Military Review

Birth of the Turkish Republic

65
Birth of the Turkish Republic
Republic Monument at Taksim Square, Istanbul


So, let's continue what we started in the article. Fall of the Ottoman Empire story about stories Turkey and let's talk about the emergence of the Turkish Republic.

War of Turkey with Greece


In 1919, the so-called Second Greco-Turkish War began.

On May 15, 1919, even before the signing of the Sevres Peace Treaty, Greek troops landed in the city of Smyrna (Izmir), the overwhelming majority of whose inhabitants were Christians.

In 1912, only 96 ethnic Turks lived here. And the Greeks - 250 243, Jews - 879 16, Armenians - 450 7 people. Another 628 people belonged to other nationalities. In Europe, this city was then called "the little Paris of the East", and the Turks themselves - "giaur-Izmir" (impious Izmir).


Greek battleship "Averoff" in Smyrna, May 1919


Greek infantrymen near the Gediz River, Western Anatolia

The Greeks, who hated the Ottomans, immediately turned the Turkish population against themselves by shooting the interned soldiers of the Ottoman army and reprisals against local residents. In the surrounding areas, partisan detachments began to be created, the resistance was led by Mustafa Kemal.

In June-July 1919, Edirne (Adrianople), Bursa, Ushak and Bandirma were taken by his troops. And cracks appeared in the relations of the victorious powers. At first, France refused to help Greece oriented towards the British, which now viewed Britain as a potential rival. And she did not want it to be strengthened in the eastern Mediterranean.

In October 1919, the king of Greece, Alexander bitten by a monkey, died of blood poisoning, completely controlled by London. His father, Constantine, who was known for his pro-German sympathies, ascended the throne of this country again: it was for this reason that he was forced to abdicate in 1917.

This immediately alerted the British, who also suspended military aid to the Greeks. However, when Mustafa Kemal Pasha moved his troops to Constantinople in March 1920, military assistance to Greece was resumed, the government of this country received permission to advance deep into Turkish territory.

The politicians of the great powers, who did not want to throw their own (tired of war) army units into battle, now allowed the Greeks to fight, who had old scores with the Ottomans. Kemal, as we remember from the article Fall of the Ottoman EmpireOn April 23, 1920, he was elected chairman of the Turkish Grand National Assembly and created his own government of the country, which was located in Ankara.

In January 1921, the Turkish general Ismet Pasha stopped the Greeks at Inenu.


Turkish soldiers at Inonu

Ismet Pasha Inenu



General Ismet Pasha, photo 1926

This Turkish politician and general was the son of a Kurd and a Turkish woman. In recognition of his services, in 1934 he received the surname Inenu. From March 3, 1925 to November 1, 1937, Ismet Inonu was the Prime Minister of Turkey, and after the death of Kemal Ataturk he became the President of this country. In this post, he did not allow Turkey to enter World War II on the side of Germany.

In 1953, Ismet Inonu was the leader of the opposition People's Republican Party. Upon learning of Stalin's death, the former president was the first to come to the Soviet embassy, ​​writing in a book of condolences:

“There is no man who personified the era, whom I personally knew and, not always agreeing with him, highly respected!

With the name of Stalin, this era was equally connected with your and our history.

In wars, our countries often fought with each other, and during the years of revolutions and immediately after them, we were together and helped each other.

But for this it is not necessary to make revolutions. "

Mustafa Kemal becomes "Invincible"


The second offensive of the 150-strong Greek army, undertaken in March, also ended in failure.

In March of this year, Italians decided to leave Anatolia. Kemal, on the other hand, concluded a treaty of friendship with the government of Soviet Russia, having received guarantees of the security of the northern borders.

The war, however, was just beginning, and it was accompanied by numerous casualties of the civilian population: the Greeks slaughtered the Turkish population of Western Anatolia, the Turks - the Greeks, of whom there were also many.

The next offensive against the Turks was led by King Constantine himself. The Greek army managed to capture western Anatolia at the cost of high losses, only 50 km remained to Ankara, but this was already the last success. The multi-day assault on the Turkish fortifications ("Battle of Sakarya" - from August 24 to September 16) was unsuccessful, the Greek troops suffered heavy losses. And they went beyond the Sakarya River.

For the victory in this battle, Mustafa received the title of Gazi - "Invincible" (in addition to the nicknames Kemal - "Smart" and "Savior of Constantinople").


Mustafa Kemal Pasha, photo 1918

Soviet aid to the new Turkey


At that time, the Bolshevik government of Russia rendered great military and financial assistance to Turkey.

As you remember from the previous article, the situation was such that the existence of an independent and strong enough (to keep the Black Sea straits in its hands) Turkey was extremely necessary for Russia (and is still necessary). A total of 6,5 million rubles in gold, 33 rifles were allocated then. And also 275 million cartridges, 57,986 machine guns, 327 guns, 54 129 shells, one and a half thousand sabers and even two ships of the Black Sea fleet - "Alive" and "Creepy".

The Turks also returned gunboats, the crews of which took them to Sevastopol, so as not to surrender to the British. In addition, on a business trip to Turkey under the cover of a diplomatic mission in late 1921 - early 1922. The authoritative Soviet commander M.V. Frunze and the head of the Registration Department of the Revolutionary Military Council of the Red Army, one of the founders of the GRU S.I. Aralov. K. Voroshilov also went to Turkey as a military specialist.

The Berlin newspaper Rul wrote on August 14, 1921:

“In connection with the arrival in Angora of the third Soviet representative, Aralov, on a mission consisting entirely of officers of the General Staff, Greek newspapers report that the presence in Angora of three authorized Soviet representatives (Frunze, Aralova and Frumkin) indicates the intention of the Bolsheviks to take over the leadership of the military operations in Anatolia ”.

Note. Angora is the former name of Ankara in Turkey.


Mustafa Kemal, Ismet Pasha, plenipotentiary representative of the RSFSR S. Aralov and military attaché K. Zvonarev. In the vicinity of Konya during the preparation for the general offensive of the Turkish troops. March 23, 1922


M.V. Frunze with his employees in Ankara, 1922

Mustafa Kemal appreciated their help so highly that he ordered the sculptures of Voroshilov and Aralov to be placed on his left at the famous Republic Monument on Taksim Square in Istanbul. (This is the only sculptural image of Semyon Aralov. In the USSR, he never received a monument).


