Military Review

Cosmic degradation

96

After the collapse of the USSR, the Russian Space Agency was created to manage the inherited unique and powerful rocket and space industry, which was transformed in 2004 into the Federal Space Agency Roscosmos. Based on the rich Soviet heritage of liberal-capitalist Russia, at first it was possible to maintain its leading position in the international market of starting services and engine building.


Until 2020, the Russian manned spacecraft Soyuz was practically the only means of delivering crews to the ISS, since in 2011 the Americans stopped the Space Shuttle launches and transferred their astronauts to Russian spacecraft.

The reason is simple. For 30 years of using the Shuttles, the Americans had only two accidents, but 14 astronauts died in them at once. And the Russians have not had human casualties since 1971. As a result, according to the NASA report, in the period 2011–2019. the Americans paid Russia almost $ 4 billion for the delivery of astronauts to the ISS and their return to earth.

Another lucrative area of ​​Russian-American cooperation is the supply of rocket engines. The Americans had their own engines, but Russian developments were attracted by their reliability and adequate price. In turn, for the Russian space industry, supplies have become a major source of foreign exchange earnings. The first contract for the sale of 101 RD-180 engines for the first stage of the American Atlas-5 launch vehicle, worth almost $ 1 billion, was signed in 1997.

But on the whole, after the collapse of the USSR, the rocket and space industry grew decrepit before our eyes - poor funding, aging personnel and problems with the presence of a "young shift", a growing shortage of highly qualified employees, deterioration of technological equipment, theft and corruption. The habit of riding the great legacy of Soviet space has led to complacency and a gradual technological gap between Russia and its competitors in the face of the United States and China.

Accident


The result of all these problems is a high accident rate.

For the period from 2006 to 2016, almost 6% of launches ended in an accident, each of which cost the state several billion rubles.

For example, in 2010 there were 9 accidents. Two cargo ships and 12 satellites were lost. In 2011 - 5 accidents, as a result of which a cargo ship, an interplanetary station and three satellites were lost. Later it turned out that the electronics of the two satellites (after they were put into orbit) failed due to defective Taiwanese microcircuits. As a result, two more devices, already delivered to the cosmodrome, had to be returned to the manufacturer to eliminate the defect.

On July 2, 2013, the Proton-M launch vehicle, which was supposed to launch three GLONASS satellites into orbit, deviated from the course immediately after launching from the Baikonur cosmodrome, caught fire and fell near the launch complex.

The catastrophe cost the state 5 billion rubles in losses and became the last straw that overflowed the Kremlin's cup of patience. After the Commission established the cause of the accident (it turned out that the installer had installed the angular velocity sensors upside down during the assembly), it became clear that the industry urgently needed to be rescued.

Prime Minister Medvedev publicly chastised the head of Roscosmos, Vladimir Popovkin, who was soon replaced by the former commander of the Aerospace Defense Forces, Colonel General Oleg Ostapchenko.

In 2014, the United Rocket and Space Corporation (URSC) was separated from Roscosmos, which included more than 40 enterprises. URKK was entrusted with the tasks of development, production, testing, operation support, repair and maintenance of rocket and space technology. Roscosmos acted as a customer and defender of the state's interests in the development and implementation of space programs.

However, this division only exacerbated the problems, since President Putin appointed Igor Komarov, who came to the space industry from the post of president of AvtoVAZ, to head the URKK.

Under his leadership, the URKK experienced a significant bias from technical personnel towards managers, lawyers, economists, and financiers. Soon between the head of Roscosmos Ostapchenko and the "effective manager" Komarov, an open confrontation begins for the ability to control financial flows. In 2015, Ostapchenko lost an apparatus war and ceded his position to Komarov.

It would seem that the conflict is over.

But Komarov, already from the position of the head of the space agency, continued to strangle the URCS. It became quite clear that the mistake was systemic - the creation of two powerful centers led to unnecessary competition. URKK was incorporated back into Roskosmos, which in turn was transformed into a state corporation and subordinated to another “effective manager”, Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin, who oversees the military-industrial complex.

The front of work, according to Rogozin, was immense. It was necessary to consolidate the industry, introduce a unified technical policy, radically improve the reliability of equipment, get rid of duplication of work, and bring young specialists to the fore. What was needed was engine-building, instrument-making, rocket-building holdings, a structure responsible for diversifying and expanding Roskosmos's presence in the high-tech equipment markets, as well as joint design work with the aviation industry.

A new Federal Space Program for 2016–2025 was adopted at a cost of 1,5 trillion rubles. The tasks were serious: increasing the constellations of satellites in all areas of activity (from communications, communications, remote sensing of the earth to fundamental space research), expanding the program of manned flights, creating four astrophysical observatories in Earth's orbit to study the Universe, and developing new launch vehicles.

But Rogozin identified the ambitious Lunar program as the main priority of Russian space, including because it can be used to extract minerals.

As a result, the "Dunno on the Moon" strategy pushed the solution of much more pressing tasks (communication services, television, cartography) into the tail of space programs. For example, the revival of the orbital constellation of the GLONASS satellite system was carried out for a long 14 years: from 2001 to 2015. At the same time, the electronic filling of the satellites of the system contained 75-80% of foreign components, which, after breaking with the West in 2014, there was nothing to replace. Only by 2020, the share of Russian microelectronics in spacecraft was hardly brought to more or less acceptable 80%.

In the same years, a lot of work was done in relation to the Russian military and civilian spaceports, provided for by the Federal Space Program for 2016–2025.

The best was the military.

In 2014-2017, under the personal control of Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu, the military cosmodrome Plesetsk was modernized, which made it possible to abandon the operation of the outdated Soyuz-U, Molniya-M, Cyclone-3 and Kosmos- 3M". They were replaced by the more modern space rocket complex "Soyuz-2" and "Angara" of light and heavy class. However, "Plesetsk" is more of a military cosmodrome. And it does not have the capacity to fully implement civilian space programs.

The Baikonur cosmodrome, which remained after the collapse of the USSR on the territory of Kazakhstan, has become obsolete after 60 years of operation. Russia annually spends about 10 billion rubles on it, most of which is rent to Kazakhstan. At the same time, the Kazakh authorities have repeatedly tried to withdraw the cosmodrome from Russian jurisdiction and reassign it for joint exploitation with rich Arab countries. However, it did not grow together with the Arabs, and the Kazakhs were unable to pull the cosmodrome on their own.

In 2019, the Russian Ministry of Defense decided to drastically reduce its space spending - it closed the launch site for military satellites at the Kapustin Yar training ground and completely transferred all launches of military satellites from Baikonur to Plesetsk. Also, the cost of maintaining the city of Baikonur, adjacent to the cosmodrome, in which now mainly Kazakhs who have nothing to do with space, live, were reduced.

Since 2012, the new Vostochny cosmodrome has been built to replace Baikonur. It was he who was assigned the role of the future main launch pad of the country. In this connection, he even got on a new banknote with a face value of 2000 rubles.

The idea of ​​placing a new cosmodrome on Russian territory is undoubtedly reasonable and sensible. The construction site was chosen from three options. The sparsely populated adjacent territories, the proximity of railways and airfields were taken into account. As a result, they chose a place where it turned out to be impossible to use the capacities of the Far Eastern region. There is no railway, the construction of which is hindered by the Sikhote-Alin pass. All rocket units to the cosmodrome have to be dragged from the European part of the country - Samara and Omsk. You don't have to stutter about super-heavy rockets. They simply will not pass through the "Procrustean bed" of the Transsib.

The construction of Vostochny itself was accompanied by scandals and criminal cases typical of liberal Russia - cost overruns, embezzlement, months-long delays in the construction schedule, non-payment of wages, workers' strikes and hunger strikes, arrests of heads of construction companies. 140 criminal cases and damage worth 10 billion rubles - this is only the official price of the Vostochny cosmodrome for our country.

In the fall of 2014, the utterly irritated Putin entrusted the leadership of the commission for the construction of the cosmodrome personally to Deputy Prime Minister Rogozin, who managed to bring relative order and reduce the backlog in construction time from 28 to 4 months. Having spent a total of 84 billion rubles, one launch pad was somehow built at the cosmodrome. At the end of April 2016, the first long-awaited launch took place from it.

The Russian president personally flew in to watch the launch, but at the very last moment the matter turned into a new shame - the Soyuz-2.1b rocket did not take off. The launch had to be postponed for a day, after which the rocket nevertheless safely went into space.

This daily delay spoiled the whole effect of the first launch. Dmitry Rogozin and the head of Roscosmos Igor Komarov received a reprimand. Director General of NPO Automatics Leonid Shalimov "voluntarily" resigned. As a punishment for all the rest, the proceedings were intensified in cases of embezzlement during the construction of Vostochny. The President instructed Defense Minister Shoigu to personally supervise the further progress of the construction of facilities at the cosmodrome, and later, by his decree, eliminated the thoroughly corrupt Spetsstroy, which had failed all the deadlines.

