Military Review

Personalities in history. Galileo Galilei

94

Galileo Galilei (1564 -1642) is considered the father of modern experimental science. He pioneered dynamics as the exact science of motion. With the help of a telescope, he demonstrated the validity of Copernicus's thesis about the movement of the Earth, which was denied by Aristotelian scientists and Roman Catholic theologians.


Not a medic, but a mathematician


Galileo was born in Pisa on February 15, 1564. He was the first of six children of Vincenzo Galilei, a Florentine merchant and musician (concurrently). At the age of eleven, he was sent to the Camaldolese School in Vallombrosa. And, if not for the resistance of his father, he would have become a monk. In 1581, Galileo entered the University of Pisa to pursue a medical degree, but he soon developed a much greater interest in mathematics.

The father, who was very reluctant, agreed to let his son leave medicine. Having dropped out of the university and left without a degree, Galileo led a miserable existence from 1585 to 1589. During this period, he published his first book, Little Balance, inspired by the research of the mathematician Archimedes. It described hydrostatic equilibrium, which he invented to measure the specific gravity of objects.

In 1589, on the recommendation of the German Jesuit mathematician Christopher Clavius ​​and thanks to the fame he had gained for his lectures at the Florentine Academy, Galileo was assigned to the University of Pisa. There, for the next three years he taught mathematics based on Aristotelian and Ptolemaic theories.

In 1592, Galileo received a more prestigious position at the University of Padua in the Venetian Republic. These eighteen years in Padua, where he taught Euclidean geometry and Ptolemy's astronomy, were the happiest in his life.

Copernicus as sedition


Galileo began researching Copernicus' theory of Earth's motion in the early 1590s. In a letter to Johannes Kepler in 1597, he admitted that for many years he was a supporter of Copernicism, but the fear of ridicule prevented him from openly expressing his views. However, in 1604, Galileo began to lecture exposing the contradictions of Aristotle's astronomy. At about the same time, he resumed his earlier studies of movement. And he came to the ingenious conclusion that objects fall at the same speed, regardless of weight.

In 1609, Galileo personally perfected the telescope (invented as a telescope by a Dutch optician) and used it to point out the fallacy of the heliocentric theory. In his works on astronomy, he described the mountains of the moon and the moons of Jupiter. To flatter Cosimo II, the Grand Duke of Tuscany, Galileo dedicated a book to him in the hope that an important appointment to Florence would follow. He was not disappointed: Cosimo called him "the chief mathematician and philosopher."

Soon after the publication in 1612-1613 of his discourse on falling bodies and sunspots, Galileo entered into a public discussion about the relationship between Copernicus's thesis on the movement of the Earth and the scriptures that supported Ptolemaic geocentric theory (the Earth is stationary).

Ban on talking about the movement of the Earth


In 1616, the Holy Inquisition unequivocally condemned Copernicus's theory. Cardinal Robert Bellarmine (Jesuit theologian and adviser to the pope) was instructed to personally inform Galileo that he was forbidden to teach or defend Copernicus's teachings orally or in writing. But he, apparently, understood this prohibition in his own way. Galileo decided that it was possible to continue discussing Copernican ideas as mathematical constructions, and not as philosophical truth (which was prohibited). Therefore, he carried on extensive correspondence on this topic with his supporters throughout Europe.

In 1623, Cardinal Maffeo Barberini (an old friend of Galileo and a renowned patron of the arts) was elected pope, taking the name Urban VIII. Barberini, like the Pope, was much less hostile to Copernicus than the cardinal. During an audience with Galileo, Urban made it clear that

“God is almighty, and talk about Copernicism (about the movement of the earth), as something other than hypothetical, means to deny divine omnipotence. "

Between 1624 and 1630, Galileo wrote a book "Dialogue on the two main systems of the world: Ptolemaic and Copernicus." This work was condemned by the religious authorities.

The dialogue was published in Florence in 1632. The book of Galileo - a scientist of the Renaissance - presents his bold ideas as an astronomer, physicist and humanist.

It is written in the form of a dispute between three philosophers, one of whom skillfully defended Copernicus's ideas about the movement of the Earth around the Sun, the other acted as a mediator, and the third ineptly supported Ptolemy's thesis about the immobility of the Earth, which is located in the center of the world. Written in Italian in a popular style, the book quickly attracted a wide readership.

