Military Review

December 5 - Day of the beginning of the counteroffensive of Soviet troops near Moscow

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December 5 - Day of the beginning of the counteroffensive of Soviet troops near Moscow

On December 5, our country celebrates the Day of Military Glory of Russia - exactly 79 years ago, on December 5, 1941, the Soviet army launched a counteroffensive near Moscow. It was on this day that the active phase of the offensive began on a wide front from Kalinin in the north to Yelets in the south, as a result of which the Nazi troops suffered their first, but not the last defeat.


The holiday is quite young, it was added to the calendar of military holidays and memorable dates 25 years ago by Federal Law No. 32-FZ of March 13, 1995.

It is not for nothing that the Battle of Moscow occupies a special place among the major events of the Great Patriotic War. In December 1941, on the outskirts of the capital, the vaunted Hitlerite army, which in two years rolled through all of Europe, suffered a serious defeat for the first time, forcing it to start retreating.


Hitler linked his decisive success in the war with the Soviet Union to the capture of Moscow. The Typhoon plan, developed in September 1941 by the German command, envisaged the capture of the capital of our Motherland by the Center army group. The offensive of the German troops, which began on September 30, 1941, led to a heavy defeat for the Soviet army in the Bryansk and Vyazma directions. Despite the stubborn resistance of the Soviet troops, the enemy broke through the defenses. He managed to reach the rear of the 3rd and 13th armies of the Bryansk Front, and west of Vyazma - to encircle the 19th and 20th armies of the Western and 24th and 32nd armies of the Reserve fronts.


In the second half of October, the armies of the Center group, breaking the resistance of the units encircled near Vyazma, moved on to Moscow, but ran into fierce resistance on the borders of Mozhaisky and Maloyaroslavetsky, and since October 16, Volokolamsky fortified areas. 18 october Tanks enemy broke into Mozhaisk, Maloyaroslavets fell. The situation near Moscow aggravated, but the Soviet army continued to hold the lines, suffering heavy losses and exhausting the enemy.

By the beginning of December, the German offensive was exhausted, the German command had exhausted all its reserves and began to go over to the defensive. The commander of the German 2nd Panzer Army, Guderian, was forced to admit that the offensive of Army Group Center on Moscow had failed, while the commander-in-chief of Army Group Center, Field Marshal Bock, argued that it was impossible to concentrate Soviet troops for a counteroffensive. It was this moment that the Soviet command chose to launch a counterattack.


The plan was to simultaneously defeat the most dangerous strike force groupings of Army Group Center, which were threatening Moscow from the north and south. Already in the course of the unfolding counteroffensive, the Headquarters determined its further goal: to defeat the entire Army Group Center.

On December 5, the Kalinin Front (commanded by Colonel-General Ivan Konev) went over to the counteroffensive, on December 6 - the Western Front (commanded by Army General Georgy Zhukov) and the right wing of the South-Western Front (commanded by Marshal of the Soviet Union Semyon Timoshenko). The newly created Bryansk Front (commanded by Colonel-General Yakov Cherevichenko) also took part in the operation.


The battles from the very beginning took on a fierce character, the Soviet army overcame the resistance of the German troops and defeated them. On December 8, 1941, Adolf Hitler was forced to sign Directive No. 39 on the transition to defense along the entire length of the Soviet-German front.

In the battle of Moscow, the German army lost about half a million soldiers and officers, no less than 1250 tanks, 2,5 thousand guns, military vehicles.

As a result of the Soviet counteroffensive near Moscow, an important event took place - for the first time in World War II, the hitherto invincible Nazi armada was stopped and then defeated. German troops were thrown back from the Soviet capital by 100-250 kilometers, it was understood that the Soviet people had resisted and would win.
Photos used:
archive of the RF Ministry of Defense,
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  1. Lech from Android.
    Lech from Android. 5 December 2020 06: 18
    +8
    The Germans claim that General frost prevented them from taking Moscow ... for some reason, he did not prevent our soldiers from defending Moscow.
    All the mistakes of the Wehrmacht and Weisung Nr. Were simply revealed near Moscow. 21 Hitler ... the Germans don't want to admit it.
    My respect and deepest respect for our soldiers and officers who fought in the hardest battles and conditions near Moscow ... you can read the memories of Momysh-Ula to understand and feel what was happening there at that time.
    1. Victor_B
      Victor_B 5 December 2020 06: 55
      +7
      Quote: Lech from Android.
      The Germans claim that General frost prevented them from taking Moscow ... for some reason, he did not prevent our soldiers from defending Moscow.

