Military Review

The myth of "enlightened" Europe

183

The success of Europeans on the world stage during the Great Geographical Discoveries was not determined by intellectual, cultural, technical superiority or "progressive" social order. And the weakness or mistakes of other peoples and powers. Also, European predators were distinguished by unprecedented arrogance and aggressiveness.


"Enlightened" Europe


Nowadays the myth prevails that "developed and enlightened" Europe was able to "open" the world and bring the beginnings of civilization to the most remote corners of the planet. However, this is a delusion and deception.

For example, the Roman throne was able to stop the spread of the Reformation and hold onto roughly half of Europe in one simple but effective way. Rome began to turn a blind eye to the corruption and corruption of the social elite.

The Protestants in this respect were irreconcilable at this time. They used the most terrible Old Testament laws against libertines. A new wave of "witch hunts" began in the German Protestant principalities. Men and especially women convicted of fornication (and it was easy to get under the distribution, any person could snitch on a lovely neighbor who refused him, or the denunciation came from an envious person), were exposed naked at the pillars of shame, where they could be spat upon, thrown with mud and feces , beat up. According to the Old Testament, they were stoned or burned.

In England, the Puritans ("pure") and the Independents ("independent") also zealously tried to correct the mores of society. Parliament passed the "Adultery Law", which prescribed the death penalty for both sinners. The law was initially fully observed. And Protestant "saints" could go into someone else's house at any time of the day and check the behavior of the spouses.

Catholic priests became "liberal". They easily forgave such sins. Rome became a fairly free city. There were strict rules on the streets, but quite relaxed balls and feasts were held in the mansions of bishops, cardinals and in the papal palace. Church hierarchs had their own rich courtyards with artists, architects, poets and mistresses.

In France, this attitude of Rome to sexual excesses played a leading role when there was a struggle between Catholics and Protestant Huguenots. France has traditionally been the most depraved country in Europe. Politics, wars, careers, art were all heavily mixed with hedonism.

"High" culture


Europeans, in principle, had nothing to brag about in front of other peoples and cultures. In the West, there was science and a university education system (influenced by the Byzantine and Arab cultures).

However, the universities then mainly taught empty and confused religious scholasticism and the same jurisprudence (then, in essence, it was the science of deceiving the less educated). Those industries that are now called science, in the middle of the XNUMXth century, only began to form. And often in a random way - at the whim of kings, nobles and church hierarchs who solved some of their tasks.

For example, for the construction of grandiose objects. They paid scientists, architects, sculptures, artists to satisfy their whims, along the way, something useful turned out.

Astronomy, in general, was a "side" branch of astrology. All European nobility was fascinated by horoscopes. And the astrologers who compiled them identified some patterns of the starry sky.

The widespread passion for gambling gave birth to an order for calculating the probability of winning, and the theory of probability arose.

The theater became a "springboard" for the development of mechanics. Pompous performances were staged in Italian and French courtyards. Various cunning mechanisms were considered great chic. And this required mechanics, inventors.

During the construction of fountains (also for the entertainment of the rich), hydrodynamics arose. And mathematics was improved in Jesuit educational institutions (the Jesuits were an order of magnitude superior to their opponents in knowledge), where professors were well paid.

Science did not yet have special practical significance. She was the lot of a handful of enthusiasts. There were 15–20 genius scientists throughout Western Europe: Galileo, Torricelli, Pascal, Beson, Fermat, Descartes, etc.

The laboratories were handicraft, homemade. The results were not published anywhere; acquaintances were notified about them by letters. Scientists had to pay more attention to survival, finding wealthy patrons than scientific research.

Culture of "bourgeois" Europe


Later, the myth was created that bourgeois revolutions and the development of capitalism opened the way for the development of culture and science.

In fact, this is nothing more than a legend.

For example, in revolutionary England (English Revolution: Blood and Madness; The English Massacre: Cavaliers vs. Roundheads) the entire old culture was literally swept away.

Churches and monasteries, which were often magnificent works of architecture, were destroyed and robbed. All their magnificent decorations, statues and icons were destroyed. They were destroyed as elements of "paganism".

Mockery stories: centuries earlier, Catholics also swept away pagan culture and art. Secular works of art, paintings, statues were also burned. The music was declared "pagan".

Composers and musicians were forced to publicly repent. They burned notes, broke instruments. Shakespeare's theater was lost. Parliament has banned public stage works. Repressions fell upon directors, writers, actors and musicians, and many fled abroad. Or they left their previous activities.

The ban included folk holidays, games, dances and songs, in which they saw the legacy of paganism. Even loud laughter was considered perverse. Protestant fundamentalists who had seized power were real fanatics. At the same time, they are dark and stubborn. They demanded to banish everything “sinful” from life, they fought with “devils”.

European slavery


A similar situation was in Holland, where the revolution won and Calvinism became the official religion. Art was recognized as a sin, and the cost of it

"A waste of money"

which was an even more terrible sin.

Interestingly, Holland became one of the leading industrial centers of Western Europe, the Dutch fleet was the largest and most powerful in the West, Dutch-made ships were bought by all European countries, as well as Dutch goods.

However, at what cost was such a flourishing achieved?

Technical innovations were practically not introduced, the local moneybags were very tight-fisted. Why spend money if they are the masters of life and legislators? If there are other paths to wealth?

First, all government spending was hung on the peasantry. They were literally sucked out by taxes. The worst were the peasants of Brabant, Flanders and Limburg, which Holland captured as a result of the Thirty Years' War. These southern provinces of the historic Netherlands received the status of conquered lands and were exploited as overseas colonies. Local residents did not receive any bourgeois "freedoms" and until the XNUMXth century the peasants there were in a semi-serfdom state.

Secondly, the local industry used practically free labor of workers. Dutch peasants, trapped in the "free" world of capitalism, were massively ruined, property went into debt settlement. Both the homeless and the poor could only go to the manufactories. Disenfranchised workers. In essence, they are slaves to capital.

In England, for this purpose, "fencing" was carried out, when peasants were deprived of land in the interests of developing cattle breeding and industry. There was one more way - to sailors, a huge the fleet commands were required. Life is harsh - without rights, under the sticks of bosses, for any "riot" - the most severe punishment, sticks and death. Someone went to land and sea robbers,

"Stole, drank and on the yard."

And life in factories was then compared to hard labor, galleys and hell. The chances of survival were roughly equal. Dirty and cold barracks full of men, women and children. People were mowed down by disease, hunger and cold. Pennies were spent on drunkenness.

Rulers, lawmakers and business owners knew how to increase profits. Fines and sanctions. Prices for bread, other foodstuffs and goods were constantly inflating. Their value in the "advanced" capitalist country was the highest in Europe. And the salaries are the lowest.

The workers were used for wear and tear, the mortality rate was appalling. But they didn't worry about that. The birth rate of peasants was high, new crowds of poor people constantly poured into the cities. This is how the initial capital was created. Along with the global slave trade, looting and plunder, piracy and drug trafficking.

In the middle of the XNUMXth century, the first strikes of workers took place, which became commonplace. But the oligarchs paid no attention to them. They weren't dangerous. All power and power belonged to the plutocracy (political dominance of the rich). The unrest was severely choked, the leaders were waiting for death or sale into slavery (death postponed for a short period). The capital squeezed out of the subjects was not used for the development of the country, its decoration.

Money brought new money. In 1602 the East India Company established the Amsterdam Stock Exchange. The largest world banks arose in Holland, which gave loans to many kings and nobles. The capital of the Italian elite, founded as a result of the cruel plunder of the Mediterranean (including income from the slave trade and piracy), began to flow here.

The myth of "enlightened" Europe
The sea on a cloudy day. Dutch artist Jan Porsellis. OK. 1630 g.

Dutch colonial empire


Holland was actively expanding its overseas possessions, building up its fleet. Of the 25 thousand European ships that sailed the seas and oceans, 15 thousand were Dutch.

The Dutch bourgeoisie emerged from the Thirty Years' War in good shape. Holland was not slaughtered, devastated and devastated like Germany. She did not incur such costs and losses as Spain, which waged a war for the entire Catholic world. France also actively fought, suffered losses, external wars alternated with internal fronts and uprisings. England could not then use the problems of the continental countries, since she fell into her turmoil, which led to terrible human and material losses. As a result, Holland got a chance to become the ruler of the seas, to seize a monopoly on world trade.

The leadership of the East India, West India Company gave appropriate instructions to their captains. While the Europeans slaughtered each other on the continent, the Dutch roamed the seas with might and main.

Whenever possible, they robbed any ships - Spanish, Portuguese, English or French. They seized several British trading posts in Indonesia, temporarily occupied part of Brazil. They took possession of New Sweden - a Swedish colony in the area of ​​the river. Delaware.

As a result, the Dutch created their world colonial empire with bases, ports and lands in West and South Africa, North America (including the New Netherlands) and the Caribbean, in South America (the rivers Essequibo, Pomeroon, part of Guiana, Suriname, etc.), India ... The Dutch established their control over most of Fr. Ceylon and Indonesia, displacing the Portuguese and British from there. The Dutch penetrate Formosa (Taiwan) and Japan.

The colonial empire was built on a lot of blood.

The Protestant faith justified any atrocities against "subhumans." Calvinism took over from the Old Testament the theory of "God's chosen" people. It now meant Protestants. The British also built their world empire on the same basis. No mercy for those who were considered "beast". Who can resist the Lord and the “chosen” people?

Therefore, the colonial orders of the Dutch, and then the British, were even worse than the Spanish. Spanish Catholics, like the Portuguese, over time began to consider local residents who converted to Christianity as people, citizens. They took local women as legal wives, did not abuse the descendants of mixed marriages.

In the colonies of Holland and England, everything was different. Here the world was clearly divided into "chosen" masters, white servants (Irish, Scots, Slavs, etc.) and slaves, who were at the level of "two-legged weapons", furniture or shovels.

Dutch Empire: East India Company - green. West Indies - dark green. Lands developed in the XIX – XX centuries. - yellow.

To be continued ...
Author:
Photos used:
https://ru.wikipedia.org/
183 comments
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  1. Theodore
    Theodore 4 February 2021 05: 11
    +16
    Well, we went to study with them! Here, only for furs, wood, hemp and iron .... What has changed? what
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 4 February 2021 06: 05
      +13
      What changed ?

      Oil appeared, with gas, but in essence everything is the same.
    2. Olgovich
      Olgovich 4 February 2021 07: 52
      +10
      Quote: Theodore
      Well, we went to study with them! Here, only for furs, wood, hemp and iron.

      What goods are in demand countries have, they sell: it was and is all over the world.

      For example, Canada, USA, Australia, Norway are the world's largest gas exporters.

      Russian world only "furs": Mendeleev, Lomonosov, Yablochkov, Zvorykin, Lobachevsky, Kovalevskaya, Zhukovsky, Pirogov, Pavlov, Popov, Sikorsky, Korolev, Kurchatov, Dolivo-Dobrovolsky, Yakobi, Butlerov, Sechenov, Vernadsky, Vitalovilov and many - many others, whose discoveries and inventions were, often, the first in the world.

      Without Russian literature and art, it is impossible to imagine world culture.
      1. EvilLion
        EvilLion 4 February 2021 08: 44
        +12
        Believe it or not, the world is fine without Russian literature.

        There were enough individual nuggets from the noble or bourgeois class in all countries, they have their own Pirogovs and Zvorykins, whom we do not particularly honor, this does not negate the fact that in Russia by the beginning of the 20th century 85-90% of the population were peasants, and in the prom. production Russia on the basis of WWI could not.
        1. Olgovich
          Olgovich 4 February 2021 09: 03
          +2
          Quote: EvilLion
          Believe it or not, the world is fine without Russian literature


          Someone gets along with this: "To the bride and the mare" (with) yes

          Quote: EvilLion
          and in the prom. production Russia on the basis of WWI could not.

