Military Review

Albania after World War II: Socialism and Hoxhaism

126

One of the famous Albanian bunkers built on the sea coast. Photo: Robert Hackman, Albania


Article Albania in the first half of the XNUMXth century. Independence and World War II we ended with a report on the liberation of Albania from the occupiers, which took place practically without the participation of foreign troops. Now we'll talk about the difficult stories this country after World War II.

The territories of Albania seized under Mussolini and Hitler had to be returned, but the Albanians, thanks to the support of Stalin, managed to preserve their independence: their lands were not divided between neighboring states, as Churchill suggested.

The first country to recognize the new government of Albania headed by Enver Hoxha was Yugoslavia, already in May 1945. In December 1945, diplomatic relations were established between Albania and the USSR.

Albania between Yugoslavia and the USSR


At that time, some politicians of Albania did not exclude the possibility of uniting with Yugoslavia into a single federal state (Tito was not averse to including Bulgaria in this federation, but was against the entry of Greece and Romania into it, which was also discussed). Some steps were taken to unite the armies of Yugoslavia and Albania, agreements were reached on a customs union and the equalization of currencies - dinar and lek. A supporter of integration with Yugoslavia was the Minister of Internal Affairs of Albania and a member of the Central Committee of the Albanian Party of Labor Kochi Dzodze (it was he who was elected first secretary of the Communist Party of Albania in November 1941, this post he ceded to Enver Hoxha in 1943).

Albania after World War II: Socialism and Hoxhaism
Kochi Dzodze

Other prominent representatives of the "Titovites" were the head of the Agitation, Propaganda and Press Department, Nuri Huta, and the head of the State Control Commission, Pandey Christo.

Enver Hoxha, on the contrary, advocated the preservation of the independence of Albania and was oriented not towards Yugoslavia, but towards the Soviet Union. And in his sympathies, he was by no means hypocritical. Dmitry Chuvakhin, ambassador of the Soviet Union to Albania in 1945-1952, called this country "the most reliable and loyal ally of the USSR."

In June 1945, Enver Hoxha attended the Victory Parade in Moscow and agreed with the leaders of the USSR on technical and economic assistance to his country.


I. Stalin and E. Hoxha

After the deterioration of Soviet-Yugoslav relations, the Albanian government decisively sided with the USSR. Already on July 1, 1948, the Albanians canceled the treaties with Yugoslavia and expelled the advisers and specialists of this country. Supporters of rapprochement with Yugoslavia were arrested, Kochi Dzodze, the head of the Titovites, was sentenced to death in 1949. In the same 1949, Albania was admitted to the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA), and in 1950 the city of Kuchova was named Stalin and wore it until 1990.


Enver Hoxha in Moscow, Trekhgornaya Manufactory Combine, 1949

In Tirana, two monuments were erected to the Soviet generalissimo, to which every day the townspeople completely voluntarily brought flowers, and visitors from the villages - homemade halva. The fact is that many in Albania (especially in mountain villages) sincerely considered Stalin a hero two and a half meters tall, who could bend horseshoes with his hands, and also a powerful sorcerer. Thus, the Soviet leader was perceived by the Albanians as a Russian Skanderbeg, about which they also talked a lot and are still telling. It is said that in the early post-war years in Albanian villages, people even prayed at the busts of Stalin, smearing them with sheep's fat and sometimes blood. It was thanks to his strength and magic, many Albanians believed, that Joseph, who came from a poor family, became the ruler of a huge great country and defeated Hitler. Stalin's authority in this country is still very high, and if local residents want to convince an opponent, they often refer to the fact that Stalin “did this” or “did so”. For example, Mercedes cars in Albania are considered very prestigious, also because Stalin allegedly always drove exactly this brand.


Monument to I. Stalin at the plant. Stalin, Tirana

In 1958, a separate brigade of Soviet submarines and auxiliary units were stationed on Sazani Island.

"Albanian mushrooms"


Enver Hoxha appreciated the danger from Yugoslavia so highly that on his initiative the construction of a fortification system was organized. This is how the famous “Albanian mushrooms” appeared - concrete fortifications, the first of which was built in 1950. The first bunker was tested by an ancient and time-tested method: the chief engineer entered the building, which was then fired from tank guns. Everything ended well. And then the bunkers were built because of the fear of aggression also from Western countries and even the USSR.

It is often read that more than 700 thousand bunkers were built in total - 24 per square kilometer, one for four citizens of the country. This is not true: the exact figure is known - 173, which is also a lot. Huge funds were spent on the construction of these useless structures (the cost of building one bunker was approximately equal to the price of a 371-room apartment), and now they stand everywhere as a kind of monuments of the era, they are photographed with pleasure by tourists, of which there are still not very many.


Some of these structures are used by local residents as warehouses, chicken coops, sheds, and the largest are used as cafes and even mini-hotels, but most, of course, are empty.


House in the bunker. Photo: Robert Hackman, Albania


Mini-hotel in the bunker


Hostel in the bunker


Bunkers on the Albanian beach

In Tirana, two museums located in government bunkers are currently available for visiting: BUNK 'ART and BUNK' ART 2. The first was opened in 2014, this is the former bunker of Enver Hoxha, the prime minister, the central government office and the general staff, he is located on the territory of a military unit on the outskirts of Tirana (you can go with your passport): 5 floors, 106 rooms and 10 exits. The atmosphere surprises with its modesty - this is not what tourists usually expect from the "dictator's" apartments:


BUNK 'ART Museum, Tirana


ZIS-110, presented to Enver Hoxha by Stalin in 1950 at the BUNK 'ART museum


Museum BUNK 'ART, study of Enver Hoxha


Photo of Enver Hoxha and Soviet officers at the BUNK 'ART Museum

The second museum, opened in 2016, is located in the city center next to Skanderbeg square - this is the bunker of the Ministry of the Interior, it has 24 rooms and 3 exhibitions.


Museum BUNK 'ART 2, Tirana


BUNK 'ART 2 Museum, Tirana, interior

Break of relations with the USSR


Relations between the USSR and Albania deteriorated sharply after the XX Congress of the CPSU and the infamous Khrushchev report, about which the American historian Grover Ferr said:

Of all the statements of the "closed report" that directly "expose" Stalin or Beria, not a single one was true. More precisely, among all those of them that are verifiable, every single one turned out to be false. As it turns out, in his speech, Khrushchev did not say anything about Stalin and Beria that would turn out to be true. The entire "closed report" is woven entirely of this kind of fraud.

Enver Hoxha and Zhou Enlai, representing China, defiantly left the congress, without waiting for its official closing. In revenge, Khrushchev tried to organize a conspiracy against Enver Hoxha with the aim of removing him from power, but attempts to criticize the Albanian leader at the III Congress of the Albanian Party of Labor completely failed.

During a visit to Albania in 1959, Khrushchev made a final attempt to return Enver Hoxha under his influence, persuading him to recognize the "line of the CPSU" as correct, but failed. After that, on the initiative of Khrushchev, "offended" by criticism from the Albanian side, the already agreed program of Soviet aid to this country for 1961-1965 was canceled.

But Khrushchev was especially enraged by the speech of Enver Hoxha on November 7, 1961, in which he accused Khrushchev "of creating his own personality cult and glorifying his merits in defeating fascism." This was the truth, which no one in the USSR had yet dared to say to Khrushchev. Relations with Albania were severed (restored only in June 1990). Thus, Albania became the second socialist country in the Balkans after Yugoslavia that had no diplomatic relations with the USSR.

It is curious that Khrushchev is still not liked in Albania - even by "democrats", and the word "Khrushchev" here is an insult.

In 1962, Albania withdrew from the CMEA, in 1968 - from the "Warsaw Pact" organization.