Flame of the Inquisition


The Catholic leadership ordered Galileo to appear in Rome on “suspicion of heresy” (distribution of a book about the movement of the Earth). His trial, which began in April 1633, ended a few months later, when the Inquisition recognized him not as a heretic, but as "strongly suspected of heresy." This condemnation was mainly based on the fact that he did not comply with the injunction of the Inquisition of 1616 (prohibition of statements about the movement of the Earth). For reasons that still remain unclear, Galileo signed the abdication. He was sentenced to imprisonment and to read penitential psalms once a week for three years. The sentence was subsequently commuted to house arrest in Archetri.

Galileo spent the rest of his life in relative seclusion, suffering from poor health and blindness. Nevertheless, he managed to publish in Holland in 1638 his reasoning and mathematical proofs concerning two new sciences, in which he developed his ideas about the acceleration of bodies in free fall. He died on January 8, 1642, and was buried in the church of Santa Croce.

And yet she turns


In 1979, Pope John Paul II reopened the Galileo case. In 1992, on the basis of the report of the commission of inquiry, he declared that theologians were mistaken in condemning Galileo. Thus, almost four hundred years after his conviction, Galileo was acquitted.
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  1. Van 16
    Van 16 5 December 2020 06: 59
    +6
    Quite short, but interesting, thanks!
    "For reasons that still remain unclear, Galileo signed an abdication." Maybe because by that time he was already quite old and sick, and then the fate of Giordano Bruno somehow did not set up a positive mood.
  2. Lech from Android.
    Lech from Android. 5 December 2020 07: 00
    -1
    And he came to the ingenious conclusion that objects fall at the same speed, regardless of weight.

    Yes, yes ... the balloon and the sledgehammer ... fall at the same speed, regardless of weight ... ingenious. smile
    Oh, these Catholics ... after 350 years they admitted that they made a mistake in Galilee ... they should still repent for Giordano Bruno, who was burned at the stake.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 5 December 2020 07: 44
      +4
      .. they should still repent for the burnt at the stake Giordano Bruno.
      Why on earth?
    2. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 5 December 2020 15: 53
      +9
      Yes, yes ... the balloon and the sledgehammer ... fall at the same speed, regardless of weight ... ingenious. smile
      Really brilliant if you take away the force of air resistance. The classic experiment is a fluff and a metal ball in a test tube with evacuated air.
  3. Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka 5 December 2020 07: 00
    +4
    Thank you!
    In the third class I read a book about Galeleo Galilei. Inspired by childhood.
  4. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 5 December 2020 07: 37
    +6
    Whenever it comes to heliocentrism, Bruno is remembered.
    Colleagues, he was not a martyr from science !!! And they burned him for ordinary heresy!
    1. Korsar4
      Korsar4 5 December 2020 07: 41
      +4
      This is because there is a person. And there is a legend about him. And this is not only about Bruno.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 5 December 2020 07: 50
        +8
        Oh, Sergei! These myths are innumerable!
        Look, even Shpakovsky is sure that after the revolution the intelligentsia had to wash the floors and chop wood ...
        1. Korsar4
          Korsar4 5 December 2020 08: 05
          +3
          And what is the first association - "Doctor Zhivago".
          Sometimes I think - would it be possible to trace the life of Moscow and the Moscow region, for example, from 1912 to 1924?

          What personalities would you start with? But we have already found people born at the beginning of the XNUMXth century. But there is still a question of sampling. From what class.
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 5 December 2020 08: 42
            +5
            I don't know Moscow at all ...
            Besides, there would be a hug from Peter.
            1. Korsar4
              Korsar4 5 December 2020 08: 49
              +3
              I will say more. Since the first grade I live in the same city. And I am still not sure even about the origin of the name.

              But when it comes to local history, the places you walk around come to life.
        2. kalibr
          kalibr 5 December 2020 09: 55
          +1
          Quote: 3x3zsave
          after the revolution, the intelligentsia had to wash the floors and chop wood ...

          Wife washed and chopped wood from 1977 to 1980. And isn't that "after the revolution?"
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 5 December 2020 10: 52
            +4
            Did you get pleasure when the wood was chopped?

            Good tools: a cleaver and a sharpened ax.
            1. kalibr
              kalibr 5 December 2020 11: 06
              +2
              Quote: Korsar4
              Good tools: a cleaver and a sharpened ax.

