Military Review

Crusaders against the Ottoman Empire: the last campaign

229
Crusaders against the Ottoman Empire: the last campaign
S. Khlebovsky. "Battle of Varna"


Article "Sultan Bayezid I and the Crusaders" was told about the battle at Nikopol that took place in 1396. It ended with the complete defeat of the Christians, but after 6 years the Ottoman army was defeated by the troops of Tamerlane near Ankara. Bayazid himself was captured and died in 1403. For 11 years, the Ottoman state was the scene of brutal internecine wars waged by the four sons of Bayezid. The youngest of them, Mehmed I elebi, won the victory. You can read about this in the article "Timur and Bayazid I. Ankara battle of the great commanders".
Mehmed I and his son Murad gradually regained control over the lost territories, including on the Balkan Peninsula. The European neighbors of the Ottomans watched with concern the strengthening of this power. It was clear that sooner or later the Ottomans would again lead their troops to the north, and therefore in 1440 the king of Poland and Hungary Vladislav III Varnenchik (in Hungary he is known as Ulaslo I) began a war in which his opponent was the grandson of the deceased in captivity by Timur Bayazid - Murad II.


Marcello Bachiarelli. Portrait of Vladislav III, between 1768 and 1771


K. Kapidagly. Portrait of Sultan Murad II

The main Christian commander of that war was Janos Hunyadi (father of the Hungarian king Matthias Hunyadi Corvin).


Janusz Hunyadi, portrait by an unknown master, XNUMXth century

The nationality of this commander remains a mystery, since he was a native of Wallachia, but it is known that his grandfather bore the name (or nickname) "Serb". There were also rumors (unconfirmed) that he was the illegitimate son of King Sigismund I of Luxembourg. The surname of Janos' parents received from the Hunyadi castle, located on the territory of modern Romania in the city of Hunedoara.


Hunedoara Castle, Romania


Portrait of Janos Hunyadi on the stained glass window of the Hunedoara castle

In 1437, Janos Hunyadi fought against the Hussites. The tactics of combat operations in Wagenburg borrowed from them were actively used in campaigns against the Turks.

He managed to inflict a number of defeats on the Ottomans, liberate Nis and Sofia, pushing back the enemy troops across the Danube. In Anatolia at this time, Ibrahim Bey, from the family of the Karamanids, who competed with the Ottoman sultans, spoke out against Murad II. In these circumstances, the Sultan agreed to conclude the Szeged peace treaty, which was beneficial to the Christians, according to which the Ottomans relinquished power over the Serbian lands bordering Hungary. The Serbian despot Georgy Brankovich, expelled by the Ottomans from his possessions in 1439, returned to power, but continued to pay tribute to the Ottomans, and the demand for a 4-thousandth detachment at the request of the Sultan was preserved.
The border now ran along the Danube, which the parties pledged not to cross for 10 years. This treaty was signed at the beginning of 1444.

The beginning of a new war


It seemed that nothing boded trouble, but in August 1444 Murad II unexpectedly decided to retire, passing the throne to his 12-year-old son, who entered history as Sultan Mehmed II Fatih (Conqueror): from 1451 to 1481 he increased the territory of his state from 900 thousand to 2 million 214 thousand square kilometers. The boy loved to draw (some of his drawings have survived), knew Greek, Latin, Arabic and Persian well, and could speak Serbian. It was he who was destined (besides other lands) to seize Constantinople, but this will happen only in 1453.


K. Kapidagly. Portrait of Sultan Mehmed II

And at that time Mehmed was an inexperienced and inexperienced teenager in state and military affairs, and King Vladislav could not resist the temptation: it seemed to him that the time had come to strike the last blow at the Ottomans, driving them out of Europe and, perhaps, even from western Anatolia. A peace treaty had just been signed with the Ottomans, but the papal legate - the influential Cardinal Giuliano Cesarini, who had previously headed the commission for negotiations with the Hussites, persuaded Vladislav to apply for permission for a new war from Pope Eugene IV.


Pope Eugene IV


Cardinal Giuliano Cesarini

The pontiff fully supported the king and the cardinal, stating that "the oaths given to Muslims may not be kept." He not only blessed a new war, but also called for a Crusade against the Turks, which was joined by the knights of the Teutonic Order and the Bosnians, Croats, Wallachians, Transylvanians, Bulgarians and Albanians, vitally interested in further weakening the Ottoman state. The Hungarians led by Hunyadi went on a campaign, but there were few Poles: the Seim did not allocate either money or troops to Vladislav. But in the army of the crusaders there were many Czech mercenaries - former taborites and "orphans" who were forced to flee after the defeat in the Battle of Lipany (it was described in the article "The end of the Hussite wars").

In the army of Vladislav, there were more than a thousand combat and cargo carts, which could not be effectively used due to the insufficient number of former Hussites who knew how to correctly build Wagenburg and fight in it.

On the way to the crusaders were joined by several thousand Wallachian cavalry under the command of Mircea, the son of Vlad II Dracula, who is often confused with Vlad III the Impaler, who became the prototype of the famous novel by B. Stoker. Vlad III also bore the nickname "Dracul", but it only meant belonging to the Order of the Dragon founded by Emperor Sigismund. One of the commanders of Mircea's detachment was Stephen Batory - the ancestor of the king of Poland Stephen Batory.

The troops of the Papal States were led by Cardinal Cesarini. But the Serbian ruler Georgy Brankovich (his daughter became the wife of Murad II) was quite satisfied with the terms of the Szeged peace treaty. He did not want a new war and tried to mediate between the Ottomans and Vladislav III. George refused to participate in the Crusade and did not even allow the Christian army to go to Edirne through his lands.
The total number of the crusader army, according to modern estimates, ranged from 20 to 30 thousand people.

The Venetians sent their fleet, which blocked the Black Sea straits.

Murad II had to again lead the Ottoman troops (which was an unpleasant surprise for the crusaders). And the Genoese, the eternal enemies of Venice, transported his army on their ships to the Rumelian (European) coast. At the same time, he managed to approach the army of the crusaders from the west, pushing it to the Black Sea coast near Varna.

Janos Hunyadi again became the de facto commander in chief of the Christian army. At the council of war of Christians, many tended to defensive tactics, offering to meet the enemy in the great Wagenburg, but Hunyadi insisted on a field battle.

This commander knew perfectly well the tactics of the Ottomans, according to which the units of the center held back the enemy, while the task of the flanks was to encircle the enemy troops bogged down in the battle. Therefore, he tried to impose a frontal battle along the entire line on the Turks, in which the more heavily armed crusaders had the advantage.

The right flank of the Crusaders was led by the Oradsk Bishop Jan Dominek. Under his command were the Wallachians, the Bosnians, the troops of Cardinal Cesarini, Bishop Simon Rozgoni and Ban Tallozi. This flank was adjacent to a swamp and a lake, which, on the one hand, covered it from the enemy's detour, and on the other, interfered with maneuver. The divisions of the center were commanded by Vladislav: here were his personal guards and mercenaries of the royal domains. According to Hunyadi's plan, these units were to act according to the situation: to deliver a decisive blow if one of the flanks succeeded, or to come to the aid of a defeated flank. On the left flank, commanded by the Ban Machwa Mihai Silavii (his sister was the wife of Janos Hunyadi), were Hungarians and Transylvanians.
Murad took command of the Ottoman troops.


Sultan Murad II with bow

His army consisted of three parts. First, these were professional warriors personally loyal to the sultans - "slaves of the Port" (kapi kullari). The most famous of them are the Janissaries, but there were also cavalry units, as well as artillerymen ("trample").


Ottoman artillery, XNUMXth century miniature

The second important part of the Ottoman army was the sipahs (spahis) - in these parts people settled on state land, and were obliged to participate in military campaigns, served in these units. Since these plots were called Timars, the Sipahs were sometimes called Timarls or Timariots. The third part consisted of auxiliary units - these were azabs (or azaps, literally "bachelors"), serahora and martolos.
The Azabs served in light infantry units recruited in the Sultan's lands.


