Military Review

The concept of a shipborne unmanned aircraft AWACS

78

В previous article Figure 1 shows a diagram and outlines the concept of a combined-arms AWACS aircraft designed to replace the A-100 aircraft. The principles of construction presented there are also used for shipborne AWACS. First, an increase in the flight altitude of the AWACS up to 16–18 km makes it possible to limit the scanning area of ​​its radar to only the lower hemisphere. Secondly, the installation of the wing on the roof of the fuselage makes it possible to place an active phased antenna array (AFAR) of the maximum available area on its freed side surface.


For an aircraft-carrying cruiser (AK or UDC), it is desirable to have your own small-sized AWACS UAV. Unlike combined arms, a shipborne AWACS should (in addition to detecting air targets) support strikes against attacking air, ground and sea targets up to missile guidance. If for a combined-arms AWACS it was most important to measure the azimuth of the target, and fighter-bombers (IS) could measure the target's altitude, then the ship AWACS guiding missiles should also accurately measure the elevation angle. Therefore, the AFAR, which (as in Fig. 1) has a length 6 times the height, is not suitable for a shipborne AWACS.

Article "The concept of an aircraft carrier ..." the requirements were substantiated: the mass of an AWACS UAV should not exceed 5–6 tons, and a wing span of 18–20 m.

Shipborne AWACS should not be performed as a copy of the scheme Fig. 1, made on a scale of 1: 2. Since the height of the lateral AFAR should be increased.

1. The design of the UAV AWACS


Proposed in Fig. 2 the UAV drawing needs to be edited by an aerodynamicist. The figure reflects only the general layout of the UAV wings and indicates the limitations of the radar antenna scanning areas caused by the wings.

The concept of a shipborne unmanned aircraft AWACS
Fig. 2

The aircraft is built on a two-wing tandem design.

The front wing has a reverse sweep, similar to the wing of the IB Su-37. The tail unit is made with two keels, on which the rear wing is located, which also plays the role of a stabilizer. The keels and side surfaces of the fuselage form a single plane, with the keels extended forward to the beginning of the front wing.

The increase in the height of the lateral AFAR is also achieved due to the fact that the air intake is extended and stretched under the front wing.

The chassis of this UAV is built similarly to the UAV (Fig. 1) for a bicycle type. Accordingly, small metal wheels are installed on the tips of the front wing, and the outer sections of the wing with a length of 3,5 m can go down without touching the runway slightly. Lowering is performed when the UAV is already rolling down the runway.

The side AFAR is divided into 3 parts. The central rectangle (measuring 4,2x2 m) is located between the wings and contains transmit-receive modules (PPM). The absence of a wing above this part of the AFAR allows it to scan both the upper and lower hemispheres, which is necessary to detect missiles flying up from above.

The extreme parts of the lateral AFAR (2,1x1,33 m in size) consist of purely receiving modules. They are used to increase the received signal power and improve the accuracy of measuring the azimuth of targets located in the lower hemisphere.

The location of the three parts of the APAR and the wings at different heights leads to the fact that scanning in different hemispheres is performed by different parts of the APAR. Scanning in the upper hemisphere is carried out only by the central part and only in the azimuth range of ± 30 ° relative to the APAR axis. When scanning the lower hemisphere with a forward deflection of the beam, the front wing obstructs the upper 1/3 of the central part of the AFAR. Therefore, in the forward directions with beam deflections of more than 30 °, only the left and lower 2/3 of the central part of the AFAR is used. In other directions from + 30 ° to -60 °, all three parts of the AFAR are used.

2. Characteristics of radar options for UAVs


The requirement to increase the accuracy of the measurement of the elevation angle forces to reduce the wavelength of the radar. Either 10cm or 5,5cm range can be selected.

If 10 cm is chosen, then it is necessary to take into account that the greatest danger to the UAV is the Aegis multifunctional (MF) radar of the Aegis air defense missile system, which operates with λ = 9-10 cm.Therefore, in order to be able to suppress this radar, we will choose this very range for AWACS.

In what follows, we will denote it, as is customary in radar, in a simplified way - λ = 10 cm.

2.1 Variant of a radar operating in the range λ = 10 cm


In AWACS (Fig. 2), the wavelength λ decreased 2,2 times, compared with AWACS (Fig. 1), which reduced the beam width of the central part to 1,3 * 2,8 °. If all 3 parts of the AFAR are used for reception, the beam width will be 0,7 * 2,8 °.