              When I was a boy and lived in my house and my grandfather taught me this, he received it. But what about ... in 1977-80. no longer. In Penza, I had an apartment with central heating, and here two stoves were smoking, and the wolves were howling. What to be happy about? Link?
              1. ee2100
                ee2100 5 December 2020 11: 39
                +7
                You have to pay for everything. Received free education and 3 years had to work where the commission at the university sent you.
                What does the link have to do with it?
                1. kalibr
                  kalibr 5 December 2020 11: 55
                  +4
                  Quote: ee2100
                  You have to pay for everything

                  Without any doubt. It's just that the conditions were very ... "unusual". While our spaceships ply the vastness of the Universe ... "everything was there ... well, very backward.
                  1. ee2100
                    ee2100 5 December 2020 12: 16
                    +5
                    This is also the motherland.
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 5 December 2020 18: 04
                      +3
                      There was such an anecdote, I cannot cite it in full here.
                      Conversation between two individuals:
                      - Dad, how nice it is here, the sun is shining, the air is fresh!
                      - Yes, son, it is very good here, but our Motherland is there, we climbed back ... request
                      1. ee2100
                        ee2100 5 December 2020 19: 14
                        +1
                        Yes, there is such an anecdote, it is from the times of the USSR. Many extrapolate him to the RF. Mostly liberals.
                        Now you can "crawl" wherever you please if you believe in yourself or you have enough funds for a life where "the sun is shining and the air is clean"
                      2. Catfish
                        Catfish 5 December 2020 19: 21
                        +2
                        Yes, it’s too late for me to crawl somewhere, the strength is not the same, somehow I’ll get through here. smile
                      3. ee2100
                        ee2100 5 December 2020 19: 54
                        0
                        Happy Constitution Day!
              2. Korsar4
                Korsar4 5 December 2020 12: 31
                +2
                Well water is no worse than tap water.
                And you can go to the bathhouse, if you have one, of course.

                Coziness is not easy to create and maintain.
                And the time to maintain is cut off from something else.
                1. ee2100
                  ee2100 5 December 2020 13: 00
                  +7
                  Father's uncle worked all his life as a paramedic in the village of Nasadka, Kungurskiy district. A wonderful place on the banks of the Sylva river. the floor of the house is a paramedic point, and the second is for his family. A vegetable garden and a bath in the garden.
                  In the morning I got up and stoked the stoves, and then we received fellow villagers. I don't know if he was happy, but it was definitely not a link.
                  1. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 5 December 2020 13: 21
                    +5
                    The oldest daughter. Surgeon. She left the Moscow hospital.
                    Further geography of work: Guatemala - Nizhny Novgorod region - Vladimir region.

                    I don't know what's next. The load is very large, but it benefits people.

                    For me, looking at the fire in the stove is always a small miracle.
                    But now these are small fragments of life, but not life itself.
                  2. ee2100
                    ee2100 5 December 2020 13: 39
                    +7
                    "Senior daughter. Surgeon. She left the Moscow hospital.
                    Further geography of work: Guatemala - Nizhny Novgorod region - Vladimir region. "(C)
                    This is an excellent biography for the Minister of Health of the Russian Federation.
                    "But now these are small fragments of life, but not life itself." (C) This is what life consists of. When something good is remembered it is just such fragments.
                  3. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 5 December 2020 13: 44
                    +3
                    The ministers are completely different.
                    We'll see.

                    Life itself throws up the best plots.
                    And the fire in the stove and in the fire is very good.
                  4. ee2100
                    ee2100 5 December 2020 13: 51
                    +3
                    You are a romantic person! Like an old joke. You can endlessly look at 3 things. How the fire burns, how the water flows and how people work.
                    You are right about the plots.
                  5. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 5 December 2020 14: 11
                    +3
                    Life teaches pragmatism.
                    And as in one historical anecdote, JV Stalin said about Iago from Othello: "Not a bad organizer."
                2. Catfish
                  Catfish 5 December 2020 18: 09
                  +3
                  The ministers are completely different.

                  That's it.
                  As one character who has made money in the most unrighteous ways all his life, when he was offered the post of prime minister: “I still consider myself a decent person!”, And got away through the back door from such an honor.
                3. Korsar4
                  Korsar4 5 December 2020 18: 17
                  +3
                  I saw a number of modern ministries.

                  The best thing about it is the buffet or the dining room. Or when you go there not for a long time.
                4. Catfish
                  Catfish 5 December 2020 18: 26
                  +3
                  Or when you go there not for a long time.