So far, Vostochny has not become the country's main launch pad. The cosmodrome readiness level is estimated at only 25%. There is only one launch pad for Soyuz-2 missiles in a relatively working condition. Four launches were carried out from it in 2016–2018 (one of them was unsuccessful).

Now a launch pad is being built at the cosmodrome for heavy rockets, the launch of which is planned to be postponed from Baikonur in 2025. In the meantime, more and more flaws in the previous emergency construction are being revealed, which turn the cosmodrome into a monument to corruption and "sawing off". In 2019, President Putin and the head of the Accounts Chamber Kudrin were forced to admit that theft continued at the cosmodrome, and that it was flourishing at Roskosmos at an accelerated pace.

Killer satellites


Having put in order its spaceports, Russia began to gradually build up its orbital grouping. In 2012–2017, 55 military spacecraft were launched. Among them are the assassin satellites (as they were christened in the West).

History with them began in 2013, when the Americans suddenly discovered movements in orbit of an object, which, due to its small size, was considered space debris. However, upon closer examination, the "trash" turned out to be the Russian satellite "Kosmos-2491". Soon Kosmos-2499 and Kosmos-2504 were launched into orbit. Both satellites moved, approaching not only their satellites and upper stages, but also Chinese spacecraft. One of them even slightly "kissed" the upper stage, slightly changing its trajectory either as a result of a control error, or so it was conceived according to the test scenario.

In the summer of 2017, another satellite, Cosmos-2519, tested communication facilities, new software and carried out a series of engine launches that changed its orbit. Soon another satellite, Kosmos-2521, separated from it. The Russian Defense Ministry announced that this pair is a platform and an inspector satellite. The launch was announced as a test one, to investigate the possibility of a survey satellite-inspector of its carrier. Soon one more "crumb" - "Cosmos-2523" was separated from the inspector. The Russian military refused to explain his appointment.

The Americans were also alarmed that the Russian satellites "Kosmos-2542" and "Kosmos-2543" behave like combat space drones. US Air Force Command named their maneuvers

"Unusual and disturbing"

and potentially

"Dangerous".

Considering the enormous dependence of the US military command and control agencies on the performance of their satellites, the appearance of Russian assassin satellites in space caused a certain tension among American experts and the military.

Since we have touched on the topic of anti-satellite warfare, it is worth noting that Russia has other means at its disposal to destroy enemy satellites. The A-135 Amur and A-235 Nudol silo-based missiles are capable of intercepting satellites at an altitude of 600 and 750 km, respectively. The promising S-500 missile defense system is also capable of striking enemy satellites, but in lower orbits.

There is also the MiG-31BM fighter-interceptor. It is planned to be armed with a missile known as "product 293" and 14A045. To intercept enemy spacecraft, not a traditional warhead is used, but a special maneuvering satellite of a small size. This product, called "Burevestnik-M" or "Burevestnik-KA-M", using the 14A045 rocket should maneuver between orbits, approach the target and hit it. The principle of defeat is unknown: foreign sources mention the possibility of kinetic interception or the presence of a high-explosive or nuclear warhead.

Also in Russia, work is underway to create a mobile strike anti-satellite complex "Rudolph". Another promising development is the Triada-2S radio-electronic complex, which is designed to suppress and disable communication satellites.

At the beginning of 2018, Russia successfully completed work on the creation of an airborne laser gun, which, depending on the emitted power, should either blind the optoelectronic equipment of satellites or disable electronics. True, she has no carrier yet. It was decided that it would not be an outdated Il-76, but a new aircraft. But it has yet to be created.

Peaceful space problems


Let's return to peaceful space, the problems of which became especially acute after 2014, when sanctions were imposed on Russia. This deprived the space industry of many American components, materials and electronics, which it "got hooked" on during the period of "friendship" with the United States.

Then the liberal government of Medvedev sharply cut funding for the entire Federal Space Program. As of 2018, in monetary terms, it shrank three times from the initial level. The government's treacherous trip has strangely coincided with increased competition in the international commercial launch market.

Having found itself on a starvation diet, Roscosmos was forced to curtail 29 research programs, to cut the costs of operating the ISS to the limit. It came to the point that crews of two people began to be put into the Soyuz orbital trucks, and not three, as it should be. The place of the third crew member was occupied by a container with cargo. The funding cuts have led to a further decrease in the overall motivation of wage earners and a new increase in accidents.

In 2015, there were 4 accidents. On December 1, 2016 at the Baikonur cosmodrome, after the launch, the Soyuz-U launch vehicle with the Progress MS-04 cargo vehicle was lost. The damage exceeded 4 billion rubles. The cause of the accident was again the notorious human factor - the ingress of foreign particles into the oxidizer pump during the assembly. The Angolan telecommunications satellite launched into space, manufactured by RSC Energia, quietly died somewhere in orbit. Earlier, the spacecraft for Egypt and Israel, created in Russia, stopped working. The Indonesian satellite did not make it to orbit either.

In 2017, Roscosmos was forced to recall 71 engines on the second and third stages of the Proton launch vehicles for inspections. The reason is that the Voronezh Mechanical Plant, which produces them, violated technical requirements during production.

On November 28, 2017, another disaster - the Soyuz-2.1b launch vehicle, launched from the Vostochny cosmodrome, sent 19 satellites into the Atlantic Ocean at once, 17 of which were foreign. Customers from the USA, Canada, Germany, Japan, Norway and Sweden have lost their devices.

On October 11, 2018, Russia's reputation as a leading space power was dealt the final blow. For the first time in 35 years, the Soyuz MS-10 manned spacecraft launched to the ISS did not enter orbit due to the accident of the Soyuz-FG launch vehicle. The case almost ended with the death of cosmonaut Alexei Ovchinin and NASA astronaut Nick Haig, whose lives were saved by a timely emergency rescue system. For the first time, Russia was unable to fulfill its obligations to deliver the crew to the ISS.

Meanwhile, China burst into the international market of launch services and began to rapidly crowd out the space superpowers of the United States and Russia. If in 2013 the Russians were the undisputed leaders and made 32 launches (almost the same as the Chinese and Americans combined), then since 2016, first the Americans, and then the Chinese, took the lead. In 2018, the Americans have already conducted 31 launches, the Chinese - 39, the Russians - 17. Taking into account history, the smaller number of launches of Russian rockets was only at the dawn of cosmonautics from 1957 to 1961 - from two to nine annually.

Against the background of accidents, cuts in funding, technical backwardness and loss of human resources, Roscosmos continues futile attempts to create a new manned spacecraft and a launch vehicle for it to replace the endlessly modernized but long outdated Soyuz.

The first Russian multipurpose manned reusable spacecraft Clipper was built only as a model. And it was closed as a project back in 2006. It was to be replaced in 2015 by "Federation" (later renamed "Eagle"). However, the most difficult systemic and financial problems of the space industry have postponed this project indefinitely. In 2018, almost the entire development team headed by the chief designer resigned from the Energia corporation, which created the Federation. In the spring of 2020, Evgeny Mikrin, General Designer of the Energia manned programs, passed away. Therefore, Russia has not yet been able to bring to mind anything new in terms of manned vehicles.

The same story is observed in the development of a new heavy carrier rocket "Angara-A5" with a payload of 35 tons, which was seen as the main replacement for the completely reliable "Proton". Why it was necessary to develop the "Angara", when the USSR had the "Energy" project embodied in metal with a carrying capacity of 100 tons, on which it was only necessary to update the electronics, is not clear.

In total, 1995 billion rubles were spent on the program for 2015–160, and as a result they received an expensive and difficult-to-manufacture heavy launch vehicle "Angara-A5". The projects of the light class "Angara 1.1" and "Angara 1.2", the medium "Soyuz-5" (aka "Irtysh" or "Phoenix") and the super-heavy "Angara-A5V" have not yet been brought to mind. There are many reasons for this. The demand for all these missiles in the commercial launch market is questionable. Light versions of the Angara rocket, in general, turned out to be superfluous, having entered into competition with the carriers of the Soyuz line. The US sanctions also played a significant role, influencing the preferences of foreign customers.

Angara's direct foreign competitor, the Falcon-9 heavy rocket, is already most in demand all over the world, having given the start of a real

"Rocket revolution".

It is more modern, simpler and half the cost of launching the Angara, has a reversible first stage and is the one trusted by commercial customers, including the US Department of Defense.

Russia, on the other hand, has hopelessly lagged behind - the creation of a reusable rocket requires not only a political decision: it needs technology, funding, years of trial and error, as well as a clear understanding of which market segment can be claimed. There is none of this. Nevertheless, in the summer of 2018, Moscow decided to produce the number of "Protons" necessary to fulfill the already concluded contracts and by 2025 to finally close this commercially successful project, moving to the more expensive and unfinished "Angara".

Implementing this decision, "effective managers" immediately rushed to destroy the only enterprise producing "Protons" - the Khrunichev State Space Research and Production Center.