The central part contains 2568 PPMs (88 * 36), and the side ones - 1056 receiving modules each. The pulse power of the PPM will have to be reduced to 18 W. Then the power consumption of the entire lateral AFAR will decrease to 32 kW. AFAR weight 400 kg.

The nasal AFAR operates in the same range of 9–10 cm and has a total area of ​​about 1 sq. M. Liquid exact area value will be determined after nose cone design. Liquid cooling allows increasing the PPM power up to 50 W. With a total number of PPMs of 360–400, the power consumption will be 14 kW. AFAR weight 80 kg.

To increase the accuracy of measuring the azimuth of the target in the leading edge of the front wing, three additional purely receiving AFARs are installed, having the form of three docked rulers - the left side of the wing, central, right. Their total length is 11 m, the number of receiving modules is 232.

As a result, it turns out that, despite the small size of the UAV, the characteristics of its radar are not much inferior to the A-100 radar. Here are brief estimates of the performance characteristics of this version of the UAV:

• takeoff weight - 5,5-6 t
• wingspan - 19 m
• fuselage length - 11 m
• fuel weight - 2,5 t
• flight altitude - 16-18 km
• cruising speed - 600 km / h
• flight time - 10 h
• landing speed - 120 km / h.

Target detection ranges in the direction of the lateral AFAR axes will be:

- IB type F-16 with an effective reflecting surface (EOC) 2 sq. m - 550 km;
- low-altitude anti-ship missiles with an image intensifier of 0,1 sq. m - 220 km.

At the boundaries of the azimuth scan zone equal to ± 60 °, the detection range decreases by 20%.

The detection range in the upper hemisphere by IS is 480 km, by high-altitude anti-ship missiles with image intensifier tubes 0,3 sq. m - 240 km.

The detection range in the lower hemisphere at an azimuth of 45 ° forward is 400 km, along the anti-ship missile system - 145 km.

The error of a single measurement of angles at a distance equal to 80% of the detection range in the lower hemisphere:

• in azimuth - 0,12 °
• in elevation - 0,4 °.

When tracking a target for 3 sec. the angular error decreases by 2–3 times, and when the range is reduced to 50% of the detection range, it decreases by 2 times.

In the upper hemisphere:

• in azimuth - 0,2 °
• in elevation - 0,4 °.

Characteristics of nasal AFAR:

• detection range of IS type F-16 with image intensifier 2 sq. m - 220 km;
• low-altitude anti-ship missiles with image intensifier of 0,1 sq. m - 100 km.

Single angle measurement error:

• in azimuth - 0,1 °
• in elevation - 0,8 °.

The total block weight of the radar is 900–1000 kg.

The prime cost of the serial sample of the radar depends on the price of the PPM. To reduce the price, the volume of the MRP order must be large, for example, 100 thousand pieces. Presumably, the cost of the radar will remain at $ 14 million.

The advantage of this AWACS option is that, despite its low weight and cost, it provides high detection range and target tracking accuracy.

The disadvantages are:

- The complexity of integrating the UAV radar and the radar complex (RLK) AK or UDC. The proposed AK radar contains 2 radars of the 5,5 cm and 70 cm ranges and a state recognition module of the 20 cm range.Therefore, for communication with the UAV radar, you will have to make a special module of the 10 cm range.

- Difficulties arising in the joint work of UAV AWACS and UAVs of information security, based on AK, in which the radar operates in the range of 5,5 cm.

That is, the AWACS radar will not be able to highlight targets. In order for the IS radar to work in stealth mode or to use the illumination of the AWACS radar to increase the target detection range using the radar.

Another drawback is the low accuracy of determining the height of targets. For example, the error in measuring the altitude of an anti-ship missile located at a distance of 150 km will be (with tracking) 0,5 km. Such an error will not allow to display the PR using the command method for homing.

Further reduction of the radar wavelength will avoid these disadvantages.

2.2 Variant of a radar operating in the range λ = 5,5 cm


In this version, there are limitations on the possibilities of reducing λ.

In a conventional AFAR, PPMs are set with a step equal to half λ. Therefore, when λ is halved, the number of PPMs installed per unit area quadruples.

Some cost reduction will be obtained due to the fact that the price of PPM 5,5 cm will be 75-80% of the price of PPM 10 cm.

In addition, you can dispense with the left and right parts of the lateral AFAR. The central part of the AFAR will contain 9216 PPM (144 * 64). Pulse power 6 W. The total cost of the radar is estimated at $ 25 million. The radar mass will be 900-1000 kg.