          What language is it in? belay
          1. Nikon OConor
            Nikon OConor 7 February 2021 11: 06
            +1
            the bull's eye!)). Talking about education and literature, not being able to write correctly in your native language is bad manners.
          2. Split
            Split 11 February 2021 21: 31
            -1
            I will decipher, in industrial production, following the results of the First World War, Russia did not shine. But in fact it is, there was no cartridge hunger, there were no machine guns, again cartridge hunger, when their development was slowed down, like why shoot so many cartridges
            ZY But Germany threw in the cartridges in the end, but the Bolsheviks stole everything
            1. Ilya Shikhailo
              Ilya Shikhailo April 8 2021 02: 20
              0
              Cartridge hunger, cartridge hunger ... Was it in the form of a shell? "Following the results of PMV" - Russia as RI did not live up to the results, from February 17th the collapse of the economy began. At the same time, already following the results, attention, of the first half of the war, Russia overcame both the cartridge and shell hunger, and with its own industry. "There were no machine guns" - actually, the release of 11 thousand in 1916 was "not", yes, the Germans fired more than 20 thousand, so what? And the artillery? Or was she also "not there"? The siege superheavy artillery park is larger than the German one, the field artillery park, and the trench artillery (mortars, bomb throwers, trench mortars and trench guns) are also larger than the German. Or maybe there were no battleships? Well, then, France did not have them either ... Or maybe there were no submarines? Well, then in general, almost no one had submarines, including France. In short, another story about correct Europe and about backward Russians, and, as it turns out, in some places, Europe was even worse than us. However, the same stories go about the Second World War, and about the Crimean War, and about a whole bunch of other conflicts.
        2. kalibr
          kalibr 4 February 2021 09: 32
          -8
          Not long ago, schoolboy 14 built a nuclear reactor there, and this is the second time this ...
          1. Nikon OConor
            Nikon OConor 7 February 2021 11: 10
            0
            and you, in your "many", cannot even express your thought correctly))
            Just recently, there, schoolboy в 14 years built a nuclear reactor, and this is the second time this ...
            find the differences
            1. kalibr
              kalibr 7 February 2021 11: 40
              -3
              Quote: Nikon OConor
              and you, in your "many", cannot even express your thought correctly))
              Just recently, there, a schoolboy at the age of 14 built a nuclear reactor, and this is the second time this ...
              find the differences

              And I don’t need ... Why? What will this add to me? My books are read all over the world, and such trifles are not worth spitting ...
              1. Nikon OConor
                Nikon OConor 7 February 2021 14: 04
                0
                Your books are read all over the world, they read with your mistakes, are not you ashamed in front of the world?))
                Or does the editor rule?))
                1. kalibr
                  kalibr 7 February 2021 14: 13
                  -1
                  There are proofreaders, they are paid to fix them. Now 8 books have been published on the DREAM website in Singapore ... And they took it! I didn't even know about their existence ... And there they know how to value quality and count money.
                  1. Nikon OConor
                    Nikon OConor 7 February 2021 14: 16
                    0
                    yes, I know, I myself was a proofreader for Samizdat, I was paid with books ...
                    But you yourself are not ashamed? Just a little bit?
                    1. kalibr
                      kalibr 7 February 2021 14: 25
                      -1
                      Quote: Nikon OConor
                      But you yourself are not ashamed? Just a little bit?

                      For what? The one who does nothing is not mistaken. My mistakes also feed people!
                      1. Nikon OConor
                        Nikon OConor 7 February 2021 14: 38
                        0
                        Damn, I liked it !!! Yes, I don’t argue.
                        Shall we end the discussion?
                      2. kalibr
                        kalibr 7 February 2021 16: 17
                        -1
                        As you wish, Alexey. I do not care. The more clicks, the better the site. But I still sit at the computer and write another article and periodically go to see what is here and how. And my mood grows in proportion to their number.
            2. Nikon OConor
              Nikon OConor 7 February 2021 14: 06
              0
              will add? ... xs, but literature (when you read) adds mind, but as a bonus, you learn to write correctly))
            3. Nikon OConor
              Nikon OConor 7 February 2021 14: 11
              0
              We are, damn it, wondering - who brings up in our children "bulk"?
              And I don’t need ... Why? What will this add to me? My books are read all over the world, and such trifles are not worth spitting ...

              The question is settled.
              1. kalibr
                kalibr 7 February 2021 14: 26
                -1
                Quote: Nikon OConor
                who brings up "bulk" in our children?

                And you yourself need to educate, and not throw off on others!
                1. Nikon OConor
                  Nikon OConor 7 February 2021 14: 32
                  0
                  No, you do not understand, the illiteracy of the population leads to the illiteracy of the country. Illiteracy in all spheres, from grammatical to political.
                  Agree - I can't write in Russian, I don't know how to think like Russian ...
                  Axiom
                  1. kalibr
                    kalibr 7 February 2021 16: 22
                    0
                    Quote: Nikon OConor
                    No, you do not understand, the illiteracy of the population leads to the illiteracy of the country. Illiteracy in all spheres, from grammatical to political.
                    Agree - I can't write in Russian, I don't know how to think like Russian ...

                    Now I understand. But not 100% agree with you. How do I think in Russian when I am writing a book in English? It won't be good. You need to know ... subtleties, mentality, phrases and phrases! Or when you translate an article ... Or when you give a lecture to Indians. Here you also need a good knowledge of English. And, again, right there on this thread - look, there are seemingly literate "in Russian", but in political science "village - village". Is not it so?
      2. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar 4 February 2021 15: 06
        +6
        Quote: EvilLion
        Believe it or not, the world is fine without Russian literature ..

        The most popular foreign writer in the United States is Chekhov hi
        In the world top - Dostoevsky and Tolstoy
    3. kalibr
      kalibr 4 February 2021 09: 34
      0
      Quote: Olgovich
      Russian world only "furs": Mendeleev, Lomonosov, Yablochkov, Zvorykin, Lobachevsky, Kovalevskaya, Zhukovsky, Pirogov, Pavlov, Popov, Sikorsky, Korolev, Kurchatov, Dolivo-Dobrovolsky, Yakobi, Butlerov, Sechenov, Vernadsky, Vitalovilov and many - many others, whose discoveries and inventions were, often, the first in the world.

      Let's delete all this and nothing will change "there"! Absolutely! By the way, remind me, what did Korolev invented there?
      1. Vend
        Vend 4 February 2021 09: 46
        +1
        Quote: kalibr
        Quote: Olgovich
        Russian world only "furs": Mendeleev, Lomonosov, Yablochkov, Zvorykin, Lobachevsky, Kovalevskaya, Zhukovsky, Pirogov, Pavlov, Popov, Sikorsky, Korolev, Kurchatov, Dolivo-Dobrovolsky, Yakobi, Butlerov, Sechenov, Vernadsky, Vitalovilov and many - many others, whose discoveries and inventions were, often, the first in the world.

        Let's delete all this and nothing will change "there"! Absolutely! By the way, remind me, what did Korolev invented there?

        They cross out and it's very funny to watch what happens there. laughing Either the movement is for the blacks, the monuments are demolished, the elections are brazenly rigged, etc. laughing
        1. kalibr
          kalibr 4 February 2021 10: 26
          -4
          Quote: Wend
          Either the movement is for the blacks, the monuments are demolished, the elections are brazenly rigged, etc.

          This is their life, they are in their own right. This does not concern us at all.
          1. Vend
            Vend 5 February 2021 15: 36
            +1
            Quote: kalibr
            Quote: Wend
            Either the movement is for the blacks, the monuments are demolished, the elections are brazenly rigged, etc.

            This is their life, they are in their own right. This does not concern us at all.

            Yes you? And why do they then climb into our life? We didn't invite them.
      2. Insurgent
        Insurgent 4 February 2021 10: 05
        +7
        Quote: kalibr
        Let's delete all this and nothing will change "there"! Absolutely! By the way, remind me, what did Korolev invented there?


        Exactly, not THIS.

        1. kalibr
          kalibr 4 February 2021 10: 27
          -1
          It is clear that it is not this, but what exactly?
          1. Insurgent
            Insurgent 4 February 2021 10: 37
            +9
            Quote: kalibr
            It is clear that it is not this, but what exactly?

            It is clear that it is not THIS, (created by stub ?, "composition"), at least it was him who proposed and implemented S.P. Korolev"batch"the concept of the arrangement of stage motors with side blocks, which to this day is the main one in RK technology ...


            Quote: kalibr
            Not long ago, schoolboy 14 built a nuclear reactor there, and this is the second time this ...

            Actually, your reflections, kalibr and "inventions" also resemble the work of a schoolboy, with the only difference that the suburban "prodigy" starts with insanity (the specifics of the Suburbs), and you end up with them.
            1. kalibr
              kalibr 4 February 2021 10: 44
              -1
              Well, yes, I took five FAU missiles, combined them into a package and ... voila! But all this is the same - "rocket trains", offered by Tsiolkovsky and Zander, and in Poland multistage rockets and packages of rockets back in 1650 were offered by Kazimir Semyonovich.
              1. Insurgent
                Insurgent 4 February 2021 10: 52
                +1
                Quote: kalibr
                Well, yes, I took five FAU missiles, combined them into a package and ... voila!

                kalibr, are you an advertiser? Advertise Better pizza, due to weakness Chief advertiser her ,field is free yes
                1. kalibr
                  kalibr 4 February 2021 10: 59
                  -1
                  That is, you have bad eyes and the illustration in Semenovich's book (I'm not talking about the text) passed you by. Clear.
                  Quote: Insurgent
                  kalibr, you are an advertiser

                  Where did you get this from? If this goes on, then the grandfather of the Polish general will emerge ...
                  1. Insurgent
                    Insurgent 4 February 2021 11: 10
                    +5
                    Quote: kalibr
                    Where did you get this from?


                    From communication with you, dear yes Didn't you write in the comments that you were a university teacher in PR (and management? what / don't remember details /) ...

                    What prevents you from translating the theory of PR technologies into practice? Or - "a shoemaker without boots"?
                    1. kalibr
                      kalibr 4 February 2021 14: 27
                      -1
                      Quote: Insurgent
                      What prevents you from translating the theory of PR technologies into practice?

                      So she turns ... Look how many comments you have already written ...
                    2. kalibr
                      kalibr 4 February 2021 14: 30
                      0
                      That is, you have nothing to say about the Queen? Well, at least from me you learned about his merits a little more than a banal set of phrases.
              2. yehat2
                yehat2 4 February 2021 14: 35
                +12
                Let's start with the fact that the Polish speech and Poland are not the same thing.
                Semenovich lived in Lithuania, in the VITEBSK Voivodeship. Pole? I do not think so.
                and second. "Semenovich's idea" is simply a consistent operation of a single system, not a package. And this was used much earlier than Semenovich by the Chinese in rockets, mainly in fireworks.
                1. kalibr
                  kalibr 4 February 2021 14: 37
                  -4
                  Quote: yehat2
                  consistent operation of a single system, not a package.

