Military Review

"To surprise - to win!" The beginning of Suvorov's military career


V.I.Surikov. Suvorov's crossing over the Alps.

The greatest Russian commander, the genius of military art, Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov, was born 290 years ago. The commander has not lost a single battle. Repeatedly defeated the superior forces of the enemy. He became famous for his "Science of Victory" and his concern for the soldiers. Than he won the endless trust and love of the army.

Russian military historian Bogdanovich noted:

“Suvorov was and always will be a representative of our army. Many years will pass, other great leaders will appear in the Russian people and will show our regiments new ways to victory and glory. But every time the steel wall of Russian bayonets has to fall on our enemies, we will remember Suvorov. "

Youth and early service

Alexander was born on November 13 (24), 1730 in the family of General-in-Chief Vasily Ivanovich Suvorov and Avdotya Fedoseevna. His father began serving as an orderly for Tsar Peter the Great, served in the Secret Chancellery, during the Seven Years War for some time he was Governor General of East Prussia. He was the author of the first Russian military dictionary, collected an extensive library, mainly from military works, which became the basis of Alexander Vasilyevich's military education.

Alexander spent his childhood at his father's estate. From birth he was weak, often ill. Therefore, the family predicted civil service for him. The youth himself dreamed of a military path, read a lot, studied military affairs, and became tempered. A family friend, General Abram Hannibal (great-grandfather of Alexander Pushkin), had a great influence on the fate of the young man. Godson of Peter the Great and chief military engineer of the Russian army. Hannibal noticed Alexander's abilities and expressed the opinion that he should be sent to military service.

In 1742, Suvorov was enrolled in the Semyonovsky regiment (in 1744 the regiment was transferred from Moscow to St. Petersburg). At home he studied a lot. In 1748, Alexander began active service. Suvorov served in the Semyonovsky Guards Regiment for more than six years. He continued his studies, both independently and in the Cadet Corps, studied several languages. He became closely acquainted with the life and service of ordinary soldiers. Alexander saw that the soldiers from the time of Peter (even in the guards) were poorly trained and forgot the lessons of Peter's victories. He saw that now soldiers are men in uniforms, servants and orderlies of commanders, and officers are landowners. The soldiers see in the commander, first of all, a master, and not a comrade in arms. And the commanders consider the soldiers to be their serfs, servants, and not fighters, military comrades-in-arms.

Father at this time resumed his career, went up. In 1751 he took the post of prosecutor of the Senate, in 1753 he was promoted to major general, then he was appointed a member of the Military Collegium. Vasily Suvorov, together with Hannibal and Fermor, did a lot to prepare the army for war. Suvorov sought money and material resources for the army, Hannibal and Fermor were in charge of engineering and cannon business.

The rise of his father helped Alexander. The son of a local nobleman, who was out of work for a long time, became the son of an influential dignitary. The Suvorovs moved to the capital. In 1751, Suvorov was promoted to the rank of sergeant - the last highest soldier rank. In 1752, the father secured a business trip for his son abroad: by courier with dispatches to Dresden and Vienna. In addition, the choice fell on Alexander, since he knew German and French well (the languages ​​of the courts of that time). Alexander Vasilyevich spent several months at the Saxon and Austrian courts. Here everyone was waiting for a big war with the Prussian king Frederick.

"To surprise - to win!" The beginning of Suvorov's military career
Vasily Ivanovich Suvorov

Seven years war

In 1754, with the next release of soldiers from the guard to the field troops, among others, Sergeant Alexander Suvorov was promoted to lieutenant. This was his first officer's rank. Suvorov was assigned to the Ingermanland infantry regiment. Service in the regiment was poorly organized. The attempts of the young officer to change the situation did not lead to anything.

Then Suvorov, with the help of his father, went to the chief provisions masters in Novgorod. There was a large army base there. The officer was also known here as an eccentric: he fought for every state penny with officials and contractors. Therefore, embezzlers and unscrupulous suppliers disliked him.

At the same time, Alexander Vasilyevich is trying to find himself in literature. He is taking the first steps in this area. While on duty in the capital, he meets with writers, visits the Society of Lovers of Russian Literature. He writes poetry, Alexander's afterlife conversation with Herostratus and between the Mexican king Montezuma and the conqueror Cortes. Both "conversations" of Suvorov, read by him in the Society of Lovers of Russian Literature, pleased the audience. Sumarokov published the works of the young author in the collection of the Academy of Sciences. The war prevented the further development of Suvorov's literary talent.