Now Albania was guided by China (which, by the way, provided this country with assistance on more favorable terms than the USSR), and from other socialist countries cooperated with Vietnam, Cuba and the DPRK, as well as with Romania.


The portrait of Enver Hoxha on the front page of the People's Daily (the organ of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party) dated October 16, 1968.

On December 21, 1964, Enver Hoxha and Mao Tse Tung acted as prophets by issuing a joint statement "On the birthday of I. V. Stalin":

The criminal actions of Khrushchev and his henchmen will have long-term consequences, they will lead to degeneration, and then to the destruction of the USSR and the CPSU.

Mao Jedong then added:

After 1953, nationalists and careerists, bribe-takers, covered by the Kremlin, came to power in the USSR. When the time comes, they will throw off their masks, throw away their membership cards and openly rule their counties like feudal lords and serf-owners.


Albanian caricature of Khrushchev


Mao Zedong and Enver Hoxha in a Chinese poster

By the way, it was Albania that represented China's interests at the UN for 10 years.

Social policy in Albania by Enver Hoxha


Albania has never been a wealthy country (and it is not today). Even now, the bulk of the working-age population is employed in agriculture (58% of all workers). However, the social policy in this state (given its modest possibilities) under Enver Hoxha seems surprising to many. The salaries of officials and party functionaries were then constantly decreasing, while the salaries of workers, peasants and employees, on the contrary, were growing. There was no inflation, and prices, on the contrary, showed a downward trend. Workers, schoolchildren and students were provided with free meals, travel to the place of work or study was also free. School books and uniforms were free. Since 1960, income tax has been abolished in Albania. After 15 years in the profession, every Albanian was entitled to an annual free spa treatment and a 50 percent discount on the purchase of medicines. Paid maternity and childcare leave for women was then two years. After the birth of the first child, a woman received a 10% increase in salary, after the birth of the second - 15%. After the death of one of the spouses, members of his family were paid a monthly salary or pension of the deceased for a year.


Enver Hoxha in 1973

Fighting blood feud


The unconditional merit of Enver Hoxha and his associates was the prohibition of blood feud (the punishment for attempts at revenge was death). This custom in Albania appeared in the 300th century during the reign of Prince Leka III Dukadzhini, when the terrible Code of Honor ("Kanun") was drawn up, which allowed killing a "bloodman" anywhere except his home (therefore many people did not leave their homes for years). At the same time, one should know that in Albania, second cousins, and grand-nephews, and the most distant relatives of the second husband's aunt's wife, whom she has never seen, are members of the same family. The average number of men in one such family reaches 7 - one can imagine the scale of the massacre in the event of a blood feud. The first attempts to ban "Kanun" were made by King Ahmed Zogu before the beginning of World War II, but he did not achieve great success, unlike Enver Hoxha. 1992 years after the death of Enver Hoxha (in 2018), the custom of blood feud was revived in Albania. It is believed that by 12 at least 40 thousand people were killed by “bloodsheds” in the country (for comparison: according to official data, over 7 years of socialist rule, XNUMX thousand “enemies of the people” were shot).

Hoxhaism


After the death of Mao Tse Tung in 1976, Albania passed a law banning foreign loans and borrowings. By this time, Albania fully provided itself with industrial goods and foodstuffs and even actively exported its products to the countries of the "Third World".

In 1978, Enver Hoxha, who was finally disillusioned with Mao's successors, stated that

Albania will pave its own path to a socialist society.

This new ideology was called "Hoxhaism" and was characterized by criticism of the United States, the USSR, China and Yugoslavia at the same time. Some parties and movements abroad fell under the influence of this ideology, for example, the Italian Party "Communist Platform", the Workers 'Communist Party of France, the Revolutionary Communist Party of Turkey, the Workers' Party of Tunisia, the Malian Labor Party, the Voltaic Revolutionary Communist Party (Burkina Faso), the Communist the Gadar Party of India and others. It seems surprising, but then Albania could even afford to sponsor foreign parties and organizations friendly to it.

Enver Hoxha and his entourage retained the warmest feelings towards Stalin and his associates, and after the death of V. Molotov in 1986, the new Albanian leader, Ramiz Alia, declared national mourning in Albania.

In the next article we will finish the story about Albania, talk about the recent history of this country and about the Albanian diaspora abroad.
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  1. apro
    apro 10 January 2021 06: 24
    +3
    Calm era of Albania ... no foreign invaders. No internal turbulence ... and goal.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 10 January 2021 07: 21
      +14
      I read it with pleasure.
      I read about bunkers, but did not imagine that so many of them were stuck !!!
      It is interesting that Albania, in contrast to the many-sided countries of the socialist camp, did not begin to sculpt a new coat of arms from scratch, but settled on a historic black two-headed eagle on a red background.
      Regards, Vlad!
      1. Hunter 2
        Hunter 2 10 January 2021 07: 36
        +9
        Greetings Vlad hi ! The Albanians, together with the Chinese, did not dance to the tune of the "corn man", demonstratively left the 20th Congress of the CPSU - Retaining respect for the memory of Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin, Very worthy behavior!
        Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Albania, in contrast to the many-sided countries of the socialist camp, did not begin to sculpt a new coat of arms from scratch, but settled on a historic black two-headed eagle on a red background!

        They have in many moments a tribute to historical traditions can be traced, such a mentality! Last time we discussed the "traditional" way of life in the criminal organizations of the Albanians, which helped to bring their organized crime groups to one of the leading positions in the World Crime!
        1. apro
          apro 10 January 2021 07: 59
          +1
          Quote: Hunter 2
          Albanians who helped bring their organized crime groups to one of the leading positions in the World Crime!

          Yes ??? and someone was seriously engaged in them ??? maybe they too. They perform a certain function ... like the Italian mafia ... in the service of the FBI.
          1. Hunter 2
            Hunter 2 10 January 2021 08: 08
            +4
            Quote: apro

            Yes ??? and someone was seriously engaged in them ??? maybe they too. They perform a certain function ... like the Italian mafia ... in the service of the FBI.

            Well then, I wonder whose service are the Albanian organized crime groups, which successfully oust the Italian Mafia from the criminal business? Is the GDP through the FSB laughing ? Or, again, Israelis from the Mossad are to blame (Komrad Krasnodar-denies, writes Jews from Albanians also got it) ???
            1. apro
              apro 10 January 2021 08: 14
              -1
              Quote: Hunter 2
              Well then, I wonder whose service the Albanian organized crime groups are

              Not really ... considering whose base is in Albania ... and what they bring from Afghanistan ...
            2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka 10 January 2021 08: 22
              +9
              Quote: Hunter 2
              Komrad Krasnodar - denies, writes Jews from Albanians also got

              Well, as far as I understand, “the faces were lathered” only to the Odessa Jews and in neutral waters (on the ferry). So, the Albanian guys are peculiar - "a kind of politeness" bully
              1. Hunter 2
                Hunter 2 10 January 2021 08: 42
                +3
                Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka

                Well, as far as I understand, “the faces were lathered” only to the Odessa Jews and in neutral waters (on the ferry). So, the Albanian guys are peculiar - "a kind of politeness" bully

                May Cover Operation what Mossad is very intricate fellow And Albert is apparently an "agent" bully
          2. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 10 January 2021 08: 23
            +5
            And the FBI has something to do with ???
            1. apro
              apro 10 January 2021 08: 25
              -3
              Quote: 3x3zsave
              And the FBI has something to do with ???

              Examine the question.
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 10 January 2021 08: 37
                +3
                Thank you. Sometimes they sent me more elegant.
                1. apro
                  apro 10 January 2021 08: 42
                  -2
                  Quote: 3x3zsave
                  Sometimes they sent me more elegant.