In its best years, only on commercial launches, the State Scientific and Production Center brought in a profit of 600-700 million dollars a year. Then the "effective managers" decided to create a holding company on the basis of the center, adding to it a number of problematic space enterprises. They pulled the Khrunichev Center to the bottom. In 2015, in exchange for a loan, the company was forced to transfer the rights to use most of its production facilities. Then it was corporatized, and when by 2019 the center's debts had grown to 110 billion rubles, they were simply thrown out of the prestigious district of Moscow into Omsk, completely unadapted for this, at the facilities of the Polet Production Association.

Having lost the capital's salaries, many valuable specialists left the unique labor collective. Others were fired for disagreeing with the current policy. Due to constant scandals and relocations, the company has become the most problematic in the industry. And this means that when the production of "Proton" is curtailed, Russia, in general, is deprived of a heavy launch vehicle. Establishment of production of "Angara" in Omsk is painfully slow, its serial production is scheduled not earlier than 2023. But this rocket still needs to be taught to fly from a new cosmodrome, having accumulated positive launch statistics for further commercial use.

Summing up the results of the last five-year plan (2013–2018), the Russian leadership inevitably came to the obvious and disappointing conclusion - the situation in the space industry still leaves much to be desired. The accident rate of launches increased from 5,8 to 7,3%. For comparison: for Americans it was only 2,5% for a much longer period of 2007-2017.

The reappointment of Dmitry Rogozin from deputy prime ministers to the head of Roscosmos instead of Komarov's “effective manager” does not change the situation. Again, concealment of the real state of affairs in the space industry, a bunch of fantastic plans for the exploration of the Moon, demands for money and writing off all failures to the "previous management". Roscosmos grabs on to various projects, assimilates money for them, and then switches to new "projects", without really bringing anything to the end. Now there are talks about the closure of the unsuccessful project "Angara" (under which the Vostochny cosmodrome was actually built) and the transition to a new carrier rocket "Soyuz-5". That is, hundreds of billions of rubles were simply thrown into the wind and no one was punished for this.

Meanwhile, funding for the space industry has been cut by three times. Money from the export of services is also drying up, as Roscosmos is already strongly associated all over the world with holes in the skin, falling missiles and general incompetence at all levels. Russia has lost the status of a great space power, having received in return the reputation of a state that sometimes, with some luck, can launch something into orbit. To be lucky more often, the government turned to the ROC with a request to consecrate all missiles. But since this measure was clearly not enough, a particle of the relics of Seraphim of Sarov was also sent into space.

Although 2019 (for the first time in the last 10 years!) Passed without accidents, the general degradation of the industry is evident. So, for the intended purpose, only 21 GLONASS satellites are used, while for guaranteed global coverage it is necessary to have 24 operating satellites. In addition, more than half of the GLONASS spacecraft are already operating outside the warranty period (we have it only 7 years, while the Americans have 15). In practice, this means that you can expect anything other than high reliability from them. In 2019–2020, the program for updating military satellites was disrupted, and three Proton-M launch vehicles had to be returned from Baikonur for repairs at once.

Meanwhile, the Americans, Europeans and Chinese are gradually phasing out their cooperation with Russia and are adopting their own ambitious space programs, developing manned spacecraft and planning to conduct their test launches in the coming years.

The space industry in China is experiencing the most rapid development, which became the leader in 2019 in terms of the number of launches and introduced its own satellite navigation system BeiDou, which supplemented the American GPS, Russian GLONASS and European Galileo. At the same time, the Chinese are developing a project for their national near-earth orbital station, to which Roscosmos is now trying to join. The Chinese Chang'e-5 spacecraft delivered soil samples from the lunar surface to Earth. This is the first delivery of lunar soil to Earth in 45 years, since the Soviet mission "Luna-24", which took place in 1976.

The United States is also developing rapidly. This was achieved by attracting private companies, whose ambitions and approach to work made it possible in a short time to create launch vehicles that significantly advanced Russia in the space transportation market. In 2014, SpaceX submitted a Dragon-2 manned spacecraft to the competition, while Boeing submitted a CST-100. After that, both companies received a total of $ 6,8 billion from NASA. Projects are developing successfully. And in 2020, the private ultra-modern spacecraft "Crew Dragon" with two American astronauts on board made the first independent flight to the ISS.

In the future, the Americans plan to put up their part of the ISS for auction, in connection with the creation of the Space Forces and the resumption of the Lunar program. The goal of the project is to create a habitable base on the surface of the satellite and turn the moon into a springboard for sending expeditions to other planets. One after another, we receive messages about the new successes of our competitors. In 2021, an entire space fleet arrived at Mars, consisting of the United Arab Emirates orbital probe and rovers from China and the United States. On January 24, 2021, the Falcon-9 reusable heavy launch vehicle was successfully launched in Florida, which launched 143 satellites into low-earth orbit.

At the same time, preparations for the deployment of missile defense systems in space and the preparation of a research mission to the outskirts of the solar system are under way in the United States. Also in 2020, the Americans completed the formation of the AEHF (Advanced Extremely High Frequency) satellite system, which is responsible for providing secure and interference-resistant communications between the American command (including the president and the Joint Chiefs of Staff) with deployed military units and units.

conclusions


Russia in the conditions of a liberal dictatorship and financial oppression can only watch these processes from the outside. Beggarly salaries threw almost all highly qualified personnel out of the space industry, and Soviet achievements have long become history. Russia has been excluded from the program for creating a lunar station, and it is no longer needed as a space cab after 2020 - its share in the launch services market has dropped to 1%. But Roscosmos continues to gush with new projects - a flight to Mars, a lunar program, its own orbital station.

In one of the Czech publications, the columnist Karel Zvonik expressed a well-founded opinion that

“Russia, which cannot be denied ingenuity, has recently lost a clear and understandable goal.

Judging by the inexhaustible stream of statements by Russian leaders, the country under the leadership of Vladimir Putin wants to achieve practically everything in astronautics, but cannot bring anything to its logical conclusion. "

To rehabilitate the space industry, it is necessary to restructure its entire corrupt structure under the maximum control of the state and supervisory authorities, eliminate the layer of "effective managers", increase salaries for workers and specialists, revive the engineering staff, stable funding and the transition to Soviet standards of control and quality. Without this, Russia will not be able to either regain its leading position in space, nor ensure its own security.

The further fate of Russian space under liberal rule is obvious - the privatization of astronautics, the destruction of everything that does not bring instant profit, and the struggle for Chinese and Arab investments.
Author:
Photos used:
https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Роскосмос#/media/Файл:Стартовый_комплекс_космодрома_Восточный_перед_первым_пуском.jpg
96 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. Destiny
    Destiny 2 March 2021 10: 05
    +14
    The best was the military.

    Well, at least it's more or less normal here, it's already good ...
    1. dSK
      dSK 2 March 2021 10: 23
      -3
      After the reorganization of aviation design bureaus, smart heads who do not want to leave Moscow will go to new Space Center in Fili.
      17 enterprises of Roskosmos and MCC from the Moscow region are transferred there. In order for employees to have Moscow bonuses and pensions.
      Roskosmos will receive a significant acceleration of its programs ...
      1. forty-eighth
        forty-eighth 2 March 2021 10: 44
        +8
        Well, just so that "significant acceleration" - I would not flatter myself.
        There will be an influx of qualified personnel, and that's good. But the specificity, the specificity ... It will eat up a lot of time for adaptation. All the same, planes fly, rockets fly, but there is a nuance.
        1. Civil
          Civil 2 March 2021 11: 18
          -2
          Judging by the inexhaustible stream of statements by Russian leaders, the country under the leadership of Vladimir Putin wants

          Is it GDP again to blame?
          restructuring of its entire corrupt structure under the maximum control of the state and supervisory authorities

          Bees versus honey? How can predators control other predators?
          elimination of the layer of "effective managers"

          Passed ... "let's remove the" Red directors "or" the state is always an ineffective owner, let's transfer the Volgograd tractor to private hands "," effective managers "will leave, an extremely" educated new generation of buzzers "will come, but in fact these are all people - different generations of the same and the same family.
          increase in wages for workers and specialists

          Where does the money come from? And those who are and work for these pennies. What's the point of paying more?
          revival of engineering staff

          There are no problems with personnel, there are problems with salaries for normal personnel.

          Space, like Victory, was forged by the Soviet state, and not by capitalist countries of the world. That's all the achievements of astronautics will become history with the parades on April 3 with portraits of Korolev, Gagarin and all the other heroes of Soviet space.
          1. military_cat
            military_cat 2 March 2021 11: 40
            -2
            The problem with the space industry is that it has become isolated for political reasons.