An additional advantage of the 5,5 cm range is the ability to suppress the Patriot air defense system radar.

2.2.1 Characteristics of the radar range λ = 5,5 cm


Decreasing λ allows you to reduce the radar beam width to 0,75 * 1,6 °.

The advantage of this version of the radar is a 1,6-fold reduction in the measurement error of the target height and the ability to directly control gliding ammunition. And also the ability to organize illumination of targets for UAV IS, use illumination from the MF radar AK and transmit information directly to the MF radar.

The disadvantage is the reduction in the area of ​​the lateral AFAR, which reduces the detection range by 15% when detecting IS. The detection range of low-altitude anti-ship missiles does not fall due to the use of a vertically narrower beam.

As a result, we obtain the detection range of the lateral AFAR in the range of angles in azimuth from + 30 ° to -60 ° for IS 450 km and for low-altitude anti-ship missiles - 220 km. Errors of single measurements of angles will be 0,12 ° in azimuth and 0,25 ° in elevation.

Detection ranges at an azimuth of 45 ° forward will be 330 km for IS and 160 km for anti-ship missiles.

3. Use of AWACS to detect land and sea targets


AWACS cannot (due to reflections from the earth's surface) detect ground stationary targets in a real beam mode. In practice, it is possible to detect either moving targets or stationary ones in the mode of the synthesized beam, that is, in the lateral directions.

The radar of any UAV detects a moving target against the background of reflections from other stationary objects due to the difference in the speeds of approaching a moving target and a stationary object located in the vicinity of the target.

In this case, only the radial component of the target's velocity vector matters, that is, directed along the line connecting the radar and the target. The minimum detectable target speeds depend on the target azimuth - the closer the target is to the direction of flight of the IS, the lower target speed can be detected.

Targets lying in a direction perpendicular to the direction of flight are detected worst of all. But AWACS does not attack the target, but patrols along the combat area. In other words, his goals are usually on the side. Then only a narrow beam allows detection of low-speed targets. Lateral AFAR with a 0,7 ° beam width will allow detecting targets moving at a radial speed of more than 5-6 km / h.

Conversely, in the synthetic beam mode, targets located on the side are best detected. It is possible to get a mark from a target such as a stationary tank at ranges of 100-200 km, but it is possible to recognize a mark as an object of armored vehicles at ranges of about 20-30 km.

Marine targets are detected much easier than ground targets due to the fact that the level of reflections from the sea with moderate waves of 2-3 points is an order of magnitude lower than from the ground. Especially the level of interference is reduced at low altitudes of the AWACS flight. If the glide angle of the radar beam turns out to be less than 1 °, then the level of reflections will decrease by another 1-2 orders of magnitude. Therefore, even a small target can be detected. For example, a small boat with an image intensifier of 10 sq. m - at a distance of 200 km, choosing the desired flight altitude.

4. findings


The proposed AWACS UAV, despite the low weight of 6 tons, surpasses the Hawkeye AWACS aircraft in its technical characteristics and is not much inferior to the A-100 AWACS.

Low prime cost ($ 30–40 million) and low fuel consumption will ensure its high competitiveness even in the land-based AWACS market.

AWACS is capable of providing over-the-horizon guidance of missiles.

When placed on the AK, the AWACS ensures the coordination of the actions of the UAV IS and can even direct the gliding ammunition launched from them.
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  1. OgnennyiKotik
    OgnennyiKotik 11 January 2021 15: 14
    -1
    The wings do not affect the radar station, they have long been made of radio-transparent composites. The UAV scheme should provide maximum flight characteristics. There have already been projects of similar UAVs.
    1. Machito
      Machito 11 January 2021 15: 41
      +3
      And what about the carriers for the UAV AWACS? Where will the 6-ton drone take off and where will it land? Kuzya is on a leash, it is not known when the UDC will be built. Launch it from the shore? $ 30-40 million is hardly a low price.
      1. lucul
        lucul 11 January 2021 17: 42
        -4
        And what about the carriers for the UAV AWACS? Where will the 6-ton drone take off and where will it land?

        Water and water? Not? Why is a seaplane so bad?
        1. Revolver
          Revolver 11 January 2021 20: 10
          -2
          Quote: lucul
          And what about the carriers for the UAV AWACS? Where will the 6-ton drone take off and where will it land?

          Water and water? Not? Why is a seaplane so bad?