The troublemaker in Europe was the Prussia of Frederick II, who was backed by England. Prussia claimed hegemony in Germany, which irritated Austria (she set the same goals) and other German states. Also Berlin was going to seize a lot of the western regions of Poland, to dislodge the Swedes from Germany. And France was afraid of the appearance of the Prussians (mercenaries of England) on the banks of the Rhine.

In 1756, Prussian troops captured Saxony, then invaded Bohemia and captured Prague. The Saxon prince fled to Poland, as he was the king of Poland. Prussia challenged several great powers at once: Austria, France, Russia and Sweden. The Prussian army was considered by many contemporaries the best in Europe.

Friedrich had a low opinion of the Russian army:

"The Muscovites are wild hordes; they cannot resist the well-equipped troops in any way."

Russia concentrated its troops in the Russian Baltic (Livonia and Courland). Chief of the Semyonovsky regiment, Stepan Apraksin, was appointed commander-in-chief, who received the rank of field marshal general. In the spring of 1757, the Russian army launched an offensive. A separate corps under the command of Fermor besieged and took Memel. In August, the Russians defeated the Prussians in a decisive battle at Groß-Jägersdorf and opened the road to Königsberg, the main and richest city in East Prussia. However, Apraksin did not use the victory and withdrew the troops back with a quick march.

Alexander Suvorov at that time was a food master of the field troops, received the rank of major second (junior staff officer rank), then prime major (staff officer rank, colonel's assistant). He was engaged in the formation of reserve battalions, was constantly on the road between Riga and Smolensk, between Smolensk and Novgorod. The reinforcements were weak, with poorly trained soldiers and recruits. The officers were "undersized" from the Guard, who usually knew little about military service.

Suvorov demanded the sending of experienced soldiers from the army in order to put them in the battalions as teachers. But the Military Collegium abandoned this idea. They say that old soldiers are more needed at the front. There was a lot of trouble in terms of security. There were not enough boots and cloth for uniforms for the army in the field.

The first battles

Apraksin was removed from command, the army was led by Fermor. The Russians occupied Konigsberg without a fight. The population of the city swore allegiance to Empress Elizabeth Petrovna. The Russian army in August 1758 at Zorndorf defeated the troops of the Prussian king. The Prussian army was drained of blood and lost its former striking power. After the intrigues of the Austrians, who now feared the victories of the Russian allies more than Frederick, Fermor was removed from command (but he remained in the army). The new commander was Pyotr Saltykov. On the way, Saltykov passed through Memel, whose commandant at that moment was Suvorov. Saltykov liked the gallant officer, and he took him into the army.

In July 1759, Saltykov defeated the Prussian corps of General Wedel and successfully united with the allied Austrians. Having occupied Frankfurt-on-Oder, the Russian army was preparing to cross and meet the royal army. Fermor took Suvorov as a duty officer. In August, the decisive battle of Kunersdorf took place. The "invincible" Prussian army was again beaten by the Russian "barbarians". Almost nothing was left of Frederick's army, its remnants fled.

The king wrote in panic to the capital:

"All is lost, save the yard and the archives!"

However, the allies were unable to agree and finish off the enemy. In 1760, Saltykov, unable to act independently, resist political intrigues and agree on conflicting orders coming from St. Petersburg and Vienna, surrendered command to Fermor. Buturlin was appointed the new commander-in-chief.

Taking advantage of the fact that the Prussian army was diverted to the western border, the Russians easily occupied Berlin. The Russian detachment was led by General Totleben. Suvorov also took part in the raid on Berlin. He commanded the vanguard. Having imposed a tribute of 1,5 million thalers on the city, destroying military enterprises and warehouses, Russian and Austrian troops left Berlin. Frederick went to save the capital, the allies did not have the strength to fight, and they left Berlin. The last period of the Seven Years' War was filled with marches and maneuvers, raids and raids, the devastation of enemy settlements, there were almost no major battles. The role of the cavalry increased.