            There will be no modern radio-resistant electronics - any projects of competitive spacecraft have disappeared. Competitive means of launching, suppose, will appear (Amur-LNG), but after 2022 it will be impossible to remove them under the threat of losing contracts with US structures by customers. What would customers prefer, lose the opportunity to have such contracts, or simply launch their satellites with a rocket from another manufacturer? Our engines are competitive even now, but for the same reasons there will be no one to sell them after 2022. None of the carriers being developed in the world are already designed for them. Joint scientific research programs are disappearing before our eyes (Gateway), we will not be able to pull off projects of a comparable level alone (there are not only budgets, but also electronics and other advanced high-tech devices that fall under dual use).

            And most importantly, there is no way out of this situation, even a theoretical one. The West has shown its readiness to both impose these sanctions and support them regardless of who holds the highest posts, so the option to "wait it out" does not look realistic. Even competent and effective management of the industry will not help, because the listed problems are not about efficiency. Problems with efficiency are only what is in front of our eyes, the tip of the iceberg, but beyond efficiency, the situation does not get better.

            We can only hope that what we got thanks to our position in the international arena in return was worth it.
          2. Sahalinets
            Sahalinets 2 March 2021 12: 50
            +11
            So our state enterprises have been essentially private for a long time! And it is their management that is the most profitable business in the Russian Federation! Personal investment is zero, serious responsibility is almost zero, just put your people on cash flows and suck it into your pocket, just remembering to send the share to whomever you need.
            Profit!
          3. Vadim237
            Vadim237 2 March 2021 18: 30
            -9
            The United States is a capital country, and as a result of the USSR, it has done everything in the space sector since 69th year.
            1. bayard
              bayard 3 March 2021 05: 16
              +4
              Quote: Vadim237
              made

              yes
              Yeah.
              I did it.
              Or was it?
              Without sanitation and working life support systems. yes
              In diapers. lol
              To the moon .
              In spacesuits with zippers. good
              On F-1 engines.
              And what are the smiles of the conquerors of the moon laughing ... Hollywood. yes
              It is not surprising - after a week in diapers, zero gravity, two takeoffs and two landings good from the second space speed wink on hard (without rebound from the atmosphere for maturity) and goats on the deck smile like after spa ...

              At the turn of the 80s - 90s, we ensured up to 120 landings of spacecraft.
              Landings only!
              Of course they beat us.
              It's scary to remember about "Buran" - it was sent to the slaughter (communist Gorbachev) in unmanned mode ... and he took it and sat down.
              He sat down nicely.
              And "Energia" put 100 tons into the reference orbit. Albeit with side load securing.
              But there was also an option / project for 200 tons of carrying capacity, with a classic fastening.
              This is if someone decides to fly to Mars ... Or to the Moon - to see where the Americans scattered diapers ...

              Traitors and traitors to the Motherland have “gotten away” us. Communists who decided to become capitalists.
              And who became them.
              Their last offspring do not need space ... the pig is not capable of looking at the stars - its neck is arranged so, only in a trough ... Well, or to undermine the corner of a barn ... Philosophy of local capitalism ...
              So win! bully
              1. rjpthju
                rjpthju 5 March 2021 09: 18
                0
                What are you talking about 80 - 90s. The article is about the current state of astronautics
                1. bayard
                  bayard 5 March 2021 18: 28
                  +2
                  Quote: rjpthju
                  What are you talking about 80 - 90s.

                  Because after 1969 there were the 70s, 80s, 90s.
                  And today we have Rogozin.
                  Poet ...
                  1. Sling cutter
                    Sling cutter 6 March 2021 03: 52
                    +8
                    Quote: bayard
                    And today we have Rogozin.
                    Poet ...

                    I have completely different epithets for ragozin and his immediate superior Putin.
            2. Sling cutter
              Sling cutter 6 March 2021 03: 50
              +8
              Quote: Vadim237
              The United States is a capital country, and as a result of the USSR, it has done everything in the space sector since 69th year.

              Where do you come from? The question is why the capitalist Russian Federation in this case did not do everything?
              Let me remind you that Energy-Buran was made in the USSR.
          4. bayard
            bayard 3 March 2021 04: 47
            +11
            Quote: Civil
            Is it GDP again to blame?

            What are you, what are you. smile
            Even Rogozin is not to blame for anything.
            And Serdyukov - Hero of Russia!
            How can you slander a shrine ?!
            Quote: Civil
            There are no problems with personnel, there are problems with salaries for normal personnel.

            Fu, how patriotic it is.
            For money, everyone can. lol
            But what kind of songs the head of Roscosmos squeaks ... fellow ... Tears the heavens to shreds !!!
            And templates.
            Soon vodka "Let's go" on all store shelves! yes
            And evil tongues claim that this brand will spread to cocaine. bully
            Accepted, and - flew. wassat
            And no accidents.
            STABILITY. yes
    2. Terenin
      Terenin 2 March 2021 11: 07
      +10
      liberal-capitalist Russia at first managed to maintain its leading position
      No, Russia got on the wrong "train".
      Or transplant or crash
      1. Doctor
        Doctor 2 March 2021 11: 20
        +10
        No, Russia got on the wrong "train".
        Or transplant or crash

        That's right. And not only astronauts, but also journalists.

        was soon replaced by the former commander of the Aerospace Defense Forces, Colonel-General Oleg Ostapchenko.


        Oleg Nikolaevich is not Ostapchenko, but OSTAPENKO has always been.



        Sensors upside down, yeah ... laughing
        1. Terenin
          Terenin 2 March 2021 11: 24
          +8
          Quote: Arzt
          Oleg Nikolaevich is not Ostapchenko, but OSTAPENKO has always been.

          Unfortunately, from the triad of "rights, duty and responsibility", they are guided only by "law" yes
          1. Snail N9
            Snail N9 2 March 2021 17: 03
            +2
            What "rockets"? This is, according to Roskosmos, "the last century" and "a waste of money." Catching up is stupid, you need to make a leap forward right away, so at first we rushed with the so-called "Leonov Engine", "then with an ion engine", then with a "solar sail", now here is a new "hope" and "nashfs" - nuclear tug "Nuclon" ", collected not clearly for what and from what (similar, exactly similar, do not think what ... wink details, I saw in "Petrovich" and in "Leroy Merlin") the structure, such as a part of the "tug", is dragged around different exhibitions and presentations, like, you see, "we are doing", "quite a bit" left until 2030, we will soon assemble and will fly .. -give money, yes .... we will fly soon ...
        2. Disant
          Disant 2 March 2021 16: 34
          +2
          Sensors upside down, yeah ..

          explain what you think
          1. Doctor
            Doctor 2 March 2021 19: 31
            +1
            explain what you think

            The author will reproach Roskosmos for inattention to trifles:

            The catastrophe cost the state 5 billion rubles in losses and became the last straw that overflowed the Kremlin's cup of patience. After the Commission established the cause of the accident (it turned out that the installer had installed the angular velocity sensors upside down during the assembly), it became clear that the industry urgently needed to be rescued.
      2. Bad_gr
        Bad_gr 2 March 2021 22: 19
        0
        Quote: Terenin
        No, Russia got on the wrong "train".

        We are introducing democracy everywhere, and everywhere, invented in Greece, in a slave-owning society. It was there that she normally worked in a circle of slave owners, relying on the labors of slaves. But why should it suit us? all the more, if you look from the bottom, where, in the main, is the majority of the population?
      3. Sling cutter
        Sling cutter 6 March 2021 03: 55
        +7
        Quote: Terenin
        No, Russia got on the wrong "train".
        Or transplant or crash

        Colleague, many of our fellow citizens are completely satisfied with this "train", confidently rushing to hell.
    3. Sling cutter
      Sling cutter 6 March 2021 03: 45
      +8
      Quote: Destiny
      The best was the military.

      Well, at least it's more or less normal here, it's already good ...

      What good is it? Military space does not generate income and does not affect the country's prestige in any way.
      In addition, instead of launching their own satellites, increasing the grouping, our leaders decided to destroy strangers.
      Space is a litmus test confirming the degradation of Putinism and its rotten essence - palaces and yachts - "our everything."
  2. The comment was deleted.
    1. The comment was deleted.
      1. mark1
        mark1 2 March 2021 11: 33
        +8
        How smart you are ... !!! Well, on a haloperidol! -For the comprehensibility of BEING! drinks
        live my ... paki paki ...
    2. WILL
      WILL 2 March 2021 11: 46
      +6
      Quote: Sezarych
      Therefore, the First MAN Who Was on the Moon is JESUS ​​Christ.
      Fulfill the Prophecy Spoken by A.S. Pushkin :.