                  This question needs to be studied in its direct sense, too much data on the use of mafia structures to influence the business, trade union movement, and in international affairs .. remember Cuba.
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 10 January 2021 08: 56
                    +3
                    The fact is that you have declared the FBI involved in Albanian organized crime. I do not deny the control of criminal communities by power state structures. But why not the CIA, NSA, RF BP, MI5?
                    1. apro
                      apro 10 January 2021 08: 57
                      0
                      Quote: 3x3zsave
                      The fact is that you have declared the FBI involved in Albanian organized crime.

                      Quote: apro
                      like the Italian mafia ... in the service of the fbi.
                      1. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 10 January 2021 09: 02
                        +4
                        I agree, my joint. Note, however, that due to the peculiarities of the writing style, you are sometimes difficult to understand.
            2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka 10 January 2021 09: 18
              +4
              Quote: 3x3zsave
              And the FBI has something to do with ???

              Hello my friend!
              Until the "qualified majority" of the FBI employees prove their love for cats and cats, we will sculpt water the latter out of oil and subject them to criticism.
              Dogs, dogs - upload photos of your favorites below, welcome against the background of the Russian flag! laughing
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 10 January 2021 09: 30
                +5
                Vlad! hi
                Until the "qualified majority" of the FBI employees prove their love for cats and cats,
                Shchazzz !!! K-9 forever !!!
              2. vladcub
                vladcub 10 January 2021 18: 31
                +2
                Namesake, greetings. Glorifying the cat mafia again?
        2. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 10 January 2021 11: 56
          +5
          Quote: Hunter 2

          They have in many moments a tribute to historical traditions can be traced, such a mentality! Last time we discussed the "traditional" way of life in the criminal organizations of the Albanians, which helped to bring their organized crime groups to one of the leading positions in the World Crime!

          Greetings, Alex! hi
          Albanian bandits have “good positions” in the EU countries, no more. This is the second sales market in the world, after the American one, which is also not bad, but in the States and in Asia they are none. And they are unlikely to rise
          1. Hunter 2
            Hunter 2 10 January 2021 12: 30
            +4
            Quote: Krasnodar

            Albanian bandits have “good positions” in the EU countries, no more. This is the second sales market in the world, after the American one, which is also not bad, but in the States and in Asia they are none. And they are unlikely to rise

            Greetings Albert hi ! The ability to work on an “equal footing” with Asians (Chinese Triads and Japanese Yakuza), and the United States with (Cartels, Italians, Russians and Jews) is an indicator that their organized crime groups have weight in the world. And Asians and Cartels in their turn - do not climb into Europe, a kind of parity!
            1. Krasnodar
              Krasnodar 10 January 2021 13: 13
              +2
              Asians in Europe do not and did not have much weight, Jews - the production of ecstasy, where the Albanians do not particularly climb. I have not heard of Albanians in Asia. I have not heard of the Albanians in the USA. They are "regional" LNG)).
              1. Hunter 2
                Hunter 2 10 January 2021 13: 20
                +5
                Albert - They all cooperate ... drug trafficking, money laundering, etc.
                Quote: Krasnodar
                Jews - production of ecstasy.

                Oh, you make me laugh laughing but I understand they trade in weapons - Popuasy and they are successfully covered by the Mossad belay
                Asians rule in Asia, Europeans in Europe ... in America, everyone has interests (at different levels).
                1. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar 10 January 2021 13: 29
                  +4
                  Arms trade is a separate topic hi
                  1. Hunter 2
                    Hunter 2 10 January 2021 13: 36
                    +1
                    Quote: Krasnodar
                    Arms trade is a separate topic hi

                    good An absolutely legal business !!!
                    As well as illegal mining and circulation - of precious stones and objects of Art and Antiques! How can you not believe Albert? bully bully drinks
                    1. Krasnodar
                      Krasnodar 10 January 2021 13: 49
                      +2
                      Heh. The legality of business with arms depends on many components, primarily politics. Under-the-counter trading is clearly illegal, everything else is debatable laughing
                      As for precious stones, I agree, but as for art and antiques, respectable Europeans (Italians, Britons, French, Dutch, Belgians) traditionally rule here. I'm talking about the level of multimillion-dollar (in bucks) transactions, not about people who are stocked up with something incomprehensible and at the beginning of each crisis running to throw off the goods anyhow there was something to refuel))
                    2. vladcub
                      vladcub 10 January 2021 19: 38
                      0
                      "How Can You Not Trust Albert" a recognized authority in mafia affairs.
                      Either he is "Commissioner Catania" and "Lieutenant Colombo" in "one bottle" or?
        3. vladcub
          vladcub 10 January 2021 18: 27
          +4
          "there is a day of respect for historical traditions, the mentality is like that" they are great in this. They understand that there is no future without the past. What good and bad, but this is their past.
          And we are jumping from one extreme to another.
          Destroy everything. Everything that was before 1917 to delete it did not exist! Everything between: 1924 'and 1956, IT WAS NOT EXISTING TO CROSS OUT IT! Everything that was before 1993 is LOT. IT DIDN'T EXIST! Stalin is God! Then Stalin Byaka. Then Lenin Byaka. And to think with your head, what before the adoption of Christianity, what about the adoption of Christianity, what under the king, what after is an integral part of our history? Alas, turning on imagery is SO DIFFICULT. It’s easier to repeat "atu perched."
          By God, if we had their mentality, there would be less blood. And we wouldn't be so polarized
      2. Bongo
        Bongo 10 January 2021 08: 40
        +10
        Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
        I read it with pleasure.
        I read about bunkers, but did not imagine that so many of them were stuck !!!
        It is interesting that Albania, in contrast to the many-sided countries of the socialist camp, did not begin to sculpt a new coat of arms from scratch, but settled on a historic black two-headed eagle on a red background.
        Regards, Vlad!

        Vladislav, hello! I also liked the publication. A small note: the author does not understand the difference between bunkers (shelters and long-term CP) and bunkers.
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 10 January 2021 09: 25
          +7
          Good morning!
          Sergei, do not complain. In the second photo, I wondered for a long time how the flanking fire of the bunkers was organized, and I did not figure it out. Although they may still be stuck there, "Mom, don't cry."
          At the same time, in theory, frontal ones should not be built, the experience of world wars and the Soviet-Finnish war was widely known.
          1. Bongo
            Bongo 10 January 2021 09: 51
            +7
            Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
            Good morning!

            It's evening already ... lol
            Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
            Sergei, do not complain.

            Education costs and professional deformation. request They taught me to call a spade a spade, call me. repeat
            Of course, I find fault a little and there are no special jambs in this article, but the militant ignorance in the "News" section is frankly depressing. sad
            1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka 10 January 2021 12: 38
              +5
              Quote: Bongo
              Of course, I find fault with this and there are no special jambs in this article, but the militant ignorance in the "News" section is frankly depressing.