At this time, Suvorov left the army headquarters, went into the cavalry and commanded a dragoon regiment. In numerous skirmishes, Alexander Vasilyevich showed himself to be a talented and brave cavalry commander. With a small detachment of cavalry and infantry, Suvorov made daring raids, suddenly attacked the superior forces of the enemy.

He said:

"To surprise - to win!"

Good luck always accompanied the brave man. He soon became more famous among the troops than some generals. Buturlin knew Suvorov the father well and was well disposed to his son. More than once he wrote to Vasily Ivanovich, praising Lieutenant Colonel Suvorov.

A sharp turn

Vasily Ivanovich was also in the army at the end of the war. At first he was in charge of the supply of food, then became Governor-General of East Prussia. The incorruptible governor put things in order in Koenigsberg. But Elizaveta Petrovna, who had been ill for a long time, died. Pyotr Fyodorovich, who did not want war with Frederick, became Tsar. He made not only peace with Berlin, but also an alliance. Königsberg returned to Prussia, which was already part of the Russian Empire. Suvorov, the father, was sent into an honorary "exile" - by the governor to Tobolsk.

The guard murmured. The victory was stolen, and the Prussian order began to be introduced into the army. Foreign diplomats, who feared the new policy of Peter III, entered the business. The center of the conspiracy was the wife of the new sovereign, Catherine. Vasily Suvorov, who had not yet departed for Siberia, also took part in the conspiracy. In July 1762, a coup took place. Suvorov fulfilled an important mission - he disarmed the Holsteins, the personal guard of the emperor. He appeared in Oranienbaum with a detachment of hussars, arrested Holstein generals and officers and sent them to the Peter and Paul Fortress. The privates were transferred to Kronstadt. Peter was killed, Catherine was elevated to the throne. In order not to irritate the guards and the army, the new empress abandoned the alliance with Prussia. But she did not continue the war. Without Russia, the Allies feared to fight with Prussia. War is over.

Catherine canceled the honorary link of Suvorov the father. He remained in the capital as a member of the Military Collegium, was promoted to prime-majors in the Life Guards Preobrazhensky Regiment and to lieutenant colonels in the Life Guards Izmailovsky Regiment. He was also engaged in secret affairs. Alexander Suvorov at that time was in the army. After the coup he arrived in the capital with dispatches. He was graciously received by the new queen. Promoted to colonel, appointed commander of the Astrakhan regiment. Ekaterina will present her portrait to the officer.

Later, Suvorov will write on it:

"This first date paved the way for me to fame ..."

Vasily Ivanovich Suvorov and son Alexander in Konigsberg (reconstruction): 1. Infantry general (Vasily Ivanovich Suvorov). 2. Musketeer of an infantry regiment. 3. Headquarters officer of the dragoon regiment (Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov).

To be continued ...
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  1. Geniy ​​yev
    Geniy ​​yev 25 November 2020 03: 10
    Suvorov, too mythologized character. I especially like the bike, its trip through the Alps.
    1. Far B
      Far B 25 November 2020 04: 11
      Suvorov too mythologized character
      Well, he probably deserved it, if myths about him began to be formed during his lifetime - did you think about it?
      1. Alexander Suvorov
        Alexander Suvorov 25 November 2020 07: 15
        Far V (Mikhail)
        - have you thought about it?
        And he most likely has nothing to think about.
        For the record, this "mythologized" one has never lost ANY battle in his entire life! Moreover, almost always beat the enemy being in a numerical minority, sometimes in a VERY strong minority (the battle of Rymnik), moreover, even during the assault on Izmail, there were more defenders in the fortress than Suvorov attackers.
        There are no more such examples in history, and apparently there will be no more.

        P.S. Of all the Generalisimos, he is perhaps the only one who really deserves this title! But no, not the only one, Joseph Stalin also deserved this title!
      2. Doccor18
        Doccor18 25 November 2020 07: 24
        Only one thing: "hard in training, easy in battle" is worth it ... Great people are brilliant in everything ...
        1. mr.ZinGer
          mr.ZinGer 25 November 2020 07: 33
          Suvorov could not say such nonsense, it is not easy in battle.
          "Easy to learn - hard to hike, hard to learn - easy to hike"
          1. Doccor18
            Doccor18 25 November 2020 08: 35
            Yes you are right hi
            But this does not refute the meaning of the statement and the genius of Suvorov.
          2. Trapperxnumx
            Trapperxnumx 25 November 2020 12: 53
            Quote: mr.ZinGer
            Suvorov could not say such nonsense, it is not easy in battle.
            "Easy to learn - hard to hike, hard to learn - easy to hike"