      First Cosmonaut - Jesus Christ belay and A.S. Pushkin is a predictor ??? Here's a new twist! And with all due respect to all beliefs and confessions, this is not a forum of "theologians and theologians" - this is the Military Review, a forum about the Army and the Navy, new military equipment and, unfortunately, political news. You have made the wrong website.
  3. Rubi0
    Rubi0 2 March 2021 10: 23
    -7
    If there are no shootings like in China, then it is necessary to launch private traders like in the USA, and make Roskosmos an analogue of today's NASA, hold tenders for state programs as much as possible
    1. unaha
      unaha 2 March 2021 12: 40
      +9
      There are no private traders. And under the existing system of government, there will be none.
      1. Vadim237
        Vadim237 2 March 2021 18: 35
        -1
        "Kosmokurs" - why are you not private traders?
        1. unaha
          unaha 3 March 2021 07: 22
          +3
          I very much doubt that they will launch anything at all. "S7 Sea Launch" is an example of the finale of such initiatives in the Russian Federation.
        2. unaha
          unaha April 6 2021 10: 46
          0
          Actually, that's all:
          "The Kosmokurs company, which was developing the project for the construction of the first Russian private cosmodrome in the Nizhny Novgorod region, is closing," its general director Pavel Pushkin told RIA Novosti.

          Among the reasons for the liquidation of the company are called "insurmountable difficulties in coordinating the requirements for the cosmodrome project with the local authorities and the inability to obtain from the Ministry of Defense the necessary regulatory documentation for the design of a suborbital tourist rocket."
    2. gsev
      gsev 7 March 2021 09: 51
      +1
      Quote: Rubi0
      If there are no shootings like in China,

      In the 1990s, the responsible officials of the PRC Ministry of Internal Affairs knew with certainty the number of convicted businessmen in the PRC. It was not difficult, since the number of inmates for economic and tax articles was calculated in 2 or 3 digits. At that time, in Yeltsin's Russia, accountants were almost the largest group among the convicts.
  4. Woodman
    Woodman 2 March 2021 10: 26
    0
    In the fall of 2014, the utterly irritated Putin entrusted the leadership of the commission for the construction of the cosmodrome personally to Deputy Prime Minister Rogozin, who managed to bring relative order and reduce the backlog in construction time from 28 to 4 months.
    That is, did Rogozin bring any benefit in his post?
    The space industry in China is experiencing the most rapid development.
    No wonder - China has finally "matured" to the appropriate technologies and it is quite natural that it will make ambitious plans and try to take its rightful place among the space powers.
    About degradation. In my opinion, the entire world cosmonautics is in decline. After the end of the competition between the two political systems, it turned out that all the "available targets" in space had been passed. Without political overtones, flights to the Moon and Mars with existing technology are unnecessarily expensive and will not bring any tangible "bonuses". Space programs have mostly focused solely on the commercial component. And this will continue until, most likely by accident, a technological revolution occurs in the field of rocketry. It will have to shorten, significantly reduce, the duration of space expeditions over long distances and reliably ensure the safety of spacecraft crews. Until then, the development of astronautics will continue to resemble a sluggish fuss in a near-earth sandbox. And the primary goals will be commercial. There will be some kind of a surge in development if suddenly China, although I do not really believe in it, will put a base on the moon without anyone's help and establish more or less constant flights to this base. But most likely, China will confine itself to the struggle for commercial launches and, in a few years, will likewise "get bogged down" in near-earth orbit.
    So, to overcome space degradation, either a competition between two systems is necessary, which is not visible in the foreseeable future, or a technological revolution, and it is even more difficult with it than with competition ...
    1. forty-eighth
      forty-eighth 2 March 2021 10: 35
      0
      That is, did Rogozin bring any benefit in his post?

      When it came to personal responsibility, I was not hopeless.
      After the end of the competition between the two political systems, it turned out that all the "available targets" in space were passed

      I would not say. Missions to Saturn, Pluto, Mercury and Mars, which were carried out by Western countries after the collapse of the USSR, gave a lot to world science.
      Standing apart is Rosetta, which was more of a mission of prestige and an entrance exam to the club of space powers.
      1. Avior
        Avior 2 March 2021 10: 48
        +2
        For scientific purposes, an active commercialization of space is underway, which leads to a sharp increase in the commercial use of space.
        1. The leader of the Redskins
          The leader of the Redskins 2 March 2021 11: 09
          +6
          From the entire article, I realized (thanks to the last paragraph) that the culprit is liberal rule. How ...
          1. Woodman
            Woodman 2 March 2021 11: 14
            +3
            Quote: Leader of the Redskins
            (thanks to the last paragraph)

            I started to guess about this after reading the title of the article laughing
          2. unaha
            unaha 2 March 2021 12: 42
            +6
            And where the author found at least something "liberal" in the Russian Federation, one cannot understand at all.
    2. ammunition
      ammunition 2 March 2021 11: 20
      +2
      Quote: Lesovik
      About degradation. In my opinion, the entire world cosmonautics is in decline.

      You are completely correct. This is despite the fact that the United States is now spending on space as much as in the record 1966. (NASA's budget is 22.6 billion + 25 billion costs of private American companies, total - 47.6 billion = 5.9 billion for the 1966 sample).
      ------------------
      All this - by inertia .. no one cares about space .. (except for a few enthusiasts). The spirit is not the same ... just the earth and the sky. Unless .. Musk wants to take a selfie .. with a cool background planids.. -)) and otherwise - them (to the rulers of this world), deeply do not care about space.
      ----------------
      Even China ... it would seem ... could have retained the spirit of exploration. But no .. even China spends less than 0.5% of its budget on space. So they don't care either.
      selyavi now such.
    3. Blackmokona
      Blackmokona 2 March 2021 11: 48
      +3
      Closing the backlog is a myth.
      Since the lag now in terms of the first stage is about 4 years
    4. lis-ik
      lis-ik 2 March 2021 18: 38
      0
      Quote: Lesovik
      That is, did Rogozin bring any benefit in his post?

      A solo album released, the first of the space industry executives.
  5. prior
    prior 2 March 2021 10: 30
    +8
    Metastases of disintegration and degradation affected all organs and parts of the body of Russia without exception.
    I'm not happy, I state .......
    1. Yuri Tverdokhleb
      Yuri Tverdokhleb 2 March 2021 10: 51
      -11%
      Vlad, if this is so, then why Bidon, aka Biden, agreed to sign an agreement on Russian terms
      1. prior
        prior 2 March 2021 15: 42
        -5
        Because "sleepy Joe" understands perfectly well that if, God forbid, we detonate our nuclear warheads, even on our own territory, the Armageddian will be everything, and he and America too. This is the area where there is no place for democracy, we have to negotiate.
        1. Yuri Tverdokhleb
          Yuri Tverdokhleb 2 March 2021 17: 59
          +2
          In your opinion, if they are afraid of us, it is only because, as a sign of protest, we will blow ourselves up (we will kill ourselves, strangers are afraid) and then with whom to negotiate - with a rashka torn to shreds?
          I'll go pump up a hundred while my native country is still alive.
          1. prior
            prior 2 March 2021 18: 19
            +1
            Yes. For them, they do not need a radioactive garbage dump in place of Russia instead of access to our resources.
            For them, we are barbarians with a nuclear bomb and we will never become equal. Therefore, they behave arrogantly. This is so even if someone really does not like this conclusion.
    2. lis-ik
      lis-ik 2 March 2021 18: 39
      0
      Quote: prior
      Metastases of disintegration and degradation affected all organs and parts of the body of Russia without exception.
      I'm not happy, I state .......

      The fish rots from the head.
  6. tasha
    tasha 2 March 2021 10: 39
    +5
    Russia under a liberal dictatorship

    a restructuring of its entire corrupt structure is needed
    Yeah. Porridge-compote plus borscht in one plate. Since we are talking about pepelats, here is:
  7. acetophenon
    acetophenon 2 March 2021 10: 43
    +11
    “Russia, which cannot be denied ingenuity, has recently lost a clear and understandable goal.
    Judging by the inexhaustible stream of statements by Russian leaders, the country under the leadership of Vladimir Putin wants to achieve practically everything in astronautics, but cannot bring anything to its logical conclusion. "

    Golden words ... Neither add nor subtract. To change something in this, POLITICAL will is needed. And she's gone. And it won't. Have these.
    You are not yet in the grave, you are alive,
    But for the cause you have been dead for a long time,
    Good impulses are destined for you,
    But nothing can be done ...
    negative
    1. Snail N9
      Snail N9 2 March 2021 17: 26
      +2
      Why "lost the goal"? The goal, then, for the majority now, is clear and one ...
  8. kapitan92
    kapitan92 2 March 2021 10: 44
    +11
    Russia under a liberal dictatorship and financial oppression, it remains only to observe these processes from the outside.

    And who raised and nurtured this dictatorship like a child ??? laughing
    To rehabilitate the space industry, it is necessary to restructure its entire corrupt structure under the maximum control of the state and supervisory authorities,

    laughing
    Maximum state control in the created system, what is it like? Especially the supervisory authorities, so they have a share! laughing
    The guarantor appoints the faithful, and asks how smart! They will promise money for the elections, they promise from three boxes, the beds will be moved again and .........., we will heal without corruption, under the maximum control of the state and supervisory authorities !!!.
    Thanks for the article! Frankly and to the point!
    PySy.

