulty held back the onslaught of the army of Pharnaces. And they suffered huge losses. In the end, most of the Roman army was dispersed. And only the XXXVI Legion managed to retreat in an organized way.

Inspired by the victory, Pharnaces captured Pontus and Bithynia. Having replenished the army and procured the old sickle-bearing chariots found in the royal arsenal, he continued his campaign of conquest.

However, the further situation for the king began to develop not so smoothly.

Bad luck streak

Many Pontic cities, seeing the cruel measures against the occupied territories, did not open the gates for the son of Mithridates VI Eupator. In his own Bosporan kingdom, a rebellion broke out, led by him as governor Asander.

On top of that, Caesar, having successfully completed the Alexandrian War, arrived in Asia Minor to restore Roman order.

In fact, Pharnaces was trapped.

Not finding mass support among the local population, unable to retreat to the lands of the Northern Black Sea region, he was forced to enter into negotiations with Caesar, going for an outright bluff.

Through his ambassadors, Pharnaces offered peace to the Roman general. Declaring at the same time that his army is invincible and did not lose any of the twenty-two battles in which he took part.

The former Bosporus tsar did not forget about his previous political line. So, he even offered Caesar to intermarry with him, passing off his daughter Dynamia as a Roman commander.

Caesar's response to suggestions and indirect threats was simple. He demanded to leave the conquered territories and retreat together with the entire army. For reasons that there was nowhere to return, Pharnacs decided to give a general battle.

The troops converged at the small town of Zela, where Mithridates once defeated the Roman general Triarius. The tsar's hope that luck would smile at him here was not justified.

Acting as decisively as possible, Caesar occupied a hill not far from the enemy's army and began hastily to build camp fortifications.

Deciding not to hesitate and catch the Romans by surprise, August 2, 47 BC. e. Pharnaces moved his troops to attack.

The Romans, considering these actions as tactical maneuvers, did not take them for the beginning of the battle. But, quite unexpectedly, the dense masses of soldiers rushed up the slope to attack. Caught by surprise, Caesar hastily issued the command to form the legions.

But when the formations of the Roman army had not yet been completed, sickle-bearing chariots fell upon them, each of which was led by a team of four horses.

В stories military conflicts, this was the last attack using sickle chariots.

Designed for surprise and psychological effects, it should have caused confusion in the Roman army and given time for the main group of troops to reach the top of the hill.

At first, Pharnace's idea came true.

The Roman legions were confused. And they did not have time to rebuild by the time the infantry approached. Despite the inconvenience of the terrain for the advancing side, a fierce battle ensued, which lasted four hours and ended in a crushing victory for the Romans.

It was after the battle at Zele that Caesar pronounced his famous:

“I came, I saw, I conquered” (“Veni, vidi, vici”).

Fleeing to Sinop, Pharnaces managed to get to the Bosporus by ships. And, relying on the support of the Scythian and Sarmatian tribes, he was even able to capture Theodosia and Panticapaeum.

However, then luck finally left him.

The former king died in one of the battles, opening the way to the throne for his former governor Asander.

Serpentine chariots. Source:

The iron will of the Roman Empire

Despite the fact that the rebellious king died, Rome did not like at all that in the kingdom under his control, their own games were being played in the struggle for the throne.

To establish power in the Bosporus, Caesar instructed his friend Mithridates of Pergamon to move against Asander and take the throne of the kingdom himself. The claims of the Roman henchman were unsuccessful. And in 46 BC. e. he died. Having left for the capital, Caesar could not intervene in these events. And the power actually remained with Asander.

Having failed to achieve recognition from Rome, the former governor married the previously mentioned daughter of Pharnaces, Dynamia. Thus, legitimizing their stay on the throne.

Becoming the successor of the Mithridates dynasty, Asander actively began to increase the defenses of the borders of the Bosporus kingdom, having established himself as a strong and purposeful ruler.

Since that time, a significant influx of new nomadic tribes has been observed on the territory of the Northern Black Sea region, which actively penetrated the Bosporus environment, increasing the military potential of the kingdom. Among the peoples who came, it is worth highlighting the barbarians - the Aspurgians, who will still appear in the historical arena of the Bosporus.

Asander ruled the kingdom as king for about twenty-four years (45/44 to 21/20 BC).

Then he divided the power over the Bosporus between himself and Dynamia. Most likely, this decision was made by him because of his venerable age and inability to quickly respond to emerging challenges.