Taksim Square, Istanbul


Taksim Square, Istanbul, Republic Monument


Sculptural images of Voroshilov and Aralov

The offensive of the Turkish troops and the Asia Minor catastrophe of the Greek army


On August 18, 1922, the Turkish army under the command of Mustafa Kemal launched an offensive.

The decisive battle of that war took place at Dumlupynar on August 30, 1922 (in modern Turkey, this date is analogous to our May 9).

Bursa fell on 5 September.

On September 9-11 the Greeks left Smyrna. About a third of the Greek army was able to evacuate on British ships.


Evacuation of Greek troops from Smyrna in September 1922



Christian refugees in the port of Smyrna

About 40 thousand Greek soldiers and officers were captured by the Turks. During the evacuation, 284 artillery pieces, 2 thousand machine guns and 15 aircraft were left.

Tragedy of Smyrna


This propaganda Turkish painting depicts the entry of Turkish troops into Smyrna, led by Mustafa Kemal.


Turkish army led by Mustafa Kemal enters Smyrna

In fact, everything was far from so solemn and rosy.

In Smyrna, the Turks burned down all the churches and many buildings, and killed many Christians - Greeks and Armenians. The triumphant Turks tore out the beard of the captured Metropolitan Chrysostomos of Smyrna, cut off his nose and ears, gouged out his eyes, then they shot him.

But the Turks did not touch the Jews then.

All this happened to the music of Turkish military bands and in full view of the Entente warships in the harbor. Tens of thousands of Christians in the hope of salvation then gathered in the port of Smyrna. The Turkish authorities "graciously" allowed everyone (except for men of military age (from 17 to 45 years), who were subject to forced labor) to be evacuated from the city until September 30.

Overcrowded boats with desperate people sailed to foreign ships, the captains of which, as a rule, referring to neutrality, refused to board them.

The exception was the Japanese, who even threw their cargo into the sea to take on board as many people as possible.

The Italians also took everyone, but their ships were very far away, and few could get to them.

The French, according to eyewitnesses, accepted those who could address them in their language.

The Americans and the British pushed the boats away with oars, poured boiling water on those who climbed aboard and threw those who did find themselves on deck into the sea. At the same time, their merchant ships continued to take on board figs and tobacco.

Only on September 23, a mass evacuation began, during which it was possible to take out about 400 thousand people. By that time, 183 thousand Greeks, 12 thousand Armenians and several thousand Assyrians had died in Smyrna. About 160 thousand men were deported to the interior of Turkey, many of them died on the way.

The Christian quarters of Smyrna were on fire. The glow of the fire could be seen at night for fifty miles. And the smoke in the daytime was visible two hundred miles away.


Fires in Smyrna, captured by the Turks, September 1922

By the way, Mustafa Kemal argued that the fires in Smyrna, which began in the Armenian quarter, were the work of refugees who did not want to leave their property to the Turks. And that in Armenian churches the priests called upon the abandoned houses to be set on fire, calling it a “sacred duty”.

From this quarter the fire spread to the entire city. Turkish soldiers, on the other hand, tried to fight the fires. But their scale was such that it was already impossible to do anything.

His words are confirmed by the French journalist Berthe Georges-Goli, who arrived in Smyrna shortly after those events. She reports:

“It seems credible that when the Turkish soldiers became convinced of their own helplessness and saw how the flames consumed one house after another, they were seized by an insane rage, and they destroyed the Armenian quarter, from where, according to them, the first arsonists appeared.”

This looks quite logical, since the Turks had no point in setting fire to the city they had inherited, which would then have to be rebuilt for a long time, spending huge amounts of money on it.

There are numerous examples of this behavior of refugees.

After Algeria gained independence, the "black-footed" Frenchmen leaving this country destroyed their houses and destroyed their property.

There have been cases of destruction of their homes by Israelis displaced from the Palestinian Authority.

Destruction of property and destruction of infrastructure are characteristic of retreating armies. While the attackers are trying their best to keep them. This was fully demonstrated by the Greeks, when retreating to the coast of the Aegean Sea, when they not only dealt with the Muslims they came across, but also destroyed factories, factories and even houses, so that about a million Turks lost their homes.

In Greece, the shock of this defeat was such that a riot began in the army. And King Constantine again abdicated the throne, giving way to his other son - George (he did not rule for long then - in 1924 Greece became a republic).

A rebellion broke out in the Greek army, Prime Minister Gunaris and 4 other ministers, as well as the commander-in-chief Hajimanestis were shot.

After that, about one and a half million Christians were expelled from Turkey, and about 500 thousand Muslims were expelled from Greece. These were not only ethnic Turks, but also Bulgarians, Albanians, Vlachs and Gypsies who converted to Islam. And at the same time 60 thousand Bulgarian Christians were deported to Bulgaria. The Bulgarian authorities, in turn, expelled from their country the Greeks who lived on the Black Sea coast.

Turkish Republic


After this victory, the Turkish army moved towards Constantinople.

And the politicians of the Entente countries, and, moreover, the soldiers of their armies did not want to fight at all.

Therefore, during the negotiations, which took place in Moudania from October 3 to 11, 1922, an agreement was reached on the return of Eastern Thrace and Adrianople to Turkey. The Entente troops left Constantinople by October 10.

On November 1, the troops of Mustafa Kemal entered the city.

On the same day, the last Sultan, Mehmed VI, will board the British ship and leave his country forever, who will be deprived of the title of Caliph on November 18.


Sultan Mehmed VI, on the eve of his flight from the country, leaves the Dolmabahce Palace through the back door, 1922.

He died in 1926 in Italy. And he was buried in Damascus, becoming the only sultan whose grave is located outside Turkey.

Members of the Ottoman dynasty (in Turkey they are now called Osmanoglu) were expelled from Turkey. Members of this family were allowed to visit Turkey for the first time after their expulsion in 1974. And at the turn of the XNUMXth and XNUMXst centuries, they were given back the right to become citizens of this country.

But let's return to that turbulent time when the Republic of Turkey was born in blood and tears.

The Lausanne Peace Treaty signed on July 24, 1923 (which was signed on behalf of the Turkish government by the already familiar General Ismet Pasha) annulled the humiliating conditions of the Treaty of Sevres and established the modern borders of Turkey.


Ismet Pasha Inonu (center) in Lausanne


July 24, 1923, Lausanne Peace Treaty signing ceremony

Mustafa Kemal Ataturk


On October 13, 1923, Ankara was declared the capital of Turkey.