            Have you personally heard the correct phrase from Suvorov? Maybe they were a chronicler with him?
            Why do you dislike the short and capacious phrase "It's hard to learn, easy to fight"? The phrase more than accurately reflects the meaning of the exercises - to prepare a soldier for a real battle. Therefore, heavy exercises, as close as possible to the conditions of the battle, greatly facilitate the battle itself for the soldier, and personally, I have no doubt that Suvorov said exactly that in his characteristic direct, harsh manner. Perhaps answering the complaint of some underage youngster.
            So the phrase is correct. And all your demagoguery and philosophy is from the evil one.
            1. Undecim
              Undecim 25 November 2020 13: 30
              So the phrase is correct. And all your demagoguery and philosophy is from the evil one.
              And your fiery speech is from ignorance.
              Open the second part of this book here, the chapter "Doctrine for divorce or before divorce."

              There you will read: "To the training, although one recruit or soldier is always withdrawn in total, so that he gets used to the burden and to the free action with a gun: hard in training, easy in a campaign; easy in training, hard in a campaign."
              And the note of the author of the book, Sergei Nikolaevich Glinka: "These words have not yet been published anywhere: I took them from the manuscript that I have."
      3. Undecim
        Undecim 25 November 2020 09: 36
        Wow, the first comment - and immediately stupidity.
    2. Finches
      Finches 25 November 2020 06: 17
      Geniy ​​Yev is, apparently, the costs of the exam laughing

      Many wonderful statements of Alexander Vasilyevich in the form of posters are hung on the walls of military barracks from his science of winning, but there are phrases from his reports that should be hung not only in the headquarters, but even in the Kremlin - as an example of what to do with some presumptuous non-states, and not just limited to the diplomatic nonsense of Zakharova:

      "The battle lasted from three to four hours, and the whole of Lithuania calmed down."
      1. Geniy ​​yev
        Geniy ​​yev 25 November 2020 10: 33
        Zyablitsev is probably the cost of the tales of Miller, Bayer, Schletzer and Co. Take off the blinders, unfortunately, the Romanov, anti-people government brought a lot of grief to our land. They sang and laid around themselves an aura of unprecedented valor and protection of their homeland. But in fact, they were entirely alien bandits who seized and usurped power. The same Suvorov could not really speak Russian, all these sayings attributed to him have nothing to do with him. Unfortunately, the winners write history and in a hundred years, our descendants will learn incredible legends about our rulers today. And Chubais and Gref will be made oracles of their time.
        1. Alexander Suvorov
          Alexander Suvorov 25 November 2020 11: 07
          Geniy ​​Yev (Geniy ​​Yev)
          The same Suvorov could not really speak Russian
          Well, yes, well, yes, but what about the Suvorovs:
          - we are Russians, what a delight!
          - Bouclés are not cannons, powder is not gunpowder, a scythe is not a cleaver, Your Majesty, I am not a Prussian, but a natural Russian!
          Aaaa, let me guess, the Romanovs probably attributed this to him, and Miller personally rose from the grave to spoil our history.

          At you, at fool are there any other brains at all? Or does it not require brains to deny the official history?
          1. Geniy ​​yev
            Geniy ​​yev 25 November 2020 12: 13
            Dear Alexander Suvorov, you should not get personal, this primarily characterizes your mental abilities. The fact that all rulers are engaged in rewriting history and praising themselves beloved is obvious. Throwing the dice was worthless for them, and for their beloved mongrel. And yes, come to me, I will throw such quotes for you that Confucius will smoke on the sidelines. P ... t, do not roll the bags!
          2. Hermit
            Hermit 25 November 2020 15: 25
            Quote: Alexander Suvorov
            Ahhh, let me guess, the Romanovs probably attributed this to him, and Miller personally got up from the grave to spoil our history

            Worse. The sworn Bolsheviks attributed these words to him. yes
        2. CSKA
          CSKA 25 November 2020 12: 40
          Quote: Geniy ​​Yev
          But in fact

          So, in fact, tell us what are the myths about Suvorov and what is the story about the Alps.
          Quote: Geniy ​​Yev
          The same Suvorov could not really speak Russian,