It is important to mention that even during the life of Asander by 17/16 BC. e. on the territory of the Bosporus kingdom, a certain Scribonius appeared, who pretended to be the grandson of Mithridates VI Eupator. Referring to the order of Augustus, he took Dynamia as his wife and declared himself king of the Bosporus.

Bust of Dynamia. Source: zhurnalkrym.rf

Upon learning of this, the Roman general Agrippa sent the Pontic king Polemon I to the Northern Black Sea region with the aim of overthrowing the impostor and establishing Roman power in the kingdom.

The Bosporians, most likely not wanting a new conflict with Rome, themselves eliminated Scribonia.

However, Polemon I could not independently settle on the throne due to the resistance of a part of the local population. And only the direct intervention of Agrippa forced the Bosporians to recognize the protégé of Rome.

To establish power, Polemon I, like his predecessors, married Dynamia, legally securing the throne. Their marriage did not last long. Already in 12 BC. e. he married Pythodoris, the granddaughter of Mark Antony. And he had three children by her.

Despite the support of Rome, the position of the new king was fragile.

This was especially evident in the Asian part of the Bosporus kingdom, in order to strengthen the power in which Polemon I already in 14 BC. e. launched a series of military campaigns aimed at suppressing the unrest. The course of these events is evidenced by traces of destruction found in the areas of Phanagoria, Bati (Novorossiysk), and also Gorgippia (Anapa).

The Aspurgians (already mentioned earlier) were especially active in the fight against Polemon I.

There are no reliable sources about the culture to which this barbarian group belonged. Coming to the service of Asander, they quickly gained a foothold in the territory, forming an impressive military force. According to a number of historians, the Aspurgians belonged to the Sarmatian nomadic environment, who arrived to the northern shores of the Black Sea from the Caspian steppes.

Given the territory that was provided to them for accommodation (namely, between Phanagoria and Gorgippia), historians suggest that this was not a full-fledged nomadic group, but rather a military squad consisting of professional warriors led by one leader. It is even possible that in order to strengthen the alliance, the ties between the Bosporus rulers of the time of Asander and the Aspurgian tribes were reinforced by kinship relations that were actively practiced in the region.

It is extremely important to note the version that the Queen Dinamia at the very end of the XNUMXst century. BC e. adopted the son of one of the Aspurgian leaders, thus bringing the barbarian elite closer to the ruling dynasty.

Returning to the wars of Polemon I, it is worth noting that his struggle for the Taman Peninsula ended in failure.

In 8 BC. e., according to the testimony of the historian Strabo, the king of the Pontic and Bosporus kingdoms died at the hands of the Aspurgians.

"When King Polemon, attacking them under the pretext of concluding a treaty of friendship, failed, however, to hide his intentions, they outwitted him and, having captured, killed."

Nevertheless, despite the death of the governor of Rome and the active resistance of the barbarian elite of the imperial domination, from the end of the XNUMXst century BC. e. The Bosporan kingdom firmly entered the sphere of Roman influence.

On their borders, the rulers of the Northern Black Sea region had to maintain friendly relations with neighboring barbarian tribes, track the movements of nomadic tribes, protect the population from raids and, if possible, not unleash wars aimed at seizing territories.

The Bosporan kingdom passed into a new era for itself, in which the Roman Empire now played a significant place.

1. Appian. "Book XII of the Mithridatic Wars" Translation by S.P. Kondratieva
2. Strabo. "Geography. Book XI "Translation by G.А. Stratanovsky, Ladomir Publishing House, 1994
3. Strabo. "Geography. Book XIII "Translation by G.А. Stratanovsky, Ladomir Publishing House, 1994
4. Yu.A. Vinogradov, V.A. Goroncharovsky "Military history of the Bosporus kingdom" Publishing house "Lomonosov", 2017
5. V.M. Zubar, A.S. Ruslyaev "On the shores of the Cimmerian Bosporus" Publishing house "Stilos", 2004
6. "On the Alexandrian War." Translated by M.M. Pokrovsky, Ladomir Publishing House, 1993
7. Cassius Dion “Roman History. Book XXXVII ". Loeb Classical Library, translated by V.V. Ryazanova.
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  1. Hunter 2
    Hunter 2 24 March 2021 18: 14
    Yes, today is just some kind of Holiday yes There is also an article by Yegor Laptev, or rather the continuation of the cycle. Many thanks to the Author and the VO administration - for the gift! good
    1. Proxima
      Proxima 24 March 2021 19: 20
      Very interesting article, thank you very much! hi Literary presentation at a high level! good I wish the Author would give a couple of lessons in literary skills to the Samsonov brothers ...
      1. WHAT IS
        WHAT IS 24 March 2021 19: 51
        Quote: Proxima
        I wish the Author would give a couple of lessons in literary skills to the Samsonov brothers