On October 29 of the same year, the Republic of Turkey was proclaimed, the first president of this country was Mustafa Kemal, who remained in this post until his death in 1938.


Portrait of Mustafa Kemal on the cover of the Times magazine

He stated then:

"To build a new state, one must forget about the deeds of the previous one."

And in 1926, at the insistence of Kemal, a new Civil Code was adopted, replacing the previous legislation based on Sharia.

It was then that an anecdote appeared in Turkey from the auditoriums of the Faculty of Law of Ankara University:

“A Turkish citizen is a person who marries under Swiss civil law, is convicted under the Italian Penal Code, sues under the German Code of Procedure, this person is governed on the basis of French administrative law and is buried according to the canons of Islam.”

Kemal also tried in every possible way to popularize dancing, which was very unusual for the Turks. Back at the end of the XNUMXth century, they were very surprised why Europeans do this "work" themselves, and do not make their servants dance.


Gazi Mustafa Kemal and his adopted daughter

Mustafa Kemal was very popular in the army and traditionally relied on the officer corps (which was then the guardian of his traditions for many years).

Among the Kemalist officers then, by the way, it was considered the highest chic to publicly drink a glass of vodka and eat it with lard.

Therefore, officers also became the conductor of the dance culture. Especially after Mustafa Kemal stated:

"I cannot imagine that there is at least one woman in the whole world who can refuse to dance with a Turkish officer."

It was the officer who became the main martyr of the ideology of Kemalism, when in 1930 Islamic fanatics sawed off the head of a certain Kubilai to the joyful shouts of the crowd surrounding them.


In 1928, Turkey passed a law on the separation of religion from the state.

The post of the first ulema of the state - sheikh-ul-Islam, was abolished, the madrasah at the Constantinople mosque of Suleiman, which trained the highest rank ulema, was transferred to the theological faculty of Istanbul University. The Institute for Islamic Studies was established on its basis in 1933. In the ancient Sofia temple, instead of a mosque, a museum was opened in 1934 (again closed and transformed into a mosque by Erdogan - a decree of July 10, 2020).

The traditional Turkish fez, which Kemal called

"A symbol of ignorance, negligence, fanaticism, hatred of progress and civilization."

(It is curious that this headdress, which replaced the turban, was once perceived in Turkey as "progressive").

Banned in Turkey and the chador. Because, as Kemal said,

“The custom of covering women’s faces makes the nation a laughing stock.”

Sunday instead of Friday became a day off.

Titles, feudal forms of address were abolished, the alphabet was latinized (and the Koran was then translated into Turkish for the first time), women were granted suffrage.

Kemal tried in every possible way to promote the development of education and the emergence of full-fledged research institutes in the country. In Turkey, two of his sayings are widely known:

"If in childhood I had not spent one of the two coins I mined on books, I would not have achieved what I have achieved today."

And also his famous second statement:

"If one day my words contradict science, choose science."

When in 1934 surnames began to be assigned to Turkish citizens (an unheard-of innovation in this country), Kemal became the "Father of the Turks" - Ataturk.


Mustafa Kemal Ataturk's passport

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Monument to Kemal Ataturk in Izmir

He did not have children of his own - only 10 adopted. (Kemal's adopted daughter, Sabih Gokcen, became the first female pilot in Turkey, one of the airports in Istanbul is named after her).

Dying, he donated his inherited lands to the Treasury of Turkey, and bequeathed part of the real estate to the mayors of Ankara and Bursa.

Currently, the image of Kemal Ataturk is on all Turkish banknotes and coins.


Coin 50 kurus


100 lire banknote

On November 10th every year at exactly 09:05 am in all cities and villages of Turkey, sirens are turned on. This is the traditional minute of silence in honor of the anniversary of the death of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk.


Istanbul, "Martyrs' Bridge on July 15", November 10, 2016, 9 hours 5 minutes

Blurring of Ataturk's legacy


However, one cannot fail to notice that in recent years Turkey has begun to deviate from the course indicated by Kemal Ataturk.

Many noted that Recep Tayyip Erdogan, after winning the 2017 Constitutional referendum, did not visit the mausoleum with the tomb of Ataturk (which everyone expected), but the tomb of Sultan Mehmed II Fatih (the Conqueror). It was also noticed that Erdogan avoids using the very word "Ataturk" in public speeches, calling the founder of the republic Mustafa Kemal.

In modern Turkey, Ataturk is no longer shy to criticize.

For example, Muhammad Nazim al-Kubrusi - Sheikh of the Naqshbandi Sufi order (of which Erdogan was once a member) said in an interview интервью

“We recognize Mustafa Kemal, who calls for a holy war in the name of Allah and wears a cap. But we do not accept the "changeling", which forbids the fez and Arabic letters. "

The idea of ​​the greatness of the Ottoman Empire, the wise and brave sultans, about whom the famous TV series "The Magnificent Age" was filmed, is being actively introduced into the popular consciousness.

And in 2017, another series was released - "Padishah", the hero of which was the Ottoman Sultan Abdul-Hamid II, who lost Serbia, Montenegro, Romania and Bulgaria and was overthrown by the Young Turks in 1909. (Among other things, during his reign there were large-scale pogroms of Armenians and other Christians in 1894-1896, 1899, 1902, 1905. In Armenia, he was called "Bloody").


"Abdul-Hamid II - Executioner of Armenians", French cartoon

It seems hard to find a more compromised and unsuitable character for a patriotic film.

V. Polenov, who visited the capital of the Ottoman Empire, wrote:

“In Constantinople I saw Sultan Abdul Hamid going ceremonially from the palace to pray to the mosque. A pale, drunken, apathetic, half-animal face - that's the whole Sultan.

This simple ceremony attracts a lot of public, especially tourists.

The local peculiarity is that during the procession, two pashas light the Sultan with perfume from silver bowls, which is understandable, because the natural Turkish aroma is very unpleasant for the sense of smell ...

When the Sultan goes, the soldiers, generals, ministers all shout:

"Great Sultan, reign for ten thousand years."

And when he drives up to the mosque, the court officials in uniforms, like our cameras-pages or clerks of the main headquarters, stand in a circle with their foreheads to each other, put their hands to their mouths in the form of a trumpet and wail in the manner of muezzins:

"Great Sultan, don't be so proud, God is still more noble than you."