                  Well, yes, only out of necessity, well, for example, like going to the toilet.
                5. Korsar4
                  Korsar4 5 December 2020 19: 24
                  +2
                  Yes. In Moscow, it's not in the woods. Gateways are not so suitable for this.
                6. Catfish
                  Catfish 5 December 2020 19: 29
                  +2
                  In the old days, there were no problems, but for a long time in the center all the entrance yards were blocked. And there was a time, I could walk from Tsvetnoy to Petrovka, and not only.
                7. Korsar4
                  Korsar4 5 December 2020 20: 21
                  +1
                  Few things compare to the pleasure of wandering around Moscow.
                8. Catfish
                  Catfish 5 December 2020 20: 44
                  +1
                  Yes, this is not a straight-perpendicular Petrov grad.
                9. Korsar4
                  Korsar4 5 December 2020 21: 04
                  +2
                  Uh-huh. You can walk along parallel streets until they intersect.
                10. Catfish
                  Catfish 5 December 2020 21: 18
                  +1
                  This is how it goes. smile
                11. Korsar4
                  Korsar4 5 December 2020 21: 26
                  +2
                  Giotto drew a circle without a compass. Appreciated.
  5. ee2100
    ee2100 5 December 2020 19: 08
    +2
    Why do you think that everyone becomes ministers for the sake of profit? Times will change and thieving temporary workers will disappear.
    And people like the daughter of Korsar4, professionals who know their business from the inside will be in demand. From what he wrote, we can conclude that his daughter is a general surgeon. Those. not a sissy, but engaged in daily heavy routine work.
    You can assume that I am also a romantic.
  6. Catfish
    Catfish 5 December 2020 19: 24
    +5
    Times will change and thieving temporary workers will disappear.

  7. ee2100
    ee2100 5 December 2020 19: 57
    +1
    Maybe so, but what is happening now in the Russian Federation is more than normal
  8. kalibr
    kalibr 5 December 2020 20: 14
    +2
    Quote: ee2100
    You can assume that I am also a romantic.

    You can, Alexander! I'm gone. By age...
  9. ee2100
    ee2100 5 December 2020 20: 18
    +1
    Romanticism for all ages "conquered"
  10. Catfish
    Catfish 5 December 2020 20: 45
    0
    Rheumatism too. laughing
  11. ee2100
    ee2100 5 December 2020 20: 50
    +1
    And this too and much more
  12. kalibr
    kalibr 5 December 2020 17: 54
    +2
    Why do I need a bath in my garden when I have a bath in my apartment? Bath at my son-in-law in the country!
  13. not main
    not main 5 December 2020 23: 26
    +1
    Quote: kalibr
    Why do I need a bath in my garden when I have a bath in my apartment? Bath at my son-in-law in the country!

    I haven't taken a bath in over 20 years! I just have a bath! And after the bath, the bath is perceived as ... By the way, even the mother-in-law, who for the first 80 years did not like the bath! And three months later she ran first!
  • Korsar4
    Korsar4 5 December 2020 12: 29
    +5
    I'm trying to remember places where it would be uncomfortable.
    Geographically, there are none.

    “They won't demote the peasant further. They will not send further Siberia.
  • Aviator_
    Aviator_ 5 December 2020 15: 54
    +3
    In Penza, I had an apartment with central heating, and here two stoves were smoking, and the wolves were howling. What to be happy about? Link?

    Well, not in the barracks, was there such an option?
    1. kalibr
      kalibr 5 December 2020 17: 50
      +2
      Man is not a pig to dream of a zakuta. You should always strive for the best.
      1. Esoteric
        Esoteric 5 December 2020 20: 40
        +1
        An eternal question. When Tom Kenti was happier. When he lived in rags or when, by the will of fate, he became the ruler of the state? An underrated book, I think. The beginning of the transformation of a kind, gentle boy into a calculating ruler alien to morality is well described. And also the prince, where is the state he is, and he knows best what his subjects need. The same kind boy, in his understanding. And faced with the realities of the "beautiful life" visible from the palace.
        "Woman, I don't know you." He no longer wants to leave the throne, and is ready to give up his mother. But the conscience and kindness that was from birth did not allow to do what the mind was talking about. A fairy tale, of course, but what a fairy tale.
  • Aviator_
    Aviator_ 5 December 2020 15: 57
    +2
    Did you get pleasure when the wood was chopped?