          Moreover, if it is based on the UDC, which has a dock for landing boats. All he has to do is make him a folding wing, and he may well live inside the dock. Well, or as in the good old days to keep on the deck of any ship of suitable size, launch (and lift from it) with a crane. True, there will be restrictions on excitement, so it is not bad to have an AWACS helicopter in case of bad weather.
        2. Kostya Lavinyukov
          Kostya Lavinyukov 12 January 2021 01: 31
          0
          And the radar will float right away.
    2. The eye of the crying
      The eye of the crying 11 January 2021 17: 40
      -1
      Quote: OgnennyiKotik
      The wings do not affect the radar station, they have long been made of radio-transparent composites.


      Which AWACS aircraft have wings completely made of composite?
    3. aagor
      11 January 2021 19: 48
      0
      There are no fiberglass planes, there are carbon-fiber reinforced plastics, and they are radio-absorbing.
      1. Alex777
        Alex777 11 January 2021 22: 42
        -1
        The idea is very interesting. good
        It is the AWACS AUG aircraft that we need extremely, and the role of pilots (in comparison with a fighter) is relatively small. Takeoff, landing and flight at a limited range along the patrol route.
        The tasks are not easy, but quite solvable.
        Except for air refueling. But this feature does not threaten us yet.
        In any case, the UAV AWACS in the air will hold out much longer than helicopters.
        And the takeoff run can be made shorter than that of the Yak-44.
        But in the 6 t category, there will be little energy and fuel, IMHO. hi
        1. aagor
          11 January 2021 23: 03
          -3
          In 6-ton tanks, it is possible to obtain a detection range 1 times greater than that of the 5-ton Hokai. The takeoff run will be no more than 23 m. Air refueling is not needed, since it is easier to make a second AWACS and refuel them on the ship.
          1. Alex777
            Alex777 12 January 2021 00: 34
            -1
            In 6-ton tanks, it is possible to obtain a detection range 1 times greater than that of the 5-ton Hokai.

            Well, it's just a holiday of some kind ... wink
            Can we build light aircraft carriers in Crimea? smile
          2. SovAr238A
            SovAr238A 12 January 2021 20: 47
            0
            Quote: aagor
            In 6-ton tanks, it is possible to obtain a detection range 1 times greater than that of the 5-ton Hokai. The takeoff run will be no more than 23 m. Air refueling is not needed, since it is easier to make a second AWACS and refuel them on the ship.


            Again.
            What source of energy are you going to supply almost 40 kW consumers ???
            And how will it fit on a 6 ton aircraft?
        2. svd-xnumx
          svd-xnumx 12 January 2021 17: 31
          0
          But in the 6 t category, there will be not enough energy and fuel, IMHO
          16 kW only the radar eats, and even for the flight you need fuel and multiply this by 10 hours of flight according to the author's version request
  2. Aleks2000
    Aleks2000 11 January 2021 15: 17
    +1
    In general, there are a bunch of concepts, there is no AWACS aircraft
    1. andreykolesov123
      andreykolesov123 11 January 2021 15: 27
      -2
      Quote: Alex2000
      In general, there are a bunch of concepts, there is no AWACS aircraft

      how not, and what is this?

      1. OgnennyiKotik
        OgnennyiKotik 11 January 2021 15: 31
        +7
        Quote: andreykolesov123
        how not, and what is this?

        This is the US Israel G550 AEW / CAEW Eitam.
        It was a G550 executive aircraft equipped with an EL / W-2085 phased array radar (an upgraded version of the EL / M-2075 Phalcon) developed by Elta. In addition, an integrated IFF subsystem, an ESM / ELINT electronic reconnaissance system and a COMINT communication system were installed on the aircraft. In its final form, the aircraft was named G550 CAEW (Conformal Airborne Early Warning).
        1. andreykolesov123
          andreykolesov123 11 January 2021 15: 38
          +2
          Quote: Alex2000
          there is no AWACS aircraft


          Quote: OgnennyiKotik
          This is the US Israel G550 AEW / CAEW Eitam.

          So there is an AWACS aircraft, but not all of them.
      2. Aleks2000
        Aleks2000 11 January 2021 20: 11
        0
        I will not chew everything and everything.
        Ship. Unmanned. AWACS. So that it was already.

        And yes, there are planes, you are right.
    2. novel66
      novel66 11 January 2021 16: 46
      0
      and there is no aircraft carrier for it
  3. exo
    exo 11 January 2021 15: 42
    +5
    Secondly, the installation of the wing on the roof of the fuselage makes it possible to place an active phased antenna array (AFAR) of the maximum available area on its freed side surface.