Azap. Engraving by C. Vecellio from the book "Ancient and Modern Costumes of the World", 1590

The Serahoras, mainly, carried out non-combatant service - they erected bridges, repaired roads, and served as porters. Martolos were called recruits from the Christian provinces, who in peacetime formed the detachments of the local guard.

It is believed that Murad was able to collect from 35 to 40 thousand soldiers. Anatolian (Asian) troops, commanded by Karadzha bin Abdulla Pasha, the son-in-law of Sultan Murad, stood on the right Ottoman flank. It was also attached to the detachments of two Rumelian beys - from Edirne and Karasa.

The total strength of the right wing forces is now estimated at 20-22 thousand horsemen.

The left flank (about 19 thousand people) was led by Beylerbey (governor) of Rumelia Sehabeddin Pasha (Shikhabeddin Pasha). The sanjak-beys of Crimea, Plovdiv, Nikopol, Pristina and other European regions were subordinate to him.
The sultan with the janissaries stood in the center.


The image of Murad's headquarters at the battle of Varna in the chronicle of Marcin Belsky, edition 1597

According to a number of authors, there were 500 camels next to him, loaded with expensive goods and even bags of gold: it was assumed that in the event of a breakthrough, the crusaders would stop to plunder this caravan, and the sultan at that time had to leave his headquarters. However, the camels played a different role in the battle: they claim that they were frightened by the horses of a detachment of knights of King Vladislav, who tried to personally attack Murad II. But let's not get ahead of ourselves.

In order to demonstrate the treachery of Christians, on the eve of the battle, a peace treaty confirmed by an oath on the Gospel was carried in front of the Ottoman troops, the terms of which were violated by the crusaders. Then this agreement was attached to a spear dug in at Murad's headquarters. Later, it was the perjury that many Christians called the main reason for the defeat of the crusaders, and even two centuries later Bogdan Khmelnitsky remembered it, convincing the Crimean Khan Mehmed IV Giray to keep his word and keep peace with the Cossacks.

Battle of Varna



This battle began on the morning of November 10 with an attack by the Ottomans against the right flank of the Crusaders. An eyewitness to those events recalled:
“The sounds of artillery shots were heard from everywhere, the innumerable trumpets of Christian troops were thundering, and the sounds of the timpani were heard from the Turkish army, raging and deafening. Everywhere there was noise and screams, blows and clinking of swords ... From the innumerable bows there was such a clatter, as if storks that had flown from all over the world were clicking their beaks on the field ”.

After a long and stubborn fight, the detachment of the Pristina bey Daud managed to bypass the crusaders: the detachments of Jan Dominek, Cardinal Cesarini, Ban Talloci and Bishop Eger fled south to Lake Varna, where they were subsequently almost completely destroyed. Cardinal Cesarini died here, Bishop Dominik drowned in a swamp, Bishop Rozgoni disappeared without a trace - his fate is unknown.

Daoud's warriors also fought their way through the carts of Wagenburg, however, as planned, the troops of the center, led by Hunyadi, came to the rescue, and then part of the forces from the winning left flank, which were able to throw Daoud back to their original positions.

On the left flank of the Crusaders, where the advantage was on their side, the situation was very favorable: the blow of the Hungarian cavalry upset the Anatolian order. Karadzhi Pasha, with the last reserve units, rushed into a desperate attack and died along with all his cavalrymen. And on the right flank, the crusaders, thanks to the reinforcements that approached, began to press the Ottomans. True, the units standing next to the Sultan have not yet entered the battle. And now Murad II threw selected units of the center of his army against the crusaders. However, the advancing Hungarians on the courage continued to press the Ottomans, and at some point it seemed to everyone that the Christians were winning. They say that Murad II was already ready to give a signal to retreat, but then King Vladislav decided to take the initiative, who suddenly wanted knightly exploits. He decided to personally fight the Sultan himself: to capture or kill him in a duel.


King Vladislav in the painting by J. Matejko "The Battle of Varna"

Vladislav rushed forward at the head of 500 knights. Surprised janissaries first parted, letting them in, and then closed their ranks. The king's horse was wounded, and Vladislav, who fell from him, was killed and beheaded. His head was then kept for a long time by the Ottomans in a vessel with honey - as a war trophy. All the knights who went into this attack together with Vladislav were killed or taken prisoner. In one of the Greek chronicles of that time it is directly written that "the king was killed in Varna as a result of his stupidity."


S. Khlebovsky. "Murad with his retinue at the body of Vladislav"

The crusader army did not know about the death of the king, hoping that he would return, and the battle continued until sunset, ending in a "draw". But Vladislav's death inspired the Ottoman army. And in the morning the king's head was shown to the crusaders. And this demoralized the Christians, whose army actually collapsed: the Christians now had no recognized commander, and each detachment fought for itself. The battle resumed and ended with the defeat of the Crusaders. Hunyadi managed to withdraw his units in an organized manner, but many other units became easy prey for the Ottomans when retreating to the north. Some of the soldiers who tried to hide in Wagenburg died, the rest surrendered.

Thus, the Crusade, which was supposed to be a triumph of Christians, ended in a humiliating defeat that canceled out all the successes of previous years. In addition to a huge number of ordinary soldiers, two initiators and organizers of this campaign, the highest leaders of the crusaders, perished. Poland fell into anarchy, and a new king in this country was elected only three years later. But Janos Hunyadi was still alive, who in 1445 was elected prince of Transylvania, and in 1446 became the regent of Hungary under the minor king Ladislav Postum von Habsburg. And in 1448 Janos Hunyadi and Murad II met again on the battlefield. This was the so-called "Second Battle of the Kosovo Field". We will talk about it in the next article.
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  1. Hunter 2
    Hunter 2 2 November 2020 06: 10
    15
    Interesting cycle - Excellent written and illustrated articles! Thanks to Author Ryzhov V.A. good
    1. Proxima
      Proxima 2 November 2020 09: 23
      +6
      Demoralizing a motley army is not difficult. The more upsetting is Vladislav's stupid act. Many thanks to the author for the series of articles! hi
  2. Van 16
    Van 16 2 November 2020 06: 24
    12
    And here's the sequel, thanks! Exciting story, does not come off.
  3. Korsar4
    Korsar4 2 November 2020 08: 33
    11
    There is nothing to violate treaties. But who stopped it and when?
    1. depressant
      depressant 2 November 2020 19: 05
      +6
      It seems to me that the horses of Vladislav who broke through were not frightened of camels, but of an armistice agreement at a peak stuck in the ground. We saw the agreement, recognized it and said to each other: "Well, that's it! We have a khan! God is not on our side!" That was how they decided the outcome of the case.
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 2 November 2020 19: 27
        +8
        It's bad when horses are trained to read and write.

        However, this can also be related to people.
        1. Astra wild2
          Astra wild2 2 November 2020 21: 02
          +1
          Conclusion: Down with education! I remember from school that Benckendorff asked someone from his acquaintances: to spit on the Gutenberg monument.
          Lydia Yakovlevna, it turns out they are lying that in the Middle Ages it was bad with education, or vice versa: the horses knew how to read, and the majority of people were not literate. Now almost all people can read, but not everyone can think, and all animals are illiterate. Where is the progress here?
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 2 November 2020 22: 06
            +4
            And notice how attitudes have changed depending on the personality of the Minister of Education.
      2. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 2 November 2020 19: 41
        +6
        God is not on our side!
        "... For God does not love idiots" (C)
  4. Daniil Konovalenko
    Daniil Konovalenko 2 November 2020 09: 12
    +8
    In fact, the crusaders again or again stepped on the same rake. If we analyze all the crusades and battles, especially the defeat of the Europeans, this is the absence of a plan, a single command, every man for himself ..
    1. Doccor18
      Doccor18 2 November 2020 10: 01
      +5
      That's right.
      An army that consists primarily of one nation is stronger than a multinational one.
      1. MIG_2
        MIG_2 7 November 2020 12: 50
        0
        in the Ottoman army there were more nationalities than in the European, as well as people of different religions
  5. Cure72
    Cure72 2 November 2020 09: 15
    +6
    A very interesting series of articles. Thank you so much. I learned about many nuances for the first time !!!
  6. Olgovich
    Olgovich 2 November 2020 11: 47
    0
    Thus, the Crusade, which was supposed to be a triumph of Christians, ended in a humiliating defeat that canceled out all the successes of previous years.