However, they also tried to make a positive hero out of Abdul-Hamid II, presenting him as the last great sultan of the Ottoman Empire.

And other "signals" of the current Turkish authorities (the loudest of which is the restoration of the mosque in the St. Sophia Church) give grounds to speak of their neo-Ottomanism, which many blame the project of the ruling Justice and Development Party "Build a New Turkey".
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  1. Profiler
    Profiler 2 February 2021 05: 19
    +4
    Sculptural images of Voroshilov and Aralov




    ... which the Turkish sculptor dressed in British french jackets fellow
    1. Revolver
      Revolver 2 February 2021 10: 24
      -2
      Quote: Profiler
      which the Turkish sculptor dressed in British jackets

      It is quite possible that in Turkey they acted under false names and in Turkish form.
      1. Profiler
        Profiler 2 February 2021 11: 40
        0
        Quote: Nagan
        It is quite possible that in Turkey they acted under false names and in Turkish form.

        First, the "Turkish uniform", at least for officers, is nothing more than an English jacket with buttonholes typical for the Ottoman armed forces.

        Secondly, we look at the photos that illustrate the text of the article:


        Mustafa Kemal, Ismet Pasha, plenipotentiary representative of the RSFSR S. Aralov and military attaché K. Zvonarev. In the vicinity of Konya during the preparation for the general offensive of the Turkish troops. March 23, 1922



        M.V. Frunze with his employees in Ankara, 1922
  2. Korsar4
    Korsar4 2 February 2021 05: 32
    +8
    Thank you, Valery.
    You have drawn a convincing picture: an attempt to save the Greeks from Smyrna.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 2 February 2021 06: 10
      +11
      Hello! The article is definitely a plus, thanks Valery!
      1. Crowe
        Crowe 2 February 2021 09: 36
        +14
        Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
        The article is definitely a plus, thanks Valery!

        Nothing to add. One of the cohort of Authors whom I enjoy reading.
    2. Catfish
      Catfish 2 February 2021 06: 36
      +9
      Good morning Sergey. I join with gratitude.
      By the way, did you notice that the photo signed Christian refugees in the port of Smyrna in the lower right corner of the stern of a boat with an American flag, somehow does not fit with "poured boiling water and pushed off with oars."
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 2 February 2021 06: 40
        +5
        Good morning, Constantine.
        Drew. Two photos of the port of Smyrna were interesting.
        I try to imagine how it was.
        Certain parallels involuntarily arise with Sevastopol.
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 2 February 2021 06: 43
          +5
          It is clear what you mean, but the city was not set on fire then, and so - yes, panic is a terrible thing. Well shown in "Two Comrades Served". Huh?
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 2 February 2021 06: 55
            +8
            But I did not look. The shot with Vysotsky is popular.
            Of course, each case is different.

            To some extent, "Running" seems to me. Successful film.
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 2 February 2021 06: 57
              +7
              Yes, "Beg" is done very beautifully, but I meant the fight for a place on the ship leaving the city.
              1. Hunter 2
                Hunter 2 2 February 2021 09: 28
                +7
                Hello to the entire Historical Society hi Special greetings to the Author - Valery Ryzhov, thanks for the newly presented excellent article good ! Deservedly moved to Favorites!
            2. VLR
              2 February 2021 08: 25
              +10
              Quote: Korsar4
              But I did not look.
              To some extent, "Running" seems to me. Successful film.

              It is necessary to watch: the film is very good, the roles are entirely "stars" of Soviet cinema.
              I remember two things the most.
              The first is the speech of one of the heroes at Sivash:
              "Comrades, listen to me! Let the white bastards not rejoice, we will die today, they will die tomorrow" - a very strong scene.
              And the death during the assault on Perekop of a woman commissar (whose prototype, apparently, was Zemlyachka).
              And this is a wedding at gunpoint on the eve of the flight: "Do what you are told, otherwise I will shoot you in the temple of God."
              "Let everything go to hell, but at least it will be indestructible."

              1. VLR
                2 February 2021 11: 25
                +4
                By the way, do you remember this fragment of the "Diamond Hand"?


                My daughter (born 1990), having seen this film for the first time at school at a conscious age (when she was already at school), at that moment looked at me in surprise and asked:
                "And in the USSR the church was definitely banned and believers were persecuted"?
                Here's what she already managed to tell her in the Yeltsin 90s in class.
                1. Ryazan87
                  Ryazan87 2 February 2021 17: 36
                  -3
                  And what, was not banned and persecuted? Clergy were not physically exterminated, anti-religious propaganda was not carried out at the state level, churches were not destroyed? Yes, this is just a new word in historical science. Even in the relatively herbivorous 70s, there could be problems. Although yes, the Soviet government very actively interacted with the "sergianist" hangers-on.
                  By the way, the scene from the film is a bawdy mockery of one of the key moments of the Gospel.
                  1. VLR
                    2 February 2021 17: 49
                    +9
                    Nobody denies "revolutionary persecution". But in my memory, there was no persecution or repression even close. My parents baptized me freely, my grandmother sometimes took me to church (for me, an Octobrist and a pioneer, it was a kind of adventure and entertainment). Everyone openly went to the springs for holy water for Epiphany. On Easter, eggs were exchanged openly. Some wore crosses openly and no one tore them off them, did not deprive them of prizes, did not take them off the line for housing. And "scientific atheism" at the institute was a qualitative history of world religions. From my personal experience, I can’t remember absolutely no signs of oppression of the Church and believers. But there was a real separation of church from state, and not a fig, as it is now. No activity of priests outside the church. No "workshops consecration" or harvesters, and so on.
                    1. VLR
                      2 February 2021 18: 05
                      +3
                      By the way, there is a good example of the "persecution" of religion in the late USSR. Mark Zakharov, in an interview with Komsomolskaya Pravda, said that after watching the play "Juno and Avos", members of the commission, which included workers from the Main Department of Culture of the Executive Committee of the Moscow City Council and the Ministry of Culture, said:
                      “You are playing a very good, patriotic performance. Play! " And one lady even clarified: "The image of the Mother of God was especially successful ..."

                      These are the irreconcilable "godless Bolsheviks".
                      1. Ryazan87
                        Ryazan87 3 February 2021 00: 02
                        -3
                        Well, if Zakharov himself said this about his performance, and also the lady from the Moscow Soviet approved the image of the Mother of God, then Orthodox Christians in the USSR had no problems. And for other denominations too.
                        Sorry for the sarcasm, but it was somehow ...
                    2. Ryazan87
                      Ryazan87 2 February 2021 23: 59
                      -4
                      Nobody denies "revolutionary persecution".