                  And in the picture at the bottom right there is a package ... And what's the difference where he lived and who he was. It is important that all this was known long before the Queen!
                  1. yehat2
                    yehat2 4 February 2021 14: 42
                    +7
                    not. looks similar, but it is an inseparable construction
                    Semenovich reproduced only the idea of ​​sequential burning of rocket parts. The Queen's idea, called the package, is different.
                    In short, the Korolev package is a more independent part. In addition, the queen's batch system could have different types of fuel and engine.
                    And Semenovich's rocket is homogeneous and, I repeat, this idea was known much earlier than Semenovich.
                    1. hjvtp1966
                      hjvtp1966 6 February 2021 21: 37
                      -1
                      I read a science fiction novel. I don't remember the writer, the name too laughing almost half a century passed, I was small, but I remembered something ... The bottom line: the Soviet science fiction writer denounced the ulcers of the capitalist system. The daughter of an American billionaire and her fiancé, fleeing kidnapping by gangsters, fly away on an untested space rocket. Her dad designed and built a billion-dollar rocket. So that rocket was built according to the "rifle clip" scheme. Mid-fifties book. So the idea has been floating around for a long time ... Korolyov did not invent it, but realized it. He had enough not invented merit. Russia is not the homeland of elephants. Propaganda based on lies, over time, backfires.
                  2. Andrey VOV
                    Andrey VOV 4 February 2021 15: 45
                    +7
                    And once, with foaming at the mouth, they proved that the USSR was ahead of the planet, everything headed by the CPSU ... and now Dostoevsky is not great for you and Korolev is no one .... yes, you respected, not two-faced, but many-faced Janus
                    1. kalibr
                      kalibr 4 February 2021 16: 01
                      -5
                      Quote: Andrey VOV
                      And when it was foaming at the mouth, they proved that the USSR was ahead of the planet, everything headed by the CPSU

                      Exactly, Andrey, exactly! The job was so well paid. But this has already been discussed many times. You again start a meaningless conversation, and even break the rules of the site. The article is discussed, yes, not its author or commentators. And Korolev is undoubtedly a good organizer and has certainly brought in something new. But he stood on the shoulders of many who came before him. But as he began to create himself, then ... H1 did not fly for him. The Web explains in detail why, and what factors were the reason, moreover, technical, and only then organizational.
                    2. Andrey VOV
                      Andrey VOV 4 February 2021 18: 05
                      +2
                      Well, of course, you are all to blame, all the losers except me ... a worthy position
                    3. kalibr
                      kalibr 4 February 2021 22: 10
                      -3
                      Quote: Andrey VOV
                      Well, of course, you are all to blame, all the losers except me ... a worthy position

                      Well, why juggle, Andrey. Not all of them. But all my troubles were from only one thing - incomplete knowledge. And the complete ... just wasn't there! And who was to blame for this?
                    4. Andrey VOV
                      Andrey VOV 4 February 2021 23: 08
                      +2
                      Is it complete knowledge? In something separate, narrow, yes, but EVERYTHING is simply unrealistic to know ... and who are guilty ... I do not know, my father taught me that if you look, then start with yourself, this is about life, I don't count my profession now ..
        2. Motorist
          Motorist 4 February 2021 23: 59
          +3
          Quote: kalibr
          proposed

          Yeah, when I was young, I also did calculations of the dynamics of a point of variable mass. And in Ukraine, the President himself announced the creation of a national vaccine against covid (albeit at the level of theoretical laboratory work, which he modestly kept silent about ...). Write in your comment?
        3. vlad106
          vlad106 April 29 2021 18: 07
          0
          Quote: kalibr
          in Poland, Kazimir Semenovich proposed multistage missiles and packages of missiles as early as 1650.


          So sho he this YOUR goat-Mir Semi-Novich did not launch YOUR "multistage" packages into orbit? Sorry, rockets?
      3. kalibr
        kalibr 4 February 2021 10: 53
        -4
        You'd better read the books of Tsiolkovsky, Tsander and Semenovich ... Self-education is a very useful thing.
        1. Insurgent
          Insurgent 4 February 2021 10: 57
          +2
          Quote: kalibr
          You'd better read the books of Tsiolkovsky, Tsander and Semenovich ... Self-education is a very useful thing.


          Yes, but some who like to instruct and give advice (I will not point the finger, not decently) themselves, looking at a book, they see a fig...
          1. kalibr
            kalibr 4 February 2021 11: 06
            -5
            "Well, yes, I took five FAU missiles, combined them into a package and ... voa-la!"
            That is, this is not true, right? And the R-1,2,3 missiles were not practically exact copies of the FAU. Then read ...
            "In the middle of 1946, in order to unite the efforts of the Vystrel group, the Rabe institute and other missile organizations on German territory, USSR Minister of Armament Dmitry Fedorovich Ustinov approved the creation of two institutes: Nordhausen (ballistic missiles) and Berlin (all the rest Soviet specialists continued to work in them. It was decided to recruit highly qualified German specialists, not necessarily rocket engineers; in total, about 5 thousand people agreed to work for the USSR (while in Germany). We managed to lure some of the main missile developers from the American zone, in particular specialists on automatic control and guidance systems of Helmut Grettrup, Kurt Magnus and Hans Hoch. Perhaps, the designer of rocket engines "V-1" Dr.-engineer Kurt P., mentioned by Lev Kopelev in the book of memoirs, took part in the creation of the R-2 rocket and its subsequent modifications "Keep forever" as a cellmate in Butyrka prison. [9]
            On May 13, 1946, a resolution of the Council of Ministers was adopted on the creation of research centers for the needs of rocket technology. According to the decree, the Minister of Arms D.F. Ustinov established the head research institute - NII-88. At the Ministry of Aviation Industry, a base was allocated - NII-456 and a pilot plant, where an experimental design bureau for rocket engines was created, under the leadership of Valentin Petrovich Glushko. For the design bureau for the development of launch complexes, the capacities of the Compressor plant were allocated, Vladimir Pavlovich Barmin became the chief designer of the design bureau. The Ministry of Communications Industry created NII-885, with the chief designer at the head - Mikhail Sergeyevich Ryazansky. The Ministry of the shipbuilding industry created the Institute for Gyroscopes (NII-10), with the chief designer - Viktor Ivanovich Kuznetsov.
            On August 9, 1946, Ustinov signed order No. 83-K: “Comrade. Korolev Sergei Pavlovich to appoint Chief Designer of "item No. 1" NII-88 "".
            1. Bolt cutter
              Bolt cutter 5 February 2021 00: 41
              +4
              P-1,2,3
              The R-2 already had little in common with the Fau. (A detachable warhead carrying a fuel tank). The R-3 was developed in parallel with the R-2 and had nothing to do with it at all.
          2. The comment was deleted.
            1. Insurgent
              Insurgent 4 February 2021 11: 25
              +3
              Quote: kalibr
              The ignoramus is also blindingly scolding science and learning ...


              Let the classic forgive me for being with him like this:

              И case (unhappy) devil inventor.


              Take away already "the inventor of sewer weapons "... yes I said everything about you that could be said in censorship.
              1. kalibr
                kalibr 4 February 2021 14: 25
                0
                Quote: Insurgent
                I said everything about you that could be said in censorship

                So after all clicks are needed from you and the more, the better. And honor and praise that you are doing them.
              2. Insurgent
                Insurgent 4 February 2021 14: 36
                -1
                Quote: kalibr
                So after all clicks are needed from you and the more, the better. And honor and praise that you are doing them.

                What do you care about clicks, albeit to your comments, but in an article by another author ???
                Have you somehow got into the shareholder of VO, or like that fool from a proverb from the outskirts you are rich in thoughts about cliques? belay
              3. kalibr
                kalibr 4 February 2021 14: 44
                0
                Do you think that only shareholders benefit from a good site? This is not true. To increase investment attractiveness, who is the author does not play a role. Got it, right?
              4. Insurgent
                Insurgent 4 February 2021 17: 17
                +3
                Quote: kalibr
                Do you think that only shareholders benefit from a good site?

                Publications on Sewer Police Guns, Eggshells, and Barbie's House, Good Job belay , materials worthy of the site belay ?

                Yes, you are humiliating VO with your sickening publications, and you flatter yourself.
              5. kalibr
                kalibr 4 February 2021 17: 25
                -2
                But other readers of the site, judging by the comments, think differently, and they are people too, no worse than you. And we all work here for the sake of people! I do not like "about Barbie" - now there is material about weapons with wheel locks and revolvers with bayonets. Maybe you will like it more. And the weapons from the pipes went into two novels, right on the covers and ... they both came out on our site author. today and on the Dream Singapore site and you know ... people buy and read with great pleasure! And again, my incompetent critic, today quality is determined by demand. The more views, the more interesting the material! But even if he is not entirely interesting, that is, there are not very intelligent people (tolerantly speaking) who help make them like that. Well, do you understand what I mean?
              6. Insurgent
                Insurgent 5 February 2021 08: 01
                +1
                Quote: kalibr
                they both came out on our site author. today and on the Dream Singapore site and you know ... people buy and read with great pleasure!

                Asians ... In Japan, the fetish of women's underwear, worn and not washed.
                Buy with no less pleasureyes
            2. vlad106
              vlad106 April 29 2021 18: 14
              0
              Quote: Insurgent
              Yes, you IN humiliate with your sickening publications


              He's also a persistent Pesatel ... The whole world reads him in English ...
  • da Vinci
    da Vinci 5 February 2021 00: 00
    0
    Recently on TK Zvezda there was a program about M. Tikhonravov, who offered S. Korolev a "packet" LV scheme. what
  • Olgovich
    Olgovich 4 February 2021 10: 26
    +3
    Quote: kalibr
    Let's delete all this and nothing will change "there"!

    Let's delete everything that is "there" and nothing will change. It would have been a little later, yes, but it would have been.

    Is it really not understood?

    Quote: kalibr
    Absolutely! By the way, remind me, what did Korolev invented there?

    I don’t remind you, you should remember this from elementary school.
  • Krasnodar
    Krasnodar 4 February 2021 15: 10
    +9
    Quote: kalibr
    Quote: Olgovich
    Russian world only "furs": Mendeleev, Lomonosov, Yablochkov, Zvorykin, Lobachevsky, Kovalevskaya, Zhukovsky, Pirogov, Pavlov, Popov, Sikorsky, Korolev, Kurchatov, Dolivo-Dobrovolsky, Yakobi, Butlerov, Sechenov, Vernadsky, Vitalovilov and many - many others, whose discoveries and inventions were, often, the first in the world.

    Let's delete all this and nothing will change "there"! Absolutely! By the way, remind me, what did Korolev invented there?

    Greetings, Vyacheslav Olegovich! hi
    It will change if you delete Mendeleev, Tsiolkovsky, Zvorykin (TV), Lobachevsky (spatial geometry, EMNIP) and Pavlov. I will add Elizarov, Khavkin and Landau.
    1. kalibr
      kalibr 4 February 2021 17: 31
      -4
      Quote: Krasnodar
      It will change if you delete Mendeleev, Tsiolkovsky, Zvorykin (TV), Lobachevsky (spatial geometry, EMNIP) and Pavlov. I will add Elizarov, Khavkin and Landau.

      In some ways, the development would have gone differently, but not much. Marx wrote that if there is a social need, then it moves science faster than a dozen universities. In their place there would be others, with different names, that's all.
      1. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar 4 February 2021 17: 43
        +8
        I agree, but this is true of any discovery made by any other scientist on the planet.
        I would add Mechnikov and Bekhterev to my list. hi ))
    2. The eye of the crying
      The eye of the crying 4 February 2021 21: 10
      0
      The deletion of Lobachevsky will definitely not change - his geometry was invented independently by at least Boyiai (and even earlier by Gauss).
      1. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar 4 February 2021 22: 40
        +3
        So you know better than me hi
        1. The eye of the crying
          The eye of the crying 5 February 2021 00: 21
          0
          I mean, many (or even all) inventions and discoveries are made by several people independently. Physics, chemistry and mathematics are the same everywhere. So, up to a certain limit, deletion will not affect anything at all, just the discovery will have a single author. In the example given, you can cross out both Boyai and Lobachevsky (but not both).
          1. Krasnodar
            Krasnodar 5 February 2021 01: 50
            +2
            I agree, it is logical
    3. Liam
      Liam 4 February 2021 23: 05
      -2
      Quote: Krasnodar
      Will change if you delete Mendeleev,

      What is the uniqueness of Mendeleev? hi
      1. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar 4 February 2021 23: 15
        +5
        In the table)).
        1. Liam
          Liam 4 February 2021 23: 17
          -1
          Julius Lothar Meyer
          Created a similar table and simultaneously with Mendeleev
          1. Krasnodar
            Krasnodar 4 February 2021 23: 44
            +5
            So why does the whole world use Mendeleevskaya?
            1. Liam
              Liam 5 February 2021 00: 04
              -2
              )))
              Russian-speaking world want to say ??)
              The world uses a periodic table. No author's specification. By the way, there are about 800 variants of this table. Different authors and time periods
              1. Bolt cutter
                Bolt cutter 5 February 2021 01: 04
                +2
                The world uses the periodic table
                Compiled by Mendeleev on the basis of the periodic law discovered by him (and not by Meyer), which made it possible to predict the existence of not yet discovered elements. Meyer just tried to organize the elements. And yes, the world knows it as the periodic table.
              2. Krasnodar
                Krasnodar 5 February 2021 01: 48
                +4
                Quote: Liam
                )))
                Russian-speaking world want to say ??)
                The world uses a periodic table. No author's specification. By the way, there are about 800 variants of this table. Different authors and time periods

                More than a thousand different versions of the periodic table have been created since Dmitri Mendeleev drew the first 150 years ago - but why is one version more familiar to us than practically every other?