              Sergei “to go there and tell the truth” is a bunch of minuses !!! But if you throw out the thesis, let's break the "Ukrainian", then they will throw pluses !!! The tool for self-satisfaction is the ego and nothing else !!!!!! good
              Although the last time "the contest for a cute cat" was not smoked, the hamsters were called evil and offered to drown the "cat in a garbage can"! So we have a trendy dog ​​theme in the news: "bark or quietly miss your opponent without leaving the couch" !!!
              drinks
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 10 January 2021 13: 11
                +4
                But on the "history" of the cat, that is to say, they silently shit in sneakers (minus) tongue
                1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                  Kote Pan Kokhanka 10 January 2021 15: 25
                  +1
                  Quote: 3x3zsave
                  But on the "history" of the cat, that is to say, they silently shit in sneakers (minus) tongue

                  How without it!
                  Announcement:
                  "Send a friend of slippers by mail to Russia, on demand" !!!
                  wassat
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 10 January 2021 15: 36
                    +3
                    Sorry, I'd rather use the Estonian post office. Anything will turn out faster! laughing
                    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                      Kote Pan Kokhanka 10 January 2021 20: 37
                      +1
                      Quote: 3x3zsave
                      Sorry, I'd rather use the Estonian post office. Anything will turn out faster! laughing

                      You are welcome, I have a blat there!
                      From time to time they hear from the wife's relatives what a goat I am and that I live in the country of goats! Something instead of fun !!! I used to laugh, after boasting about toilets at the border “I'm not kidding,” I am no longer laughing!
                      1. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 10 January 2021 20: 44
                        +1
                        I don't know anything about it. Want to share - further in Wotsap.
              2. vladcub
                vladcub 10 January 2021 19: 53
                +2
                For the sake of truth. The same is practiced with us. It's scary to enter the "branches" of Samsonov-Kharluzhny: the pants "think" instantly
          2. Catfish
            Catfish 10 January 2021 13: 35
            +7
            Hello, hello!
            I remember that in my early youth I saw a documentary film about Albania, so there, from a bird's-eye view, endless rows of these pillboxes were shown. From the horizon to the left and to the right, like beads, there is a chain of white caps, five meters apart, and ... nothing more, what kind of "flanking fire" is there ... Looking at all these "fortifications" did not even ask how much minutes the tanks will pierce this "string of beads" through and through.
            An absolutely pointless undertaking and a waste of money. A sort of Albanian parody of the Great Wall of China.
            Below is a photo just for a laugh, here and the enemy was not needed - "blurred with water." laughing
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 10 January 2021 19: 56
              +4
              National paranoia.
          3. Freeman
            Freeman 10 January 2021 14: 58
            +6
            Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Good morning!
            Sergei, do not complain. I'm in the second photo I wondered for a long time how the flanking fire of the bunkers was organized, and did not figure it out. Although they may still be stuck there, "Mom, don't cry."
            At the same time, in theory, frontal ones should not be built, the experience of world wars and the Soviet-Finnish war was widely known.


            Actually, "in fact" - this is a line of "shooting cells" for 1 - 2 fighters, covered with concrete caps.

            In the "center" of a line of bunkers known as Qender Zjarri ("firing position") or QZ bunkers, there is a larger command and control bunker known as the Pike Zjarri ("firing point") or Pz bunker.
            Such lines were to be defended by the "people's militia".
            The "control of fire" of such a line was supposed to be carried out with signal flares and colored smoke, for which there was a hole in the center of the dome of the command bunker.

            Shl. The Albanian military understood the military uselessness of such structures.
            Khoja's "people's war" strategy also caused friction with the Albanian army.
            The bunkers were of little military value compared to the traditionally equipped and organized professional army. As one commenter put it, "How long can one person last in each bunker? How would you restock in each individual bunker? How will they communicate with each other?"
            General Bekir Balluku, defense minister and member of the Politburo of the CPSU Central Committee, publicly criticized the bunker system in a 1974 speech and contested Hoxha's line that Albania was under equal threat from the United States and the Soviet Union.
            He argued that Albania needed a modern, well-equipped, professional army, not a poorly trained and equipped civilian militia.
            Khoja responded by arresting Ballack, accusing him of being an agent of the Chinese and working on a military coup.
            Nicknamed "the arch-criminal of Ballack", the general and his associates were convicted and punished according to the "laws of the dictatorship of the proletariat - ... that is, they were executed.
            https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bunkers_in_Albania#cite_note-Trauma177-10
            1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka 10 January 2021 15: 27
              +1
              I wonder how you can see the signal flare from the bunker?
            2. vladcub
              vladcub 10 January 2021 19: 28
              +1
              In that case, did Khoja "float" in military matters?
            3. Catfish
              Catfish 10 January 2021 21: 02
              +2
              Alex, hi thanks for the detailed comment, now at least something has become clear. But about Khoja's paranoia, our Anton is right, after all, he fought, he should understand at least something, or he just needed to keep his poor people busy with something.
          4. vladcub
            vladcub 10 January 2021 19: 23
            +1
            Namesake, now I have taken a closer look at these bunkers .. "The house in the bunker" has been rebuilt and how the fire system was organized there is anyone's guess.
            "Mini hotel" - a shelter for military equipment?
            PS.
            I would not refuse such a house. Something I repent that in the summer and without splits you can live
            1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka 10 January 2021 20: 40
              +2
              Quote: vladcub
              I would not refuse such a house. Something I repent that in the summer and without splits you can live
              Reply


              Hi Comrad!
              It's all good, but in winter how to heat this "bungalow"?
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 10 January 2021 21: 07
                +2
                And how did the Germans "heat" the pilots who had been in cold water for a long time. wink
                1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                  Kote Pan Kokhanka 10 January 2021 22: 03
                  +2
                  Quote: Sea Cat
                  And how did the Germans "heat" the pilots who had been in cold water for a long time. wink

                  Who cares, and Konstantin is all about "women"! laughing
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 10 January 2021 22: 08
                    +2
                    I'm talking about rationalism!
                    And without, as you, sir, put it, women, life on earth will cease. Human, I mean. soldier
  2. Al_lexx
    Al_lexx 10 January 2021 06: 25
    +2
    Thank you. An extremely interesting article. I look forward to continuing.
  3. Hunter 2
    Hunter 2 10 January 2021 07: 05
    +7
    It is a pity that the excellent series of articles by Valery Ryzhov ends, we are waiting for the enchanting end! Well ... we will reread and wait for new interesting materials hi .
  4. mr.ZinGer
    mr.ZinGer 10 January 2021 07: 41
    +5
    Thanks to the author, as an illustrative addition, a link to the 1959 Soviet-Albanian film "Furtuna", https://youtu.be/YwPT29d5igQ directed by Yuri Ozerov.
  5. Olgovich
    Olgovich 10 January 2021 07: 52
    -3
    It is often read that more than 700 thousand bunkers were built in total - 24 per square kilometer, one for four citizens of the country. This is not true: the exact figure is known - 173, which is also a lot.
    And it is an excellent indicator of the "normality" of the then leadership.
    the custom of blood feud was revived in Albania. It is believed that by 2018 at least 12 thousand people were killed in the country by "bloodlines"

    The country never left the Middle Ages ...
    By this time Albania fully provided herself with industrial goods and food and even actively exported its products to the countries of the "Third World".

    Those. cars, tractors, machine tools, TVs, etc., etc.? lol
    However, the social policy in this state (given its modest possibilities) under Enver Hoxha seems to many amazing... The salaries of officials and party functionaries were then constantly decreasing, while the salaries of workers, peasants and employees, on the contrary, were growing.

    Yeah -surprisingly poor country was - the poorest country in Europe
    Khrushchev's report, about which the American historian Grover Ferr said:

    Of all the statements of the "closed report" that directly "expose" Stalin or Beria, there was not a single truthful

    Oh, how-really M. Ferr found ... alive the "favorite of the party" Bukharin, the Chief Council of Ministers Rykov and others who were executed by the first composition of the Council of People's Commissars (except for Stalin), the first Politburo of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party, 75% of the Central Committee of the 17th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party and other people's commissars, commissioners, etc. belay
    And there were no doctors' cases, etc., etc.? belay lol
    How funny they are, these American .... "historians", in whom the United States is the main winners of WWII and WWII.
    1. VLR
      10 January 2021 08: 14
      +14
      Grover Ferr speaks specifically about Khrushchev's report, who in it gave free rein to his imagination, telling the world about how Stalin "fought across the globe" and much more like that. It turned out that none of facts (precisely the facts) that were cited in the report are not confirmed. Nikita did not even think that someone could check what he said.
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 10 January 2021 08: 56
        -5
        Quote: VlR
        It turned out that none of facts (precisely the facts), which were cited in the report, are not confirmed.