        With this there is order, better a lesson in historical accuracy then
      2. Hunter 2
        Hunter 2 24 March 2021 19: 59
        Quote: Proxima
        I wish the Author would give a couple of lessons in literary skills to the Samsonov brothers ...

        hi I also considered the Samsonovs (the number is unknown) - the embodiment of historical ignorance, BUT ... a citizen of Frolov appeared belay It's just gloomy gloom! Vyacheslav Shpakovsky, Valery Ryzhov, Sergey Linnik and now Yegor Laptev - A ray of light in the History section!
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 25 March 2021 09: 37
          Alexey! hi
          There are other "rays" too, but they are not published.
          1. Hunter 2
            Hunter 2 25 March 2021 09: 56
            This is sad. Authors leave VO request
            Greetings Anton hi
    2. Richard
      Richard 24 March 2021 20: 56
      Interesting article. Great writing style. Well done Yegor! A rare author on VO lately who writes so completely that he does not "leave room" for commentators "to be clever" request Moreover, he always (!!!) cites the sources that he used. good
      Thank you!
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 25 March 2021 07: 11
        I agree. A dynamic, rich story.
        1. Hunter 2
          Hunter 2 25 March 2021 07: 46
          Sergei hi Yegor writes little recourse I really want more of his articles ... he would have a "production rate" like the Samsonovs repeat
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 25 March 2021 07: 48
            Not. A good article needs to be worked on. Pass the material through yourself. But there is life beyond writing articles.

            I can hardly imagine the norm - an article a day.

            I wonder what they would be in a month.
            1. Hunter 2
              Hunter 2 25 March 2021 07: 50
              Perhaps you are right, but I think he has a lot of material, given the elaboration of the articles ... you can also use "side" secondary Plots.
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 25 March 2021 07: 54
                Probably. This is also a skill.
                But we do not know how Yegor's working day develops.
                And what proportion of work on articles to deal with.

                And the hobby mode is not so easy to make systemic.
  2. Bolt cutter
    Bolt cutter 24 March 2021 18: 25
    intermarry with him, passing off his daughter Dynamia as a Roman commander
    So this is where the expression "push forward" came from wassat
  3. Hunter 2
    Hunter 2 24 March 2021 18: 35
    Egor Laptev - please write more, you have very detailed and well-illustrated articles! It is especially pleasant that you give a complete list of Sources good Definitely an article to favorites - I will reread!
    1. PhilipKDick
      25 March 2021 11: 17
      Hello. I would love to, but I do not seem to have enough intelligence or skills to write quickly, efficiently and interestingly.
      I can write an article in two evenings after work, but I edit and redo it for a week later, or even longer.
      Thanks for the feedback.
  4. Flooding
    Flooding 24 March 2021 19: 07
    I'm worried about Dynamics.
    Did she finally find her love?
    Roksolana is resting.
    probably found
    could not help finding with such and such a strong chin
    1. WHAT IS
      WHAT IS 24 March 2021 19: 40
      Yes, there were women in the Bosporan villages! Dynamia was a master of intrigue, she received the right to issue a gold coin with her legend, dynastic emblem and year according to the Bithyno-Pontic era

      1. Stater of Queen Dynamia. Bosporus. Gold. 16 BC
      it happened during the life of Asander, who probably gave her the reins of government. Twice Rome sent its envoys to remove the objectionable ruler from the Bosporus Olympus and twice she twisted experienced businessmen around her finger, playing on their personal ambitions. Only the third envoy of Rome, Polemon I, pushed Dynamia away from authorities, quarreled with her and soon, probably, took part in her death, there were rumors about the poisoning of the queen at his direction.
  5. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 24 March 2021 20: 10
    I'll add an illustration

    Staters Asandra and Dynamia. Sorry for the quality, coins are difficult to photograph.
    Thank you, Egor!
    1. Richard
      Richard 24 March 2021 20: 41
      Anton hi
      History of the appearance of staters of Dynamia
      a photo Bust of Queen Dynamia. Bronze. State Hermitage