                This is the 150th anniversary of the compilation of the periodic table, which is still the most used in the world.
                https://physicsworld.com/a/an-unelementary-affair-150-years-of-the-periodic-table/
                English edition, the article provides the opinion of Americans hi
                1. Liam
                  Liam 5 February 2021 09: 37
                  -1
                  Maybe I didn't make myself clear. When in the Soviet school I studied this table it was called the periodic table and nothing else. My children in a non-Soviet school just study the periodic table of elements. Nobody calls it the Mendeleev table. That he was involved in its creation can be learned only by delving into the history of creation. By the way, the Mendeleev original and the modern version are two very big differences. Mendeleev did not create anything unique, there were many such tables in his time. His version is slightly more successful than others, but nothing epoch-making. In general, this is not Gallileo, not Newton or Einstein
                2. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar 5 February 2021 10: 12
                  +2
                  Maybe so )).
  • Bar1
    Bar1 4 February 2021 11: 18
    +6
    Quote: Olgovich
    Russian world only "furs": Mendeleev, Lomonosov, Yablochkov, Zvorykin, Lobachevsky, Kovalevskaya, Zhukovsky, Pirogov, Pavlov, Popov, Sikorsky, Korolev, Kurchatov, Dolivo-Dobrovolsky, Yakobi, Butlerov, Sechenov, Vernadsky, Vitalovilov and many - many others, whose discoveries and inventions were, often, the first in the world.


    add: Polzunov, Mozhaisky, Lodygin, Malakhovsky-Wernerka, Kotelnikov.
    Recently I just read that the creation of a three-phase electric motor is not a merit of Tesla, but Dolivo-Dobrovolsky.
    1. Olgovich
      Olgovich 4 February 2021 12: 05
      +4
      Quote: Bar1
      add: Polzunov, Mozhaisky, Lodygin, Malakhovsky year-
      Wernerka, Kotelnikov.

      Oh yes there hundreds surnames!

      Recently I just read that the creation of a three-phase electric motor is not a merit of Tesla, but Dolivo-Dobrovolsky.

      What's this- the world's first industrial three-phase AC power plant was created in Russia. This happened in April 1893 in Novorossiysk. It happened thanks to the efforts of the talented Russian engineer Alexander Shchensnovich

      Many, including the TV, do not know that the first television broadcast in the world took place on May 9, 1911 in Russia, in St. Petersburg, and was carried out by associate professor of the St. Petersburg Institute of Technology B.L. Rising
      And so on and so forth.
      1. Bar1
        Bar1 4 February 2021 13: 13
        +1
        Quote: Olgovich
        Many people, including TV, do not know that the first television broadcast in the world took place on May 9, 1911 in Russia, in St. Petersburg, and was organized by B. L. Rosing, associate professor of the St. Petersburg Institute of Technology


        did not know.

        in general, now many are engaged in studying the remnants of the Russian ankhitecture, old abandoned churches, old star fortresses, old abandoned factories across Russia, and a completely different picture of Russia / Russia opens up. just the opposite. But historical science does not talk about this and does not deal with this, and this is hidden by protruding wooden and bast shoes Russia.
    2. The eye of the crying
      The eye of the crying 5 February 2021 00: 25
      0
      Is Kotelnikov the author of the theorem, also known as the Nyquist-Shannon theorem?
  • Proxima
    Proxima 4 February 2021 13: 41
    +13
    A strange article, to put it mildly. request Astronomy developed because it was a by-product of astrology, there was a quantum leap in mathematics because they loved to play dice and needed to come up with a theory of probability. The physics branch of mechanics made great strides because people went to the theater and loved special effects. And this was not the case in the countries of the East? But for some reason they never had Newtons or Keplers. Or, in the eastern countries, there are continuous humanists and therefore they did not exploit people in such a way and therefore they never got a wild initial capital? Everything is written very one-sidedly. what
  • victor50
    victor50 5 February 2021 23: 27
    0
    Quote: Olgovich
    Without Russian literature and art, it is impossible to imagine world culture.

    Is it possible without English, French, German, American? And next to the listed worthy names, you can and should write hundreds of foreign ones. Is not it? Mr. Samsonov sees the world in a strange light! Invented by himself ..
  • Insurgent
    Insurgent 4 February 2021 08: 05
    +4
    Quote: Theodore
    Well, we went to study with them!

    And it is true, in Europe they learned a lot that they did not know in Russia at all, or that knowledge that was lost under the influence of the Tatar-Mongol yoke.

    But the Grand Duke of Moscow Ivan III, perhaps, acted more correctly, trampling on the Khan's Basma, who, on the contrary, “subscribed” masters from Europe for construction and foundry, and at the same time set the condition for training these crafts for “local cadres” ...

    Under Tsar Peter I, the future Great, and the first Russian emperor, a different order was introduced ...



    Young Tsar Peter I in a foreign dress in front of his mother, Tsarina Natalia, Patriarch Adrian and teacher Zotov
  • Bar1
    Bar1 4 February 2021 11: 07
    -7
    the fact that small countries such as Holland and England were suddenly able to turn around, build huge fleets and conquer the whole world, such a picture from OI looks unlikely. Holland now has almost no forests, on the British Isles, the same thing, except for forests, you need hemp for rigging, sails , and this is the production of hemp, the production of brass and bronze. Those. the onslaught of these small countries England and Holland on the whole world does not look convincing. With their limited resources in population / people and small opportunities / resources of their countries, they could NOT conquer territories much larger than their own and like England hold such huge and cultural countries like India. where there was much more population and resources to repel aggression.
    For example, the reference to the fact that European countries had firearms against edged weapons: not convincing. There are examples that the same bow and arrows are much more effective, especially in a wooded Indian area, when it is possible to fire from a bow the advancing troops of Europeans from afar. Or even remember VERY VERY EFFECTIVE irregular troops of the Republic of Ingushetia in the war of 1812 Kalmyks and Bashkirs used bows, arrows, which operated from afar and knocked out dense formations of Napoleon's troops.
    I want to say that the division of the world into countries and peoples is a visible untruth. The conquest of the world can be if the war is waged by a GREAT and powerful power. And it was most likely the very Holy Roman Empire of the Germans about which a lot has been written, but everything is apparently a lie.
    1. A. Privalov
      A. Privalov 4 February 2021 12: 13
      +9
      Quote: Bar1
      the fact that small countries such as Holland and England were suddenly able to turn around, build huge fleets and conquer the whole world, such a picture from OI looks unlikely. Holland now has almost no forests, on the British Isles, the same thing, except for forests, you need hemp for rigging, sails , and this is the production of hemp, the production of brass and bronze. Those. the onslaught of these small countries England and Holland on the whole world does not look convincing. With their limited resources in population / people and small opportunities / resources of their countries, they could NOT conquer territories much larger than their own and like England hold such huge and cultural countries like India. where there was much more population and resources to repel aggression.

      Perhaps this lengthy quote will resolve some of your doubts.
      By the 300th century, the Dutch Republic was the most populous country in Europe. More than 6500 cities and XNUMX villages were compactly concentrated on the territory of seven provinces. Antwerp was the largest port city in Brabant and a commercial and financial center. The manufactures of the provinces of Flanders and Brabant were associated with the export of English cloth, glass products, soap and other goods. The well-equipped port of Antwerp has been the anchorage of many ships from many states, including the Spanish and Portuguese colonies. Gradually, the role of Antwerp fades into the background and economic influence passes to Amsterdam. In the provinces of Holland, Zeeland and Senoria Utrecht, manufactories mainly worked on the production of large volumes of ship equipment and canvas. As in the rest of the maritime countries, Dutch navigation and shipbuilding were reaching a new level. This was facilitated by economic growth driven by fishing and trade. The ports of Amsterdam, Middelbourg, Vlissingen were active in trade with England, Scotland and the Baltic countries. Even Spain ordered the construction of galleons at the Flanders shipyards using their technology. The agricultural provinces of Geldern, Drenthe, Overijssel sold vegetable and animal products through other Dutch ports and received the missing imported goods through the same ports.

      To compete with Spain and Portugal in maritime dominance and the opening of new colonies, the Dutch Republic accumulated efforts to build and improve its navy and maritime navigation. Trade with the Baltic countries and Scandinavia has played a decisive role, as the Lower Lands are very scarce in terms of forest plantations, which are extremely important in shipbuilding. Almost all the necessary shipbuilding materials were imported from Germany, Poland, Sweden (imports of oak), Norway and the Baltic countries (imports of spruce and pine), Vyborg and Finland (resin), Sweden (copper and iron), France and Gdansk (canvas).
      In the 66th century, about XNUMX% of all trade between Western European countries was transported on Dutch ships, since these ships had the advantage in terms of size, design and maneuverability.
      1. Bar1
        Bar1 4 February 2021 13: 07
        -2
        what you brought quite fits into the point of view of the OI, yes there was a population, but there was an import of goods. But it is impossible to conquer the world - a powerful Mughal state, this requires other forces.
        And besides, there has always been France on the continent, which itself tried to become a world invader and therefore could not help England and Holland build their fleets.
        1. A. Privalov
          A. Privalov 4 February 2021 13: 44
          +7
          Quote: Bar1
          what you brought quite fits into the point of view of the OI, yes there was a population, but there was an import of goods. But it is impossible to conquer the world - a powerful Mughal state, this requires other forces.
          And besides, there has always been France on the continent, which itself tried to become a world invader and therefore could not help England and Holland build their fleets.

          Your interest in history is commendable and encouraged.
          Unfortunately, as part of a commentary on the article, I am not able to teach you a course on the history of the Netherlands. It's almost a full semester, a bunch of classes and two colloquia. However, if you wish, you can quickly grasp the events of those times by reading several readily available articles on the topic "History of the Kingdom of the Netherlands" here:
          http://virtualeuropa.narod.ru/netherland/history.htm
          At least two of them -
          4. United provinces.
          5. The Golden Age.
          Wikipedia has a bunch of pretty decent articles on the topic, but I recommend two first of all - History of the Netherlands and Maritime History of the Netherlands.
          And for a snack, a short video about the colonies of the Netherlands:


          I wish you success! hi
      2. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 4 February 2021 14: 19
        +5
        In the 66th century, about XNUMX% of all trade between Western European countries was transported on Dutch ships, since these ships had the advantage in terms of size, design and maneuverability.