        You also claim that there were no FACTS of the destruction of 75% of the Central Committee of the 17th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party [/ b] and other people's commissars, commissars and hundreds of thousands of communists?
        There were no massive repressions, massive falsifications of cases, massive violations of the law, Yezhov and his crimes, the case of Eikhe, Rudzutak, letters to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan:
        “The Central Committee of the VKP (b) explains that the use of methods of physical pressure in the practice of the NKVD, starting from 1937, was authorized by the Central Committee of the VKP (b).
        , there was no deportation of peoples, the case of doctors, the Leningrad case, and so on and so-what, was there? belay
        Refute point by point, yeah
        1. VLR
          10 January 2021 09: 18
          +14
          Do not blur the topic - the quote refers specifically to Khrushchev's REPORT and the data that he cited in it. As for everything else, here each question you ask requires a separate article.
          The same thing for doctors, for example: Zhdanov's ECG was preserved and on it, according to the assurances of experts - 100% and a classic myocardial infarction, with the so-called "cat's back". An interesting question: our "luminaries" who treated Zhdanov were illiterate dummies, or did they deliberately "kill" one of Stalin's most loyal associates?
          By the way, until 1939, in general, all decisions were made collectively, and Stalin, according to the minutes of the Politburo meetings, was almost always in the minority, but obeyed party discipline. And the most fanatical and bloody of the Politburo members was Kaganovich, whom almost no one remembers now. It was these executioners, led by Khrushchev, who blamed all their sins on Stalin and Beria.
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 10 January 2021 10: 55
            0
            Quote: VlR
            Do not blur the topic - the quote is about Khrushchev's REPORT and data, which he cited in it.


            You are dodging the answers: ALL I cited data- taken strictly from Khrushchev's REPORT.

            There is a solid feeling that you just ... did not read it. request
            Quote: VlR
            As for everything else, here each question you ask requires a separate article.

            Everything else is also from the Report.
            Quote: VlR
            Zhdanov's ECG was preserved and on it, according to the assurances of experts - 100% and a classic myocardial infarction, with the so-called "cat's back". An interesting question: our "luminaries" who treated Zhdanov were illiterate dummies, or did they deliberately "kill" one of Stalin's most loyal associates?

            Specialists, not "specialists" do not say this nonsense.
            Quote: VlR
            By the way, before 1939, everything decisions were made collectively, and Stalin, according to the minutes of the Politburo meetings, almost always was in the minority but obeyed the party discipline.

            lol laughing
            Who are you doing from Stalin? belay Already someone, but a weak-willed slave, he was NEVER. This is a LEADER,
            Quote: VlR
            And the most fanatical and bloody of the Politburo members was Kaganovich, whom almost no one remembers now. It was these executioners, led by Khrushchev, who blamed all their sins on Stalin and Beria.

            And Stalin, in your opinion, suffering and indignant in his soul, silently watched what was happening, unable to do anything, obeying ... belay lol

            You are this:
            you mean?

            And Kaganovich survived only because he served faithfully and faithfully, not retreating one iota.
            1. VLR
              10 January 2021 11: 35
              +10
              There is no need to demonize Stalin. "The all-powerful dictator Stalin", forcing deeply grieving white fluffy Khrushchev and others to execute innocent people is a myth invented by true executioners, the same Khrushchev. Stalin received real power in the country very late - on May 7, 1941, when he took over as head of the USSR government. Until that time, he was "the first among equals": decisions, I repeat, were made collectively. Stalin, judging by the transcripts, was the most moderate member of the Politburo and almost always found himself in the minority. Nevertheless, he made significant efforts to curb the "appetites" of his comrades-in-arms: the same Khrushchev was not personally allowed to kill 10 thousand people in Ukraine (Nikita asked him to increase the execution quota). In addition, numerous execution lists have been preserved, sent to Stalin for signature, from which he himself deleted a large number of names. And it was Stalin who, even before the war, wanted to hold elections on an alternative basis (printed bulletins were preserved), but the frightened party bosses - both Politburo members and local secretaries began shouting that there were only "enemies of the people" around and demanding more repression. Stalin, unlike them, was not a fanatic, but a pragmatist and statesman, and it was a great success for our country that it was he who won.
              And, secondly, the article, if you have not yet understood this, is still about Albania, stop trolling and divert the discussion aside. If you want to talk about Stalin, write something and post it here. Or - wait for others to write.
              1. Krasnodar
                Krasnodar 10 January 2021 12: 08
                +1
                Stalin, judging by the transcripts, was the most moderate member of the Politburo and was almost always in the minority.

                Stalin came to power as majority voter... He always listened attentively and quietly, after which he formulated an opinion that the mainstream liked. And he was also “the best understanding and interpreter of Lenin's works”. Therefore, in my opinion, there is no need to talk about moderation here. The same ideas of Trotsky on the purchase of goods from the rural population at a fixed price, the sale at an overpriced price of agricultural machinery and the food tax led to the destruction of the able-bodied peasantry and forced collectivization, for example. To speak of him as an adequate policy in internal affairs is, in my opinion, an exaggeration.
              2. Olgovich
                Olgovich 10 January 2021 12: 24
                +2
                .
                Quote: VlR
                And, secondly, the article, if you have not yet understood this, is still about Albania, stop trolling and take the discussion aside

                I did not understand the claims, and even in this tone: it was your article who devoted considerable attention to Khrushchev , evaluating his policy,
                its consequences and cites the strange "Statement" of the American "historian" about his Report.

                Strictly in these framework and have my comments. Including and replies to your comments.

                If you did not mention all of the above, there would be no answers: in my opinion, this is obvious.

                Or we have duty just ... agree with you ?!
              3. Sergej1972
                Sergej1972 10 January 2021 22: 24
                0
                It turns out that Molotov had real power in the USSR until May 1941? But this is not so, the priority was for Stalin before that. By the way, the Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars on the most important issues was also obliged to hold meetings of the Council of People's Commissars, decisions there were also formally taken collectively. And in most cases, these important decisions were previously discussed at the Politburo. The practice of adopting joint resolutions of the Central Committee and the Council of People's Commissars was widely used, in some cases with the participation of the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions and the Central Committee of the Komsomol. And on the most important issues, very rarely, decisions of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b), the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet and the Council of People's Commissars were adopted. By the way, the draft laws of the USSR, adopted by the USSR Armed Forces, the draft decrees of the PVS of the USSR were also preliminary discussed at meetings of the Politburo, and (or) the Organizing Bureau and (or) the Secretariat of the Central Committee, in the departments of the Central Committee, etc. Another issue is that the norms of collegial decision-making were often violated. In violation of the Party Charter, many decisions of the Politburo in the last years of Stalin's life were taken by poll, without holding meetings of the Politburo. Or they were held without the participation of some members of the Politburo.
              4. Reptiloid
                Reptiloid 13 January 2021 14: 51
                +1
                I liked the article very much. Many thanks to the distinguished Author. Here on the site there were articles by other authors about Albania and that time. And it turns out that in each article we learn new facts that we did not know before. In my opinion, this topic has never been widely covered in the USSR and the Russian Federation, and it is good that now there is such an opportunity. To finally get an idea of ​​the harm that Khrushchev brought with his report, slandering Stalin. It is harm not only to the USSR, the world communist movement, but also to many people in other countries, this harm, thus, has spread for many years to come, into our present life. , into another century. That's what.
          2. Sergej1972
            Sergej1972 10 January 2021 21: 01
            +1
            In general, even after 1939, all decisions were formally taken collectively.
        2. paul3390
          paul3390 10 January 2021 11: 07
          -1
          Are you sure that everything you listed was just so illegal, and most importantly - unfair? Besides - why did you stop at the figure of hundreds of thousands of communists? Your idols, such as Solzhenitsyn and Konquist, reached 100 million! Why are you being shy?
  6. Blacksmith 55
    Blacksmith 55 10 January 2021 08: 35
    +3
    Thank you, well written, I've read about bunkers before.
    The question is, why did Albania represent China in the UN?
    After all, China itself is a permanent member of the organization.
    1. VLR
      10 January 2021 08: 48
      +13
      Until 1971 Taiwan was considered "China" in the UN
    2. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 10 January 2021 11: 01
      0
      After all, China itself is a permanent member of the organization.