    What the crusaders of Europe did not succeed in was done alone by RUSSIA, defeating the Ottomans and freeing the peoples of the Balkans from the Ottomans in numerous wars.

    Those whom Russia did not have time to liberate from the Ottoman yoke were massacred in 1915-1922
    1. Icelord
      Icelord 3 November 2020 13: 27
      +1
      So the times were different, and the Ottomans were certainly not the same, but then they would have rolled it out and would not have noticed, they just had no interest further than the Black Sea
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 3 November 2020 13: 43
        0
        Quote: Icelord
        just beyond the black sea they had no interest

        Let me remind you about Vienna
        1. Icelord
          Icelord 3 November 2020 16: 26
          +1
          And what about Vienna? Didn't take, but I don't see the connection request... And about the times, there were many Crimean campaigns, and although much later, but unsuccessful
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 4 November 2020 05: 17
            +2
            Quote: Icelord
            And what about Vienna? Didn't take, but I don't see the connection

            Vienna is not the Black Sea, beyond which, in your opinion, the interests of the Ports did not go.
            Quote: Icelord
            And about the times, there were many Crimean campaigns, and although much later, but unsuccessful

            Not many, and not many successful ones either. And the wars with Turkey are practically all successful: see the Balkans and Novorossia
            1. Icelord
              Icelord 4 November 2020 07: 37
              0
              I meant on the territory of Russia, except for the Black Sea there was no interest, I did not like the climate. And I don’t remember the successful ones, but I’m not a pro in this matter, remind me which year please
              1. Olgovich
                Olgovich 4 November 2020 15: 53
                +1
                Quote: Icelord
                I meant on the territory of Russia,

                It wasn't about Russia at all.
                Quote: Icelord
                And I don’t remember the successful ones, but I’m not a pro in this matter, remind me which year please

                Hiking in the Crimea, see. time of Catherine the Great.

                Wars with Turkey since the 16th century.
                1. Icelord
                  Icelord 4 November 2020 16: 44
                  0
                  Duc under Ekateren, then yes, but in the 16th century, and half of the soldiers did not have time to escape, not under Sophia, not under Yelezaveta, nothing came of it, the defeat was terrible, and then Peter was beaten dry. This pseudo-patriotism is not needed, during the heyday, Turkey, Russia could not oppose anything to it
                  1. Astra wild2
                    Astra wild2 4 November 2020 17: 49
                    -1
                    Colleague Icelord, actually Olgovich is right: there was a moment when the Russian Turks were beating before Peter 1. This was on the website. Look at the comments to Valery's material about Peter's Prut campaign
                    1. Icelord
                      Icelord 5 November 2020 07: 08
                      0
                      Dear Vera. I did not find it. If you are talking about Minich's walk, then it was after Peter. In addition, it is completely useless, and very expensive.
                      1. Astra wild2
                        Astra wild2 5 November 2020 09: 29
                        -1
                        I will search and write
  7. pytar
    pytar 2 November 2020 12: 08
    +8
    In the city of Varna, there is a memorial park - the complex "Vladislav Varnenchik", in memory of this battle and the dead Christians.

    1. pytar
      pytar 2 November 2020 12: 22
      +8
      By the way, judging by the map, the location of the park is located just at the epicenter of the battle and probably near Vladislav's place of execution! hi
      1. Astra wild2
        Astra wild2 2 November 2020 19: 58
        +3
        Colleague Putar, and you remember that Vladislav died out of his own stupidity. Or do they try to remember this detail less?
        1. pytar
          pytar 2 November 2020 23: 29
          +8
          Colleague Putar, and you remember that Vladislav died out of his own stupidity. Or do they try to remember this detail less?

          Your tezza is very controversial. I will say - let the historians argue. For ordinary people, it is more important that it was a crusader campaign, whose goal was to drive the Ottomans out of Europe and liberate Bulgaria! We have interesting research based on archaeological finds! Back in 1860, Spiridon Palauzov published a monograph on the topic in Russian. Our historians are especially interested in the participation of the Bulgarians in the army of Vladislav III Yagelo, and there were many of them. This was our battle too!
          In this regard, exchange events are held every year, with the participation of a delegation from a foreign country.


          Rebuilds / reconstructions / battles, etc. are presented.
          1. pytar
            pytar 3 November 2020 11: 43
            +7
            Historical information about the campaigns of Vladislav Varnenchik and Janos Hunyadi in 1443-1444.
            Shanko Apostolov - Director of the Vladislav Varnenchik Park Museum, Varna, Bulgaria.

            After the conquest of Bulgaria, the Turks turned to Hungary, which was forced to look for a way of protection. Due to the fact that she did not swoon to resist Turkish pressure alone, Hungary sought to rapprochement with neighboring countries and states - in order to form a coalition that could not only stop, but also drive out the invaders from the Balkans.
            16-year-old Polish king Vladislav III Jagiello was invited and crowned on the Hungarian throne. In 1443 a campaign against the Turks was organized in Hungary. The united army includes - Hungarians, about 500 Polish volunteers, Czech mercenaries. Hussites, 700 Bosnians led by Petr Kovacevic.
            Serbian despot Georgy Brankovic participated with significant forces. The Vlachs and German mercenaries joined the campaign.
            The combined army crossed Serbia and reached Zlatitsa via western Bulgaria. Due to the harsh winter, the march was stopped. As a result of the 10-year peace treaty, Serbia received autonomy, and Hungary - a number of fortresses on the Danube.
            Pope Eugene IV was dissatisfied with this result. He is also the main inspirer of the anti-Turkish movement. Its goal is to spread Catholicism in the East. At his insistence, the papal envoy to Hungary, Giuliano Cesarini, freed King Vladislav from the oath taken at the signing of the treaty. A new campaign is being prepared.
            In the second campaign, the combined army consisted of:
            1. Hungarian-Transylvanian regiments under the command of Janos Hunyadi.
            2. Polish volunteers - about 300 people.
            3. Czech mercenaries - Hussites - 400 people.
            4. 4000 Vlachs / Romanians / led by Vlad Dracula.
            5. Fighters from Western Ukraine are participating. In the documents referred to as "ruthenes", i.e. "Rusyns" or "Old Russian". At that time, the Western Ukrainian lands were part of the Polish state / their exact number is unknown /
            6. Bulgarian volunteers from the Danube region are participating - from Vidin, Oryakhovo, Nikopol and other settlements.
            7. A small number of German settlers from Transylvania, as well as Slovaks, fought in the Hungarian army. / Transylvania and today's Slovakia were then within Hungary /.
            8. In the battle of Varna, a detachment of Croats led by Franko Talovac also fought / then Croatia was also part of Hungary.
            9. Bosnia and Serbia remain aloof from the events associated with the campaign of 1444. All that is known is that the leader of one of the Hungarian troops was the Bosnian Bishop Raphael. There is currently no direct information on the participation of Bosniaks and Slovaks.
            10. A detachment of Western knights led by the papal legate Giuliano Cesarini also fought.
            The combined army during the second campaign - 1444, numbered about 20 soldiers. The Turks numbered 000-55 thousand people and were under the command of Sultan Murad II.
            The 20-year-old King Vladislav and half of his wars died near Varna. Together with the rest of the army, Janos Hunyadi retreated.
            1. Astra wild2
              Astra wild2 3 November 2020 19: 08
              +1
              Colleague Rutar, thank you for the detailed answer, but the question is: were there really Turks up to 56000? Sorry for the little doubt. Look at the commentary of a colleague "12" to Valery's previous article.
              Hunyadi or someone else could consciously or unconsciously exaggerate
              1. pytar
                pytar 3 November 2020 21: 23
                +3
                I can't say, I just quoted the reference from the director of the historical museum. The numbers from the sources vary, but almost all agree that the Ottoman army had a significant numerical superiority. hi
  8. Dmitry Nikolaevich 69
    Dmitry Nikolaevich 69 2 November 2020 12: 37
    +4
    Thanks for the interesting story
  9. Undecim
    Undecim 2 November 2020 12: 59
    +9
    The king's horse was wounded, and Vladislav, who fell from him, was killed and beheaded. His head was then kept for a long time by the Ottomans in a vessel with honey - as a war trophy.
    Another legend with which the author likes to "colorize" his articles. Regarding Vladislav's head, Turkish sources have information that after the battle she was sent in a vessel with honey to Bursa, where her traces are lost and she is never and never mentioned again.
    In addition, there were no material traces of Vladislav's death at all - no body, no expensive armor - nothing. As a result, there are several versions of his death - Turkish, Bulgarian, Polish and Portuguese. But all of them are, shall we say, hypothetical.
    Therefore, in 2015, an international group of historians was created at the University of Oxford and a grant of 1 euros was allocated to finally establish the truth about the death of Vladislav III Varnenchik. The results of the work have not yet been found in print.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 2 November 2020 13: 22
      12
      Therefore, in 2015, an international group of historians was created at the University of Oxford and a grant of 1 euros was allocated to finally establish the truth about the death of Vladislav III Varnenchik. The results of the work have not yet been found in print.
      As it is, "sawed"! laughing
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 2 November 2020 14: 02
        11
        Yes, such "cuts" are traditional in the European Union. For example, in 2102, 1 euros were allocated to a group of historians from Germany, Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary under the auspices of Somerville College to study the history of the Jagiellonian dynasty.
        And this group has released several books in five years, probably as an excuse, and held an international conference in Great Britain.
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 2 November 2020 14: 37
          10
          Navalny is not on them!
        2. Liam
          Liam 2 November 2020 21: 40
          +1
          Quote: Undecim
          € 1