        Alexander, welcome! hi
        I heard an opinion from one former history teacher (a person who is really interested) that the Dutch invented such a type of ship as the flute. And that the ship turned out to be so successful for trade that, in fact, he promoted this very trade! Is it true or not? hi With respect, Nicholai
        1. A. Privalov
          A. Privalov 4 February 2021 14: 30
          +8
          Quote: Pane Kohanku
          the Dutch invented a type of ship called the flute

          Indeed, flutes are a purely Dutch phenomenon. I remember that this is somewhere in the middle or even the end of the 16th century. The steering wheel was first used on it. They walked almost until the end of the 18th century.
          What is there and how in the snap is special, I will not say, sorry. I hardly distinguish a brahmsel from a bollard, not to mention jibs and jibs. hi
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 4 February 2021 14: 43
            +6
            The steering wheel was first used on it.

            but I didn't know that, thanks! drinks
            I hardly distinguish a brahmsel from a bollard, not to mention jibs and jibs.

            I'm not a shipbuilder either. hi According to my interlocutor, the ship was very successful in terms of price-small crew-carrying capacity ratio.
            1. A. Privalov
              A. Privalov 4 February 2021 14: 50
              +6
              Quote: Pane Kohanku
              the ship was very successful in terms of price-small crew-carrying capacity.

              Apparently, for this reason, the vessels of this type were also used in RIF. They went there and in the Baltic and the Caspian. But this is perhaps the beginning of the 18th century.
              1. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku 4 February 2021 14: 57
                +5
                They went there and in the Baltic and the Caspian. But this is perhaps the beginning of the 18th century.

                Well, yes, how Tsar Peter launched the construction of relatively large ships! hi
                1. A. Privalov
                  A. Privalov 4 February 2021 15: 06
                  +4
                  Quote: Pane Kohanku
                  Well, yes, how Tsar Peter launched the construction of relatively large ships!

                  It is already necessary to specifically look at what Peter bought, built there and for which fleets. Offhand, there were already built in Russia, and bought in England, and in Denmark and in Holland, and recaptured from the Swedes. For the types of ships, you need to look at the special literature.
                  1. Pane Kohanku
                    Pane Kohanku 4 February 2021 15: 15
                    +3
                    For the types of ships, you need to look at the special literature.

                    I agree with you.
                    and repulsed from the Swedes.

                    Offhand from the large ships I recall the battleship "Vakhtmeister". Surrendered after a long battle, when he was pinned down by the whole squadron. In the same battle, the frigate and brigantine were captured.

                    And, well, yes - also the trophies of Gangut and Grengam.
                    1. A. Privalov
                      A. Privalov 4 February 2021 15: 31
                      +4
                      Quote: Pane Kohanku
                      And, well, yes - also the trophies of Gangut and Grengam.

                      Neither in the Gangut (10 large against a hundred small ones), nor in Grengam (a dozen different against a hundred small ones, and even in shallow water), the Swedes had nothing to catch. It's like ants with an elephant: knocked down and trampled to death.
                    2. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 4 February 2021 15: 34
                      +3
                      the Swedes had nothing to catch

                      It was they who "entered unsuccessfully"! request There were also (even before Poltava) two attempts to approach the Swedish squadrons to the St. Petersburg under construction, but they were repelled by the fire of batteries on Kotlin, Fort Kronslot and ships of the Baltic fleet.
                    3. A. Privalov
                      A. Privalov 4 February 2021 15: 38
                      +5
                      Quote: Pane Kohanku
                      It was they who "entered unsuccessfully"!

                      And if they'd come in with a tambourine, it would be even worse ... lol
                    4. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 4 February 2021 15: 54
                      +3
                      And if they'd come in with a tambourine, it would be even worse ...

                      God knows, under Gangut, EMNIP, ours had a certain element of luck. Although there was a military trick. But "Vakhtmeiter" under Ezel was beaten long and tediously - until he gave up. request
                    5. A. Privalov
                      A. Privalov 4 February 2021 17: 16
                      +4
                      Quote: Pane Kohanku
                      But "Vakhtmeiter" under Ezel was beaten long and tediously - until he gave up.

                      There are also seven battleships against three. It is clear that they got sick.
    2. kalibr
      kalibr 4 February 2021 17: 35
      +2
      It had rounded stern contours, while all the ships of that time had a flat, cut off. Because of this, the flutes were fast and maneuverable in tightness. This was convenient and enhanced their role as merchant ships. And they died less than the clumsy galleons.
      1. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 4 February 2021 17: 50
        +6
        Because of this, the flutes were fast and maneuverable in tightness.

        And the blockage of the sides, which also influenced something there ... what By the way, the steering wheel really first appeared on flutes - I checked! All together gave an advantage in trade. hi
        Here is what the Naval Dictionary, edited by Admiral Chernavin, 1989 says:
        FLUTE, mor. sail, a three-masted ship in the Netherlands of the 16th and 18th centuries, used in the military. fleet as transport. Armed with 4-6 guns. It had sides, to-rye above the waterline were piled inward. The fore and main masts carried straight sails, and the mizzen mast carried mizzen and topsail. The steering wheel was first used on the F. In Russia, F. were part of the Baltic Fleet since the 17th century.

        Pay attention to the last phrase. In the 17th century there was no Baltic Fleet in Russia! Inaccuracy? Or a typo? Or did you want to say something else?
  • gsev
    gsev 29 March 2021 05: 16
    0
    Quote: Bar1
    Or in general, recall the VERY EFFECTIVE irregular troops of the Republic of Ingushetia in the war of 1812, Kalmyks and Bashkirs used bows, arrows, which operated from afar and knocked out the dense formations of Napoleon's troops.

    It's just that the Russian economy during the Napoleonic Wars was so weak that it could not provide its Bashkir cavalry with sabers and firearms. And after the victory over Napoleon, the Russian army re-equipped with captured French weapons.
    Quote: Bar1
    bows and arrows are much more effective, especially in the wooded Indian terrain, when it is possible to fire at the advancing troops of the Europeans from afar from afar.

    During the first battle with the Russian Cossacks armed with firearms, the Yukagiri immediately realized the advantage of firearms over bows and arrows, recaptured guns from the Russians in the first battle, and were able to use these trophies in battle. In fact, at the time of the beginning of the colonization of Africa, the Africans had a fairly high military structure and before the advent of magazine-operated rifles and machine guns, the Europeans had a good chance in military clashes with the small European armies in Africa. But the tactics in the fight against the army armed with a firearms army armed with melee weapons is a surprise strike. During World War II, there were cases of successful attacks by Chinese sword infantry against the Japanese army. But to do this, the Chinese had to withstand the shelling, let the Japanese infantry throw a grenade and attack in unison.
  • Ilya Shikhailo
    Ilya Shikhailo April 8 2021 02: 51
    0
    A tree can be cut down to a certain limit, plus there is always someone you can buy from. And when there are colonies, then the forest is already used there.
    What is the effectiveness of the irregular troops in 1812? Is it that they could deliver "annoying blows"? However, these troops were in addition to the regular army. Some recalcitrant Zusuls did not have a regular army of an all-European level. Guerrilla - yes, it can be effective, but is it possible to win a war? Here, for example, the same Borodino, imagine that instead of the Russian army there will be a crowd of horse archers and other irregular troops. Yes, even a million of them will be there - they can only do something with a blunt head-on attack with the whole mass at the same time, and that is doubtful. Suvorov beat the Turks with devastating scores, although the Turks had a fairly adequate army with a firearm, with discipline (among the Janissaries, at least), with a firearm in the end. And then - we remember Rymnik. And what if instead of the Turks at Rymnik there will be a crowd of Chingachguks who have never seen a firearm in their eyes? Scatter instantly.
  • Sergey79
    Sergey79 7 February 2021 11: 23
    +1
    You are a little mistaken. For example, during these years the same Dutchmen bought artillery pieces from our ancestors in large volumes. As did the British.
  • The comment was deleted.
  • Vladimir_2U
    Vladimir_2U 4 February 2021 05: 18
    +2
    The success of Europeans on the world stage during the Great Geographical Discoveries was not determined by intellectual, cultural, technical superiority or a "progressive" social structure. And the weakness or mistakes of other peoples and powers.
    Without justifying the filthiness of Europe, you ask yourself a question; strange, but weakness or mistakes are not the consequences of a lower intellectual, cultural or technical level?
    Another thing is that Europe's starting capabilities were slightly higher than in the rest of the world. The reasons for this are discussed in the excellent book "Guns, Germs and Steel" by D. Jared.
  • Pessimist22
    Pessimist22 4 February 2021 05: 21
    +5
    It is clear, but in Russia serfdom was abolished in 1861, and now I personally think that mortgage and other types of slavery were introduced again in a modern form.
  • Mykhalych
    Mykhalych 4 February 2021 05: 41
    -9
    To convey to the Russian youth, and in the school curriculum, include the True History of Russia, Russia according to Lomonosov, and not the one that was composed by German dreamers ...
  • Ross xnumx
    Ross xnumx 4 February 2021 05: 46
    -10%
    Some write that the Russian princess was surprised at the stench and uncleanliness of a European city ... Others know that in Europe they were the first to print books, mastered navigation, astronomy, art ... Russia and Europe were connected (even) by family ties ...
    What was wrong, that a country whose architecture dates back at least a thousand years was turned into an unknown (without history) state, where bears walked the streets, and people slurped cabbage soup?
    In my opinion, the continuation of the history of the Russian state should be based on true history, with all the stages of what is happening.
    There has been so much fancy here for 30 years, but according to the story offered to us, it turns out that from the birth of Christ Russia slept in a den with bears for 15 centuries ... Waking up to the Battle of the Ice and the Battle of Kulikovo ...
    1. Hantengri
      Hantengri 4 February 2021 12: 12
      +7
      Quote: ROSS 42

      Some write that the Russian princess was surprised at the stench and filthiness of a European city ...

      Are you talking about this? lol
      LETTER ANNA YAROSLAVNA TO FATHER YAROSLAV WISE FROM FRANCE

      “Hello, my dear darling! Your faithful daughter Anechka, Anna Yaroslavna Rurikovich, and now the French queen, is writing to you, the prince of all Russia. And where did you send me, a sinner? Into the stinking hole, to France, to the Paris-town, be it wrong! You said: the French are smart people, and they don't even know the stove. As soon as winter begins, let's heat the fireplace. From it there is soot for the whole palace, smoke for the whole hall, but there is not a drop of heat. Only Russian beavers and sables here I save myself. Once I called their masons, began to explain what a stove is. She drew, drew blueprints for them - they would name science, and that's it. "Madam," they say, "it's impossible." I answer: "Do not be lazy, go to Russia, we have a stove in every wooden hut, not like in stone chambers." And they told me: “Madam, we do not believe. That there was a closet with fire in the house, and there was no fire? Oh, non-non! " I swore to them. They say: “You, the Russians, are barbarians, Scythians, Asians, this is your witchcraft. Look, madam, don't tell anyone but us, otherwise they will burn you and me at the stake! " And they eat, you know what? You won't believe - frogs! Even ordinary people in our country would be ashamed to take such things into their mouths, but they have dukes and duchesses who eat and praise at the same time. They also eat cutlets. They will take a piece of meat, beat it with a hammer, fry it and eat it. Their Byzantine spoons are still news, and they have never seen Venetian forks. I once took and cooked a chicken for my spouse, King Henry. He licked his hands straight. “Anchor! - shouts. - Yet!" I cooked him some more. He will shout again: "Ankor!" I told him: "The stomach hurts!" He: “Kes-kyo-se? - What it is?" I explained to him about Claudius Galen. He says: “You are a warlock! Look, don't tell anyone, otherwise the Pope orders us to burn at the stake. " Another time I say to Henry: "Let me teach your fools to stage Alexandria." He: "What is it?" I say: "The history of the wars of Alexander the Great." - "Who is he?" Well, I explained to him about Antisthenes the Younger. He told me: “Oh, non-non! It's incredible! One person cannot conquer so many countries! " Then I showed him the book. He frowned in disgust and said: “I am not a priest to read so much! In Europe, not a single king can read. Look who you don't show, otherwise my dukes and counts will quickly kill you with daggers! " This is the kind of life here, darling. And also the Saracens (Arabs) came to us. No one, except me, speaks Saracenic rumor, the queen had to become a translator, even the dukes and counts were grinding their teeth. Yes, I am not afraid of this, my Varangians are always with me. Something else is scary. These Saracens invented alkugl (Arabic - alcohol), it is even stronger than our mash and mead, not like Polish vodka. This is why I am writing to you, my dear, so that this alkugl does not come to Russia even a single barrel. Not God! Otherwise, the death will be for the Russian people. For this I bow to you forgiving, being your faithful daughter Anna Yaroslavna Rurikovich, and by her husband Anna Regina Francorum.