    Golden words: "I baked it myself - and eat it yourself."
  9. ALARI
    ALARI 2 March 2021 10: 47
    +12
    In order to rise again, you must first realize the fact of your fall. We do not have this, we still rest on the laurels of past generations.
    1. Vadim237
      Vadim237 2 March 2021 18: 48
      -3
      Where and how we are going to climb in the space sphere - every year the players in this segment for military and commercial launches are more and more the market is already but simply to show that we can need tens and hundreds of billions of rubles just thrown into the wind space at this stage remains a super-expensive research scientific field and only rich countries can afford it in full. Russia is not rich for that and are happy about it.
      1. ALARI
        ALARI 3 March 2021 08: 46
        +3
        We will have to rise no matter what, first we must admit we are no longer such a space power as the USSR and stop all ambitious and costly projects like the Moon and Mars. As sad as we lost the race to commercial conclusions, there are no cheap rockets. Throw all forces on engines based on new non-chemical principles, nuclear, ionic. Chemical rockets cannot be used to conquer the solar system; one can only conduct one-time expensive expeditions. But all this requires priorities, but they are not.
  10. leks
    leks 2 March 2021 11: 06
    +9
    You read it and just keep up with the scale of corruption in the space industry, and this is just one of the areas where money goes into the pockets of effective managers.
    For the money that was stolen, in this area it was possible to do so much for space.
    1. Fan-fan
      Fan-fan 2 March 2021 12: 18
      +4
      And how much has been stolen in the country in 20 years? These thieves are taking away budget money incrementally. And who will stop them? But we could live no worse than in Europe. Are we dumber and dumber than the Germans, the French or the British? Degradation is what is happening now.
      1. Vadim237
        Vadim237 2 March 2021 18: 51
        -5
        "But we could live no worse than in Europe." - Is that in fairy tales. "These thieves are taking away budget money incrementally." There is some kind of confirmation of this - just not from the OBS area.
  11. Old Orc
    Old Orc 2 March 2021 11: 13
    +14
    It's funny. They have been in power for 20 years, and you consider them stupid and incompetent people. They are very smart and competent people. But it is necessary to evaluate not by words but by deeds. Roscosmos had goals
    1. Raise patriotic sentiments by linking the current government with Soviet achievements.
    2. Justify the sale and privatization.
    3. Provide good people with access to the feeder.
    But the global economic crisis intervened. It turned out that there was not enough meat for everyone, and it was necessary to take care of the cows that they had inherited from the USSR and, according to tradition, should not be put under the knife, but to moderate appetites and milk for a lot. You also need to protect your cows from neighbors. As it was said in the film "This is our cow and we milk it", But then the problem is if the butcher is allowed to milk, he will cut off the udder of the cow because he cannot do otherwise. It is pointless to wait for improvement, except for military space. and soon to write to all the rockets Yura forgive us all n ......
    1. ALARI
      ALARI 2 March 2021 11: 35
      +4
      And why protect, these people did not create anything, do not feel sorry for their own. I will change a little - Live beautifully, steal now.
    2. Sahalinets
      Sahalinets 2 March 2021 12: 52
      +2
      Only they are exclusively competent in cuts ...
  12. Vadim Ananyin
    Vadim Ananyin 2 March 2021 11: 57
    +1
    The author loaded the brain with infoy on the most do not spoil.
    Statistics are stubborn things.
    Thanks to the author.
    1. Disant
      Disant 2 March 2021 16: 43
      -2
      where did you see the statistics?
      one twitch
  13. xomaNN
    xomaNN 2 March 2021 12: 02
    +3
    Bitter, but fair conclusions of the author about the state of the space industry in Russia. Worse only in "fraternal" Ukraine tongue I know not by hearsay - for 10 years I worked in an aerospace post box in Ukraine, which is already inanimate. even the flagship "Yuzhmash" is sitting in a doggie and out of work. Last year I saw it very clearly at the YM Museum in Dnipro. Soviet successes of satellites and "small cube". uk..r. a mini-satellite that no one needs (on the left in the photo). And he will not get into space in any way.

  14. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 2 March 2021 12: 12
    +6
    In general, "we planned, had fun ... calculated, wept ..."! And yet ... "As in Russia? As always! They steal!" ... Strange situation in the country! The ruling regime of Putin with might and main clings to "effective managers", explaining this by the fact that Russia does not have enough "experienced specialists, trained personnel" and there is no one to replace them! But what is the general sense in these "managers" if they could only "bring" the industry "to the handle" ... that is, practically, they almost ruined them !? ..but what has been done effectively to correct them over the years? Measures and solutions are proposed, but they are ignored! Popular wisdom says: "The fish rots from the head ..."! Isn't the root of the problems in the inefficiency and, even, the depravity of the existing system of power?
  15. Niko
    Niko 2 March 2021 12: 29
    +5
    I do not quite understand what is meant by the word "Liberal" in this context. (Usually people and ideas that do not agree with the current position of the state, such as Navalny, etc.) are meant, but speaking about the processes of the last two decades, especially everything that concerns "Vostochny" wouldn't it be more honest to talk not about the mythical "liberals" but about specific thieves, an idiot, do not care, etc. appointed and approved by the official authorities
  16. lego2
    lego2 2 March 2021 12: 29
    +4
    Crying Yaroslavna.
  17. Dart2027
    Dart2027 2 March 2021 12: 31
    +3
    For example, in 2010 there were 9 accidents.

    This is what ?! In 2010 it was 30 successful launches and so on 1 unlucky!
    I did not read the article further.
  18. JD1979
    JD1979 2 March 2021 12: 39
    +2
    As I understand it, the words: "they will run on trampolines" - it was not about the Americans. Well, at least purposeful actions in this direction are actively going: the man said - the man did.
  19. lazy
    lazy 2 March 2021 12: 44
    -3
    We will not talk about the Glonass system, we will not talk about the spectrum-pr, it does not fit into the picture. there are many problems in Roskosmos, but when "we smear here, but here we show nothing" it is ugly. https://www.roscosmos.ru/115/
    1. military_cat
      military_cat 2 March 2021 12: 54
      +3
      These are good things, but the Spektr-RG project began in 1987, and GLONASS - in 1976. That is, they literally represent that "safety margin" of the industry, which is coming to an end.
      1. Vadim237
        Vadim237 2 March 2021 19: 02
        -6
        Not in the 70s and 80s were they just drawings on pieces of paper - R&D and implementation were already carried out in Russia, like the entire infrastructure for them. Everything that was designed and developed in the USSR has long been outdated physically and morally.
  20. Brancodd
    Brancodd 2 March 2021 13: 04
    +10
    Well, let's take a closer look at the "indisputable facts" of this propaganda.
    On October 11, 2018, Russia's reputation as a leading space power was dealt the final blow. For the first time in 35 years, the Soyuz MS-10 manned spacecraft launched to the ISS did not enter orbit due to the accident of the Soyuz-FG launch vehicle

    If we leave out whimpers and hysteria from brackets, an impartial observer will find that there have been no emergency starts since that date. Two and a half years without accidents. 55 launches without accidents is a record not only of the post-Soviet, but also of the Soviet period. For example, China had 8 emergency (out of 80) launches during this period, EKA - 3 (out of 16)
    Summing up the results of the last five-year plan (2013–2018), the Russian leadership inevitably came to the obvious and disappointing conclusion - the situation in the space industry still leaves much to be desired. The accident rate of launches increased from 5,8 to 7,3%. For comparison: for Americans it was only 2,5% for a much longer period of 2007-2017.

    Is it 2018? The author snatches out the periods that are convenient for him. Why until 2021? Probably because the data does not fight with the conclusions of the author? The last 100 starts (2016-2021) - 3 emergency (3%).
    Meanwhile, Americans, Europeans and Chinese are gradually phasing out cooperation with Russia.

    How does this fit in with reality? Cooperation with EKA continues in scientific space programs. There were no statements from EKA about the curtailment of joint projects. The OneWeb contract is ongoing. At the end of the year, an agreement was signed with the China National Space Administration on a joint project for a lunar orbital station.
    Now there are talks about the closure of the unsuccessful project "Angara" (under which the Vostochny cosmodrome was actually built) and the transition to a new carrier rocket "Soyuz-5". That is, hundreds of billions of rubles were simply thrown into the wind and no one was punished for this.

    Conversations? Are we talking about conversations? Or maybe the facts are better. The launch pad for Hangara East is being built slightly ahead of schedule. The first launch of the Angara from Vostochny is scheduled for 2023. Soyuz 5 launches for the first time in 2023 from Baytrek. So far, there are no grounds for postponing the dates, and even more so for canceling projects. Do not pass off your desires as reality.
    Angara's direct foreign competitor, the Falcon-9 heavy rocket, is already most in demand all over the world, having given the start of a real “rocket revolution”. It is more modern, simpler and half the cost of launching the Angara, has a reversible first stage and is the one trusted by commercial customers, including the US Department of Defense.