                      If you were interested in this issue, then, of course, you know that the two most severe waves of persecution of the Orthodox Church are the 30s (just the physical extermination of hierarchs and clergy of the church) and the end of the 50s and the beginning of the 60s (the Khrushchev period, total closure of churches and dreams, the flowering of anti-religious propaganda). To what extent this can be attributed to "revolutionary persecution" is a question. Actually, in the 30s the case would have been brought to an end, but the war had interfered a little. We revived a simulacrum of the Orthodox Church (Sergians and Renovationists), which, in fact, became a 100% GB project:
                      - an additional instrument of control over society (especially the stratum of the dissatisfied);
                      - a channel of international relations (including with Israel, which was in great demand);
                      - simulation of the presence of freedom of conscience of religion (useful for negotiations with the same Americans).
                      From this simulacrum of the "Fathers of Zvezdoniev" the modern ROC grew, which quite and logically crowned its development. The golem also wants to live, you know ... and the teachers of scientific atheism, who jumped from Savlov to Pavla, also love to eat well. You can also consecrate the workshop.
                      As for your memories, I’ll hardly be mistaken if I say that they belong to the late 70s and 80s (I could, of course, be wrong). Yes, at this time everything became much more herbivorous. Although "to light up", occupying at least some leadership position, as a truly religious person, and then threatened with all sorts of troubles, for example, on the party line. The cross would not have been torn off, and the promotion would have been hacked to death without question.
                      Faith is not in "testicles" and a set of "holy water". This is a question of a person's worldview and, more importantly, self-organization. The Soviet regime was worried about exactly two things:
                      - preventing the undermining of the ideological monopoly;
                      - preventing the self-organization of people within a religious community, or any other (Boy Scouts were immediately banned after 17, for example).
                      Plus, one cannot fail to notice the obvious ideological crisis of Soviet society in the era of stagnation. Actually, the flourishing of all sorts of psychics, Kashpirovsky (a little later) clearly demonstrated this. Hence the vacillation about religion - in the late 80s it became noticeable.
              2. Catfish
                Catfish 2 February 2021 18: 10
                +3
                And the crane wedge of officers just going into the sea, to the depth ...
                By the way, Vanka Koryakin spoke a pretty distorted language; "Let the white bastards not be happy ,,,"
                And the ending is also good: "My friend died ....... here," Mauser "left me his." Well, I think Vanka from this "Mauser" will still shoot people, so that "there was no one to be put in prison."
                And ... it's a pity that Zemlyachka was not slammed on the Turkish shaft in Delhi.
      2. Olgovich
        Olgovich 2 February 2021 08: 59
        +2
        Quote: Sea Cat
        Good morning Sergey. I join with gratitude.

        Greetings, Konstantin hi

        I do not agree with the author's opinion that the creation of a huge strong Turkish republic and the help of the Bolsheviks to it in this is a blessing for Russia.

        It was the small weak Turkey of the Sevres Treaty that was beneficial to Russia (for this she fought almost three centuries!), and not what the Bolsheviks helped to create in every possible way.

        This was act of national betrayal interests of Russia.

        A strike from the north with the aim of liberating the Russian occupied territories from the Turkish occupiers towards the Greek army would, in my opinion, be the right decision.

        And participation by advisers, weapons, gold in the mass genocide and expulsion of the Christian population of Asia Minor lies indelible shame on the Bolsheviks.

        Author:
        Bolsheviks for Turkey in 1921 year was allocated 6,5 million rubles in gold,


        Let me remind you again that this is the year of MULTI-MILLION painful starvation mortality of Russian people with mass cannibalism, corpse-eating, by eating fell in the Volga region, the North Caucasus, etc.

        And in such a situation, the Russian gold, collected, selected, donated to save the LIVES of the Russian people, the Bolsheviks spent on ... Turkey (and support for the communist movements abroad), and even on anti-Russian projects!

        There are no words .....
        1. VLR
          2 February 2021 09: 16
          +8
          In the last article
          https://topwar.ru/179501-padenie-osmanskoj-imperii.html
          user Seal (Sergey Petrovich) answered you so well that I will not now - just re-read his comments again.
          Here are just some quotes from those comments:
          "The emissaries of Mustafa Kemal gave us Azerbaijan with OPERATING oil fields. Without Baku oil, Soviet Russia would not have held out until 1925."
          "That is, in fact, for 10 million rubles in gold, we bought the whole of Azerbaijan from Ataturk, which" cost "a million times more."
          "If England had straits, the Germans would have kicked England out of the straits in 1940. And they would have sat on them themselves. That would have been a disaster for us after 22.06.1941."
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 2 February 2021 09: 31
            -1
            Quote: VlR
            Seal (Sergey Petrovich) answered you so well that I won't - just re-read his comments again.
            Here are just some quotes from those comments:
            "The emissaries of Mustafa Kemal handed over Azerbaijan to us with WORKING oil fields. Without Baku oil, Soviet Russia would not have held out until 1925"

            This reasoning is not worth a damn: who gave the Transcaucasia to Turkey as a thief and Brest betrayer?
            Quote: VlR
            “If England had straits, then the Germans would have kicked England out of the straits in 1940. And they would have sat on them themselves.
            Yes?.

            Why didn't they knock them out of Gibraltar? Was the intestine thin? And here too.
          2. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 2 February 2021 09: 33
            +6
            "If England had straits, the Germans would have kicked England out of the straits in 1940. And they would have sat on them themselves. That would have been a disaster for us after 22.06.1941."
            They weren't kicked out of Gibraltar, were they?
            Thank you, Valery!
          3. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 2 February 2021 09: 56
            +7
            Mustafa Kemal's emissaries handed over Azerbaijan to us with WORKING oil fields.
            It is worth remembering that the Turks themselves did not have the slightest relation to the development of these crafts.
            1. VLR
              2 February 2021 10: 00
              +3
              The article on Operation Nemesis will tell a little about how the Turks, in alliance with the Azerbaijanis, expelled the Central Caspian and the British from Baku. That is, the Turks ruled in Azerbaijan, and, indeed, not only did they not hinder the entry of the Red Army there, but also did not allow the destruction of oil fields.
        2. Trilobite Master
          Trilobite Master 2 February 2021 13: 40
          +6
          Quote: Olgovich
          Let me remind you again that this is a year of MULTI-MILLION agonizing starvation mortality of Russian people with massive cannibalism, corpse-eating, and eating fell in the Volga region, North Caucasus, etc.