      This is clearly some kind of "Zadornov" model of the late XIX - early XX century having fun.
      1. Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko
        Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko 4 February 2021 12: 39
        +5
        Personally, I think it's a fake too! Okay, Annushka knew how to cook, about Alexander the Great - she heard unambiguously and could bear some kind of gag to her husband, but she didn't know the Arabic language for sure. And where does such a confident knowledge about alcohol and vodka come from?
        1. Hantengri
          Hantengri 4 February 2021 12: 50
          +6
          This is not a fake. This is a humorous work by an unknown author of the 19th century. And in order to understand that Anna Yaroslavna in the XI century. so I could not write enough to compare this work with this one, for example:
          Do we not, brethren, start with old words of difficult stories about the regiment of Igor, Igor Svyatoslavlich! Start that song according to the epics of this time, and not according to Boyanu's intentions!

          Boyan who knows, if anyone even does something, he will be distracted by thought along a tree, with a wedge on the ground, a shizm eagle under the clouds, remembering more of the time of strife. Then push 10 falcons per herd of swans; which, until the end of the day, that one should give a belt to the old Yaroslav, the brave Mstislav, and others like Reded, to the red Romanov Svyatoslavlich. Boyan, brothers, is not a falcon per herd of swans, but his own prying on live strings in a warehouse; they themselves are the prince of glory to the roar.

          This is the end of XII.
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 4 February 2021 14: 28
            +5
            This is the end of XII.

            Igor, a couple of months ago I found and downloaded the notes of the tutor of Tsarevich Pavel - Semyon Poroshin. drinks The notes themselves are from the 60s of the 18th century. But the publishing house is 1844. And there is an annotation from the publishers - oh, ooh ... belay In general, you will break your brain while you read an abstruse text (obviously not Pushkin or Gogol) on philosophical reflections, and even in the tsarist spelling ... request in comparison with the introduction, the teacher's diary itself is written in a simpler and more interesting way. yes
      2. Bolt cutter
        Bolt cutter 4 February 2021 14: 36
        +3
        By the way, frog legs taste very much even nothing.
        you know? You won't believe - frogs!
      3. Ross xnumx
        Ross xnumx 4 February 2021 16: 19
        -2
        Quote: HanTengri
        Are you talking about this?

        We can say that about this. And that each new ruler of Russia writes the history of the Russian state anew and in his own way. Just about that.
        We know perfectly well the period of history from 1991, but this did not stop either the builders of the EBN center, or its sponsors, who spent billions of people's money on this door-house, or those deputies who vote for the annual subsidization of this facility.
        This was my main thought:
        The history of the Russian state should be based on true facts, with an explanation of all its stages.
        1. Ilya Shikhailo
          Ilya Shikhailo April 8 2021 03: 50
          0
          No ... Soviet history is more or less known to all. Only now, what happened before the Soviet regime - very few people already know this. How all these Decembrists begin - everything is as if nothing else is happening, only the evil government is once again tightening the screws. Everyone knows who Zhelyabov and Perovskaya are, who Vera Zasulich is and who Muravyov-Apostol with Pestel and Trubetskoy are, but almost no one knows, for example, Academician Dukovsky - one of the "fathers" of Russian aviation - or, engineer Tikhomirov - in fact, the founder of the Russian missile program from a practical point of view (from a theoretical point of view - Tsiolkovsky, and, fortunately, everyone knows him). Many people really think that before the Soviet regime we had nothing, and they consider history only after 17 years. Yes, now there are people who really think that planning was invented by the Bolsheviks, and that it was this planning that was adopted by all the bourgeoisie. Which is complete nonsense, because planning, apparently, appeared along with the human mind, and existed thousands of years before the Bolsheviks, and will last as long. There are all sorts of societies like "citizens of the USSR" that tell everyone that the Russian Federation is, it turns out, illegal, but the USSR, in their opinion, is legal. Although, the possibility of secession of the republics was spelled out in the constitution from the very beginning, that is, the Russian Federation is legal in relation to the USSR. The USSR itself is illegal, since it is actually the state of the revolutionaries who seized power in the country, and the monarchy is the legal power. But these people do not even think that the USSR also once appeared, and that something existed before it. History of technology? As a rule, it begins not from the real beginning of its history in our country - that is, from the XIV century at least - but from the 1930s. Well, because "Stalin took the country with a plow," and, accordingly, nothing had ever happened before him. At some point, such a presentation was justified. But now? - not anymore. It will take a long time before people begin to adequately perceive their history, and not through the prism of ideology - the ideology of the Soviet communist, or the ideology of the American liberal. In the meantime, in our country in the minds of many people there is a bizarre mixture of Soviet and Western concepts of the history of Russia, many believe in absolutely caricatured horror stories about idiots-tsars, about a terrible gulag and about the age-old backwardness of Russia, which negatively affects the perception of current activities ... It is necessary to reconsider the attitude towards history in principle.
  • Konnick
    Konnick 4 February 2021 05: 54
    +2
    The ban included national holidays, games, dances and songs, in which they saw the legacy of paganism. Even loud laughter was considered perverse. Protestant fundamentalists who seized power were real fanatics. At the same time, they are dark and stubborn. They demanded to banish everything “sinful” from life, fought with “devils

    Not only Protestants, not only Christians, but all world confessions have suffered and are suffering from this. They all forgot the main thing. God is love. Religious far-fetched principles were adopted by the clergy to keep their parishioners in fear in order to obtain material benefits for their maintenance

    “Everyone believes in something, someone believes that God exists, and someone does not,” said the pastor, handing over to Detochkin the battered three and five marks for the Volga.
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 4 February 2021 06: 10
      +3
      The pastor paid in rubles, which caused Detochkin's legitimate suspicion, but in fact everything is correct. smile
    2. kalibr
      kalibr 4 February 2021 08: 09
      +4
      The decree on the taverns of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich: "Don’t drive cocksuckers from taverns ... they don’t get drunk until the cross and trousers. You don’t have prodigal wives in taverns. You don’t have buffoons from snuffling and tambourines, don’t drive bears, don’t play with grain and cards And sit and drink tsare's smoked wine. Tselovalniks have a coffers drunk against the lonesh years (an invention of planning based on what has been achieved), or else beat batogs! "
  • Soveticos
    Soveticos 4 February 2021 05: 56
    -3
    Thank you for the article. The capitalist system was, is and will be one of the forms of serfdom, the parasitism of a bunch of shit ..., uh, "chosen ones" and has always led to constant wars for increasing incomes. Socialism is salvation (it doesn't matter if it is religious, democratic or authoritarian)!
    1. kalibr
      kalibr 4 February 2021 08: 13
      0
      And here is how it was with us: "Any beginning of intimate life was considered as corruption of the soul and body, lowering of the moral state of a person. Let us give typical examples of the beginning of the confessional rite." How, child and brethren, for the first time corrupted his virginity and desecrated bodily purity, with a lawful wife or with a stranger. ”2“ How did he corrupt his virginity in the first: whether by fornication or with a lawful wife, for everyone can be fornication? ”3 It is interesting that questions of this kind always begin the confessional rite, and the confessor did not just ask about sin in general, he demanded a detailed story about each of the types of sins, which included almost all currently known perversions and simply ways to diversify the sexual life. For example, in the 95th century missal in "The Tale of How Befitting to Confess", about 4 percent of the text is devoted to eliciting details of the intimate life of the confessing All the other sins fit into one rather laconic phrase: “And after that, ask everyone about murder and theft e, and about the capture of gold or kuns ”XNUMX. ("Rodina" magazine https://jopahenka.ru/VIDEO/HENKS_DVD/Corrupting_Christianity/Fornication_is_any.htm)
      1. kalibr
        kalibr 4 February 2021 08: 17
        +1
        The women were really bad: "Each of those who came to confession had to repent of the whole complex of sins and recognize himself as the most notorious sinner or sinner. Here, for example, what characteristic" Confession to Wives "recommends to give himself from the 6th century missal:" And there is no sin in this world, which I, accursed, did not create. And there has not been such a sinner in this world since the creation of the world, and for me there will not be, as though I, accursed, was the ruler of all evil and disobedience. "The confessors, however, did not limit themselves to These ominous, but somewhat abstract phrases required a detailed enumeration of all sins, the overwhelming majority of which were precisely the sins of voluptuousness: “I wore nauz and touched the secret oud of her husband and strangers with her own hands, and kissed them, and also And with her neighbors in the family in fornication and in adultery she fornicated with all sodomized fornication, she climbed up on them and let loose on herself, and gave them, and gave into the anus, and put her tongue into her mouth, and she let her tongue in her bosom, and she did the same with them ... She fornicated on girls and over wives, she climbed up on them and started fornications on herself, and kissed them on the mouth, and on the breasts, and into secret ouds with lust until the expiration of lust, and with her own hand she fornicated into her own body. ”XNUMX. (Rodina magazine https://jopahenka.ru/VIDEO/HENKS_DVD/Corrupting_Christianity/Fornication_is_any.htm) time to such a cunning confessor ... beginning to understand that ... you will not sin, you will not repent, you will not repent, you will not sin!
        1. Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko
          Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko 4 February 2021 13: 48
          +1
          This is some kind of stupid and modern fake - I don't believe in that!
          1. kalibr
            kalibr 4 February 2021 14: 18
            +4
            Quote: Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko
            This is some kind of stupid and modern fake - I don't believe in that!

            Look at the source, and in it at the links.
      2. Konnick
        Konnick 4 February 2021 08: 23
        +6
        Remember Kuraev, who tried to fight the blue mafia in the Russian Orthodox Church.
      3. EvilLion
        EvilLion 4 February 2021 08: 37
        +8
        "Sin is while the legs are up. He lowered his legs - God forgave him."

        As we have here with sexual customs was in the past centuries, modern man cares. At the same time, in Russia, unlike Europe, for the same homosexuality, they did not burn, the clergy were not forbidden to marry (except for monks), and in general, as in that joke: "You go still sinning, otherwise I can't count."