    This passage about "commercial customers" in the person of the Pentagon is worthy of applause. About "half the price of" Angara "" does not correspond to reality. The cost of launching Falcon9 is $ 63 million. The cost of Hangara A5 (not serial) is 7 billion rubles ($ 95 million). Serial production 10 pcs. the planned price of 4.4 billion rubles per year is comparable to the price of Falcon9. Moreover, a comparable load of 23 (t.) To the near-earth orbit Falcon9 takes out only in the version with a non-return stage. With the returned Falcon9 - 15.6t. Union 5 (modernized Zenith) should output 17t. with a price of 40-50 million rubles.
    In fact, it is appropriate to compare Angara A5 with Arian 6. Approximately equal in load, at the same time they begin to operate. But in all respects, including the cost of launching the Angar A5, it surpasses the Arian 6. Not much, but it does. But here's the bad luck "Arian 6" "damn it doesn't fly ..."
    Union 5 is a modernized Zenith. This project has 2 tasks. The first is to minimize the launch cost as much as possible. Now the estimated cost is $ 40-50 million. This will allow it to compete with Falcon in the launch services market. The second task - Soyuz 5 - is the Yenisei super-heavy rocket module. Using the proven design of the Zenith project will save the affinity and reduce the time. Kazakhstan is funding the modernization of the launch pad at Baikonur.
    Musk: "Apart from ours, Zenit is probably the next best"
    Musk: “Russia has excellent rocketry and the best engine available. A reusable version of their new Angara rocket would be excellent. "
    by 2019, the center's debts had grown to 110 billion rubles - they were simply thrown out of the prestigious district of Moscow into Omsk, completely unadapted for this, at the facilities of the Polyot Production Association.

    A national space center is under construction in the "prestigious area" of Moscow.
    Khrunichev's accounts receivable at the end of 2020 amounted to 49 billion rubles. Reduced more than 2 times. "Unadapted" "Flight" from 2024 will release 10 missiles "Angara"
    Now a launch pad is being built at the cosmodrome for heavy rockets, the launch of which is planned to be postponed from Baikonur in 2025. In the meantime, more and more flaws in the previous emergency construction are being revealed, which turn the cosmodrome into a monument to corruption and "sawing off". In 2019, President Putin and the head of the Accounts Chamber Kudrin were forced to admit that theft continued at the cosmodrome, and that it was flourishing at Roskosmos at an accelerated pace.

    According to the plan, the construction of the second stage (the launch pad for the Angara) should be completed not in 2025, but in 2023. Construction is proceeding slightly ahead of schedule. All conclusions of the Accounts Chamber related to the period up to 2018 and related to the work of the Special. Building. An organization that was subordinate to the Ministry of Defense.
    As a result, they chose a place where it turned out to be impossible to use the capacities of the Far East region. There is no railway, the construction of which is hindered by the Sikhote-Alin pass. All rocket units to the cosmodrome have to be dragged from the European part of the country - Samara and Omsk. You don't have to stutter about super-heavy rockets. They simply will not pass through the "Procrustean bed" of the Transsib.

    What are you going to "drag" from the Far East region? In the same way, rockets are delivered from Samara and Omsk by rail to Plesetsk and Baikonur. What will not go through the Transsib there? The projected super-heavy Yenisei consists of several 5 Unions, each of which is delivered separately. On Vostochny this year, the construction of a GDP will begin, which will be able to receive all types of cargo and passenger aircraft. Svobodny is located in a place with the greatest number of sunny days per year. Nearby there are 2 energy sources - Zeyskaya and Bureyskaya hydroelectric power stations. Amur GPP under construction nearby is a potential supplier of helium

    The front of work, according to Rogozin, was immense. It was necessary to consolidate the industry, introduce a unified technical policy, radically improve the reliability of equipment, get rid of duplication of work, and bring young specialists to the fore. What was needed was engine-building, instrument-making, rocket-building holdings, a structure responsible for diversifying and expanding Roskosmos's presence in the high-tech equipment markets, as well as joint design work with the aviation industry.


    Significant progress has been made on all of these points or have already been completed.
    1. Disant
      Disant 2 March 2021 17: 59
      +1
      Brancodd, come on, burn further))
      I will say more - here it smells of slander and slander in the article. All pants are worn over the head.
      And the inexperienced spectator applauds - why, balm is poured on the wound
  21. Pashhenko Nikolay
    Pashhenko Nikolay 2 March 2021 13: 09
    +4
    One thing is not clear. How can the space industry be rebuilt under the supervision of the state and its regulatory authorities, if the same state created the current state of affairs? Can we start with the reform of the state itself?
  22. ccsr
    ccsr 2 March 2021 13: 38
    +6
    The author's article evokes a double attitude towards his assessment of the situation and his work. On the one hand, it is quite obvious that the general failure of the country's economy in the nineties could not but affect space programs in terms of their reduction - it is senseless to deny this. Unsuccessful personnel appointments also affected the quality of our developments, but nevertheless the author himself emphasizes that the Americans flew on our ships, and bought our engines, i.e. there was no decline. Yes, we had to cut down on peace programs for the sake of military space, but our safety is more important to us than flights to the Moon or Mars - is Rogozin alone to blame for this? Although, in my opinion, this person should not have led such a science-intensive industry - they needed a native of their midst, and not a stranger who would never have authority among scientists.
    Further, the author categorically declares:
    Russia, on the other hand, is hopelessly behind - the creation of a reusable rocket requires not only a political decision: technology, funding, years of trial and error experience, as well as a clear understanding of which market segment you can apply for. There is none of this.

    I would like to ask him, what do the Americans already have such many years of experience, so that we will definitely follow this path of development of peaceful space? For a long time it has been on our ears that shuttles are the future of astronautics - well, where are they now? The same fate could befall Musk's creations, given the last two accidents in the two winter months. Yes, and our luminary in the field of rocketry S.P. Korolev was categorically against reusable flights, because it is too expensive to drag excess fuel into orbit to use it during descent, as well as to have additional control systems during descent "on the tail". Especially taking into account the preparation for the re-flight of the returned steps, the question of the price and reliability of such flights will arise, but the author is already sure that all this will be cheaper than ours. Apparently he did not understand that two shuttle crashes completely buried the idea of ​​reentry vehicles, and it's good that we limited ourselves to only one Buran flight.
    I will not analyze everything that has been written, but I will note that the author does not always objectively assess the current situation, and for example, when calculating the accident rate, for some reason, he does not take the last two years, when we did not have any accidents at all - apparently immediately the percentage of accidents will be less than that of the Americans ... That is why he selectively gives only the figures for 2013-2018, although it is 2021 and statistics are available for the last years.
    In general, each reader needs to separate the wheat from the chaff himself, but I note that in this article they are strongly mixed.
    1. New Year day
      New Year day 2 March 2021 16: 54
      +1
      Quote: ccsr
      Unsuccessful personnel appointments also affected the quality of our developments, but nevertheless the author himself emphasizes that the Americans flew on our ships, and our engines were purchased

      In the beginning there were engines:
      RD-180 is a Russian two-component engine, developed in the mid-1990s, based on the most powerful Soviet RD-170 engine.
      RD-181 - the engine design is based on the design of the RD-170/171 engine family.
      As you can see, everything is based on Soviet developments.
      Then came the "effective managers" for sawing the dough, and scientists and engineers continued the work started in the USSR. While the managers were sawing, the scientific and technological revolution worked.
  23. BAI
    BAI 2 March 2021 13: 54
    0
    It was in Roscosmos that the legendary statement was born. Yuri Koptev (when he was the head of Roscosmos): "This is some kind of nonsense. There is state money and it has not been stolen."
  24. Peaceful SEO
    Peaceful SEO 2 March 2021 14: 16
    0
    Sadly, I agree with the article. Space is being destroyed on an industrial scale.
    It's time for the State Duma to remove one very unnecessary moratorium for the country
    1. Postum
      Postum 2 March 2021 15: 08
      +2
      Holy naivety
  25. Postum
    Postum 2 March 2021 15: 06
    +2
    Liberal Chekists do not need space
  26. leks
    leks 2 March 2021 15: 07
    +4
    Quote: Fan-Fan
    And how much has been stolen in the country in 20 years? These thieves are taking away budget money incrementally. And who will stop them? But we could live no worse than in Europe. Are we dumber and dumber than the Germans, the French or the British? Degradation is what is happening now.


    In 1994-2018, assets were withdrawn from Russia, the total value of which may currently exceed $ 1 trillion, Bloomberg experts calculated. However, they prefer to proceed from a more conservative estimate of $ 750 billion, stipulating that the profitability of assets taken offshore may not be too high.