      You argue intolerantly!
      The frost hindered the white people, but it helped us barbarians.
      What will you take from us?
      Savages ...
      1. Lech from Android.
        Lech from Android. 5 December 2020 07: 04
        +5
        With tolerance, the higher race has recently been completely seams.
        Blacks, homosexuals, lesbians, feminists and Arabs will soon bring them all to their knees to repent ... Hitler would have seen what the German nation has now turned into.
        1. Alena Frolovna
          Alena Frolovna 5 December 2020 16: 23
          +3
          Against the background of the constant victories of the Wehrmacht, the soldiers, officers, and even the high command, by the time Operation Typhoon began, there was a firm opinion that any defeat was out of the question. A blatant underestimation of the enemy was also added, which, however, quickly dissipated. German general Franz Halder (who later became one of the ideological inspirers of the assassination attempt on Hitler) made an entry in his diaries in 1941, which, logically, should have sobered the German army:

          “Russians everywhere are fighting to the last man. They very rarely give up. "

          From a letter from the German soldier Voltheimer to his wife:

          «This is hell. Russians don't want to leave Moscow... They started to attack. Every hour brings us terrible news (...) I beg you to stop writing to me about silk and rubber boots, which I promised to bring you from Moscow. Understand, I am dying, I am going to die, I can feel it. "

          You have to be so arrogant to write: “Russians don't want to leave Moscow". And why should the Russians have to leave Moscow. We are not French and other European riffraff who surrendered their territories almost without a fight. The Russians were on their own land, but such as this complaining barbarian came uninvited and received what they deserved, pouring their dirty blood on our Holy Land.
          All the more so
          Russia did not start with a sword,
          She began with a scythe and a plow.
          Not because the blood is not hot,
          But because the Russian shoulder
          Never in my life has anger touched ...

          Kindness is stronger than war
          And it will be indestructible forever.
          Russia did not start with a sword,
          And therefore it is invincible!
          Eduard Asadov
      2. mat-vey
        mat-vey 5 December 2020 17: 01
        +1
        Quote: Victor_B
        The frost hindered the white people, but it helped us barbarians.
        What will you take from us?

        "The Russian soldier is a child of nature, he eats what he cannot run away from, he sleeps standing up like a horse, and knows how to seep through with tank armies." - typical German memoirs.
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. mat-vey
      mat-vey 5 December 2020 09: 13
      +2
      Quote: Lech from Android.
      Near Moscow, all the mistakes of the Wehrmacht were simply revealed.

      Only two of the six tank groups reached Moscow, and even those were not in an "ideal" condition. The German blitzkrieg instrument was destroyed by the Red Army, but with retreat, but with losses, but with the heroism and will of the Soviet people (both privates and command- manual).
      1. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 5 December 2020 12: 18
        +3
        Quote: mat-vey
        Only two of the six tank groups reached Moscow.

        Ummm ... actually, there were only four groups:
        GA "South" - 1st TGr Kleist.
        GA "Center" - 2nd TGr Guderian and 3rd TGr Gotha.
        GA "North" is the 4th Göpner TGr.
        1. mat-vey
          mat-vey 5 December 2020 12: 59
          +1
          Uh, yes - the fifth in Africa, and the sixth SS later.
  2. 9PA
    9PA 5 December 2020 06: 35
    +1
    Time to live and time to die, time to give birth and time to kill
  3. KreAtiF
    KreAtiF 5 December 2020 07: 15
    +2
    Quote: Lech from Android.
    The Germans claim that General frost prevented them from taking Moscow ... for some reason, he did not prevent our soldiers from defending Moscow.
    All the mistakes of the Wehrmacht and Weisung Nr. Were simply revealed near Moscow. 21 Hitler ... the Germans don't want to admit it.
    My respect and deepest respect for our soldiers and officers who fought in the hardest battles and conditions near Moscow ... you can read the memories of Momysh-Ula to understand and feel what was happening there at that time.