          Essays rushed? Facts in the studio where you read such nonsense.
          1. Geniy ​​yev
            Geniy ​​yev 25 November 2020 13: 33
            1. Alexfly
              Alexfly 3 January 2021 18: 51
              All this bullshit, his own versions based on paper excavations. At that time, it was normal for the nobility to speak other languages, the influence of the Louis epochs on the minds and souls took place ... so you shouldn't be talking about Suvorov Alexander Vasilievich ... Take other books in your hands, Genius of Eunuchs you are
              1. Geniy ​​yev
                Geniy ​​yev 6 January 2021 00: 48
                In our time, he would be considered a major, a darling of fate with a golden horse in his mouth, because his parents were in touch. And I honestly find it very funny when they invent fables, supposedly he has grown from an ordinary soldier to a generalissimo. It's like a worthless governor of the Moscow region. Vorobyov, but was simply born into the family of a friend of Shoigu. Who would they be without connections, I think this is a rhetorical question. And examples of these darkness in our then and today's elite.
                1. Alexfly
                  Alexfly 6 January 2021 18: 06
                  A general who does not know defeat, this is how we know Suvorov ... Napoleon also wanted to meet him, but he could not ... And about the majors, I would like to get off with an anecdote: My son asks the colonel's father if he can become a general when he grows up. To which the father replies that the colonel is most likely YES, but the general is unlikely, since the generals also have their own sons ... Strive and you will succeed, just do not blame others for YOUR mistakes .. I have the honor.
        3. awdrgy
          awdrgy 25 November 2020 19: 03
          Correctly you tell the Russian tsar to the kingdom you need to show all enemies that they are no one and call them in any way! First, we have, and only afterwards ... And return our little land back And then you see what you have in mind, the Catholics in Warsaw How is that ??
    3. Viktor Sergeev
      Viktor Sergeev 25 November 2020 12: 38
      This is the case when the myths are too weak to embrace reality. And about the bike, you can evoke the spirit of Massena, he will be happy to discuss this issue with you.
    4. awdrgy
      awdrgy 25 November 2020 18: 56
      Such a troll on the avatar))
  2. Ross xnumx
    Ross xnumx 25 November 2020 05: 19
    The leadership talent of Alexander Vasilyevich SUVOROV had a place to be. And we will not stain it with the memories of some Western analysts ...
    However, there were cases when the "imperial individuals" used this talent and skill for their own selfish purposes - to maintain their own power, and I cannot attribute this to feats for the good of the Fatherland.
  3. Cartalon
    Cartalon 25 November 2020 06: 21
    I think what other men in uniforms, and this is Samsonov, rewrote some article a hundred years ago.
  4. nikvic46
    nikvic46 25 November 2020 07: 22
    Suvorov on land, Ushakov on the sea. We have earned a long memory of our people. As for history, this is a capricious woman. In 1799, the Alps. And in 1812 Napoleon was on our territory.
  5. Undecim
    Undecim 25 November 2020 09: 19
    His father began serving as an orderly for Tsar Peter the Great, served in the Secret Chancellery, during the Seven Years War for some time he was Governor General of East Prussia. He was the author of the first Russian military dictionary, collected an extensive library, mainly from military works
    Father A.V. Suvorov, Vasily Ivanovich Suvorov, was one of the most active participants in the deposition of Peter III and the accession of Catherine II.
    "Arriving with a detachment of hussars in Oranienbaum, he arrested the Holstein generals there, took away swords and cleavers from all the Holsteins, declared the arrested prisoners of war, imprisoned everyone in the fortress and at the same time ordered the compilation of an inventory of the palace sums and property, and the next day made an analysis those arrested, of whom the Russians, Maloros and Livonians were sworn in to the Empress, and the Holsteins were put on ships and transported to Kronstadt. "
    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 25 November 2020 09: 37
      Appearing with a detachment of hussars in Oranienbaum, he arrested the Holstein generals there, took away swords and cleavers from all the Holsteiners

      At the same time yelled "Chop the Prussians!" - apparently Holstein the units reminded him very much of former enemies. But the hussars did not touch anyone. drinks
  6. BAI
    BAI 25 November 2020 09: 35
    Taking advantage of the fact that the Prussian army was diverted to the western border, the Russians easily occupied Berlin