      From the very beginning, the UN dragged through the unfinished Chiang Kai-shekists from Taiwan, therefore, in the Korean War, the USSR, the DPRK and the PRC fought against the UN troops (there even Australia noted its air force). And the Turkish infantry (albeit in scanty numbers) showed their good fighting qualities against the background of the Americans and South Koreans.
      1. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar 10 January 2021 12: 11
        +5
        Quote: Aviator_
        After all, China itself is a permanent member of the organization.

        From the very beginning, the UN dragged through the unfinished Chiang Kai-shekists from Taiwan, therefore, in the Korean War, the USSR, the DPRK and the PRC fought against the UN troops (there even Australia noted its air force). And the Turkish infantry (albeit in scanty numbers) showed their good fighting qualities against the background of the Americans and South Koreans.

        And the Americans did not show themselves sickly there. Kim Il Sung, and then Mao, was stopped? They stopped. Have you restored the territorial pre-war status quo? Restored. Well, we all know the result - a prosperous South Korea and the Feudal DPRK.
        1. ANB
          ANB 10 January 2021 18: 12
          +2
          ... prosperous South Korea

          Watch the movie Parasites. And this is modern Korea. I don't want to prosper like that.
          1. Krasnodar
            Krasnodar 10 January 2021 18: 22
            +7
            There is also a movie the train to Icheon - there is generally a disgrace!
            It ranks 10th in life expectancy, being located between Israel and Sweden with an indicator of 82.8 years
            Per capita income -33720 (for comparison, Russia - 11260)
            But, if you live in Norway or Switzerland, then you can certainly be understood hi
            1. VLR
              10 January 2021 19: 02
              +3
              South Korea is still not the best country to live in. Work for wear and tear, overtime are not paid, but in fact they are obligatory, three months of the probationary period are often also not paid, sick leave is also not paid, and out of 15 days of annual leave, the Korean can take only 5 on his own, the rest - at the discretion of the administration: if the boss considers that the employee's personal circumstances deserve it (they can give it at the time of illness).
              1. Krasnodar
                Krasnodar 10 January 2021 20: 45
                +5
                What do we compare with? With Russia? So in terms of health care, food quality, pension amounts, etc. - South Korea is a very developed country. If with Israel - three months probation without salary, of course, no, but graduates of legal, for example, have to work for a year for free in a law office, working part-time in security or in a taxi. Vacation - initial 12 days and everything (EMNIP) at the discretion of the boss.
                If Germany is better there in terms of workers' rights, but you have to plow everywhere. hi
                Compared South Korea with the countries in which he lived
                1. Liam
                  Liam 10 January 2021 21: 23
                  +3
                  Quote: Krasnodar
                  What do we compare with?

                  With bikes most likely hi
                  1. Krasnodar
                    Krasnodar 10 January 2021 22: 41
                    +3
                    Shalom, shalom, what people! hi
              2. Liam
                Liam 10 January 2021 20: 58
                +4
                Quote: VlR
                South Korea is still not the best country to live in. Work for wear and tear, overtime are not paid, but in fact they are required, three months of the probationary period are often also not paid, sick leave is also not paid

                This is where you read such horror films?

                LABOR LAWS OF SOUTH KOREA

                According to the Law on Minimum Wage, the hourly wage for 2017 was 6470 won / hour.

                Working hours, according to the labor law standard, are 8 hours / 1 day, 40 hours / 1 week. The working day must not exceed the length of the working time established by law.

                Official website of the Ministry of Labor: http://www.moel.go.kr/

                The main provisions of labor legislation to be complied with by the Employer.

                When hiring employees, the employer must conclude an employment contract in writing;

                The employer is obliged to keep at the workplace a list of employees, documents confirming payroll and other important documents related to the employment contract for 3 years.

                The employer is obliged to observe the duration of the working time 8 hours a day, 40 hours a week.

                The employer is obliged to provide labor leave 1 day a month, more than 15 days a year (with more than 100 employees).

                The employer is obliged to pay the full amount of wages on the day specified by the entrepreneur, in cash or by transferring the amount to the employee's bank account.

                The employer is obliged to pay the employee overtime in the amount of 150% of the hourly wage in case of going to work in the evening, night and weekend.

                Upon dismissal of an employee of his own free will, the employer is obliged to pay the employee who has worked for more than 1 year, severance pay (13 wages) in the amount of the average monthly wage for 1 year.

                There must be a good reason for the employer to fire an employee. The employer is obliged to notify the employee about the reason and date of dismissal in writing.

                The employer is obliged to pay the employee a wage higher than the minimum wage established by the Ministry of Employment and Labor.

                In the event of an accident at the workplace, the employee can file a complaint within 3 months.

                In the event of an accident at the workplace, the employer must compensate the injured employee up to 70% of the cost of treatment.

                Employee social insurance


                In case of permanent employment of more than 1 employee, the employer and the employee must be insured under 4 types of insurance and each of them must periodically pay an insurance premium on a certain day.

                Insurance against industrial injuries sustained in the workplace as a result of an accident;

                Health insurance related to illness and injury;

                Pension contribution associated with incurable illness, old age and death;

                Labor insurance system related to unemployment;


                Pension contributions and health insurance are paid with the employer 50/50, dismissal or accident insurance is paid by the employer
                1. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar 10 January 2021 22: 45
                  +3
                  In Israel, something like that, only overtime (more than 8 hours a day) more than 2 hours is allowed - 125% of the salary, an additional two hours (11th and 12th) 150%, weekends / holidays - 150/200 %.
                  Dismissal - two weeks before notice.
                  1. Liam
                    Liam 10 January 2021 22: 54
                    +5
                    Ave! In the West, more or less everywhere comparable conditions in this plan. Labor law of Koreans is basically a copy of the American. Americans after the war wrote all the legislation to them, just like the Japanese). Therefore, there is no particular difference. Well, except that Asians-fanatics are workaholics and work a bunch of overtime. Plus the nuances of mentality - attachment to the corporation where you work, respect for the bosses, etc. But overtime is paid as such, and not for nothing as in the author's post.
                    By the way, the government decided to fight this phenomenon and legislatively limited the number of overtime hours to 18 per week from this year, and computers in offices are forcibly turned off at 20.00)
                    1. Krasnodar
                      Krasnodar 10 January 2021 23: 04
                      +1
                      As for the latter, I don't know if this is good or bad)).
                      1. Liam
                        Liam 10 January 2021 23: 11
                        +1
                        What's wrong?)
                      2. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 10 January 2021 23: 21
                        +3
                        As I see it - a decrease in employee efficiency.
                        If a person remains overtime, then turnover + a project weighs on him (of one complexity or another, an activity report is also a kind of project).
                        Accordingly, from 09:00 to 17:00 he is busy with routine, which he performs quite effectively, with a break for lunch, on a high. From 17-18: 00 he takes up the project and preparation for tomorrow - also thoughtfully and without straining. By 21: 00-22: 00 he moves home, goes to bed by half-past twelve, and wakes up at 07:00.
                        Now to break this schedule is to cripple people's way of life. The question is - for a fig and for what?
                      3. Liam
                        Liam 11 January 2021 00: 26
                        +1
                        Does this schedule seem normal to you? To rest, drink beer with friends, work out / play with children, and so on, when is this?)
                        A person constantly working with such a schedule very soon becomes ineffective due to chronic fatigue and will work poorly and the "prescribed" 8 hours
                      4. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 11 January 2021 00: 57
                        +2
                        Quote: Liam
                        Does this schedule seem normal to you? To rest, drink beer with friends, work out / play with children, and so on, when is this?)
                        A person constantly working with such a schedule very soon becomes ineffective due to chronic fatigue and will work poorly and the "prescribed" 8 hours