    “[Even so] the total is still huge - just a little less than 50% of [the country's] GDP. Invested in the domestic economy, these assets could reduce the cost of capital, increase production and government revenue from taxes that can be spent on infrastructure development and social programs, "- noted in the Bloomberg article.
    Imagine the scale of robbery in the country for a quarter of a century.
    1. Vadim237
      Vadim237 2 March 2021 19: 16
      -1
      In 1994-2018, assets were withdrawn from Russia, the total value of which may currently exceed $ 1 trillion. They did not bother to explain what these assets were specifically - since there is no outflow without an inflow.
  27. Sfurei
    Sfurei 2 March 2021 15: 45
    +6
    A very good article: detailed, systematic and intelligible. I was familiar with many provisions earlier (at work), but the merger into one article made it possible to sort out the details on the shelves. The author is great good Although there is mainly pessimism in the narrative and not always a correct selection of facts by period (in recent years, the accident rate has decreased).
    In turn, I would like to draw your attention to several details that all authors about space, without exception, continue to refer to:
    1. Stop comparing the Russian Federation with the USSR - these are different countries with different potential, both in technology (the times of the rise of our technical space science have passed, and from 1991 to 2000 we destroyed this industry as best we could) and in finance !!!
    2. Stop directly comparing the Russian Federation with the United States and China. NASA receives more money per year than we have budgeted for the 2016-2025 program. China also allocates many times more money for this than we do. IT'S JUST A CONSTITUTION OF FACT. As well as the fact that the Russian Federation will not have the same large fleet as the United States and China !!! This also results in small salaries for employees and a desire to optimize programs due to lack of money ... and so on. etc. I think the Russian Federation should develop its role in the global space family. And in fact, the third place in the world will be more than natural, but you need to securely gain a foothold in it!
    3. Unfortunately, in my opinion (connected with this at work), the sanctions that impede the development of our satellites and carriers had a very significant impact on Russian space! Many unique products are produced at 2-3 factories in the world and are controlled by the West. And these products cannot be reproduced from a floor butt !! For example: a western DC / DC converter can weigh 50-60 grams in space design, and we have the same product up to 300-400 grams. After the ban on the use of such exclusive products, the efficiency of our satellites has significantly decreased - this is incl. those same 7 years of GLONASS service versus 10-15 years of GPS satellites! And on this point, the lag, I think, can be reduced only after the next scientific and technological revolution.
    For the rest, I agree that the space industry requires sanity in its tasks and a competent manager who will work on the strategic restoration of the industry, and not on solving current and yesterday's problems.
  28. New Year day
    New Year day 2 March 2021 16: 44
    +3
    What a wise management assignment.
    .. President Putin appointed Igor Komarov as the head of the URSC, who came to the space industry from the post of president of AvtoVAZ.

    and right away
    there was a significant bias from technical personnel towards managers, lawyers, economists, financiers. Soon between the head of Roscosmos Ostapchenko and the "effective manager" Komarov, an open confrontation begins for the ability to control financial flows.

    The battle for money and so on in all industries. A distinctive feature of the modern management apparatus - ministers do not have a specialized education, but everyone is very eager for cash flows
  29. Gvardeetz77
    Gvardeetz77 2 March 2021 17: 13
    +1
    Quote: unaha
    And where the author found at least something "liberal" in the Russian Federation, one cannot understand at all.

    Yes, there are a lot of articles where, like describing pressing problems, black is called white and vice versa. How can you practically call autocracy a liberal-capitalist system?
    1. Vadim237
      Vadim237 2 March 2021 19: 24
      0
      So in Russia now there is a liberal-capitalist system - as in the whole world.
  30. sannyhome
    sannyhome 2 March 2021 17: 30
    +1
    The phrases "$ 4 billion just for the delivery of American astronauts" and "poor funding" somehow do not combine ...
  31. Vadim237
    Vadim237 2 March 2021 18: 19
    +1
    "Now there are talks about the closure of the unsuccessful Angara project (for which the Vostochny cosmodrome was actually built) and the transition to the new Soyuz-5 carrier rocket. That is, hundreds of billions of rubles were simply thrown into the wind and no one incurred for it's no punishment. " In the jaundiced press, unless such talk is going on.
  32. svp67
    svp67 2 March 2021 19: 11
    0
    You don't have to stutter about super-heavy rockets. They simply will not pass through the "Procrustean bed" of the Transsib.
    And why is the delivery of their components by air not being considered?
    1. Brancodd
      Brancodd 2 March 2021 22: 50
      +2
      Firstly, no TransSib is an obstacle to the delivery of the Yenisei. Because the Yenisei (Don) itself is a bundle of Soyuz 5 modules - 6 side modules, one central + second stage. Each one is delivered separately. Secondly, construction of an airport with a runway capable of receiving Ruslans has begun on Vostochny. This is the level of analysis in this "article". Woman's snot ...
  33. Cucumbers
    Cucumbers 2 March 2021 22: 40
    0
    Everything is sad. With such an attitude to personnel and to business, this is a natural result. Here even money is not the main thing, there is no idea, it makes no sense for what all this is needed
  34. pitr_74
    pitr_74 2 March 2021 23: 10
    +5
    I began to read, smiled almost immediately, and finished already I wanted to laugh. The main thing for the author is to insert the word liberal into the text, and it does not matter in which key, apparently such a mention makes the text more expensive for the buyer))) The current comrades have owned and cut everything in the country for almost a quarter of a century, but the mythical liberals are to blame for everything))). Interestingly, after another quarter of a century, the liberals will be blamed for everything? And the liberal government of Medvedev in the mid-tenths amused - this is generally an oxymoron ..
  35. Falcon5555
    Falcon5555 3 March 2021 23: 15
    +1
    The further fate of Russian space under liberal rule is obvious - the privatization of astronautics, the destruction of everything that does not bring instant profit, and the struggle for Chinese and Arab investments.

    And where are the liberals in the government? I don’t see any of them. Maybe this author metaphorically calls someone else "liberals"? .. Or everything is confused in his head ... Liberals, dear author, do not go into the economy. That is, they do not deal with space as well as our "liberal government" is doing now. And liberals don't run the country with "cosmonauts" laughing
    Why is "privatization obvious"? The article tells, on the contrary, about the nationalization of everything cosmic. We all know that not only the cosmic is stateized, but everything. So just the opposite is obvious.
    And why "the destruction of everything that does not bring instant profit"? Here "Proton" brings, but it is destroyed. The hangara does not bring, but they do it. True, there is one caveat - who has profit? ..
    And where does the "fight for Chinese and Arab investments" come from? Is this also about space?
  36. Roman070280
    Roman070280 4 March 2021 14: 50
    +1
    Under the leadership of Komarov, the URKK experienced a significant bias from technical personnel towards managers, lawyers, economists, financiers. Soon between the head of "Roscosmos" Ostapenko and "effective manager" Komarov begins an openfortune for the ability to manage financial streams.
    In 2015 year Ostapenko lost the hardware war and ceded his position to Komarov.


    How symptomatic it is ..
    But after all, it suited someone .. since Komarov and after AvtoVAZ and after other things "won"
  37. av58
    av58 6 March 2021 01: 18
    0
    The reappointment of Dmitry Rogozin from deputy prime ministers to the head of Roscosmos instead of Komarov's “effective manager” does not change the situation. Again, concealment of the real state of affairs in the space industry, a bunch of fantastic plans for the exploration of the Moon, demands for money and writing off all failures to the "previous management". The reappointment of Dmitry Rogozin from deputy prime ministers to the head of Roscosmos instead of Komarov's “effective manager” does not change the situation. Again, concealment of the real state of affairs in the space industry, a bunch of fantastic plans for the exploration of the Moon, demands for money and writing off all failures to the "previous management".

    How can Rusov know this? Spy, or just a dreamer? laughing
  38. seacap
    seacap 7 March 2021 12: 32
    0
    What achievements can be expected if a dreamer-adventurer with a journalist diploma is engaged in space, an almost "equivalent" replacement for Korolev, when the development and future of aviation depends on a thieving manager of furniture production, when an accountant is involved in social policy, and so on. etc. It seems that the personnel policy is being conducted purposefully to destroy precisely those industries where our country, thanks to the talent of our great ancestors, their backlog, is at the forefront in the world and still has the potential for advanced development. So it is very similar, in my opinion of the layman, the country is governed not by the national government, interested in the development and prosperity of the country, but by the colonial administration serving the interests of the overseas metropolis. permissiveness and impunity, gratuitous unlimited dough, packs of news, the poverty of the robbed people, unprecedented in the history of mankind plundering of the country's wealth, the reluctance of the boyar class to engage in the development of regions, etc., etc.
  39. Muddy Seeing ORACLE
    Muddy Seeing ORACLE 8 March 2021 01: 25
    0
    Why does Russia need space ?, After all, Russia is not going to conquer the world.
    And space services can be bought from more advanced partners in this area ...
  40. Antagonist
    Antagonist 10 March 2021 22: 56
    +1
    So far, Vostochny has not become the country's main launch pad. The cosmodrome readiness level is estimated at only 25%

    As long as our space industry will be run by "effective managers" and not by professionals, there is a risk that Vostochny will never be completed and in space programs we will be complete outsiders.