      Dynamia was born around 65 BC. e.
      Her grandfather is Mithridates the Great. Her father (the Bosporus king Pharnaces II, in May 47 BC. E. Proposed Dinamyus as a wife to Gaius Julius Caesar (a diplomatic move to demonstrate his loyalty) in order to avoid a battle with the Roman army and distract Rome from his plans to restore the independence of the Bosporus. Pharnace II's proposal fled, but was killed due to the betrayal of Asander.
      Dynamia grew up as a worthy granddaughter of the ambitious Mithridates the Great, absorbed the desire for power, wealth and intrigue, so her then actions, dictated by political expediency, are difficult to assess by today's moral criteria.
      On the one hand, there were internal problems: the Bosporan Greeks and the local Sindo-Meotian tribes surrounding them were dissatisfied with the policy of restricting polis freedoms and the unsuccessful military campaigns of Pharnaces II, therefore they approved the claims to the Bosporan throne of Asander, whom Pharnacs II had previously appointed governor of the Bosporus. When Panticapaeum (the then capital of the Bosporus) was in fact completely subordinate to Asander, the Bosporians had the opportunity to completely change the Aheminido-Mithridat dynasty by overthrowing Dynamia.
      On the other hand - Rome, which dreamed of completely subjugating the Bosporus and eradicating all the orders established by Mithridates the Great.
      Caught between a rock and a hard place, Dynamia showed strategic thinking skills, flexibility, and exploited weaknesses in Asander's positions.
      Asander's most vulnerable point was his title - he bore the title of archon, not king. The royal title of her father, Pharnaces II, was previously officially approved by Rome. Consequently, Asander, who betrayed Pharnaces II, in the eyes of Rome could only be a usurper. From the point of view of the official policy of Rome, Dynamis had more reasons for power than Asander. The next, and more vulnerable place of Asander was his lack of support from the local, Sindo-Meotian tribes (whom Rome called "barbarians"), since they had previously received many trade privileges from Mithridates and Pharnaces II (which they were afraid of losing when the royal surnames).
      In the event of a direct military confrontation, Dynamia could easily defeat Asander. However, she feared that in the event of such a victory, she would spoil the possibility of having a calm and predictable future relationship with Rome and the Greek cities. Her possible victory against Asander entailed the military intervention of the Romans and, as a result, the overthrow of her dynasty, which did not suit her. And then Dinamia made the Solomon decision - to marry Asander (the usurper and murderer of her father).
      Agrippa advised the emperor to change the balance of power in the Bosporus in favor of Dynamia and to achieve the removal of her husband from power, possibly taking into account the fact that Asander had previously had the support of Mark Antony, whom the emperor hated. Political activity and regular displays of loyalty on the part of Dynamia strengthened its prestige in the eyes of the Romans and somewhat calmed the attitude towards it on the part of the Greek cities of the Bosporus.
      Around 22-20 BC. e. Emperor Augustus, together with Agrippa, while on the Bosporus, refused to support Asander, without authorizing the issue of gold coins by him, and Dinamia allowed the issuance of a gold stater in 20 BC. e. (and with the countdown of the years of reign of her grandfather and father). By this, Rome made it clear that he wanted to refuse the services of his former "friend" Asander and intended to support the pro-Mithridates circles led by Dynamia.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 24 March 2021 21: 16
        Hello Dmitry!
        I think it's not a matter of personal enmity, but of Octavian's search for alternative sources of grain imports to the metropolis, against the backdrop of the recent Egyptian embargo initiated by the Antony-Cleopatra tandem, which provoked another civil war.
    2. Korsar4
      Korsar4 25 March 2021 07: 13
      Dynamia on coins "didn't open its face"?
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 25 March 2021 07: 18
        Opened it. However, at the exhibition there was only one coin of its minting. Obviously, no one would have let me take a picture of her obverse. Above in the comment, a colleague gave a graphic representation of this stater from both sides.
        But the heredity of the generic sign of Mithridates is clearly traced.
        1. Korsar4
          Korsar4 25 March 2021 07: 44
          The country should know its leaders or queens. And what is better for this than hard currency.
          1. Hunter 2
            Hunter 2 25 March 2021 08: 16
            The people just by the coins (minted profiles of emperors) and imagined how they looked ... I declare responsibly as a little numismatist! I have in my collection several coins of the Bosporan Kingdom of different times, which is very glad! By the way, copper coins are quite budgetary, almost everyone can afford to buy (many of them are found on the territory of Russia).
            1. Korsar4
              Korsar4 25 March 2021 08: 21
              Any collection is interesting.
              As a child, he was a little fond of stamps.
              These are separate worlds, and countries that no longer exist.
              1. Hunter 2
                Hunter 2 25 March 2021 08: 25
                Well, I'm collecting cold stuff, coins and the Son of Soldiers!
                1. Korsar4
                  Korsar4 25 March 2021 08: 41
                  When my son was little, sometimes he brought tin soldiers from business trips. But it did not become a system.
  6. Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 25 March 2021 11: 52
    Good article. What brings me closer to the author is his love for political history. Paying tribute to the study of material culture, economics and other equally important things, it seems to me that the most interesting is political history - who, where, whom and in what way. smile
    Thanks to the author. good hi
    1. Engineer
      Engineer 25 March 2021 15: 00
      In the framework of ancient history, this is the path of least resistance. The number of narrative sources is limited. Everything has long been sorted out and commented on. Take it and compile.
      So the author writes over and over again how the Sarmatians killed the Scythians and drove them to the Crimea. The Great Scythian-Sarmatian War. For so in the sources. And the fact that archeology refutes this is ignored.