                        My schedule in Israel:
                        8 am - office
                        12:00 - lunch
                        01:00 - sleep in the office until 06:00
                        06:10 - going home
                        Breakfast, shower - 08:00 - office
                        Who told you that at 21:20 p.m. or 22:20 p.m. he doesn't meet with friends at the bar twice a week?
                        And a weekend for family children? And once a week (at least) dinner with your wife after work? )) Normal life, as for me
                      5. Liam
                        Liam 11 January 2021 01: 11
                        +1
                        Quote: Krasnodar
                        01:00 - sleep in the office until 06:00

                        ))) the included computer will only interfere with the process.
                      6. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 11 January 2021 01: 18
                        +1
                        The office had a room with a nice sofa
                        The couch was cool
                        Cleaning at least once a week was done by a specialist in another type of service
                        Well, I lived in a regime of two or three weeks Israel, a week or two Russia laughing
    3. Undecim
      Undecim 10 January 2021 23: 45
      +6
      South Korea is still not the best country to live in.
      I worked for a South Korean company - Daewoo Motor.
      At the interview, they immediately asked what problems there are - health, children's education, housing, etc. When he asked why, they answered - we should know what allowances to pay you, so that you can solve all your problems and then not be distracted from work.
      1. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar 11 January 2021 00: 57
        +3
        I heard this
  • Aviator_
    Aviator_ 13 January 2021 18: 40
    +1
    prosperous South Korea and Feudal DPRK.

    It is flourishing, of course, it is flourishing, but for some reason the turbines for the Bureyskaya hydroelectric power station in the mid-90s were bought from the feudal DPRK, in which the inhabitants ate all the grass on the lawns from hunger, according to the media.
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 13 January 2021 18: 51
      +2
      This means that they were satisfied with the price-quality ratio. The question is different - look around you and look out the window. Do you have a Samsung at home? TV, phone, tablet? In Doshiraki's kitchen? Daewoo air conditioner? In the parking lot of Kii and Hyundai? It is produced by South Korea. I don't know what the DPRK produces, because I see neither around nor at home.
      1. Reptiloid
        Reptiloid 13 January 2021 20: 45
        -1
        well yes! We will not see or recognize a turbine or something of a similar size.
        Doshiraki? Guess! This is not an indicator. Rather, with a negative sign negative negative
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 13 January 2021 22: 11
          +2
          A Hyundai, Samsung, Kia, Daewoo? laughing
          1. Reptiloid
            Reptiloid 13 January 2021 23: 07
            +1
            lol the number of sufferers outnumbered other different buyers ....
            1. Krasnodar
              Krasnodar 14 January 2021 01: 05
              +2
              I enjoy Doshirak laughing
              In our family, this is a very rare delicacy that we allow ourselves and give to our eldest son - I'm serious))
              1. Reptiloid
                Reptiloid 14 January 2021 01: 18
                -1
                Quote: Krasnodar
                I enjoy Doshirak laughing
                In our family, this is a very rare delicacy that we allow ourselves and give to our eldest son - I'm serious))

                Your messages are suspicious. Are you a ROBOT ?? wassateat to mislead people, like Lem.
                1. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar 14 January 2021 01: 42
                  +2
                  No, it's just delicious. But it is harmful. But - very tasty laughing
                2. Reptiloid
                  Reptiloid 14 January 2021 01: 48
                  0
                  Quote: Krasnodar
                  No, it's just delicious. But it is harmful. But - very tasty laughing

                  ROBOT's words.
                  Some of us bring doshiraki to work. Others bring homemade food and warm it up. Someone has tea, coffee + sandwiches. But if we finish late --- then there is a cafe nearby.
                  I apologize to the distinguished author for moving away from the topic of the article. Once I was away ... did not go ...
                3. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar 14 January 2021 02: 52
                  +1
                  lol
                  I eat Doshirak every six months, my wife and son a little more often)).
                  And for a snack at work, I drag myself from the office to the kitchen, where I consume my wife's cooking. laughing
  • Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 13 January 2021 15: 07
    0
    Quote: Aviator_
    After all, China itself is a permanent member of the organization.

    From the very beginning, the UN dragged through the unfinished Chiang Kai-shekists from Taiwan, therefore, in the Korean War, the USSR, the DPRK and the PRC fought against the UN troops (there even Australia noted its air force). And the Turkish infantry (albeit in scanty numbers) showed their good fighting qualities against the background of the Americans and South Koreans.

    Greetings, Sergey! Yes, it is still not clear about the Korean War. There are falsifications on this topic. Just YESTERDAY I finished the book "" Under the wing --- Yalujiang. 224 IAP in the Korean War "", Aviation Assistance Fund, RUSSIAN VITYAZI, M. 2013. It says that napalm was first used in that war!
    I learned that, it turns out, Buzz Aldrin fought there with ours! And it was with this war that his path "upward" began!
    1. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 13 January 2021 18: 54
      +1
      Hi Dmitry. Here above one God-chosen all of South Korea praises, not otherwise an advertising agency hired. About the Korean War - there is a book from the Military History Library series "The War in Korea", 2000. It is a detailed analysis of the fighting on the peninsula, written immediately after the war and recently declassified. A very interesting book. Napalm has been known since the early 40s, but it began to be used on a massive scale in Korea due to the peculiarities of the theater of operations.
      1. Reptiloid
        Reptiloid 13 January 2021 20: 48
        +1
        Thanks for the information about the book, Sergey! I will try to find.
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 10 January 2021 09: 10
    +2
    Thank you, Valery!
    Before your materials, the history of Albania was unfamiliar to me
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 10 January 2021 09: 27
      +6
      Quote: 3x3zsave
      Thank you, Valery!
      Before your materials, the history of Albania was unfamiliar to me