          Plagued by vague doubts. Can I link?
          1. Undecim
            Undecim 2 November 2020 21: 45
            +5
            https://www.medieval.eu/jagiellonians-research-project-oxford-university-2014/
          2. Undecim
            Undecim 2 November 2020 21: 46
            +5
            Link please?
            https://www.medieval.eu/jagiellonians-research-project-oxford-university-2014/
            1. Liam
              Liam 2 November 2020 21: 52
              +2
              Thank you.

              .
              And this group has released several books in five years, probably as an excuse, and held an international conference in the UK.

              Why for "excuses"? Judging by the link, the money was allocated precisely for this — research, book publishing and a conference on the results.
              1. Undecim
                Undecim 2 November 2020 21: 57
                +8
                A sense of humor is an innate thing. Either there is, or not.
                1. Liam
                  Liam 2 November 2020 22: 00
                  +3
                  Quote: Undecim
                  Either there is or not.

                  mea culpa
                  1. Undecim
                    Undecim 2 November 2020 22: 10
                    +7
                    La potenza intellettuale di un uomo si misura dalla dose di umorismo che è capace di utilizzare.
                    Giorgio de chirico
      2. Korsar4
        Korsar4 2 November 2020 19: 29
        +6
        But you can find out how much the final version costs.

        However, then you can fold again. There would be someone.
    2. Trilobite Master
      Trilobite Master 2 November 2020 15: 57
      11
      Quote: Undecim
      at the University of Oxford an international group of historians was created and a grant of 1 euros was allocated to finally establish the truth about the death of Vladislav III Varnenchik.

      Ha!
      Fomenko would have made them all out of half a million!
      And I am generally ready to work for free for the benefit of science.
      Here, colleagues, read, remember and be proud!
      And it was like this ... (Vyacheslav Olegovich, sorry, I could not resist!) smile
      The Russian prince (see below) Vladislav Vladislavich, forced into war with the Cossack brothers from the Ataman Empire, during the battle, together with a detachment of loyal comrades, abandoned the vile perjurers and went over to the right side. Ataman Ratmir (the Vatican Catholics were so afraid of him that they forbade calling him by his own name, replacing him with the anagram Mir-rat, which later turned into Murad), accepted him as his own son, especially since his own son Mikhail, nicknamed the Bear (friends his name was Mih-Med), recently died as a result of a treacherous assassination attempt by ... no matter whose. This is a different story. So, Ratmir adopted Vladislav and fell in love with him so much that he decided to transfer all his power to him and named him after his deceased son. That's what everyone began to call Vladislav - Mih-Med, or just Mehmed. Under this name he went down in history.
      Proof of? I have given them enough already, but for the doubters - please. Here is a portrait of Vladislav, only in a normal, familiar headdress and beard, as befits a Russian person.

      And here is the portrait of Mikh-Med

      Compare. If you make a small discount on the skill of the portrait authors, which, of course, leaves much to be desired, then it is clear that they are one and the same person.
      laughing
      1. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 2 November 2020 16: 11
        11
        friends called him Mih-Med

        ... From the whole courtyard company of friends-friends, Mikhail went to study at a medical school ... Therefore, during joint drinking, he was called Mikh-Med ... request
        Mir-rat

        Murat and Miterran are also known from the descendants ... fellow
        Compare. If you make a small discount on the skill of the portrait authors, which, of course, leaves much to be desired, then it is clear that they are one and the same person.

        One person! belay "But you never know in Brazil ... Pedrov ... And you can't count!" laughing
        Michael .... I bow from the bottom of my heart for humor! good drinks
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 2 November 2020 17: 26
          +5
          "Good play! Eight corpses in the finale!"
          1. Icelord
            Icelord 5 November 2020 15: 03
            +1
            Anton hi ... Yes, all in general there are corpses. Tarantino request
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 5 November 2020 15: 28
              +1
              Igor! This is a phrase about "Hamlet", I just adapted a little to the situation.
              1. Icelord
                Icelord 5 November 2020 15: 31
                +1
                Hamlet sucks wassat ... Out of date smile
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 5 November 2020 15: 37
                  +1
                  There are different readings and performances
                  1. Icelord
                    Icelord 5 November 2020 15: 42
                    +1
                    Modern in my opinion is even worse. And to be honest, let Shakespeare not inspire me. In general, I can hardly feel the old works. The only exception is the poets of the Silver Age of Russian poetry. Probably different thinking
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 5 November 2020 16: 04
                      0
                      Later I will answer, I work.
        2. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 2 November 2020 17: 38
          +4
          She is really ambiguous!
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 2 November 2020 17: 50
            +8
            "I was walking along the corridor of the House of the Writers' Union. Towards me, Andrei Voznesensky! The question is, could I not kick him in the face ?!" (FROM)
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 3 November 2020 14: 50
              +4
              "I was walking along the corridor of the House of the Writers' Union. Towards me, Andrei Voznesensky! The question is, could I not kick him in the face ?!" (FROM)

              Archibald Archibaldovich's authority was a thing that was seriously perceptible in the restaurant he ran, and Sofya Pavlovna humbly asked Koroviev:
              -- What's your last name?
              - Panaev, - he answered politely. The citizen wrote down this surname and raised an inquiring gaze at the Behemoth.
              - Skabichevsky, - he squeaked, for some reason pointing to his primus. Sofya Pavlovna wrote this down as well, and pushed the book over to the visitors for them to sign on. Koroviev against Panaev wrote "Skabichevsky", and Behemoth against Skabichevsky wrote "Panaev".

      2. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 2 November 2020 17: 35
        +6
        Fomenko would have made them all out of half a million!
        And rubles!
        1. Trilobite Master
          Trilobite Master 2 November 2020 20: 34
          +6
          Quote: 3x3zsave
          And rubles!