      Do not understand my post as "the author does not write more." But you don't need to publish articles similar to Wiki. Yes, they do not cause rejection and can be read. But they are limited and the author does not grow above himself.

      The comments revealed the demand for analysis of the Ospeev pictures with weapons among the readers. The author did not react.
      The articles are not good yet. So-so. Please take it as constructive criticism.
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 25 March 2021 16: 16
        Personally, for my level, knowledge of this era is still sufficient. smile I think that for most readers it is the same plus or minus, so such materials come in and will go. Compared to other authors published here on an industrial scale, it is not bad at all. Although, equating intelligence with bedside tables is still so-so occupation.
        Therefore, I agree with your criticism and partly support.
        Perhaps, it would make sense, besides analyzing the pictures, to devote a few lines to the Pontic and Bosporus kingdoms themselves - what they basically were, what cities were in them, what buildings in these cities, what gods they prayed to, how exactly, what happened to science, etc. .P. Against this background, the story of the deeds of the rulers would look more vivid and voluminous.
        1. Engineer
          Engineer 25 March 2021 16: 42
          It is a good idea for every writing writer to ask the question "what is significant I have to offer compared to Wikipedia or the popular articles available"
      2. PhilipKDick
        25 March 2021 16: 50
        Hello. And tell me: "And the fact that archeology refutes it is ignored." what sources is it based on? Are there research results, inventories, photographic materials?

        Also. I, in general, do not pretend to uniqueness of texts and new discoveries in the field of historical science. There is neither education nor skills for this.
        The initial data is trivial:
        1. I like to write.
        2. I like the history of antiquity.
        Comparing both factors, at the end, I form articles.
        The opinions in them, in general, are not mine and are based on a primary analysis of the available sources (therefore, if modern authors of books disagree too much, then I either cite different opinions in the articles, or do not reflect them at all.

        As for the images, I generally agree, they are in trouble. It is impossible to choose such that it was both historically and attractive.
        I accepted and accepted criticism. Thank.
        1. Engineer
          Engineer 25 March 2021 17: 09
          It is based on the fact that there is a chronological gap of almost 100 years between the burials of the Scythians and Sarmatians on the right bank of the Don. In the 3rd century BC. no traces of the Sarmatians were found in Scythia. The Sarmatians are already coming to the deserted places .. What I wrote about. This is actually the basic position of archaeologists from somewhere in the 90s.

          It was logical to assume that after
          disappearance of Scythian burial mounds in the Northern Black Sea region
          here, without a significant chronological gap, they should have
          burial monuments of the Sarmatian victors appear. However, the Sarmatian burials below the kurgan appear here after a considerable period of time, not earlier than the II century. BC.
          (Polin, 1992, pp. 124–146; Simonenko, 1993, pp. 104–112).
          1. PhilipKDick
            25 March 2021 17: 22
            I accepted the information.

            However, based on the sources available to me (described above), we can conclude that the "Scythians" and "Sarmatians" do not mean any specific tribes with clearly formed traditions, but whole galaxy of motley nomadic associations.