          Apparently that's why
          Quote: Olgovich
          A strike from the north with the aim of liberating the Russian occupied territories from the Turkish occupiers towards the Greek army would, in my opinion, be the right decision.

          You know, Olgovich, this seems to me too much even for you. In the country, as you say, there is famine and mass cannibalism, and you want to unleash a new war ... For some reason, today you have somehow been especially overwhelmed in the next act of demonstrating noble hatred of the Bolsheviks and everything connected with them ... laughing
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 2 February 2021 20: 17
            -2
            Quote: Trilobite Master
            You know, Olgovich, this seems to me too much even for you. In the country, as you say, there is hunger and mass cannibalism and you want to start a new war.

            You know, Mikhail, you can't wash your black dog, yes: just now, under the same conditions, the Bolsheviks staged an absolutely adventurous, senseless, bloody campaign to conquer Europe:
            On Zapathe fate of the world revolution is being decided.
            Over the corpse of white Poland lies the path to world fire.
            We will carry happiness on bayonets
            and peace[/ b] working mankind.

            [b] To the West!


            Pravda, No. 99, May 9, 1920


            And they were not stopped by either hunger, or a complete collapse of the economy, or losses, nothing. But that's okay, in your opinion.

            And the liberation of your own Russian land from the Turkish invaders is, in your opinion, already ... bad.

            And how does it fit in ... one head ... belay This is a great mystery!
            Quote: Trilobite Master
            Something you today somehow especially overwhelmed in the next act of demonstrating noble hatred for the Bolsheviks and everything connected with them.


            Patriarch Tikhon: "By the relics and FIR!"

            And nothing more.!
            Quote: Trilobite Master
            it seems to me

            How can I help you ...recourse request
      3. VLR
        2 February 2021 10: 05
        +2
        It looks like this boat is just watching. Its size is so small that there is no need to talk about participation in the evacuation.
  3. g1v2
    g1v2 2 February 2021 06: 29
    +5
    Very interesting ATP. But here we must not forget one more side. The Ottoman Empire, even in its decline, was still one of the great powers. At the same time, citizenship and religion were in it a marker of friend or foe. That is, the Kurd and the Turks and the Arab were their own. And so she didn't have some Kurdish problem, for example. There were problems with separatism or ambitions of local kings or infidels, but they would have been anyway. But the nationalist Turkish Republic was built on nationalism and hence the Kurdish problem arose. Kurds do not want to become "mountain Turks" at all and all the measures taken against them only exacerbate this problem. Well, Turkey is not a great power now - it is a regional power and nothing more. And the Turkish elite is no longer satisfied with this. request
    On the one hand, Ataturk's actions are a serious progress, but on the other hand, it is also a serious degradation. The emergence of neo-Ottomanism and Erdogan's actions are natural. And after the defeat in the 16th year of the military, as a separate caste, every year Turkey will move further and further from Kemalism. As the army undergoes renewal, there will be more and more supporters of neo-Ottomanism. And only the ideology of pan-Turkism, as the development of a nationalist idea, can oppose this in Turkish society. Of course, the first option is much more profitable for us than the second. hi
    1. Korsar4
      Korsar4 2 February 2021 06: 34
      +6
      The line is too thin between a “great” and a “regional” power. And this is quite dynamic.
      1. g1v2
        g1v2 2 February 2021 08: 44
        +1
        Everything is always in dynamics. Nothing is eternal. A great power has influence over a significant part of the world, the regional one affects only its neighbors and has influence only in its region. The Ottoman Sultan was the Caliph, that is, the ruler of the faithful. This alone has already influenced the entire Muslim world. That is, now he would have an impact on one and a half billion people. And the Ottoman Empire itself, even within the borders of up to 14 years, would be one of the most powerful economic and military powers in the world, owning, moreover, Mecca and Medina and huge reserves of hydrocarbons. Now Turkey cannot even dream of it. And in the conditions of such a number of opponents, no one will give her seriously to spread her webbed wings.
  4. Catfish
    Catfish 2 February 2021 06: 40
    +2
    Valery, everything is very interesting, but I would like to talk about this in more detail.
    It was the officer who became the main martyr of the ideology of Kemalism, when in 1930 Islamic fanatics sawed off the head of a certain Kubilai to the joyful shouts of the crowd surrounding them.

    Who, why, why? Effects.
    1. raki-uzo
      raki-uzo 2 February 2021 07: 36
      +7
      This is an attempted uprising in the small town of Menemen. Mustafa Fehmi Kubilai was then the teacher of the new republic. At that time he served in the army as a lieutenant. There, in that city, there was also an army corps. The rebellious Menemenis demanded Sharia in the country. As far as I remember, these were the people of Nakshibendi, and according to their own words, they are the army of the Caliphate (70 armed), they want Sharia, they will defend the religion from the infidels who lead the country. They wore a green flag and shouted "death to those who wear a hat" (Law on Hats - a 000 decree in the Republic of Turkey to replace turbans and fez traditionally worn in the Ottoman Empire with European headdresses).

      The colonel sent Jr. Lieutenant Kubilai and about 10 soldiers to calm the people down. They gave them blank bullets. And they opened fire - Kubilay was wounded. The soldiers also opened fire with blank bullets. The leader of the rebels shouted - "Bullets are powerless against the Army of the Caliphate" and these people believed in his words more. Kubilai was caught, his head was cut off, and next to the green flag they carried and showed to the people.

      Further ... in the case of the Army Corps with the colonel they managed. There were skirmishes. Some were killed. Many were arrested. The trial was. About 100 of them demanded death. As a result, 37 of them were executed, about 40 were sentenced. And the event (Kubilai Olayi) was remembered, not allowed to forget - the supporters of Sharia were always severely punished. Remember the doctor of Zhivago Pasternak "They are us or we are them! .. There is no middle ground. For blood - with blood. Who understands whom?" This was approximately the perception of the government of the new republic in relation to the supporters of Sharia. They were always crushed, sometimes by force, sometimes by intelligence, and beautifully.
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 2 February 2021 07: 41
        +5
        Thank you very much, the answer is complete and completely exhaustive.
        It seems to me that in that situation, live ammunition would not have saved the lieutenant either.
      2. Revolver
        Revolver 2 February 2021 10: 42
        +2
        Quote: raki-uzo
        This was approximately the perception of the government of the new republic in relation to the supporters of Sharia. They were always crushed, sometimes by force, sometimes by intelligence, and beautifully.