          Maybe I would agree to the Bolivars ...
          By the way, I wonder what currency was in Tartary?
          1. Icelord
            Icelord 3 November 2020 13: 34
            +5
            Apparently, Tartugriks)))
            1. Trilobite Master
              Trilobite Master 3 November 2020 19: 53
              +2
              Quote: Icelord
              Apparently, Tartugriks)))

              Somehow it doesn't sound majestic ... Tartugra! Great Tartary was supposed to have a resounding currency. And then just "Rurik with Tartugrik" turns out. Not good. "Rarog with tartugrom"! This is what it sounds like.
          2. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 3 November 2020 17: 52
            +4
            Bitcoins, essno! Especially if you remember Venya
      3. Korsar4
        Korsar4 2 November 2020 19: 31
        +6
        Soon I will shave off my beard and become a different person.

        Another would be to immediately receive a salary for both the bearded and the beardless.

        Oh, commercialism!

        “But they will pay me twice
        And they will feed me for two ”(c).
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 2 November 2020 19: 36
          +7
          Shave off his beard, accept conversion ... What else does a Palestinian need to calmly face old age? laughing
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 2 November 2020 20: 04
            +7
            For starters, be a Palestinian.
            I shave off my beard - the summer is over.
        2. Trilobite Master
          Trilobite Master 2 November 2020 20: 17
          +6
          Quote: Korsar4
          I will become a different person.

          - My wife is so tired that I drink every day that I had to promise her to become a different person.
          - Well, how did it become?
          - Became. But it turned out that this other person was also drinking.
          smile
          Well, the beard ...
          From childhood:
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 2 November 2020 20: 34
            +5
            Not that from childhood, later, but I remember.

            "A house without a gulbishche -
            It's like a man without a beard ”(s).
            1. Trilobite Master
              Trilobite Master 2 November 2020 20: 40
              +5
              It seems to me that the song is from the 80s ... I definitely went to school, and not to high school. smile
              And I know another proverb about the beard, even from my grandfather: "You don't tuck a beard into your underpants." smile
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 2 November 2020 20: 44
                +6
                Now I tease people at home with this song.
        3. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 3 November 2020 09: 33
          +7
          Soon I will shave off my beard and become a different person.

          I shaved it off a couple of times .. wink Then he looked at his beardless puck in the mirror and decided not to shave off completely anymore. lol Well, his .. with a beard is somehow calmer for self-esteem. drinks
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 3 November 2020 14: 33
            +4
            Thanks. For a good attitude to the beard!
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 3 November 2020 14: 37
              +4
              Thanks. For a good attitude to the beard!

              Well, it's not for nothing that the wisest Mikhail says that according to haplogroups I belong to the bardarik carriages - the very same ones who "washed" the Bolshoi Ussuri channel in the east. fellow lol Where are we without beards! request
              However, I don’t use barber shops .. especially, as you look .. on some .. very well-groomed "bearded men" .. negative
              Therefore, I'd rather be brutally sloppy, Sergei! laughing drinks
    3. Astra wild2
      Astra wild2 2 November 2020 20: 33
      +2
      Hello, Victor Nikolaevich. We know this version from Valery, and the others, what do they say?
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 2 November 2020 20: 49
        +4
        and others, what do they say?
        The comment will be as volume as an article.
  10. Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 2 November 2020 14: 36
    10


    This is how you begin to study family portraits and believe in the transmigration of souls. He turns out to be Baskerville too!

    laughing
    Well, if a little more serious, then the genealogy of the unfortunate king Vladislav III is interesting.
    His father is the notorious Vladislav II Yagailo, and his mother is Queen Sophia, nee known as Sofya Andreevna Golshanskaya. Paternal grandfather - Olgerd Litovskiy, paternal grandmother - Princess Juliania of Tverskaya, maternal grandfather - Prince Andrey Ivanovich Golshansky, grandmother - Alexandra Dmitrievna, princess from the Drutsk family.
    Golshanskie, according to some information, comes from the Volyn branch of the Rurik, Drutsk - from the Polotsk. Olgerd himself is the grandfather, as I said, of Vladislav III, the son of Gedimin from the Russian princess Eva Ivanovna from the Polotsk Rurikites.
    In total, we have the following picture:
    On the maternal side, our beheaded hero is a descendant of the princes of Golshansk and Drutsk, that is, the Volyn and Polotsk Ruriks, that is, purely Russian, on the paternal side he has one great-grandfather, Litvin (Gedimin), Olgerd is already half Russian by blood, a descendant of the Polotsk Ruriks, Yagailo, Vladislav's father is 75% Russian, since he is the son of a Tver princess. We add 75x25% of Russian and Lithuanian blood from the father's side and 100% of Russian blood from the mother's side, we get 87,5% of Russian blood ...
    And you know, our hero, perhaps, is more Russian by blood than very, very many ...
    This is what I?
    Yes, to nothing, just like that. smile
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 2 November 2020 14: 54
      +9

      Here he is, what a skripal cat!
      1. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 2 November 2020 15: 40
        11
        Here he is, what a skripal cat!

        Uh-huh, either hums or creaks ... drinks
        Vladislav, this is not your Sonya, hour? wink
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 2 November 2020 17: 30
          +6
          To confuse a noble "Persian" with a rogue "Briton"?!?!?!
          "Fi! What a bad bite you have, dad!" (FROM)
          1. Hantengri
            Hantengri 2 November 2020 18: 26
            +8
            Quote: 3x3zsave

            +1
            To confuse a noble "Persian" with a rogue "Briton"?!?!?!
            "Fi! What a bad bite you have, dad!" (FROM)

            Plus - blue!
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 2 November 2020 18: 31
              +8
              My respect, Igor! Among the Russian cat breeds, the Siberian blue is listed.
              1. Hantengri
                Hantengri 2 November 2020 18: 52
                +7
                Anton hi ! Not Siberian, but Russian blue.
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 2 November 2020 19: 02
                  +7
                  Oh yeah! But readings differ as the breed moves eastward. laughing
        2. Catfish
          Catfish 2 November 2020 18: 35
          +9
          Eh, you do not understand the complexities of a cat's life! sad
          1. Astra wild2
            Astra wild2 2 November 2020 20: 27
            +3
            Konstantin, good evening. Your picture reminded me of the prototype of my Puzik-Fat Cat from m / s "Chip and Dale".
          2. Lexus
            Lexus 3 November 2020 01: 25
            +8
            Uncle Kostya hi ,
            this is Nikolay, come on, after another "mine clearance" he started such a conversation. lol



      2. Catfish
        Catfish 2 November 2020 18: 23
        +2
        This is how you begin to study family portraits and believe in the transmigration of souls. He turns out to be Baskerville too!

        Not like that. Doesn't look like a dog, or she looks like him.


        In general, Anton should have paid attention to this.
        1. Lexus
          Lexus 3 November 2020 01: 45
          +8
          Sherlk Holmes and Dr. Watson walk through the woods.
          - Watson, be careful - there is a big pile of shit behind that tree.
          Fit - and indeed.
          - But how did you know, Holmes? Again the deductive method?
          - No, I just met the Baskervilles dog here yesterday!
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 3 November 2020 05: 21
            +4
            Yeah, adorable dog ...
            1. Korsar4
              Korsar4 3 November 2020 06: 17
              +4
              It's good that morning has already come.

              “Yes, the dog is man's friend.
              One. And to another - the enemy "(c).
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 3 November 2020 06: 24
                +5
                Canine psychology is as simple as binary code: either you are a dog or you are a prey.
                1. Korsar4
                  Korsar4 3 November 2020 06: 30
                  +4
                  I have already told how, while jogging along the main street of the city of Arkhangelsk, I was assigned to the second category.

                  When he turned his face and began to swear, they left me alone.

                  This is what a healthy lifestyle and early lifting leads to.
                  The cord will confirm.
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 3 November 2020 06: 37
                    +5
                    When he turned his face and began to swear, they left me alone.

                    That is, he showed that you belong to the first category.
                    1. Korsar4
                      Korsar4 3 November 2020 06: 49
                      +3
                      Yes. We all occupy some place in the hierarchy.
                      At school, this can be quite tough.
              2. Catfish
                Catfish 3 November 2020 06: 25
                +4
                "He who goes to visit in the morning is doing wisely." (from)
                The Baskervilles hound grumbled, spitting out Sir Henry's left boot. drinks
                1. Korsar4
                  Korsar4 3 November 2020 06: 32
                  +5
                  A successful movie when characters become heroes of anecdotes.