    Even the last emperor, Nicholas II, loved to chop wood, although this was not a royal business.
    1. Korsar4
      Korsar4 5 December 2020 17: 05
      +3
      Yes. There is a lot about this in his diaries.
    2. kalibr
      kalibr 5 December 2020 17: 51
      +1
      Quote: Aviator_
      loved to chop wood

      And he lasted long. I would not be engaged in a non-royal business, ended up life in Windsor ...
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 5 December 2020 17: 54
        +2
        I would not be engaged in a non-royal business, ended up life in Windsor ...

        His English relatives threw him in a black way, just like Yanukovych Europ after 100 years. But Putin was not there then, that's all.
      2. Arthur 85
        Arthur 85 7 December 2020 18: 13
        0
        And he probably sang: but I paint, I paint fences, so as not to be considered a parasite.
    3. Catfish
      Catfish 5 December 2020 18: 11
      +2
      Now, if I had been doing my own thing, and not chopping wood, I might not have finished so badly.
      1. Phil77
        Phil77 5 December 2020 18: 18
        +3
        Quote: Sea Cat
        chopping wood,

        Celentano does it better.

        laughing
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 5 December 2020 18: 24
          +2
          Celentano, in my opinion, does a lot better than others.
          1. Aviator_
            Aviator_ 5 December 2020 19: 58
            +3
            Celentano, in my opinion, does a lot better than others.

            It's in the movies. But as a matter of fact - this secret is great. He is holding the ax in the previous picture incorrectly.
        2. Aviator_
          Aviator_ 5 December 2020 19: 56
          0
          Celentano does it better.

          The ax is held incorrectly, the back does not work. Cinema, however!
          1. not main
            not main 5 December 2020 23: 56
            0
            Quote: Aviator_
            Celentano does it better.

            The ax is held incorrectly, the back does not work. Cinema, however!

            It's like that! But all my life I thought that I could chop wood ... when at the age of 40 I did not see a woman doing it! Now I use only this style! By the way, it is very simple. If you bale in the same place (in a block), then without using force you will split it!
        3. Korsar4
          Korsar4 5 December 2020 20: 22
          +2
          Not to ring the bell.
      2. kalibr
        kalibr 5 December 2020 20: 15
        +1
        Quote: Sea Cat
        Now, if I had been doing my own thing, and not chopping wood, I might not have finished so badly.

        Golden words, yes to Nikolai's ears!
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 5 December 2020 20: 43
          0
          Well, he got in the ear ... for carelessness.
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 5 December 2020 19: 36
    +5
    This, after. But too much after.
    Vyacheslav Olegovich, the next time you go to the party archive, ask about the trade unions of domestic workers. By the mid-thirties in the USSR, there were up to half a million.
    1. kalibr
      kalibr 5 December 2020 20: 19
      +3
      If you are well-read, Anton, I think it will not be difficult for you to recall the funny science fiction novel by Voistskunsky and Lukodyanov "Ur, son of Sham". And Kataev's "Lonely Sail", how the Bachey family lived ... I was always far from his capabilities as a gymnasium teacher!
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 5 December 2020 20: 23
        +2
        And you have a steamer cruise in parts.
      2. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 5 December 2020 20: 32
        +5
        In terms of descriptions of pre-revolutionary life, I am more impressed by Kassil. And territorially, the area described by him is closer to Penza.
  • Lech from Android.
    Lech from Android. 5 December 2020 08: 01
    +3
    Colleagues, he was not a martyr from science !!! And they burned him for ordinary heresy!

    He was burned on the basis of a denunciation ...
    I, Giovanni Mocenigo, son of His Serene Highness Marco Antonio, report, out of duty of conscience and by order of the confessor, that I have heard many times from Giordano Bruno Nolanza