    Fuselage roof - there is no such term in aviation. You can say: the upper part of the fuselage.
  4. g1v2
    g1v2 11 January 2021 15: 42
    0
    In principle, a normal option. In theory, you can try to make the UAV even simpler and smaller in order to use it on occasion as a consumable. They will be much worse than a single drl plane. But this is separately. And if there are several of them and they will create a network covering a certain area and direction, then most likely it will be more effective. Again, they can be set on a schedule by which they will be rotated. They don't have a crew that needs sleep, lunch and stretch their legs. They can be stored folded in a helicopter-type hangar. At the beginning of the 20th century, there were options that imply the presence of their own aircraft on battleships and even on submarines. Well, at our level of technology, what prevents the deployment of small drone UAVs on ships of rank 1-2 and even on submarines? Launching a UAV upon surfacing or even with a mortar launch from a mine. Then splashdown. It is possible to envisage flooding above the boat and receiving a used UAV already under water. There are options and the technologies are not so complicated. The question is implementation.
    1. OgnennyiKotik
      OgnennyiKotik 11 January 2021 15: 54
      +1
      Quote: g1v2
      what prevents the deployment of small drlo UAVs on ships of rank 1-2 and even on submarines?

      Nothing. For example the XFC UAS project

      Or adapt UTAP-22 or XQ-58. The latter is in container design.




      Well, helicopter or tiltrotor.

    2. Avior
      Avior 11 January 2021 16: 15
      +3
      ... what makes it difficult to place small drills on ships of rank 1-2 and even on submarines

      Their absence. They are not even on land
    3. aagor
      11 January 2021 23: 06
      -1
      A small AWACS will have a short detection range. The enemy will be able to fly up close to him and shoot him down.
  5. Galleon
    Galleon 11 January 2021 15: 46
    10
    How simple it would be if the AWACS tasks included only target detection, as described in the proposed concept. For now, let's leave the author's additions about the transformation of a radar with AFAR into a counter-jamming station.
    But no! It is not enough to find targets - it is necessary to transfer the command center for these purposes to means of destruction, it is necessary to transfer the overall picture obtained to various command posts of both strategic and operational-tactical levels. Consequently, in addition to the computer complex, one must carry on oneself a set of communication equipment, a "friend or foe" identification kit, an inertial navigation system, radio navigation devices - this is in addition to electronic warfare equipment, which the author wants, and aviation systems. Will it still be 6 tons?
    The most annoying thing in the article is that the AWACS UAV is presented as an end in itself, and not as part of a single information field, on which only one can fight in a modern war.
    In general, the presentation looks like some kind of spineless fantasy.
    1. OgnennyiKotik
      OgnennyiKotik 11 January 2021 15: 57
      +1
      One UAV is not enough. We need several of them. AWACS, electronic warfare, repeater, drums. One system.
      1. Galleon
        Galleon 11 January 2021 16: 06
        +6
        Of course! The E-2D Hawkeye, for example, carries an electronic warfare system, which it needs more to classify targets detected by the radar, but this is weight and volume. To create interference in order to cover their forces, a large Reb UAV is needed - a large one for the sake of a large source of energy for the emitters. Therefore, it is better not to mention electronic warfare when talking about an AWACS UAV at all. Yes, and different lines of work with respect to the enemy of these means - the AWACS can be in a safe protected area, the Reb aircraft should be closer, if you want, to take risks.
        1. OgnennyiKotik
          OgnennyiKotik 11 January 2021 16: 08
          -3
          Quote: Galleon
          Therefore, it is better not to mention electronic warfare when talking about an AWACS UAV at all.

          Why? Electronic warfare UAVs are actively at war, showing excellent results.
          Electronic warfare is not only electronic suppression.
          1. Galleon
            Galleon 11 January 2021 16: 17
            +6
            Why?
            To avoid making a banjo out of a frying pan. So that Wishlist the size of the Il-114 fuselage does not try to stick a six-ton ​​UAV into the concept. This time.
            Due to the absence of AWACS, the appearance of such aircraft in the Armed Forces will inevitably put them on the solution, first of all, to illuminate the situation of the entire theater of operations. Why would you carry around a rabuda designed to solve tactical problems? These are two.
            LA AWACS works in a guarded safe area, for it is important and stands like an oligarch's yacht. The use of electronic warfare means from this zone of the power available for this from an AWACS aircraft can cause a healthy laugh of the enemy, but not cause him trouble. I can't read the theory of electronic warfare to you - I don't remember it myself. In a nutshell - you need to be closer, closer than the AWACS works - these are three.
            1. Alex777
              Alex777 12 January 2021 00: 38
              +2
              So 6 tons will be too small for me.
              How much do you estimate the required take-off weight?
          2. Intruder
            Intruder 13 January 2021 18: 01
            0
            Electronic warfare UAVs are actively fighting and show excellent results.
            it depends on what, and who has the joystick in his hands, while "fighting" !? :) And then the electronic warfare must be used in combination with other weapons systems ...
            1. OgnennyiKotik
              OgnennyiKotik 13 January 2021 18: 04
              -1
              Of the latter, Azerbaijan actively and successfully used it in Karabakh. Video of complex use, for a couple of hours on the net.
    2. lucul
      lucul 11 January 2021 17: 32
      0
      The most annoying thing in the article is that the AWACS UAV is presented as an end in itself, and not as part of a single information field, on which only one can fight in a modern war.