    And now to present claims to Germany - Berlin is a Russian city (based on Poland and Japan).
    1. Niel-le-Calais
      Niel-le-Calais 27 November 2020 22: 48
      Quote: BAI
      Now make a claim to Germany - Berlin is a Russian city

      Three years before Totleben-Berlin was taken by the military of Austria
      Andras Hadik. On the way, he also made Frankfurt a shameful indemnity.
      So Berlin was taken by the allied forces twice.
      But on two occasions Frederick conquered his capital. And in general he won against everyone. Being in the most difficult situation against Rumyantsev and the superior forces of the allies. Having lost the most important battles with the allies (although, having recouped on separate forces of the Austrians and French) ..
      Withdrew the main land force of the Allies on land (RI) by a lucky chance (the death of Elizabeth and Peter 3), England made France at sea .. as a result, the coalition England Prussia celebrated victory in this war.
  7. Daniil Konovalenko
    Daniil Konovalenko 25 November 2020 10: 01
    Author, you will somehow decide who commanded the Russian corps Totleben or Z.G. Chernyshov, whom you did not even mention ... Totleben commanded the vanguard.A curious fact, when in February 1813, pursuing the remnants of Napoleon's army, the Russians occupied Berlin for the second time, Chernyshev was again at the head of the army - but not Zakhar Grigorievich, but Alexander Ivanovich.
    1. Niel-le-Calais
      Niel-le-Calais 27 November 2020 22: 53
      Quote: Daniil Konovalenko
      Author, you will somehow decide who commanded the Russian corps Totleben or Z.G. Chernyshov

      The commander was the one who was higher. It is clear that he was not a foreigner.
      Chernyshev from the Russian side, Lassi and Brentano from the Austrians.
      On the day of the surrender, Totleben received her. But until the arrival of Chernyshev, Totleben was never able to take Berlin himself. In addition, the author misses that the garrison had to accept surrender because Chernyshev and Lassi defeated the combined forces of the princes.
      So Chernyshev. Totleben, as a subordinate, accepted the surrender and appointed a commandant.
  8. vladcub
    vladcub 25 November 2020 12: 35
    Comrades, off topic. In Moscow, ISIS was preparing a series of terrorist attacks. There would be a lot of blood if we were
    1. depressant
      depressant 25 November 2020 15: 02
      I saw the headline in the morning and decided to read it afterwards. There is already nothing. Nowhere.
    IGOR GORDEEV 25 November 2020 13: 41
    The Muscovites are savage hordes; they cannot resist the well-equipped troops. "

    This is how it turns out :)
    1. depressant
      depressant 25 November 2020 18: 51
      Millions are you. Us - darkness, and darkness, and darkness.
      Try, fight with us!
      Yes, Scythians - we are! Yes, Asians - we -
      With slanted and greedy eyes!
      For you - centuries, for us - a single hour.
      We are like obedient slaves
      They held a shield between two hostile races -
      Mongols and Europe!
  10. Valerikk
    Valerikk 26 November 2020 17: 31
    Always tormented by the question - is this a story or true: when an officer, composing a report after another victory over the Turks, asked what losses the Turks should indicate, Suvorov replied, "Why should you feel sorry for them, basurman. Write more?"
    1. Niel-le-Calais
      Niel-le-Calais 27 November 2020 23: 14
      Quote: Valerikk
      Suvorov replied, "Why should you feel sorry for them, you bastard. Write more?"

      this phrase is thousands of years old ... In one form or another ..
      Attributed to everyone ... known.
      Suvorov is truly an outstanding military leader. He even outshines Rumyantsev. Although Rumyantsev did a lot, it was just that in Soviet times they preferred to promote Suvorov more.
      In many ways, of course, mythologized. Like all great ones.
      Here is the legendary porridge
      Ingredients: Wheat groats - 1 tbsp., Peas - 1 tbsp., Grated carrots - 3 tbsp., Onions (medium size) - 4-5 pcs., Pepper, bay leaf, seasonings, salt - to taste, Vegetable oil - 50 ml.
      as we can see from the leftovers they cooked ... but it turned out delicious.
      Suvorov is great. There are positives and negatives. Like all warriors.
      As a representative of the estate, too. Positive and negative. (After all, he is the owner of many thousands of souls)