        And now, look, Erdogan will introduce Sharia law. He has already legalized the burka.
    2. The comment was deleted.
  5. Catfish
    Catfish 2 February 2021 07: 25
    +3
    Mustafa Kemal Pasha, photo 1918

    On the left side under the pocket "Iron Cross", I wonder why.
    On the right side is the lowest order, a five-pointed star with a crescent moon, something vaguely familiar, I can't remember the status and affiliation. Does anyone remember?
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 2 February 2021 08: 17
      +4
      Hello Uncle Kostya! This is an Ottoman Military Medal. The British called it the Galipoli star, the Germans called the Iron Crescent.
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 2 February 2021 08: 20
        +2
        Got it, thanks Anton. smile
    2. raki-uzo
      raki-uzo 2 February 2021 08: 21
      +7
      He had 2 yellow crosses - the first and second level, he received most likely in 1917 (for success in the Dardanelles) - this was given by the Germans by decree of Wilhelm II (emperor of Germany).



      The Military Medal is an award of the Ottoman Empire, established by Sultan Mehmed V on March 1, 1915. Received on May 11, 1918 from the last padishah Vakhdettin for his military successes
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 2 February 2021 08: 25
        +3
        Thank you, all awards have been received in the case.
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 2 February 2021 09: 10
          +2
          I doubt it. Ataturk, among other things, was still a Knight of the Order of Ali-Lala. I don’t know what he could do for the Afghan kingdom.
          1. raki-uzo
            raki-uzo 2 February 2021 11: 11
            +6

            This order is not Ali-Lala, but "Aliyulala" (Aliyyü'l-a'lā). This Arabic word means - Above the highest. The King of Afghanistan, Amanullah Khan, awarded him for his successful colonial leadership in the fierce battle of Sakarya. This is a very important, key life for the liberation of the country.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 2 February 2021 14: 12
              +1
              Thank you, I didn’t.
      2. raki-uzo
        raki-uzo 2 February 2021 08: 27
        +4

        Here we see both crosses.
  6. Stirbjorn
    Stirbjorn 2 February 2021 08: 06
    +2
    The Greeks are certainly an amazing nation. How can you first profuse Smyrna, after the defeat of the Ottomans in WWI, and then Northern Cyprus. And every time because of their nationalism. After all, for centuries, they lived peacefully in these territories - no, they flooded to cleanse the Turks
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 2 February 2021 09: 00
      +4
      Because in Greece itself, everything was not unambiguous and was rosy. Northern Cyprus was slapped, including because of the Greek Black Colonels
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. Pavlos Melas
      Pavlos Melas 2 February 2021 18: 07
      +5
      The Greeks are certainly an amazing nation. How can you first profuse Smyrna, after the defeat of the Ottomans in WWI, and then Northern Cyprus. And every time because of their nationalism. After all, for centuries, they lived peacefully in these territories - no, they flooded to cleanse the Turks

      The war in Asia Minor was not always and not everywhere peacefully for the Greeks was a continuation of the war of independence. As for Cyprus, the black colonels did not suit the Americans, the Greeks of Cyprus sought to unite with Greece. This enosis would have led to the expulsion of the British from the island. By the way, considering the events in Cyprus, one must not forget the "Septembrian" events of September 55, the pogrom of the Greeks of Constantinople and the methodical expulsion of the Greeks from the two Turkish islands. As for Greek nationalism, if you read Davutoglu in the book "The Strategic Depth", he argues that Cyprus had to climb even if there were no Turks on it hi
      1. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar 3 February 2021 00: 01
        0
        Black colonels and the USSR did not suit - they claimed part of the Bulgarian territory hi
        1. Pavlos Melas
          Pavlos Melas 3 February 2021 00: 27
          +1
          Quote: Krasnodar
          Black colonels and the USSR did not suit - they claimed part of the Bulgarian territory hi

          For the USSR, the desire of the black colonels did not matter. In this conflict, the USSR hoped that one of the warring parties would leave NATO. Everything is as usual and probably we would have left if it had not been for 45-55 years. So something like this hi
  7. Revolver
    Revolver 2 February 2021 10: 37
    +4
    and even two ships of the Black Sea Fleet - "Zhivoy" and "Creepy".
    If you believe the article
    https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Эскадренные_миноносцы_типа_«Лейтенант_Пущин» и
    https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Жуткий_(эсминец)
    That these destroyers could only be handed over to the Turks in the form of scrap metal. The Zhivoi sank even before these events, in 1920, and the Terrible got up for repairs in 1918, and was no longer commissioned, excluded from the lists of the fleet in 1925.
    1. Fat
      Fat 2 February 2021 15: 05
      +3
      hi On November 15, 1920, with serious damage to the casing, communications and engine section, the Zhivoi destroyer, converted to receive passengers, took on board 380 people: wounded officers and soldiers and at least 250 women, children and civilians. No records and lists of passengers were kept. Radio communications were damaged and Zhivoi had no way of communicating with other ships. For this and a number of other reasons, he was backed by the tug "Chersonesos". which also accommodated dozens of refugees.
      Both ships left Kerch and moved towards the port of Constantinople.
      After a few hours of the march, a storm began and the Zhivoy broke away from the tug and disappeared into the sea. Attempts to find him have yielded nothing. Only upon the arrival of the tug "Chersonesos" in Constantinople, a rescue team of several ships was sent to search. However, the search did not yield any results.
      Such is the "White Guard Titanic", it could not be handed over to the Turks even in the form of scrap metal.
      1. Fat
        Fat 2 February 2021 15: 27
        +2
        Let's admit. Not reaching the destination "Zhivoi", nevertheless reached one of the Turkish ports ...
        Then the version of the transfer of "Live" and "Terrible" to the Turks has the right to be.
        1. vladcub
          vladcub 2 February 2021 18: 09
          +2
          He didn’t cut in as: "could not be transferred to the Turks even in the form of scrap metal" and further: "I still reached one of the Turkish ports"
          1. Fat
            Fat 2 February 2021 18: 14
            +1
            Svyatoslav hi The key is "let's say". There is no reliable one, Maybe Valery has what he relied on when he wrote about these destroyer-lieutenants ...
  8. iskanderzp
    iskanderzp 2 February 2021 12: 08
    +4
    Valery! Thank you for another fascinating excursion through the little-known pages of history. I learned a lot of new information from your cycle. I look forward to new works!
  9. Cure72
    Cure72 2 February 2021 13: 06
    +4
    Thanks for continuing!
    And special thanks for illustrating the article. They are gorgeous as always !!!
  10. vladcub
    vladcub 2 February 2021 17: 35
    +2
    Valery, your work, which is called EXCELLENT. I learned a lot of new things. The fact that Soviet Russia helped the Turks with arms. I know this, once I read it in Krasnaya Zvezda. There were also photographs of the guns. And that was the first time I heard about Aralov, Voroshilov and Frunze.
  11. Ryazan87
    Ryazan87 2 February 2021 17: 49
    -2
    As you remember from the previous article, the situation was such that the existence of an independent and strong enough (to keep the Black Sea straits in its hands) Turkey was extremely necessary for Russia (and is still necessary).