                  Chapaev, Stirlitz and Holmes won't let you lie.
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 3 November 2020 06: 41
                    +5
                    This is a lot of luck ... with the director.
                    1. Korsar4
                      Korsar4 3 November 2020 06: 43
                      +5
                      Yes. I don't accept coloring.
                      1. Catfish
                        Catfish 3 November 2020 06: 53
                        +5
                        How is that?
                      2. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 3 November 2020 07: 00
                        +4
                        So Japan remained an ally. The origin of the beer is, however, incomprehensible.
                      3. Catfish
                        Catfish 3 November 2020 07: 02
                        +6
                        Japan had a very difficult time fighting the American fleet.
                      4. Lexus
                        Lexus 3 November 2020 14: 52
                        +5
                        Uncle Kostya hi.
                        "This is their fate." (FROM) laughing
                        You can't drink while driving (steering wheel), but they "warm up" sake.
                        Secondly, you need to have a snack, not sniff cowards.
                        Otherwise, instead of hitting the target, there will be a solid "hit". wassat


            2. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 3 November 2020 17: 59
              +1
              And about Vovochka the kin was not removed ... crying
          2. Icelord
            Icelord 3 November 2020 10: 22
            +5
            Konstantin hi ... That's because lucky so lucky, thought the dog of the Baskervilles, looking like the academician Pavlov wanders down the hill, following Sir Henry, dejectedly smile
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 3 November 2020 11: 37
              +5
              Hi Igor. hi
              Surely, she was lucky, she also joined the queue here. laughing
            2. Aviator_
              Aviator_ 3 November 2020 18: 01
              +2
              Once at the FLUCOM conference, a Japanese professor who was working on the construction of a compact artificial heart implanted in a patient to unload the main one said bitterly: "I love dogs very much, but I had to cut about 100 of them a year." That is, 2 per week. True, at the time of the conference, the first patient with such a prosthesis had already lived for 8 years. It was in 2012.
              1. Icelord
                Icelord 3 November 2020 18: 57
                +3
                I have a sister who left a very prestigious research center because of chimpanzees. They speak like people, and we kill them brutally, look in their eyes, it hurts, it would be better if they took the blacks
      3. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 3 November 2020 06: 28
        +5
        It's anything but a dog. In my opinion, a frame from the movie "Time of the Witches"
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 3 November 2020 06: 32
          +4
          Perhaps Masha also says that this is some kind of Werewolf, but the muzzle is simply amazingly good. smile
        2. Korsar4
          Korsar4 3 November 2020 06: 48
          +4
          Incisors - not similar to incisors.
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 3 November 2020 07: 02
            +5
            The incisors are even more or less, but the fangs ... Some kind of Mahayrod.
            1. Korsar4
              Korsar4 3 November 2020 07: 17
              +4
              Canines, generally not closing.
              A hybrid with a saber-toothed cat.

              And with the formula of the teeth, in my opinion, something is confused.

              But here - not an expert.
        3. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 3 November 2020 09: 36
          +2
          In my opinion, a still from the movie "Witch Time"

          No, there were no werewolves in "Time of the Witches".
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 3 November 2020 10: 19
            +5
            There was an episode with wolves
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 3 November 2020 10: 21
              +3
              There was an episode with wolves

              There were no such faces. As I looked at this one, I almost lost my mind. Uncle Kostya knows how to create a mood ... laughing
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 3 November 2020 11: 32
                +3
                "Yes, Pronya Prokopovna has a taste!" (from)
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 3 November 2020 12: 12
                  +4
                  "Yes, Pronya Prokopovna has a taste!" (from)

                  "Take away, I say, the psychic, otherwise I'll stop marrying!" (from) drinks
                2. Catfish
                  Catfish 3 November 2020 12: 21
                  +5
                  Well, anything can happen ... drinks
                3. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 3 November 2020 12: 31
                  +5
                  Well, anything can happen ...

                  Well, why are you so ... what
                  It could be simpler ... And addressless ...
                4. Catfish
                  Catfish 3 November 2020 12: 55
                  +6
                  By the way, about the goats: some of them constantly block your advantages to me, and, as always, on the sly. Here are the ciliates ... laughing
                  I looked, but there is nothing interesting about ciliates, but there are enough about these, like this quiet minus.
                5. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 3 November 2020 14: 01
                  +5
                  Some of them constantly overlap your advantages to me, and, as always, on the sly.

                  yes, I noticed too. He doesn’t put it on me, but it’s like that for you for every comment. Apparently, you "offended" him .... Forget it. laughing You will give any negative scorer a hundred points ahead. drinks
                6. Catfish
                  Catfish 3 November 2020 15: 57
                  +6
                  Well, if in a dry corner and near a warm wall ... laughing
                7. Icelord
                  Icelord 3 November 2020 19: 18
                  +4
                  Ta lan, Konstantin I have the same song, but at least I really know who and why. It means hurt, but it's weak to say. I am proud and I advise you smile
                8. Catfish
                  Catfish 3 November 2020 19: 21
                  +4
                  Igor, to be honest, I absolutely do not understand what you mean. We're fooling around here out of habit, you don't have to take it all seriously. And about "dry corner and warm wall", I quoted Raikin, though not exactly.
                9. Icelord
                  Icelord 3 November 2020 19: 24
                  +4
                  I'm talking about the cons, and also as a joke, of course. They simply do not know otherwise, and the soul craves revenge
                10. Catfish
                  Catfish 3 November 2020 19: 30
                  +5
                  Yeah, got it. Yes, they went down the road, I would have hanged myself if they began to praise me. But, thank God, this will never happen. drinks
      4. Lexus
        Lexus 3 November 2020 15: 13
        +7
        They are rats. They can't say anything, they just shit. Mostly at night. True, people wake up in the morning and clean up after them. I have such "offended" - a whole flock. Deratization does not always help - they very quickly adapt to "special means". And they do not abandon attempts to defile History. Please do not consider this a "barrel in the garden" Dear cats. bully
      5. Catfish
        Catfish 3 November 2020 15: 51
        +6
        These are rats

        This guy from Hamelin is needed here.


        "Once upon a time there was a rat
        In the seaport of Valparaiso,
        In a meat and maize warehouse,
        Cocoa and wine.
        She lived and drank and ate
        But she got tired of the warehouse -
        In the whole neighborhood I wanted
        She will reign! "(C)
      6. Lexus
        Lexus 3 November 2020 15: 56
        +7
        We have our own "bunker pipe". You just need to take it out of the "hole" and "ask". You look, and they will dump with him somewhere. Desirable "to heaven".
      7. Catfish
        Catfish 3 November 2020 16: 12
        +6
        In "rat paradise" - a gutter or a trash heap?
      8. Lexus
        Lexus 3 November 2020 16: 14
        +6
        No difference. The main thing is in a processed (digested) form.
      9. Catfish
        Catfish 3 November 2020 16: 29
        +5
        Well, to hell with them, let's better talk about women. drinks
      10. Korsar4
        Korsar4 3 November 2020 16: 35
        +6
        Concentration lessons started?
      11. Catfish
        Catfish 3 November 2020 16: 37
        +6
        Well, how to say ... everything is better than about rats. That's just what you, my dear, drew at once, as soon as the talk about "concentration" came. wink drinks
      12. Korsar4
        Korsar4 3 November 2020 16: 43
        +6
        And there is. Try to make yourself a sandwich or take it outside the refrigerator door. The cat will appear immediately.

        And today is a pre-holiday day.
      13. Phil77
        Phil77 3 November 2020 16: 58
        +7
        Quote: Korsar4
        And today is a pre-holiday day

        Greetings Sergey! Greetings to the venerable audience!
        But not for everyone, and not for everyone, although of course * the red day of the calendar *.
      14. Korsar4
        Korsar4 3 November 2020 17: 40
        +5
        This does not mean that tomorrow it is impossible not to work.
        There is simply an opportunity to find a suitable companion.