        All the other sins fit into one rather laconic phrase: "And after that ask everyone about murder, and about theft, and about the seizure of gold or kunas"


        It is obvious that an ordinary peasant, or a city dweller, robbed and killed infrequently, but everyone was having fun in the hayloft.
        1. The comment was deleted.
  • parusnik
    parusnik 4 February 2021 06: 04
    +14
    The Sabbat started in the last article continues ... but in a slightly different way
    1. mr.ZinGer
      mr.ZinGer 4 February 2021 08: 35
      +6
      Briefly and exhaustively, there is nothing to add.
    2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 4 February 2021 11: 09
      +7
      Quote: parusnik
      The Sabbat started in the last article continues ... but in a slightly different way

      You are right Alexy attempts "socio-economic" were supplemented with "sexual-religious" overtones! laughing
      1. parusnik
        parusnik 4 February 2021 13: 08
        +6
        Simplicity is worse than theft. So simple and intelligible, and you look, the brains are curled up, in case there is, and when I am not: "Oh, my box is full, there is chintz and brocade in it (c). RenTV on TV, Samsonov on IN.
  • rocket757
    rocket757 4 February 2021 06: 13
    +3
    The myth of "enlightened" Europe

    What has grown, has grown old ... what, to indulge in the entertainment of American blacks and poison the descendants of the colonialists / landowners of others ...
    History should be known so as not to repeat the same mistakes !!! and run after others, so that new ones can be produced.
  • Deniska999
    Deniska999 4 February 2021 06: 19
    +18
    Dante and Boccaccio, for example, stole their works from the Hyperboreans. The author of the idea for a note.
    1. parusnik
      parusnik 4 February 2021 13: 11
      +4
      Dante and Boccaccio, for example, stole their works from the Hyperboreans.
      good laughing
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 4 February 2021 14: 57
        +3
        The Hyperboreans, having read the comment above, found out that Dante and Boccaccio had been stolen from them !!! Apparently, already in the amount of at least "tsat" thousands, the courts are attacking with statements of claim about the violation of their copyright by the above-mentioned citizens !!! laughing
  • Odysseus
    Odysseus 4 February 2021 06: 22
    +12
    Although many people laugh at Samsonov, in my opinion, he succeeds in many articles, or rather even some of the articles. In fact, they are a compilation of already known things, but a sensible compilation.
    But in this case, a complete failure ... Just a disaster. The article, of course, contains some correct remarks and descriptions of historical facts, but in fact it is not absolutely correct. Moreover, it is extremely harmful - any literate person who reads this will grab his head and will have nothing to do with such "anti-Westerners". Well, young people will just twirl their fingers at their temples.
    To describe all the semantic and factual errors of the article, an article twice as large is not enough. But there is no need for this either - back in 2000 S.G. Kara-Murza (practically the banner of state patriotism) wrote an excellent article on this very topic. Shows that anti-Western myths are just as ridiculous and dangerous as Western myths.
    Those who wish can familiarize themselves - it was called, EMNIP, "In defense of the enemy".
    1. mr.ZinGer
      mr.ZinGer 4 February 2021 08: 43
      +9
      Under the pseudonym Samsonov is a whole conglomerate (a combination of something heterogeneous, a disorderly mixture) of authors. This can be seen in the style and topics raised.
      1. parusnik
        parusnik 4 February 2021 13: 18
        +8
        Vladimir, hi I know the Samsonov clan for a long time, they were published on some website, unfortunately I forgot the name. Their articles were mostly anti-Soviet, such a shadow on the fence could not be conveyed. Then I this site, as it seems to some newspaper, of a liberal direction, not I remember, at least shoot laughing I stopped reading. With surprise, the clan found it on VO. But already, with a different topic. There is nothing personal, only money. Write, Emelya, the site will endure everything .. laughing
  • A. Privalov
    A. Privalov 4 February 2021 06: 44
    +16
    I read it twice and somehow did not catch who Mr. Samsonov opposes to the Europeans.
    They are these Western Europeans, of course, as one, they were still reptiles and such and such and there is nothing to boast of, they say, neither culture, nor science, nor art ...
    ... Science did not yet have special practical significance. She was the lot of a handful of enthusiasts. There were 15–20 genius scientists throughout Western Europe: Galileo, Torricelli, Pascal, Beson, Fermat, Descartes, etc.

    With such categorical statements, it would be good to cite as an example, or at least have in stock "15-20 brilliant scientists" from Eastern Europe. It would be necessary, in defiance of the Westerners, to compare how many years the Easterners got those same worthless universities, how things were with the local problems of fountains and the hydrodynamics that arose on their basis. laughing
    Before mourning Shakespeare's theater, tell how things were with theaters elsewhere.
    Of the 25 thousand European ships that sailed the seas and oceans, 15 thousand were Dutch.
    How many thousand ships were there only 300 miles east?
    ... The laboratories were handicraft, homemade. The results were not published anywhere; acquaintances were notified of them by letters.

    Yes, the fate of Western European scientists was hard, but what about the laboratories of Eastern European scientists? Where, how, if not by letters and with whom, did they share their scientific publications?
    1. sergo1914
      sergo1914 4 February 2021 07: 57
      +6
      Quote: A. Privalov
      ... The laboratories were handicraft, homemade. The results were not published anywhere; acquaintances were notified of them by letters.

      Yes, the fate of Western European scientists was hard, but what about the laboratories of Eastern European scientists? Where, how, if not by letters and with whom, did they share their scientific publications?


      Then they did not reach with their meager minds the creation of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education.
      1. Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko
        Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko 4 February 2021 13: 53
        +1
        Yes, maybe they did, but even then they understood that you would breed officials in ministries, and they had to pay a good salary, but there was no point in them ...
    2. Undecim
      Undecim 4 February 2021 07: 59
      +18
      I wonder what audience is this so-called article placed by the site in the "History" section for? Chronic iodine deficiency in the mother's diet?
      1. sergo1914
        sergo1914 4 February 2021 14: 33
        +1
        Quote: Undecim
        I wonder what audience is this so-called article placed by the site in the "History" section for? Chronic iodine deficiency in the mother's diet?


        Club article. For connoisseurs.
    3. Stirbjorn
      Stirbjorn 4 February 2021 08: 20
      +5
      Quote: A. Privalov
      With such categorical statements, it would be good to cite as an example, or at least have in stock "15-20 brilliant scientists" from Eastern Europe

      I agree with you. I would even add not only Eastern Europe, but the rest of the world ?! Where are these dozens of bright minds that pushed the rest of humanity towards progress ?! wassat
    4. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 4 February 2021 15: 05
      +5
      Quote: A. Privalov
      I read it twice and somehow did not catch who Mr. Samsonov opposes to the Europeans.


      Aria-Slavs-Rus, whom for 25 thousand years the masters of the West and the East have been wearing shoes, purely in turn for the sake of the tickets purchased!
      However, the most affected in this reality - the Tatar-Mongols - they were basically denied a place in history !!! wassat
  • kalibr
    kalibr 4 February 2021 08: 03
    -1
    The life and people of that time are very well described. But was it different somewhere? We have practically the same thing, only without universities. There is a wonderful novel by the writer Chapygin "People Walking" about the time of the Copper Riot and Razin's uprising. It tells about that time better than any textbook.
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 4 February 2021 08: 15
      +11
      The life and people of that time are very well described.
      Did the author of the "description" hack someone else's account and write comments on someone else's behalf?
      1. mr.ZinGer
        mr.ZinGer 4 February 2021 08: 50
        +7
        It is surprising how motivated the author is, what kind of force of passions are chattering in him.
  • EvilLion
    EvilLion 4 February 2021 08: 31
    +12
    And indeed, what culture is there in Europe, in Africa, where they cut each other, or among the American Indians, who also cut each other, or in Asia, where they also cut each other, there is culture. And the fact that all scientific discoveries are fundamental from Europe, like the very concept of humanism, is so garbage. It's just that when they are at war in Europe - it's horror-horror, and when the Indians rip off scalps and kill prisoners in the most brutal ways, it's romance! The military successes of the Europeans are the result of scientific progress, and not the fact that their opponents were white and fluffy. Before modern Europeans, Roman legions chased all kinds of barbarians in the same way.

    Ban Samsonov already.

    When they talk about slavery, then slavery is thousands of years old, it was all over the world, and I do not really understand why the Europeans of the 17th century, having sailed to the savages, should have considered them as people? What did they see there, some kind of culture? No, of course, they saw some strange black people who do not think for a long time whether it is necessary to kill a stranger, with extremely primitive thinking. Maybe illiterate sailors on ships and not very far from the savages left, but on any ship, at least, there is a group of educated officers for whom this is just some kind of trash. And why, after that, the whites should consider the aborigines at least for the people? In our country, even now, let's say, frankly, they are called savages.
    1. Bolt cutter
      Bolt cutter 4 February 2021 14: 46
      +5
      Benin Royal Palace
      Versailles. feel the difference lol
      What did they see there, some kind of culture?
  • Decimalegio
    Decimalegio 4 February 2021 09: 49
    +7
    I do not understand this hatred for Europe. It is now true that most of Russia's territory is in Asia, but most of the Russian population lives in Europe. There are more Italian paintings in Russian museums than in other parts of the world, and Italian architects have created wonderful buildings in Russia. When I read Tolstoy, Chekhov and Dostoevsky, it seemed to me that I was reading the great representatives of European culture, and not exotic Asian or Korean authors. In short, I do not consider Russia to be an Asian country. Of course, there are differences between a Russian and an Italian, but not so many, they will be the same between a Spaniard and a Finn.
    1. kalibr
      kalibr 4 February 2021 10: 34
      +3
      Quote: Decimalegio
      I do not understand this hatred for Europe.

      We are a "great country", and they live better than us and have always lived. This is where everything comes from.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 4 February 2021 11: 14
        +17
        We are a "great country"
        Land of paradoxes.
        The national elite of this country strains with kicks propagandists of all stripes and levels to form a stable bondage of inferiority in the population and, as one individual wrote above, the "filthiness" of Europe, but in the same "filthy" Europe it is obligatory to acquire citizenship and real estate and pleases European banks placement of the capital acquired by back-breaking labor, and European universities - by paying for the education of their children.
        Isn't it a paradox?
        1. ee2100
          ee2100 4 February 2021 11: 33
          +3
          The paradox is different, the elites themselves scold the existing government in the country and laugh at "manual control", but at the same time they portray the "Ku" of this power at any opportunity.
          1. gsev
            gsev 29 March 2021 05: 37
            0
            Quote: ee2100
            the elites themselves scold the existing government in the country and laugh at the "manual control

            The modern elite cannot even train a worker, designer and adjuster for their plant without a state. The state will disappear and the owners of factories, newspapers, steamers will immediately begin to dispossession of kulaks or local hard workers or foreign managers.
      2. Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko
        Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko 4 February 2021 14: 06
        -1
        Not always and not in everything!
      3. EvilLion
        EvilLion 4 February 2021 15: 12
        +2
        They have a better climate, but not so much as not to develop at all, surviving on free bananas, and access to sea communications. First the Mediterranean, then the Atlantic. So it’s nothing surprising, and it partly helped us, because they didn’t look at our disagreements, outside of Poland, but we, being somewhat aloof from the pan-European showdowns of the new time, could learn from experience.
    2. Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko
      Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko 4 February 2021 13: 57
      0
      Well, in the past, at least not at such a pace, people in the Middle Ages burned! ... But if Russia were to be Catholic, it would be just like there.
      1. Mordvin 3
        Mordvin 3 4 February 2021 18: 15
        +1
        Quote: Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko
        Well, in the past, at least not at such a rate, people in the Middle Ages burned !.

        I don't know how fast they burned.
        1. Which schismatics of the holy church oppose and blaspheme, and do not go to church and church singing and spiritual fathers for confession, and do not partake of the holy mysteries, and do not allow priests in their homes with shrine and church need, and between Christians obscene in their own words mend temptation and rebellion, and stand stubbornly in that theft: they will torture those thieves, from whom they are taught, and for how long, and who they will speak to and talk about and talk about and give them to stakes, and torture with confrontations; and who learn from torture to stand stubbornly, but won’t bring the conquests of the holy church, and if you don’t submit to such a heresy, by interrogation three times by execution, they will burn them down in a log house and scatter ashes.

        http://rpsc.ru/publications/history/sofia_12/
        1. Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko
          Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko 5 February 2021 01: 35
          0
          You see, they burned without much fanaticism and not publicly in the central squares. And after all, they also burned beautiful women and their cats - this is generally horror ...
          1. Mordvin 3
            Mordvin 3 5 February 2021 10: 36
            -1
            Quote: Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko
            You see, they burned without much fanaticism

            I do not see. And they were all Old Believers, and they still are.
          2. gsev
            gsev 29 March 2021 05: 43
            +1
            Quote: Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko
            And then, after all, they also burned beautiful women and their cats - this is generally horror ...