    https://arzamas.academy/mag/164-bruno
    Hello liberals from the Stalinist regime ... from time immemorial.hi
    1. Van 16
      Van 16 5 December 2020 08: 23
      +6
      It's not that simple there. If I am not mistaken, the accusation of heliocentrism was only one of the, and not the most important.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 5 December 2020 08: 27
        +5
        Ivan! hi
        There is not a word about science in the verdict.
      2. parusnik
        parusnik 5 December 2020 08: 47
        +5
        From the denunciation by Giovanni Mocenigo of May 23, 1592 on G. Bruno
        "I, Giovanni Mocenigo, the son of His Serene Highness Marco Antonio, report, out of my debt of conscience and by order of my confessor, that I have heard many times from Giordano Bruno Nolanza when I talked with him in my house, that when Catholics say that bread is transubstantiated in the body, then this is a great absurdity; that he is an enemy of mass, that he does not like any religion; that Christ was a deceiver and committed deceptions to seduce the people - and therefore could easily foresee that he would be hanged; that he does not see the difference of faces in the deity and this would mean the imperfection of God; that the world is eternal and there are endless worlds ... that Christ performed imaginary miracles and was a magician, like the apostles, and that he himself would have the spirit to do the same and even much more than they; that Christ did not die of his own free will and, as best he could, tried to avoid death; that there is no retribution for sins; that souls created by nature pass from one living creature to another; that, just as animals are born in debauchery, suchpeople are born in the same way. He talked about his intention to become the founder of a new sect called "new philosophy". He said that the Virgin could not give birth and that our Catholic faith is filled with blasphemies against the greatness of God; that it is necessary to stop theological bickering and take away the income from the monks, for they dishonor the world; that they are all donkeys; that all our opinions are the teachings of donkeys; that we have no proof of whether our faith has merit before God; that for a virtuous life it is quite enough not to do to others what you do not wish for yourself ... that he wonders how God tolerates so many Catholic heresies. "
        1. Arthur 85
          Arthur 85 7 December 2020 18: 05
          0
          Oh, if I could only dream up ... The Inquisition caught a real magician of the level of Sauron ...
          Interestingly, he will make them eat their boots first, and then (scene skipped due to harshness); or, as in the plot with Ar-Pharazon, will surrender in order to lead the Order of Dominic in a couple of decades ...
          And so, to fight with imaginary opponents, peasants and old women, you don't need much valor.
  • parusnik
    parusnik 5 December 2020 08: 32
    +6
    From a letter from the Jesuit Kaspar Shoppe, who was present at the announcement of the full sentence of Giordano Bruno and later briefly recounted his position in a letter:
    "He taught the most monstrous and senseless things, for example, that the worlds are innumerable, that the soul transmigrates from one body to another and even into another world, that one soul can be in two bodies, that magic is a good and permissible thing, that the Holy Spirit is nothing other than the soul of the world, and that this is exactly what Moses meant when he said that waters obey him and the world is eternal.Moses performed his miracles through magic and succeeded in it more than the rest of the Egyptians, that Moses invented his laws, that Holy Scripture there is a ghost that the devil will be saved. From Adam and Eve, he deduces the genealogy of only Jews. The rest of the people descend from those two whom God created the day before. Christ is not God, was a famous magician ... and for this he was deservedly hanged, and not crucified. Prophets and apostles were worthless people, magicians, and many of them were hanged. To put it in one word - he defended all heresies without exception ever preached. "
  • Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 5 December 2020 13: 44
    +4
    Quote: 3x3zsave
    And they burned him for ordinary heresy!

    That's how it is, it's stupid to argue that ... The question is where did this heresy come from. And the thing is that then religion and science, being the main tools for understanding the world, existed on the same plane and therefore directly influenced each other, constantly in conflict. Taking into account the fact that religion was in the dominant position in relation to science, all conflicts between them were resolved in favor of religion. Those who doubted were admonished, the persistent were admonished with violence.
    All Bruno's heresies were generated by his scientific thinking. At the heart of scientific thinking is doubt, at the basis of religious thinking is faith, therefore, attempts to reason about religious issues from a scientific point of view and vice versa are doomed to an insoluble conflict. Rather, a conflict that can only be resolved by brute force, which we observe in the case of Bruno. Not figs was his skeptical mind to talk about the subtle world.
    But Bruno is understandable. His time is the time when science threw down an open challenge to religion as an instrument of knowledge and began to squeeze it on all fronts in this area. Physics, chemistry, astronomy, medicine are mysticism, and therefore religion was crowded and expelled from everywhere. And Bruno decided that this process can be extended to purely, exclusively religious spheres - as far as angels, demons, biblical miracles and other mysticism are concerned, to the subtle world, in short. He simply misidentified the boundaries in which the methods of scientific knowledge are applicable and in which they are not.
    Now we (at least most of us) clearly understand where is the domain of science, and where is religion, and that these are two different worlds that have nothing in common. (Don't remind me now of graduate degrees in theology am , I wrote "most", which means that not all, there are still obscurantists, including in the Russian Orthodox Church). But in the XVI century. this division was by no means obvious. Bruno was wrong, for which he suffered.
    1. Esoteric
      Esoteric 5 December 2020 20: 47
      0
      Intertwined. Quantum physics, why not occultism? And it will come to the point that they will open a "thin" world. And that a person is not a collection of atoms. And those who, it seems, are not supposed to be, now, will become an ordinary reality.
      1. Hantengri
        Hantengri 5 December 2020 22: 59
        +1
        Quote: Ezoterik
        Quantum physics, why not occultism?