      Well, for Russia this is an end in itself - everything else is there, except for the UAV.
    3. aagor
      11 January 2021 19: 52
      0
      At the beginning of the article there is a link to the previous one, where it is shown that the transfer of information is carried out by the same AFAR.
      1. SovAr238A
        SovAr238A 12 January 2021 20: 50
        0
        Quote: aagor
        At the beginning of the article there is a link to the previous one, where it is shown that the transfer of information is carried out by the same AFAR.


        Yes, AFAR has an algorithm for receiving and transmitting data during operation - but it is very low-speed.
        And the range is short.
  6. Zaurbek
    Zaurbek 11 January 2021 15: 59
    +1
    First, you need to make an AWACS based on the Il114 .... and not only "sea" ... and then work out various UAV options. "Log" on the back and radar in the nose.

    And maybe a more powerful option based on sszh100 or ms21.
    1. aagor
      11 January 2021 19: 55
      0
      On the IL-114, the wing is in the middle, and there is no place for a large AFAR to accommodate it. The same applies to other aircraft. The essence of the proposal was precisely to find a design in which the entire side of the fuselage could be used for AFAR.
      1. Zaurbek
        Zaurbek 11 January 2021 21: 04
        0
        Look at the picture for the article
        1. Alex777
          Alex777 12 January 2021 00: 39
          0
          The author of the article answers you. hi
          1. Zaurbek
            Zaurbek 12 January 2021 08: 05
            0
            Why won't the "log" above the fuselage fit?
            1. Alex777
              Alex777 12 January 2021 13: 50
              0
              You are probably a colleague aagor (Andrey) the question was asked?
      2. Galleon
        Galleon 12 January 2021 09: 58
        +2
        Quote: aagor
        The essence of the proposal was precisely to find a design in which the entire side of the fuselage could be used for AFAR.

        An interesting idea, and should be considered carefully. You plan to use the aircraft at an operating altitude of 16-18 km, taking into account the radar radiation pattern. Fine. How is the size and shape of the wing consoles consistent for this height? What is the design cruising speed of the future UAV? Have these parameters been determined taking into account another important characteristic of any AWACS - the maximum flight time (with minimum fuel consumption, of course). One question is linked to another, and only a solid chain of answers, all the compromises found on these questions will lead to a well-thought-out design and product.
        1. aagor
          13 January 2021 12: 16
          0
          At the beginning of the article, all the parameters mentioned are given. The calculations were very rough, since the author is not an aerodynamicist. That is, a "well thought out project" should be developed by a group of specialists.
  7. Sancho_SP
    Sancho_SP 11 January 2021 16: 34
    -3
    And right away we make it a seaplane and complete every large ship with it. Then it still makes sense.
    1. Intruder
      Intruder 11 January 2021 17: 13
      +3
      And right away we make it with a seaplane and complete every large ship with it.
      and screw the gusli, so he himself can get out to the shore! ??? :))) along the bottom ....
    2. Genry
      Genry 11 January 2021 17: 19
      0
      Quote: Sancho_SP
      And right away we make it with a seaplane and complete every large ship with it.

      And name it Be-200. good
      1. Sancho_SP
        Sancho_SP 11 January 2021 18: 57
        -2
        But why?

        Raising the radar a kilometer and a dozen to the side is actually a great idea.

        And there is no need for a particularly large plane. The radar installation itself is very compact, and the generator fits perfectly on the shaft of the turboprop engine.
        1. Genry
          Genry 11 January 2021 20: 26
          -3
          Quote: Sancho_SP
          Raising the radar a kilometer and a dozen to the side is actually a great idea.