    I support, and Momysh-uly really described the intensity of passions in that period very well.
  4. Maxamud
    Maxamud 5 December 2020 08: 05
    +6
    It was a miracle ... The Germans had 30 km to reach the Kremlin, there was no serious defense ahead ... And then there was such a powerful blow from the Siberian divisions, they skidded as much as 150-200 km. The parade on November 7 and the main thing is that Stalin did not leave the capital, unlike his comrades-in-arms and other riffraffs! Mysterious Russia, rising from the ashes always and now something similar is happening .. Eternal glory to the defenders of Moscow, how many nameless volunteers, both old and young, were killed .. Nothing is forgotten, no one is forgotten!
    They stood to death on the Leningrad-Moscow-Stalingrad line, and then they drove this evil spirits, it's a pity that they weren't up to the English Channel ..
    1. kit88
      kit88 5 December 2020 10: 41
      +12
      Stalin did not leave the capital, unlike his comrades-in-arms and other riffraffs

      Something I doubt they take that one of the comrades-in-arms without the order of the Supreme Commander drapanul from Moscow.
      As they say, you have to be a very brave person to be a coward in the Red Army.
      1. Maxamud
        Maxamud 5 December 2020 12: 56
        +2
        Quote: kit88
        Something I doubt they take that one of the comrades-in-arms without the order of the Supreme Commander drapanul from Moscow.

        He sent them himself with all his subordinates and documents .. And he himself decided to stay so that they would not interfere! Panic and looting in a couple of days were stopped in Moscow, toughly and effectively. Soviet architect who developed a plan for disguising Moscow, but it was perfectly done!)
        The German armada of bombers simply got lost and were shot down en masse. Only a few broke through soldier But the tank armada was destroyed by volunteers and cadets gathered in from all the outskirts .. And those who won time for the approach of divisions from the Far East and Siberia .. So they fought, to the death .. Who will volunteer from the libber community now? NO ..
      2. mat-vey
        mat-vey 5 December 2020 13: 07
        +2
        Quote: kit88
        Something I doubt they take that one of the comrades-in-arms without the order of the Supreme Commander drapanul from Moscow.

        And why exactly drapanul? A control reserve was created. You do not believe in fairy tales; you fought in spite of the leadership. That is how Joseph Vissarionovich divided the leadership by creating a reserve in case of emergency.
        1. Maxamud
          Maxamud 5 December 2020 13: 56
          +1
          Quote: mat-vey
          And why exactly drapanul? A control reserve was created. You do not believe in fairy tales; you fought in spite of the leadership. That is how Joseph Vissarionovich divided the leadership by creating a reserve in case of emergency.

          That's right Matvey! Stalin decided to stay, but sent the reserve leadership to Kuibyshev, and if something happened (Stalin's death) the USSR would have resisted in front of the Ural ridge and beyond .. The information war was well staged at that time .. The song Get up is a huge country and "Wait for me" worked clearly, even the enemies (of the Soviet regime) realized that they were threatened by the Nazis ..
          Well, away we go!
          1. mat-vey
            mat-vey 5 December 2020 13: 58
            0
            Quote: Maxamud
            Stalin decided to stay

            Well, this is not the person who will hide in the bunker, although his health was not very good even then, to put it mildly.
      3. Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko
        Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko 5 December 2020 21: 47
        0
        Even here I see the grandeur of Comrade Stalin's plans - he did not rule out a bad outcome, in a war suddenly everything can happen, and in the event of their death, his comrades-in-arms and subordinates from Kuibyshev could continue to lead the country and the army. And if the Supreme Commander had left Moscow on October 15 or 16, 1941, the options for protecting the capital could have been different ... Alas. So, the heroism of hundreds of Moscow cadets, and the desperation of the Moscow militias, and the feat of single heroes like Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya, and the fact that Stalin remained, despite the threat to his life - all this protected Moscow and we won! They survived, more precisely, and Victory came later, in the spring of 1945. But without the battle for Moscow there would have been no Great Victory!
    2. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 5 December 2020 12: 28
      +2
      Quote: Maxamud
      The Germans had 30 km to reach the Kremlin, there was no serious defense ahead ...