        In it, you do not need to roast, alive, on a ritual sword, forty black cats to summon a demon of a middle hand, with your own hand.
        It is enough to read, at night, Landavshitsa (vol. III - IV) and ... Satan, frightened, will appear Himself and offer to negotiate. )))
        Quote: Ezoterik
        And that man is not a collection of atoms.

        Why not? In the first approximation, the substance of which a person is composed is a set of atoms. At zero, he (a person) is still a collection of molecules. In the second approximation, it is a composition of elementary particles (protons, neutrons, electrons ...). In the third, he ...
        In general, everything is according to the principle: "Big dogs are bitten by big fleas. Smaller dogs are bitten by smaller fleas. Small dogs are bitten by small fleas ... And so, ad infinitum ..." (c) (From the notes of the dog Fafik) laughing
        And what, in this infinity, the world will appear before us - thin or thick, we do not know, for we are still orphaned. laughing
    2. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 5 December 2020 21: 20
      +2
      for which he suffered.
      Bruno suffered from PMC, misanthropy and sociopathy. But that's just my opinion.
  • Kronos
    Kronos 5 December 2020 13: 51
    0
    But they did burn it.
  • Senior seaman
    Senior seaman 5 December 2020 09: 48
    +4
    Urban VIII condemned Galileo, John Paul II acquitted, and Yulia Latynina burned ...
  • bober1982
    bober1982 5 December 2020 09: 54
    +1
    This whole story with Galileo showed that it is impossible to confuse the concepts of faith and science, which was the mistake of the Catholic Church itself, whose authority was greatly shaken.
    Science does not and cannot have admission to religious dogmas, it cannot not only refute these dogmas, but also prove them.
    Galileo was, as they say, a good Catholic. During the trial, no one tortured him, he did not torture, he lived in a villa, after the verdict was passed, he went to live in a villa with his friends. His words - it still turns! just a beautiful legend.
    1. Kronos
      Kronos 5 December 2020 13: 53
      +1
      Science has long refuted many dogmas of faith.
      1. bober1982
        bober1982 5 December 2020 14: 29
        +3
        Quote: Kronos
        Science has long refuted many dogmas of faith.

        Kant's proof?
        “Take this Kant, but for such proofs for three years in Solovki!” Ivan Nikolayevich thumped quite unexpectedly.
        -Exactly, exactly, and the left green eye of the foreigner sparkled, -there is the place for him!
      2. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 5 December 2020 16: 57
        +5
        Quote: Kronos
        Science has long refuted many dogmas of faith.

        Fortunately not.
        Science and religion are two different worlds with a diametrically opposite approach to cognition. Science in the field of religion can neither prove nor disprove anything simply because scientific laws, including such a basic discipline as logic with its law of the excluded third, the law of causality, etc., in the field of religious knowledge do not act or act selectively, which are essentially the same thing. Attitude to God or God (or to gods) is a matter of faith and exclusively, purely, a personal matter of each person.
        One of the most significant achievements of human civilization, it seems to me, is the realization of this fact. Thanks to this, religion and science can exist in parallel, without interfering with each other, without conflict, even within the consciousness of one person.
        Conflicts begin when one begins to encroach on the other's sphere. Explaining scientific problems based on religious dogmas is as foolish as criticizing these dogmas from a scientific point of view. It's stupid and useless.
        I agree with your opponent - science and religion cannot and should not overlap. These are completely different worlds.
      3. Esoteric
        Esoteric 5 December 2020 20: 52
        0
        This is what, and how it refuted. First, a question. And what is electricity? And nobody really knows. And it's not a joke. Take an interest.
        1. Kronos
          Kronos 5 December 2020 21: 11
          +1
          The form of energy due to the movement of particles of matter (electrons, positrons and protons). Science over time provides an answer to every question and new possibilities, faith is nothing.
  • Undecim
    Undecim 5 December 2020 14: 25
    +3
    Galileo Galilei (1564 -1642) is considered the father of modern experimental science
    Galileo Galilei is considered the "father" of modern experimental physics.
    As for experimental science, the process of its birth is much more complicated.
    1. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 5 December 2020 16: 11
      +5
      He is indeed the founder of one of the branches of physics - mechanics, which was developed by Newton less than 100 years later. And before that, Aristotle believed that the cause of speed is strength. It seems to be right - you push a brick on the sand - it goes, stopped pushing - it stopped. And for two thousand years this very complex case with the movement of an object in the presence of a friction force could not be developed in any way. And Galileo took a simpler case, where there is very little friction - a pendulum. And he deduced geometrically what later became Newton's first law. He formulated the concept of inertial reference systems - where the law of inertia (1 Newton's law) is in effect. It was about him that Newton said that he (Newton) did so much because he stood on the shoulders of giants. Galileo was published in Russian in 1936 and 1964. Scientific ideas there are given in the course of a conversation between three friends - Sagredo (Galileo), Salviati (Galileo's critic) and Simplichio (a kind of "Doctor Watson" asking stupid questions. Written very interesting.
  • Fat
    Fat 5 December 2020 15: 49
    +2
    He died on January 8, 1642, and was buried in the church of Santa Croce.