        Good evening, Seryozha!
      15. Phil77
        Phil77 3 November 2020 17: 48
        +7
        Quote: Korsar4
        work tomorrow.

        I work tomorrow, with this galloping inflation, money is flying away rapidly.
        Sheer nightmare!
      16. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 3 November 2020 18: 13
        +6
        I work tomorrow
        Me too, at two sites.
      17. Phil77
        Phil77 3 November 2020 18: 46
        +5
        Yes, we are poor, we are poor. Hello Anton!
        The good news is that the payment is double. wink
      18. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 3 November 2020 18: 53
        +4
        This is your double. And I need to prepare the scope of work for the "slobs", that is to say, auxiliary workers.
        Meanwhile, good evening!
  11. Catfish
    Catfish 3 November 2020 18: 09
    +7
    Seryozha hi I would urge you to do without this portret, he is already tired of everyone. drinks
    Better this one, and topically - in a mask. wassat
  12. Phil77
    Phil77 3 November 2020 18: 44
    +5
    Good evening Konstantin! Okay, that's it!
    That's it for today! laughing
  13. depressant
    depressant 3 November 2020 22: 17
    +4
    Apparently, this is called "Portrait in a deadly light" by an unknown author, early 21st century, technical installation.
    The fate of Vladislav's head in honey syrup takes over. By the standards of the present time, it is evaluated as a work of art art.
    There is a suspicion that it is in a private collection.
  14. Phil77
    Phil77 3 November 2020 18: 50
    +4
    Quote: Sea Cat
    This portraThis,


    Gentlemen! Enough * this portrait *! Enough for today! laughing
  15. Catfish
    Catfish 3 November 2020 19: 43
    +4
    Here he is in place, but he should not have played Schellenberg, the personality was not that level.
  16. Phil77
    Phil77 3 November 2020 19: 47
    +4
    Quote: Sea Cat
    personality

    So after all, an actor! And who is he in life is a completely different question. Isn't it?
  17. Catfish
    Catfish 3 November 2020 20: 01
    +5
    Well, how can I explain it to you ... Now, if the great actor Alexei Smirnov suddenly (* with gulps) would take to play Lenin, would you be able to look at the "leader of the world proletariat" in his performance without laughing? This is how Tabakov and me look when trying to play Schellenberg. Try to compare faces.
  18. Phil77
    Phil77 3 November 2020 19: 54
    +5
    Quote: Sea Cat
    personality

    And again the role, and again played!
  19. Phil77
    Phil77 3 November 2020 19: 56
    +4
    Quote: Sea Cat
    Schellenberg he shouldn't have taken

    Constantine, who would have pulled Schellenberg?
  20. Phil77
    Phil77 3 November 2020 19: 59
    +4
    Quote: Sea Cat
    Schellenberg



    Something elusive still has a place to be!
  21. Catfish
    Catfish 3 November 2020 20: 11
    +4
    Yuri Solomin could, I am sure of that.
  22. Phil77
    Phil77 3 November 2020 20: 18
    +4
    Quote: Sea Cat
    Yuri Solomin

    Unexpectedly !!! And he was tried for this role is interesting? Against the fact that Solomin has a positive image, he did not play negative characters, no?
    Perhaps that is why Lioznova did not offer him this role?
  23. Catfish
    Catfish 3 November 2020 20: 22
    +4
    Does Walter have a purely non-positive face? laughing
    In addition, Solomin already wore this uniform.

  24. Phil77
    Phil77 3 November 2020 20: 31
    +4
    Quote: Sea Cat
    ?
    In addition, Solomin already wore this uniform.

    This is * Strong in spirit *? With Qilinsky?
    So, returning to Tabakov, he convincingly played this role, but I just don't understand why he didn't seem to you?
    Such a normal Schellenberg, no worse than others! wink
  25. Catfish
    Catfish 3 November 2020 20: 48
    +4
    Bachelor of Law, Master of Arts ... With all due respect to the acting talents of Tabakov, his physiognomy does not pull these titles in any way. But this is my opinion, you have something else, everything is in your own right.
    I advise you to read Boris Polevoy "In the end", he, among others, was accredited to cover the Nuremberg trial and then wrote this chronicle, I read it in "Roman Gazeta", he writes funny about the shock that their company came to at the first meeting with the chief of the notorious SD.
  26. Phil77
    Phil77 3 November 2020 20: 32
    +4
    Quote: Sea Cat
    a purely non-positive muzzle?

    He has it with a sly one !!!!! Like Tabakov! bully
  27. Catfish
    Catfish 3 November 2020 20: 52
    +4
    He would probably be flattered by a comparison with a great actor. laughing
  28. Catfish
    Catfish 3 November 2020 17: 43
    +5
    My devil does not react to this, he never begs for anything from the table and does not sit in the kitchen at all when we eat, but his bowl is a sacred thing, try not to add food, such matyuga immediately fly. smile
  29. Korsar4
    Korsar4 3 November 2020 18: 53
    +5
    He can show a lot with a glance. And in general he loves the company.
  30. Catfish
    Catfish 3 November 2020 19: 40
    +6
    Company, he does not digest any guests at all, here, besides Masha and me, there are only two people whom he allowed to touch him. As for the children, it seems to me that he would have strangled any child with pleasure in the cradle. Apparently, he was homeless for too long.

    So, he absolutely does not understand why he was, for no reason, no reason, they took him and woke him up. smile
  31. Phil77
    Phil77 3 November 2020 19: 48
    +5
    Quote: Sea Cat
    took and woke up

    Wow !!!!! Wow, that's beauty !!!!!! good good good
  32. Korsar4
    Korsar4 3 November 2020 19: 54
    +5
    Ours also has a character.
    Not thoroughbred. But in vain they will not be called a Scot, even though the ears are not hanging.
  33. Phil77
    Phil77 3 November 2020 20: 03
    +6
    Quote: Korsar4
    Not thoroughbred


    Mine! And also only from sleep! I even crushed my ear.
  34. Catfish
    Catfish 3 November 2020 20: 06
    +6
    Good, tramp! smile good
  35. OgnennyiKotik
    OgnennyiKotik 3 November 2020 20: 21
    +4
    So? Cats? No food. Not interested. Why did you wake me up?
  36. Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku 5 November 2020 09: 06
    +2
    Concentration lessons started?

    Here it is just right to conduct contraception lessons ... what
  37. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 3 November 2020 18: 02
    +6
    She is not a bride, she is a goddaughter.
  38. Catfish
    Catfish 3 November 2020 18: 12
    +5
    And this is definitely a mare ??? laughing laughing laughing
  39. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 3 November 2020 18: 18
    +4
    You posted it, it's up to you. And I mean Ksenia Anatolyevna ...
  40. Catfish
    Catfish 3 November 2020 18: 20
    +6
    Who is she? I'm not copenhagen in whores. request
  41. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 3 November 2020 18: 25
    +4

    I think it's familiar ...
  42. Catfish
    Catfish 3 November 2020 18: 48
    +5
    Lord, are you in agreement with Seryoga, one prints one face, the other another. There is a virus with inflation on the streets, they are at war in the Caucasus, the neighbor's dog died
    "... well, where can the peasant go!" (c)
  43. Korsar4
    Korsar4 3 November 2020 18: 54
    +5
    It's good on the road.
  44. Catfish
    Catfish 3 November 2020 19: 32
    +4
    Where are we going? If we are about the same thing.
  45. Korsar4
    Korsar4 3 November 2020 19: 51
    +3
    The main thing is movement.

    Sometimes I like this phrase:

    "No one can lead us astray -
    We don’t care where to go ”(c).