      Uh-huh ... with the exception of three armies - 1st shock, 20th and 10th. smile
      And the German was no longer the same.
      On October 30, 1941:
      The German command at that time assessed its own forces as follows: infantry divisions - 65% of the initial combat capabilities, motorized infantry divisions - 60%, tank divisions - 35%. Thus, the estimated combat capabilities of 136 formations were equal to the combat power of 83 fully equipped formations.

      On November 21, 1941:
      As of November 21, the 11th Panzer Division had only 37 combat-ready tanks (5 Pz.II, 22 Pz.III, 10 Pz.IV). Losses from the moment they entered the battle in the Volokolamsk direction amounted to 19 tanks. Before the start of Operation Typhoon, the division consisted of 146 combat-ready tanks (11 Pz.I, 44 Pz.II, 71 Pz.III, 20 Pz.IV). The 10th Panzer Division had 21 combat-ready tanks on November 55st.
      © Isaev. Boilers of the 41st.
      Quote: Maxamud
      And then such a powerful blow from the Siberian divisions, skidded as much as 150-200 km

      Siberian?
      The 1st Shock Army was formed in the Dmitrov-Zagorsk area.
      The 20th Army was formed in the Ranenburg-Ryazhsk-Proskurovo area, plus Tashkent (35th brigade).
      The only army that hardly falls under the definition of "Siberian" is the 10th Army with its brigades from the Ural Military District. But the divisions of the army were formed in the Penza-Inza-Kuznetsk-Syzran-Petrovsk area.
      1. Lynx2000
        Lynx2000 5 December 2020 13: 57
        +3
        Quote: Alexey RA

        Siberian?
        The 1st Shock Army was formed in the Dmitrov-Zagorsk area.
        The 20th Army was formed in the Ranenburg-Ryazhsk-Proskurovo area, plus Tashkent (35th brigade).
        The only army that hardly falls under the definition of "Siberian" is the 10th Army with its brigades from the Ural Military District. But the divisions of the army were formed in the Penza-Inza-Kuznetsk-Syzran-Petrovsk area.

        The dispute is long-standing, some believe that Moscow was saved by the militia, others assign the decisive role to the Siberians, meaning the Urals and Trans-Urals ... I am sure that our great-grandfathers, grandfathers and fathers for such a dispute would beat the reins on the fifth point. So they just thought that the grief was common, and, the struggle was common, not sharing their contributions!

        By the way, take a look at the 24th Army, which passed through three formations, originally formed in the Siberian Military District.
        Regarding military formations and training in the European part of the country, there were many called up from the Siberian regions.
        My grandfather, who was called up at the age of 18 from Barnaul, was sent to study in the Saratov region at the Lepikanka station, on October 8, 1941 he was enlisted in the 19th airborne corps, there were a lot of Siberians there. 18 VDB as part of 19 VDK and was in the Reserve Headquarters, took part in a counteroffensive near Moscow, a ski battalion was formed from Siberians, he first fought in its composition.

        Therefore, there is no decisive contribution of some people, Tula or Siberians, they fought together, worked from young to old, shared the latter, Victory became common.
  5. andrewkor
    andrewkor 5 December 2020 08: 14
    +7
    Read "Memories of a Soldier" by G. Guderian. Already I want to "cry". So "sorry" for the poor brave German soldiers near Tula. As I understand it, "Kolya from Urengoy." In the process of reading, I refreshed the events of the Tula defensive and offensive operations. .And the breakthrough was past Naro-Fominsk, also eliminated.
    I served urgently there in 1971-73. I saw overgrown trenches, caponier trenches on the banks of the Nara.
    Fathers and grandfathers did it. Eternal Memory and Glory to them !!!
  6. serg.shishkov2015
    serg.shishkov2015 5 December 2020 08: 49
    +3
    * From the border, we turned the Earth back!
    It was the first thing!
    But our battalion commander turned her back,
    Having kicked off the Urals!
    Finally, we were given the order to advance!
    Take away our spans and crumbs!
    But we REMEMBER how the sun went backwards
    And almost set in the east! *
    Happy Holiday! Hooray!
  7. mat-vey
    mat-vey 5 December 2020 09: 53
    +2