            If you follow the Russophobic sites, then there you can find perfectly made heartbreaking articles about the vile killing with mass executions of unfortunate cats and dogs close to the Russian sovereign and personally by the tsar priest, based on reports on the imperial hunts. And this is done much cleverer than Samsonov's opuses.
  • smaug78
    smaug78 4 February 2021 10: 32
    +9
    In the West, there was science and a university education system (influenced by Byzantine and Arab cultures).

    Samsonov breaks the bottom again laughing
    First, all government spending was hung on the peasantry. They were literally sucked out by taxes.
    Was it somehow different in Russia?
  • BAI
    BAI 4 February 2021 13: 45
    +5
    The theater became a "springboard" for the development of mechanics.

    An interesting statement? Not production, but show business - the driving force of progress?
    1. A. Privalov
      A. Privalov 4 February 2021 13: 51
      +7
      Quote: BAI
      Not production, but show business - the driving force of progress?

      Duc, demand creates supply! lol
    2. EvilLion
      EvilLion 4 February 2021 15: 14
      +4
      True, there were 1-2 theaters in the capitals, and various water and wind machines (not only mills) were everywhere and in hundreds.
  • zenion
    zenion 4 February 2021 15: 38
    +9
    Various mechanisms and robots were made during the times of ancient Greece and Rome. The author is so carried away that it is necessary to either tie him or hold him so that he does not fall overboard. But best of all is a wooden cage bolted to the deck. The feeling of wind, spray from the bow of the ship and flight, I allow you to pin a stool there for rest. Of course, the west brought death. And Ermak's Cossacks - schools, hospitals and vaccinations for all Asians who were caught.
  • CTABEP
    CTABEP 4 February 2021 19: 19
    +5
    Recently, I recognize Samsonov by one title of the article.
    Damned Europeans, they also invented drugs, which the author seems to be sitting on.
    1. Keer
      Keer 4 February 2021 23: 20
      +2
      The author publishes a naked hack.
  • Keer
    Keer 4 February 2021 21: 55
    +2
    The work of the "Historical Blizzard" style.
  • Alexander F.
    Alexander F. 5 February 2021 00: 10
    +2
    Tale. About how one peasant loved the king and fed the foreigners.

    The immense expanses of the Russian land must be protected and protected from envious foes. And a handful of Russian people and good neighbors, friends, went to settle all over their land, mother. Protect and protect them, master, build churches, build houses, raise children, take care of the elderly, trade with foreigners, and honor the king, his father.

    And the tsar father looks out the window and sees well-groomed foreign countries, and he wants his great people to live so richly and decorously. And he asks the wise men in wigs. but how can I make my people live as richly and decorously as you do? And wishing for the riches of the Russian sages in wigs, they decided to mislead the Russian Tsar.
    They hid the fact that their countries are small and the darkness of their hands is dark, and they grew rich in raids.

    And they charmed him and said, we will teach you and give our wise men in wigs so that they teach your people our work. And the king believed the father of foreign adversaries, he allowed to teach his people. And they taught the people foreign words, and they taught traditions hitherto unprecedented and trade wisdom, for unseen wealth, and demanded to forget the Russian faith and forced them to pray to the evil god of business

    And there was no time for the Russian people to set up houses, raise children, take care of the elderly. They learned foreign wisdom.
    The Russian land is already emptying, there is no one to protect it from envious foes.

    Russia grew weaker, neighbors fled. And the sages in wigs desired the enemies of the Russian lands, and with the peasants and the hard workers.
  • Alexander F.
    Alexander F. 5 February 2021 00: 13
    0
    It so happened historically that the formation of most European states was based on the concept of rationality. The tribe, nationalities, occupied the territory that they could develop and ensure its safety. And the "fodder" base regulated the numerical strength was determined by the ability to possess the amount of food
    Russia did not fit into these canons
    Endless open spaces and a handful of brave people. (Part 2)
    Poverty from wealth. And a mysterious Russian soul!
    The construction of most of the states of the settled peoples of Europe was based on the concept of the expediency of the internal structure, similarly built on the innate algorithms of the instincts for the organization and internal structure of a pack of collective animals.
    Calculation of a sufficient food supply for the number of individuals and the necessary space to provide it. And rational optimization of costs associated with the organization of the necessary communications and infrastructure for ensuring border protection. That is, they occupy an area with a sufficient food supply within those boundaries on which they can ensure their safety with the available amount of the flock.
    The Russian state does not fit into the framework of this accepted European concept of expediency of “unlimited spaces and a handful of courageous people” excludes the rationality of the costs associated with organizing the necessary communications and infrastructure to ensure border protection.
    What makes the behavior of the Russian people not logical for a European throughout its history. Consciously to his own detriment, he spent significantly large labor and financial resources on the development of the territory, which he did not use to make a profit. and which could not be used due to its small number. When the costly part of the maintenance of the territory and its protection exceeded the profitability of its exploitation.
    A riddle for a European!
    “Selfless development of territories only for the purpose of its reverent protection?
    The mysterious Russian soul is not a desire to follow the animal worship of rationality.
    What for a European means like a stupid use of financial resources aimed at the development of territories in the absence of sufficient labor resources for their development.
    Poverty from wealth. When a large part of the people is forced to protect wealth, and only a small part of it can be involved in making a profit.
    Our historical structure of the state is fundamentally different from Western states, we have different economic, political and cultural initial data, but do we use the Western economic and political model?

    As for the state political structure of Western countries. Then they are exactly the same arranged within the framework of the algorithms of instincts. But in Russia, and in this regard, there are significant differences in the initial data, both economically, culturally and historically. So the construction of a political system in Russia, in the Western sense as capitalism, liberalism, communism, etc. also not possible. And it should be just as radically different, and not be similar to the Western model, since for Russian culture, the soul is primary, and not rationality as personal gain.
    The soul is social equality!
    There are no other ways to survive with such initial data for Russia!
    Accordingly, politically - the economic model of Russia should be based on its socio-historical values.




    Unique initial data of Russia, in the age of technological progress, can become its main asset of an undeniable competitive advantage in the modern world!

    Russia Empire of the soul of Man, the future!

    All the rest is political quackery!
    1. Keer
      Keer 5 February 2021 00: 35
      +1
      Unique, political, conceptual, technological ect. words, the essence of a foreign word, koei "demand to forget the Russian faith" and "take time away from" building houses, raising children. "
      wisely, "and so on, and so, lepo
  • Tavrik
    Tavrik 5 February 2021 11: 06
    0
    Quote: Olgovich
    Russian world only "furs": Mendeleev, Lomonosov, Yablochkov, Zvorykin, Lobachevsky, Kovalevskaya, Zhukovsky, Pirogov, Pavlov, Popov, Sikorsky, Korolev, Kurchatov, Dolivo-Dobrovolsky, Yakobi, Butlerov, Sechenov, Vernadsky, Vitalovilov and many - many others, whose discoveries and inventions were, often, the first in the world.

    All of the above refer to a somewhat later period than the one considered in the article. Name the great Russian scientists, painters, sculptors, physicians of the 15-17th centuries?
    1. Ilya Shikhailo
      Ilya Shikhailo April 8 2021 04: 08
      0
      Well, at least there were mechanics, builders, gunsmiths, foundry workers, artisans. It is more difficult with painters and sculptors, they are more "elite" arts than architecture or casting.
  • Mikhail3
    Mikhail3 5 February 2021 12: 34
    +2
    And mathematics was improved in Jesuit educational institutions (the Jesuits were an order of magnitude superior to their opponents in knowledge), where professors were well paid.

    Science did not yet have special practical significance. She was the lot of a handful of enthusiasts.
    Melancholy ... In general, sailing not in view of the coast is possible only with a very serious development of mathematics and astronomy. Apparently the author is completely unknown. And the Jesuits paid their professors well for nothing. On a whim ...
    Very, very weak work, author.
  • Torins
    Torins 5 February 2021 16: 32
    0
    AUTHOR:
    Alexander Samsonov

    Everything is clear from the first lines))
  • Corsair5912
    Corsair5912 5 February 2021 17: 23
    -2
    Europe has never had either culture or democracy; the praise of Europe began with the German tsar Peter. He foolishly thought that if the Russians shave their beards, dress in stupid scanty camisoles, in short pants with stockings and shoes, make us drink and smoke, then Russia will immediately have an oceanic fleet, the seas will stop freezing in winter and Russia will become a maritime power, like Holland.
    The praise of the "democratic values" of the "old woman of Europe" continues even now, despite the obvious facts.
    Until 1917, Europe was ruled by kings and plutocrats who did not hesitate to shoot rebellious people with cannons. And then until 1945 the fascist dictators were in power: Salazar, Franco, Pétain, Mussolini, Pavelic, Hitler, Antonescu, Horthy, Quisling, etc. It turned out that Europe is not an old woman, but a young prostitute of dry land, unable to govern itself.
    The Red Army overthrew the dictators and brought freedom and democracy to Europe in 1945, but they prefer not to remember this, neither in Europe, nor in our country.
  • Tavrik
    Tavrik 5 February 2021 20: 15
    0
    I strongly disagree with the author. I recommend that you familiarize yourself with F. Braudel "Material civilization, economics and capitalism, XV-XVIII centuries (in 3 volumes)".
  • Tavrik
    Tavrik 5 February 2021 20: 19
    +2
    Quote: Corsair5912
    Europe has never had either culture or democracy,

    I don't even know, in the absence of culture in Europe then, what the museums of Europe are filled with now. All sorts of Flemings, Italians, Shakespeare and Rubens ... We, of course, are much cooler, only there is nothing to show.
  • Tavrik
    Tavrik 5 February 2021 20: 37
    +1
    Quote: A. Privalov
    How many thousand ships were there only 300 miles east?

    I recommend "Dutch domination in four parts of the world in the 16-18th century". Everything is written there in great detail. From there: "In 1779, the total number of children attending schools in the region east of the Cape of Good Hope was 20936 ..."
    Well, especially for the author of the article: "... in 1681, 200 children of slaves studied at a school in Colombo." And they trained together with the whites.
    How did this small piece of wetland establish colonies around the world, including Japan and Indonesia?
    And also Jacques Ayrs "The birth of capitalism in the Middle Ages. Money changers, usurers and large financiers."
  • yehat2
    yehat2 6 February 2021 23: 22
    +2
    Quote: hjvtp1966
    Propaganda based on lies, over time, backfires.

    and what is the lie? Did someone claim that Korolev was the first to invent the packages?
    Yes, throughout the war, aircraft used rocket boosters, which, by the way, Korolev did too.
    It's about what the packages were used for a ballistic missile.
    In the United States, they appeared not in fantasies, but in a real and well-founded prototype much later.
  • ivan2022
    ivan2022 7 February 2021 14: 59
    +1
    The place of the Pope in European state affairs at all times was incomparably higher than the place of the Russian Patriarch in the affairs of Russia. There was a time when the ROC was generally driven into the subordination of the Ober-Prosecutor of the Empire. The level of the ministry "for the affairs of the soul". With fines for failure to appear at liturgy or confession.
    I understand that the Pope is a bad uncle and generally a turd, BUT
    from the above mentioned it follows that the importance of culture in Europe has always been incomparably higher than in our blessed fatherland.

    The result is obvious. Russia abandoned both Christianity in 1917 and communism in 1991 and will retreat from everything further. This already reminds of I. Krylov's fable "Monkey and Glasses". No matter what idea they grab onto, but in the end one thing: "glasses do not work in any way" There is nothing but "patriotism" - the last refuge of scoundrels.
    For a century and a half, they have tried everything, from serfdom to "unfinished communism" and now have returned "to the original"; "we have no ideology."
  • Lew
    Lew April 6 2021 08: 05
    0
    if we compare with the Papuans, then Europe was enlightened, if we compare with modern Europe, then we can laugh ...
    The enemy must be respected, then we ourselves will be on top.