          On a mini-airship with several stretchers to the ships at a distance ... And at an altitude of 1 km (radio horizon over 100 km), 10 km to the side - it makes no sense.
          Quote: Sancho_SP
          And there is no need for a particularly large plane. The radar installation itself is very compact, and the generator fits perfectly on the shaft of the turboprop engine.

          Here the helicopter on the electric cable is more fit.

          In such a concept, both are necessary. The airship is more economical (+ the possibility of a wind generator), the electric helicopter is faster.
          1. Sancho_SP
            Sancho_SP 11 January 2021 20: 55
            +2
            Aside because that would not be a reference point. The radar is very noticeable at the same time.

            The weight of the cable will upset you.
            1. Genry
              Genry 12 January 2021 05: 39
              -2
              Quote: Sancho_SP
              Aside because that would not be a reference point.

              An auto-lock rocket doesn't care ....
              Quote: Sancho_SP
              The weight of the cable will upset you.

              I think: about a ton (1kg / m). There are difficulties with high voltage (tens of kilovolts) - but this is not consumer goods.
              1. Sancho_SP
                Sancho_SP 12 January 2021 10: 48
                0
                I think that it is much more, because the strength of the cable (or the supporting cable) must take into account the wind load, its own mass (even a ton can be suspended on far from every cable), the tension force, and so on.

                Dozens of kilovolts will not work either, since then a rather heavy converter (transformer) will need to be installed on the drone - the motors will still be hundreds of volts.
  8. garri-lin
    garri-lin 11 January 2021 17: 49
    +2
    If we are to create an AWACS UAV, then first of all we need to think about the ideal glider. To make the most of all possible weight. Wing of high aspect ratio. Mechanization. The flight of such an aircraft is quite stable. The requirements are known. It is a matter of technique to adjust the glider to such requirements.
    1. aagor
      11 January 2021 19: 57
      -1
      So I want someone to help the author and adjust.
    2. Zaurbek
      Zaurbek 12 January 2021 14: 39
      +1
      Nobody will make a special aircraft. You need to do on the basis of what flies and is mass-produced. Moreover, a rather powerful drlo is needed. It is necessary to calculate the consumption in kW and from here to look for the desired aircraft with the required energy.
      1. garri-lin
        garri-lin 12 January 2021 17: 56
        0
        Serially produced large aircraft taking off from an aircraft carrier? I think there will be big problems.
        1. Zaurbek
          Zaurbek 12 January 2021 18: 23
          0
          Why make an exclusive AWACS? And when will we have the Aircraft Carrier itself? And so, tomorrow we will receive the AWACS of the required standard size, work out its use and then after tomorrow we will install it on the required carrier for the ship.
          1. garri-lin
            garri-lin 12 January 2021 21: 41
            0
            I think the creation of the AWACS aircraft and the Aircraft Carrier, in Russian realities, will take approximately the same time.
            1. Zaurbek
              Zaurbek 12 January 2021 22: 40
              0
              But for the Russian Federation, a small AWACS on land is much more important and you need more of them .... And there is already an aircraft where to put. For AUG there is nothing ... neither the AUG itself, nor the aircraft on which to put a "log" or "plate".
              1. garri-lin
                garri-lin 13 January 2021 02: 21
                0
                On land, you need not a small AWACS but a normal one. On a modern elementary base, the A50 (comparable in capabilities) may well be half as much. Here I agree with you. Inexpensive and well-tested "civilian" base is optimal.
      2. aagor
        13 January 2021 12: 19
        0
        We do not have such an aircraft.
        1. Zaurbek
          Zaurbek 13 January 2021 12: 22
          0
          At the exit of Il114, Tu204-214 and someday localized sszh100 and MS21
  9. lucul
    lucul 11 January 2021 17: 58
    -3
    • takeoff weight - 5,5-6 t

    И
    The radar mass will be 900-1000 kg.