    This is an excerpt from what the Allies showed about us then.
  8. _Ugene_
    _Ugene_ 5 December 2020 10: 26
    +1
    In the battle of Moscow, the German army lost about half a million soldiers and officers, no less than 1250 tanks, 2,5 thousand guns, military vehicles.
    the article seems to have been written in the USSR, so if you write losses of one side, then the other needs to be written - about a million soldiers, 4171 tanks and self-propelled guns, 24478 guns and mortars
    1. kit88
      kit88 5 December 2020 10: 44
      +7
      Does this change anything?
      1. _Ugene_
        _Ugene_ 5 December 2020 11: 01
        +1
        is the objectivity of information not necessary for you?
        1. kit88
          kit88 5 December 2020 11: 14
          +8
          Nobody hides information. It is available.
          The presentation of information is important. This is done everywhere, always and at all times.
          In our festive congratulations on Victory Day, we talk about our heroes and our victories, and not about the traitors to the Vlasovites (although they were and no one hides it).
          For THEM, victory in WWII is the landing in Normandy and Midway, and not about the burnt down Dresden and the incinerated Hiroshima (although this was and no one hides it).
          1. _Ugene_
            _Ugene_ 5 December 2020 11: 32
            +1
            This is done everywhere, always and at all times.
            everywhere, always and at all times in propaganda articles, the objective presentation of the material is something else, but in your opinion, it turns out that we must forget at what cost the victory in this battle was given, since we keep silent about our losses, then they did not exist?
            1. kit88
              kit88 5 December 2020 11: 42
              +7
              everywhere, always and at all times in propaganda articles

              You are not right. This is done in all the most common articles in all countries.
              But the emphasis on losses, on traitors and other negative things is done just in the "propaganda" articles with a minus sign.
              And if you need dry numbers without emotions - these are reference books.
              Everything is available. Any kind of information.
              PS.
              Everyone knows at what cost the victory was obtained.
              1. _Ugene_
                _Ugene_ 5 December 2020 12: 01
                0
                Objectivity is one of the basic principles of the journalistic craft. It is not so much scientific accuracy that is implied as "a coverage of facts that excludes emotions and separates facts from opinions." What you write about is either non-professionalism or propaganda.
                1. kit88
                  kit88 5 December 2020 12: 25
                  +8
                  Have you met an absolutely objective journalist somewhere? Any journalist expresses someone's interests - states, corporations, their personal ones, and gives information based on their subjective vision of the situation.
                  And what you consider "objective" may in fact not be so, because you evaluate objectivity from the point of view of your formed knowledge and relying on your personal vision of the situation.
                  Absolute objectivity is impossible in principle.
                  1. _Ugene_
                    _Ugene_ 5 December 2020 12: 29
                    0
                    no one even stutters about absolute objectivity, when speaking about the results of the battle only one side is given losses about absolute objectivity it is pointless to talk about absolute objectivity, there is not even an attempt to provide objective material
  9. Maxamud
    Maxamud 5 December 2020 14: 10
    +3
    I would also erect a monument to Stalin's son! The Nazis could not break it and the Father behaved like the leader of the Great Power "I am not changing a soldier for a field marshal!"
    It was a sign and what began later was unambiguous .. A terrible flow went to Nazi Europe, sweeping away everything and everyone negative soldier
    These are the things in the tank divisions of the Urals and the western district. soldier
    1. Alf
      Alf 5 December 2020 18: 29
      +1
      Quote: Maxamud
      I would also erect a monument to Stalin's son! The Nazis could not break it and the Father behaved like the leader of the Great Power "I am not changing a soldier for a field marshal!"




  10. Fisherman
    Fisherman 5 December 2020 23: 06
    +1
    Every time I go to the dacha, I see anti-tank hedgehogs in Khimki. I often think how close the Fritzes have come. It is now possible to go from the Ezhay to the Moscow Ring Road for an hour or more, if there is a traffic jam. And then ...
    Eternal memory to our people (soldiers and civilians) who laid down their heads in the fight against fascism.
    PS Today I once again watched 28 Panfilovites on the Pobeda channel. Once again I was very worried and at the end I shed a tear ...