    Only from the context one can guess that this means the Basilica of Santa Croce in Florence, and not something else. There are not very many basilicas among Catholics, in Venice, for example, the whole district of Santa Croce with its churches ...
  • Esoteric
    Esoteric 5 December 2020 20: 22
    +1
    Not true about Copernicus. He did not publish his work not because he was afraid of the Inquisition. His thoughts were not new, and they were not heretical from the point of view of the Catholic Church. I will cite an extensive quote, because why write in your own words what has already been written by Bushkov. Well, yes, by themselves.

    "For the first time in Rome, they got acquainted with the works of Copernicus in 1515 - and, as just said, they were quite tolerant of them for a long time. Bruno was burned (or still not burned) in 1600, and only in 1613 the Vatican officially judged Copernicanism (and This, incidentally, shows that during the trial of Bruno, Copernicanism was not yet considered as "heresy" and could not be a reason not only for execution, but also for accusation).

    What is the reason? Yes, simply in what the Church discovered: Copernicus' theory may well become the basis for occult-satanic teachings. That, of course, influenced the attitude towards the theory itself, which, by the way, according to the level of development of science of that time, was nothing more than a hypothesis that could not be proved in practice. Practical proof of Copernicus' theory was not formalized until the middle of the nineteenth century. So, one should not be too zealous to condemn the then priests and theologians for "ignorance" and "reactionary". They were children of their age, just like you and me. "
    Well, Bruno was burned not for the idea of ​​a plurality of inhabited worlds, which is not heresy, the highest dignitaries of the church are not stupid and narrow-minded people, but for participation in almost all satanic sects of Europe. That you agree changes things. There were no unbelievers then.
    1. Kronos
      Kronos 5 December 2020 21: 13
      0
      There have always been unbelievers, but reasons do not negate the facts of burning.
  • Arthur 85
    Arthur 85 7 December 2020 17: 50
    0
    Probably, after all, Galileo was in an audience with Urban, and not vice versa ...
    Here I listened to a lecture by an anthropologist of one: our main problem is uncritical thinking. In the habit of fantasizing and taking information on faith (that is, in a very short period of life regarding the speed of thought processes - we have no time to learn all the sciences and check all the theses). The machine will not accept anything from an unverified source. Therefore, ave, Skynet is radiant.
  • Valeriy A. Proskournin
    Valeriy A. Proskournin 4 February 2021 01: 39
    +1
    the book "Dialogue about the two main systems of the world, Ptolemeeva and Kopernikova" was different at first! ..
    few people know that long (15 years) before this book, its first version was the text "On the ebb and flow", written in monologue (!), in a purely scientific language, intended for a fairly narrow circle of specialists ...
    it was this - the first - book that bore a revolutionary character, and Galileo did not particularly show it to anyone. However, his friends advised to give it to Tommaso Campanella, who was sitting in prison at that time, and the latter, immediately realizing the danger of this text, realized that what was needed was not a competing "ultimate truth", but "a way of thinking about truth" (!), That and it was offered to them in the form of a dialogue - creating a conversational circle of several (functionally) defined participants ...
    and also it was Campanella who explained to Pope Urban VIII why it was politically beneficial for him to publish this new book ...
    however, Campanella never received any thanks from Galileo ...