      In a little more and teach Anton to love cats!
      drinks
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 10 January 2021 09: 38
        +3
        I didn’t say that I don’t like cats. I don't know how to cook them - yes!
  • Cure72
    Cure72 10 January 2021 09: 56
    +4
    Thank you very much ! And the illustrations (and in every article) are generally amazing!
  • Aviator_
    Aviator_ 10 January 2021 11: 07
    +3
    Nice and comprehensive article series. Respect to the author. About Albania - for some time he lived next to an old woman who, from 1953 to 2003, worked as a nurse in the KGB (FSB) sanatorium "Kratovo", where patients were not only from our country, but from the entire socialist community. She said that the dirtiest were the representatives of Albania. Wild people, children of the mountains ("12 chairs", I. Ilf, E. Petrov).
    1. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 13 January 2021 21: 04
      +1
      ..... a series of articles .....
      sorry I missed it. I will try to find and read.
      I guess I was busy then, there was still a lot of work sad
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 13 January 2021 21: 06
        0
        In previous articles, medieval Albania and other related Balkan affairs were described, which was outside my interests, so I read diagonally.
        1. Reptiloid
          Reptiloid 13 January 2021 21: 45
          0
          I do not understand about the lack of diplomatic relations between the USSR and Yugoslavia. My grandfather taught at the Kirov Military Medical Academy in Leningrad and at the Military Department of the Lezgaft Institute of Physical Education among foreign students. They were also from Yugoslavia. The greeting cards from them, written to the grandfather at the place of work, have been preserved.
          1. Aviator_
            Aviator_ 13 January 2021 22: 41
            +2
            From the war until 1947, Tito managed to get help from both the USSR and England, and in 1947 he made a choice in the direction of England. At the same time, he cut and imprisoned all Yugoslavs who stood for an alliance with the USSR. Naturally, Joseph did not like this much. Khrushch Kukuruzny portrayed this rupture of relations as a personal whim of Stalin, and restored relations with Tito, so that since 1956 Yugoslavia again began to be listed among our friends. Look at the dates on the greeting cards, they are either before 1947 or after 1956.
            1. Reptiloid
              Reptiloid 13 January 2021 22: 51
              +1
              Grandfather taught there after 1964.
              1. Aviator_
                Aviator_ 14 January 2021 07: 59
                +2
                Well, then we had a friendship with them, albeit somewhat strange - they headed the so-called "Non-Aligned Movement", that is, something in between the socialist system and the Americans with NATO. India was also part of this movement, although it is thoroughly capitalist itself.
                1. Reptiloid
                  Reptiloid 14 January 2021 08: 51
                  0
                  Yes, you know and remember a lot. good about the international situation. Although your specialty has always been completely different.
                  1. Aviator_
                    Aviator_ 14 January 2021 19: 30
                    0
                    I was always interested in the world around me.
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 10 January 2021 17: 53
    +4
    All good health. Colleagues, I cannot boast of perfect, it seems that Valery has absolutely no empty articles.
    Valery, I am proud that your regular reader
  • vladcub
    vladcub 10 January 2021 20: 16
    +1
    "The custom of blood feud revived in Albania" testifies that mentality is poorly corrected.
    It is unlikely that Hodge's successors allowed it.
    PS Valeriy, what about today's Albania?
    For example, I have absolutely no idea how it is now?
    1. VLR
      10 January 2021 20: 50
      +3
      Now I am preparing an article about Albania after Enver Hoxha, finishing touches and "polishing". And about the criminal Albanian clans abroad.
      1. Reptiloid
        Reptiloid 13 January 2021 21: 05
        +1
        Quote: VlR
        Now I am preparing an article about Albania after Enver Hoxha, finishing touches and "polishing". And about the criminal Albanian clans abroad.

        This will undoubtedly be even rarer material.
  • vladcub
    vladcub 10 January 2021 20: 18
    +1
    Quote: 3x3zsave
    I didn’t say that I don’t like cats. I don't know how to cook them - yes!

    So I don't eat them either.
  • Sergej1972
    Sergej1972 10 January 2021 21: 19
    +1
    Zhou Enlai demonstratively left the meeting of not the 20th, but the 22nd Congress of the CPSU, in 1961. The APT officially supported the decisions of the 20th Congress of the CPSU; the deterioration of relations between parties and countries began later. The author's assertion about the absence of diplomatic relations between the USSR and Tito Yugoslavia is erroneous. Even during the Soviet-Yugoslav conflict of 1948-1954. they were not interrupted. The staff of the embassies was greatly reduced, the ambassadors were replaced by temporary attorneys, the Soviet and Yugoslav diplomats called each other "masters". But there was no break in diplomatic relations. It's just that FPRYu was treated as a capitalist country. But inter-party ties were completely curtailed during this period. The domestic historian Smirnova, who has now gone into another world, wrote a lot about the history of Albania. True, in the post-Soviet period, she had some anti-Yugoslav, anti-Serb tendentiousness.
  • vladcub
    vladcub 10 January 2021 21: 26
    +2
    "they even prayed at the busts of Stalin, smearing them with sheep fat, and sometimes with blood" that they prayed at the busts of Stalin, perhaps, but "smearing them with sheep fat" is doubtful. In Albania, up to 80% of the population are Muslims, in villages traditionally the influence of religion is stronger, and since when did Muslims begin to make sacrifices to the gods? This is possibly with the Buddhists.
    I've always thought so
    1. VLR
      11 January 2021 06: 15
      +2
      In Albania, religion has always been treated without much fanaticism, I wrote about this. For a long time, the Albanian chose the faith "according to the place of service" and could change it. Dual faith was practiced here and there. The positions of the Bektashi were strong, and they can only be recognized as Muslims at a stretch. And under Enver Hoxha, Albania was declared an atheist state at all. Somewhere else they remembered pagan rituals, and therefore in some villages there they could well say busts in fat.
      1. vladcub
        vladcub 11 January 2021 08: 58
        0
        I lost sight of this version. It just so happened, I know Muslims well, and that's why "greased with lamb fat" seemed strange
  • Sergej1972
    Sergej1972 10 January 2021 21: 34
    +3
    The criticism of the Khoja, Khrushchev and Brezhnev USSR was partially justified. But not at all. Khoja was an intelligent and observant person, his books are interesting to read. But under him, many erroneous, voluntaristic decisions were made in Albania. To be honest, there was a lot of foolishness done. The same can be said about the policy of Mao in the late 50s, the policy of the "Great Leap Forward", "Cultural Revolution", etc. Therefore, I would not shift all the blame for the deterioration of relations between the USSR with Albania and China on Khrushchev and Brezhnev, as well as on criticism of the personality cult of Stalin. By the way, criticizing Khrushchev, they forget to say that Brezhnev treated Maoism much harder. True, after the death of Mao, the end of the Vietnam-China War, and shortly before the death of Brezhnev, relations began to improve slightly. The most interesting thing is that under Khrushchev, Andropov made the most harsh anti-Chinese statements. But during his reign, the improvement in relations with the PRC accelerated. Although they became completely normal only under Gorbachev.
  • Sergej1972
    Sergej1972 10 January 2021 22: 52
    -1
    The phrase about bribes attributed to Mao is fake.
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 11 January 2021 09: 55
    0
    Colleagues, yesterday the phone was discharged and I am writing now. I drew attention to the difference in the interior of the bunkers of Khoja and the Minister of Internal Affairs. How can there be such a difference?
    In the Leninist government, such a difference was inconceivable, but here ...
    1. VLR
      11 January 2021 10: 44
      +2
      The second, apparently, was created later and therefore the decoration is more modern and less ascetic.
  • Terran ghost
    Terran ghost 11 January 2021 14: 44
    +6
    The essence of the so-called. Hoxhaism, if anything, is simple - it is an absolutely savage cult of suffering and poverty.
    Quote: "Dislike of scientific and technological progress. While in the USSR its entire history, including under Stalin, many technical achievements and novelties were actively and massively introduced into everyday life, Albania by 1990 literally froze at best somewhere in the early sixties. The absurdity is added by the fact that in Albania VCRs and private cars were considered "items of bourgeois luxury" and were banned, not produced or maintained "
    Quote: "Hoxhaism is also known for its hostility towards modern culture. Jazz, rock, and even jeans were banned in Albania, as they were considered a weapon of foreign influence."
    Quote: "Asceticism. In Albania, during the time of Enver Hoxha, the population was forced to lead an ascetic lifestyle - while any desire to improve everyday life was perceived as bourgeois trends."
    It should be understood that one of the main features of Hoxhaism was the extreme degree of militant atheism. That is, the extreme asceticism of life, this savage cult demanded from its followers "just like that", "for nothing."
    1. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 13 January 2021 21: 58
      0
      A very interesting comment. The point, of course, is not fanaticism; it’s just that the living conditions in the past were very difficult, without rigor and asceticism it was impossible to survive. Or vice versa, no indulgences were simply impossible, such living conditions were.
      In the popular mind, life was probably laid down in asceticism for the sake of survival. Taboo on changing the simple life of ancestors