            Since we can mainly study history (especially written) through the prism of the Greek cultural tradition, it is not surprising that the principal clash of two nomadic groups is called the war of the "Scythians" and "Sarmatians".

            Also. Explain: what are the boundaries of the Scythian lands in question in the message above?
            Better, if possible, send the name of the source. I will be grateful.
            1. Engineer
              Engineer 25 March 2021 20: 27
              The main source is Pauline. "From Scythia to Sarmatia"
              However, based on the sources available to me (described above), we can conclude that the "Scythians" and "Sarmatians" do not mean any specific tribes with clearly formed traditions, but whole galaxy of motley nomadic associations.

              These are groups of tribes, on the one hand, diverse, on the other hand, homogeneous enough so that ancient authors from the time of Herodotus realized the difference and did not mix them.
              Very few sources tell about the enmity between the Scythians and the Sarmatians.
              Diodorus Siculus - the main and practically the only one reports on the resettlement of the Sauromats from Media to the lands of Tanais with the total destruction of the Scythians. There are no details, plus, according to modern ideas, the Sarmatians could not have come from Media in any way
              The Legend of Amag at Polien
              Lucian's novel "Toxaris"
              1. PhilipKDick
                25 March 2021 22: 23
                Regarding the works of Sergei Vasilyevich I accepted. I will take a closer look at the study of the barbarian peoples of the Kuban region.
                However, to assert that there was no "Scythian-Sarmatian war" in the IV-III centuries, based on the opinion of one scientist, in my humble opinion, is not correct.

                There are also alternative points of view (not excluding, but not based only on Diodorus of Siculus). For example, "Greeks and Barbarians of the Northern Black Sea Region in the Scythian Era" edited by K.K. Marchenko / partly in the works of Marchenko, Zhitnikov and Kopylov on the issue of excavations of the Elizabethan settlement.

                Nevertheless, thanks for the discussion. I bow out for this. Today I posted a new article for moderation, I hope there will be something to discuss. Thank.
        2. ccsr
          ccsr 25 March 2021 18: 58
          Quote: PhilipKDick
          Comparing both factors, at the end, I form articles.

          I believe that it is quite useful to present the history of the Bosporus kingdom in a popular form, because most readers are unlikely to start digging into archival materials in order to research deeper. For those who do this professionally, the articles of the author may seem somewhat simpler, but this does not detract from the author's merits in popularizing our history.
          We wish him success, but I personally, as a simple reader, liked the series of articles and I think that the author chose an interesting topic.
  7. faterdom
    faterdom 25 March 2021 12: 49
    So that's where "Veni Vidi Vici" comes from
    So this is where the term "dynamite" comes from - to mean to marry Dynamia, but not to strengthen your real power by this.
  8. Cure72
    Cure72 25 March 2021 14: 59
    Egor, thanks for the continuation. A very interesting series of articles. I read it with pleasure!
  9. Alex013
    Alex013 25 March 2021 17: 14
    "... the Asian part of the Bosporus - Phanagoria" - a typo, probably about the Asian part. The article is very easy to read and the author has collected interesting material.
    1. PhilipKDick
      25 March 2021 17: 25
      Hello. No, not a typo. wink In the ancient world, the Cimmerian Bosporus traditionally acted as the dividing line between Europe and Asia (in the Northern Black Sea region). Therefore, the territory of the Crimean Peninsula was considered European, and the Taman Peninsula - Asian.
      Thank you for your feedback.
      1. Alex013
        Alex013 25 March 2021 17: 27
        Thanks for the detailed answer Egor, I will know!
  10. faterdom
    faterdom 25 March 2021 22: 05
    Quote: Alex013
    "... the Asian part of the Bosporus - Phanagoria" - a typo, probably about the Asian part. The article is very easy to read and the author has collected interesting material.

    Even in our century, the border between Europe and Asia was considered along the Don. Rostov - Europe, Bataysk and Azov - Asia. Bataisk is 10 minutes' drive in a straight line from Rostov. The Krasnodar Territory (Phanagoria) was all about Asia.
  11. Let's go to the world
    Let's go to the world 5 June 2021 01: 48
    The East of Europe and the East in general will always resist the Western centralized system. This is a territory where all plans are covered with a copper basin, and even an unconditional victory does not guarantee peace to the builders of universal empires. so it was and so it will be