    In the previous article, there was a highly controversial assertion that maintaining a strong Turkish statehood was temporarily in the interests of the Soviet regime. It is very doubtful - if it was, then for an extremely short period of time (10-15 years). It becomes, however, wondering why this is Comrade. Stalin, so dearly beloved by the author, after WWII wanted to squeeze out the straits again. There is also Turkish grace and darling Inenu ...
    Okay, these are Soviet affairs. The existence of the Turkish state can bring nothing but harm to Russia. Especially considering her current "Erdogan appearance" - hello to "Great Turan".
    This is twice an enemy: a traditional one in itself, and even part of NATO (it is very funny when it is stated that control over the country's straits, going into a hostile military-political bloc is a kind of blessing).
    R.S. By the way, about the capture (hypothetical) by the Germans of the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles in World War II. AND? what kind of disaster will this lead? How will this harm the USSR so much? This is not the First World War, when the straits could be considered a gateway for the supply of the allies ... in WWII and this was not close.
    Regarding the invasion through Eastern Anatolia, let's say Georgia ... just look at the infrastructure network in this region and at the same time find out about the problems of supplying the Caucasian Front in WWI.
    1. VLR
      2 February 2021 18: 51
      +4
      If Bulgaria and Montenegro are NATO members - how can you blame Turkey for this? And at the same time, Erdogan, in contrast to the "brothers-Slavs" - the Czechs, Montenegrins, Bulgarians - is the Enfant terrible of this bloc, who does not want to "look into the mouth of his big brother" and "salute". And Turkey observes the international status of the Straits sacredly, but the Bulgarians would long ago give a damn about these "conventions". The thesis that Turkey is an enemy has long been outdated. How good or bad is Turkey's partner for Russia? What state do you propose to compare it with? With the UK? Japan? Poland? Estonia? The Netherlands? Denmark? Sweden? Canada? Romania? Ukraine? Compared to any of these states, Turkey is just an example of Russophilia, both at the state and at the household level.
      1. Ryazan87
        Ryazan87 3 February 2021 00: 22
        +2
        If Bulgaria and Montenegro are NATO members - how can you blame Turkey for this?

        Just Turkey is a NATO member with 1952 years... Montenegro with 2017... There is some difference. However, I am not inclined to blame her for this, it is foolish to blame the enemy for being an enemy.
        And Turkey observes the international status of the Straits

        And for several decades he has been sacredly placing a military base on his territory (Incirlik, where until 2016 nuclear weapons were kept for a second + 20 more) and a little missiles at one time - again, the Cuban missile crisis is enough to remember how it began.

        For example, Izmir is home to the Allied Air Component Command of the NATO Air Force for Southern Europe. Or the Combined Air Operations Center-6 (CAOC-6) in Eskisehir is one of ten command centers in Europe used by the US Air Force to provide command and control of air and space operations.
        But everything is in order with the straits, it's nothing that the Turkish Navy itself is twice as numerous as the current Black Sea Fleet.
        Erdogan is indeed an Islamic "terrorist", but this does not make him any friend or partner of Russia. The most dangerous reptile.
        The thesis that Turkey is an enemy has long been outdated.

        - active support of the Chechen separatists in both campaigns;
        - replenishment of the Crimean Tatars (Hizb ut-Tahrir) and the already begun military cooperation with Ukraine;
        - active intervention in the affairs of the Transcaucasus - consider Azerbaijan to be a military satellite of Turkey now;
        - direct attacks on Russian servicemen and mercenaries in Syria and Libya;
        - cultivation of the ideas of "Turan" and neo-Ottomanism.
        If this is an example of Russophilia, then I somehow understand the meaning of this word differently. There is much less harm from Sweden and Estonia than from these "respected partners".
  12. vladcub
    vladcub 2 February 2021 18: 05
    +2
    Comrades, now I looked at Vika: 215 Greeks against 000 Turks in 208 and before that, for different periods of time, the Greeks had an advantage in the main, but in the end the Turks overwhelmed the Greeks. What is the reason? The opinion of the author would be interesting. I think the following factors played a role: patriotic impulse, the Turks were offended, and help: Frunze's teams, probably, the Turkish army was rebuilt according to Soviet models.
    PS.
    I do not know which Arabov or Voroshilov as commanders, but M.V. Frunze is a nugget - a fact
    1. VLR
      2 February 2021 18: 19
      +6
      Here the opinion of our Turkish friend, raki-uzo, is probably more interesting.
      There are many factors, and Soviet help is not in the last place - both material and "methodical", it was not for nothing that Kemal put two Russian commanders next to him, although no one asked him. But, most importantly, probably, the most powerful impulse of the offended and indignant people of Turkey, which, it would seem, does not have the slightest chance to free the victim of a terrible defeat and
      occupied by "great powers" country, did the impossible - liberated it.
      1. vladcub
        vladcub 3 February 2021 08: 51
        0
        Valery and I am talking about it
  13. mr.ZinGer
    mr.ZinGer 3 February 2021 19: 18
    +1
    At school I read Jimenguei "Whatever you won't be", then it impressed me greatly, but I did not know the historical background against which all this took place. Interestingly, after so many years, the puzzle was formed.
    Thanks to the author.