    Will not work.
    But you need to immediately understand that today the use of duralumin in aircraft construction is akin to the use of iron in aircraft construction before the Second World War. Roughly speaking, the use of a composite gives the same weight gain as the use of duralumin compared to iron.
    Therefore, ONLY a fully composite UAV body and an engine made only of light alloys will give the necessary weight gain.
    Well, you can already think about reducing the energy consumption of the radar.
    1. aagor
      11 January 2021 20: 00
      -2
      If we can make carbon fiber, then even better. It will only need to be metallized on the outside.
    2. Revolver
      Revolver 11 January 2021 20: 23
      +4
      Quote: lucul
      engine made only of light alloys

      Well, what would a turboprop or turbofan look like without the use of heat-resistant steels? I don’t remember who was talking about reducing moonshine brewing, "the apparatus can be reduced, but the coil - in no case!"
      1. Intruder
        Intruder 13 January 2021 03: 35
        0
        to look like a turboprop or a turbofan without the use of heat-resistant steels?
        as it may be, but not for long and other problems with gas dynamics in the ducts :)))
  10. 113262a
    113262a 11 January 2021 18: 19
    +4
    From an aerodynamic point of view, Scheme 2 is contrived! All the charm of a wing with a forward sweep, a late stall at high angles of attack, is not needed here, since it is the early stall on the front plane that is the guarantee of maintaining the longitudinal stability of the aircraft. In other words, it is the early onset of stall on the front wing that lowers the nose and prevents stalling. Moreover, the small shoulder of the vertical tail makes it useless. On ducks and tandems, the AO is carried out as far back as possible from the focus. Hence the vital scheme with the front wing of a straight sweep and the rear one with the reverse and extended AO on the beam as far back as possible. Rutan has such schemes.
    1. aagor
      11 January 2021 20: 02
      -1
      The forward swept wing was used not to ensure maneuverability, but to be able to scan the upper hemisphere.
      1. 113262a
        113262a 11 January 2021 22: 15
        +4
        Not about maneuverability! Namely, the longitudinal stability of the apparatus! An airplane of such a scheme is unstable aerodynamically, that is, it is prone to stalling in a tailspin under any external disturbances. A straight flight will have to be provided with intensive use of wheel arch liners and elevators.
  11. d4rkmesa
    d4rkmesa 11 January 2021 19: 56
    +2
    Well, then the lifting screws would be added, as in SUAS, however, there is an order of magnitude lighter drone.
  12. Bez 310
    Bez 310 11 January 2021 21: 02
    +2
    Horrible...
  13. Undecim
    Undecim 11 January 2021 21: 48
    +8
    Characteristics of nasal AFAR:

    • detection range of IS type F-16 with image intensifier 2 sq. m - 220 km;
    • low-altitude anti-ship missiles with image intensifier of 0,1 sq. m - 100 km.

    I wonder who the author is by profession?
  14. Falcon5555
    Falcon5555 12 January 2021 00: 17
    +5
    The author does not understand anything about aerodynamics.
  15. Cympak
    Cympak 12 January 2021 00: 42
    +4
    "Legs, wings .... the main thing is the tail!" (c) - not quite childish truth;)
    In addition to aerodynamics, a powerful radar requires an appropriate energy source, + removal of excess heat generated by a powerful antenna ...
  16. Intruder
    Intruder 12 January 2021 04: 40
    +2
    The aircraft is built on a two-wing tandem design.
    A rare freak, by default it can fly well - it cannot !!! As Tupolev said: “Only beautiful airplanes can fly well.” And the great aircraft designer should be believed ...
    1. SovAr238A
      SovAr238A 12 January 2021 20: 55
      +1
      Quote: Intruder
      The aircraft is built on a two-wing tandem design.
      A rare freak, by default it can fly well - it cannot !!! As Tupolev said: “Only beautiful airplanes can fly well.” And the great aircraft designer should be believed ...


      Tupolev was wrong ...
      Just because. that then the engines did not know how to do ...
      And the plane had to be licked.

      Bricks fly better with modern engines. than the products of Tupolev since the scoring of quotation phrases ...
      1. Intruder
        Intruder 12 January 2021 22: 59
        0
        Just because. that then the engines did not know how to do ...
        well .., well .... aerodynamics and others: gas dynamics, etc. ... invented for fools, and planes fly only thanks to engines, so you ??? Just like in the joke about blondes: "you're a fool, he waves them ..." :)))
        1. SovAr238A
          SovAr238A 13 January 2021 07: 14
          +1
          Quote: Intruder
          Just because. that then the engines did not know how to do ...
          well .., well .... aerodynamics and others: gas dynamics, etc. ... invented for fools, and planes fly only thanks to engines, so you ??? Just like in the joke about blondes: "you're a fool, he waves them ..." :)))


          Yes, planes fly thanks to engines!
          It's a pity that in your world they fly on "quotes" ...
    2. aagor
      13 January 2021 12: 22
      +1
      Admire the "freaks" created by Bert Ruthan. But they set records.
  17. Alexey Zigalov
    Alexey Zigalov 14 January 2021 16: 41
    0
    Andrey thanks for the article.