    Today I was at Bolshaya Ordynka.
  46. Catfish
    Catfish 3 November 2020 19: 54
    +4
    "Well, things are with this Nikoya, she lived with the whole Ordynka." (from) smile
  47. Korsar4
    Korsar4 3 November 2020 20: 42
    +3
    Rather Ninka, not Nika. But this, too, could not but come to mind.
  48. Catfish
    Catfish 3 November 2020 20: 50
    +4
    Of course, Ninka, one letter jumped out, but I didn't even notice.
  49. Korsar4
    Korsar4 3 November 2020 21: 14
    +3
    This is a wise technique that rules for its own sake.
  50. Catfish
    Catfish 3 November 2020 21: 25
    +4
    "A man is stronger than a mechanism!" (from)
  51. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 3 November 2020 20: 03
    +4
    Today I was at Bolshaya Ordynka.
    Who is where, and I am on "Staronevsky".
  52. Korsar4
    Korsar4 3 November 2020 20: 43
    +2
    Sounds nice.
  53. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 3 November 2020 21: 03
    +3
    Alas, the outgoing toponym ...
  54. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 3 November 2020 19: 04
    +3
    Again you are wrong! A good, sweet, meek girl, from a decent family ...
  55. Catfish
    Catfish 3 November 2020 19: 28
    +3
    Well, if she is "sweet and gentle", then I am the Chinese emperor, disguised accordingly, of course. And as for her family - this is already to the prosecutor. And the girl herself, at one time, was straight in the eyes, on some talk show Svetlana Savitskaya frankly said what she was.
  • Lexus
    Lexus 3 November 2020 14: 24
    +7
    Hello everyone! hi
    Kolya, that toothy beast - "Wolverine" (Hugh Jackman) "under investigation" in the film "Van Helsing" (2004). In fairness, she's not the nastiest there. lol

    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 3 November 2020 14: 58
      +6
      Kolya, that toothy beast - "Wolverine"

      Wolverine is a brutal beast in itself. And his fangs are even sharper than a werewolf.
    2. Lexus
      Lexus 3 November 2020 15: 06
      +5
      Also fearless. Can fill up an adult deer or beat off prey from a pack of wolves.

    3. Icelord
      Icelord 3 November 2020 19: 07
      +3
      Alexey hi ... More precisely, frostbitten, like all martens, they are primitive
    4. Lexus
      Lexus 3 November 2020 19: 10
      +4
      Igor hi , the laws of survival and "good neighbors" oblige.
  • andrew42
    andrew42 3 November 2020 16: 35
    +5
    This is from Van Helsing. There were two of them - brother mamzeli and the hero-deliverer himself.
  • Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku 2 November 2020 15: 18
    +6
    And you know, our hero, perhaps, is more Russian by blood than very, very many ...
    This is what I?

    In vain they said. what Samsonov has already rushed to scribble about the superethnos ... negative
    This is how you begin to study family portraits and believe in the transmigration of souls. He turns out to be Baskerville too!

    Handsome! drinks My favorite movie, my favorite character ... good
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 2 November 2020 16: 30
      +5

      We are not only the most formidable !!!
      1. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 2 November 2020 17: 00
        +6
        We are not only the most formidable !!!

        Scratch! drinks
        1. depressant
          depressant 3 November 2020 08: 55
          +4
          Good morning everybody! )))
          In general, the glocky kuzdra collected the sides and boars the bokrenka!
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 3 November 2020 09: 38
            +4
            In general, the glocky kuzdra collected the sides and boars the bokrenka!

            Gratuti! love
            About beavers:
      2. Astra wild2
        Astra wild2 2 November 2020 20: 21
        +2
        Vladislav, is this your portrait?
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 3 November 2020 09: 37
          +3
          Vladislav, is this your portrait?

          This is a portrait of his avatar - Sonya. drinks
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 2 November 2020 20: 19
    +2
    Mikhail, good health to you. The better. You will be healthy, the more the Fomenkovites will cry.
    It gives me pleasure to watch you smear their shit. You have a good style and know how to choose epithets ..
    Why don't you write an article? You are 100% better at it than some of our client authors
    1. Trilobite Master
      Trilobite Master 2 November 2020 20: 27
      +6
      Good evening, Vera.
      It takes too long to prepare articles. And how Samsonov does not want to write - colleagues will not understand. smile
      So I'd rather sit here for an hour or two with you on the site than alone reading books. And fun and relaxed. smile
      1. Esoteric
        Esoteric 2 November 2020 20: 42
        +4
        Write about John Smith. A man of incredible fate, even in those turbulent times.
        A little copy-paste, because I can't describe this gentleman better than Bushkov smile
        "John Smith, the owner of an extremely exotic biography even by the standards of that tumultuous century. The son of a simple peasant, at the age of sixteen ran away from home - apparently from hopeless poverty - and moved to Europe. There he fought for everyone who paid - for the Dutch against the Spaniards , for the Huguenots against the French Catholics, for the Hungarians against the Turks. He was taken prisoner by the Turks, and they economically sold him into slavery to the Crimean Tatars. Smith fled from there, lived for some time in the Zaporizhzhya Sich (where everyone was accepted, if only he crossed himself and said who believes in God), then through Muscovy through all of Europe he returned home and joined the settlers sailing to America.Already on the ship he plotted, intending to become the king of Virginia (which is perfectly documented). He was there, on the ship, was put under lock and key, but upon arrival in America, they released him, deciding that it is sinful to be scattered by people with such a rich life experience - well, as for his monarchical plans, it is enough to keep under supervision. missed - John Smith, having proved himself as an intelligent and extremely tough manager, saved the colony in a uniform way. Since no good deed goes unpunished, after things went smoothly under Smith's leadership, the Smith Colony Council formally pushed out to explore the uninhabited lands adjacent to Virginia. Smith did not resist at all - it was much more interesting than doing boring administration. He sailed a lot along the coast and wandered overland, made several detailed maps, and in the end started an affair with the leader's daughter - Pocahontas ... "
        That was the fate of a man smile
        1. Trilobite Master
          Trilobite Master 2 November 2020 21: 13
          +5
          John Hawkwood is closer to me.
          But to write ... In short, see above.
          1. Esoteric
            Esoteric 2 November 2020 21: 34
            +3
            This one, yes, but Edward Woodstock is closer to me.
          2. Astra wild2
            Astra wild2 3 November 2020 18: 18
            0
            Michael, it seems, was kidnapped by the Indians as a child and he lived with them about. 10 years. He subsequently wrote a book about his life. Or maybe I confused?
            1. Trilobite Master
              Trilobite Master 3 November 2020 19: 34
              +3
              Confused. smile
              John Hawkwood is the commander of the White Squad in the Hundred Years War. A member of Crécy, Poitiers, then led his own gang and went to Italy, where he made a very good career by feudal standards. Conan Doyle has a novel "The White Squad", some researchers believe that Sir Arthur, when writing this book, was inspired by the exploits of John Hawkwood.
              1. Astra wild2
                Astra wild2 3 November 2020 20: 14
                0
                I read "Holmes" and "The Lost World" by Konon Doyle and never found it in the library anymore.
                1. Phil77
                  Phil77 3 November 2020 21: 05
                  +4
                  Quote: Astra wild2
                  I read "Holmes" and "The Lost World" by Konon Doyle and never found them in the library.

                  Believe me, you can read Arthur / sorry! /, Sir Arthur Conan-Doyle at any age! So I envy you if your acquaintance with this author will take place right now / with those of his things that you did not have the pleasure read earlier /! You will be especially pleased with the cycle of stories about Brigadier Gerard. Moreover, now you can download and read his creations very easily. hi
        2. Astra wild2
          Astra wild2 3 November 2020 18: 11
          -1
          About Pocahontas, somewhere there was a cartoon, I heard from the neighbors' children, but did not look or read
      2. Astra wild2
        Astra wild2 3 November 2020 18: 13
        -1
        Alas, we will stay with Samsonov, Kharluzhny
        1. Trilobite Master
          Trilobite Master 3 November 2020 19: 47
          +3
          You see, Vera, there are talented people who can write quickly, a lot and with a high quality. Unfortunately, I am not one of them, writing articles is slow and difficult for me, a lot of time is spent checking information, searching for links, etc. In addition, I myself often, I do not know how my research will end, therefore, after collecting information, there is a reflection, systematization of knowledge ... And the compilation of the text itself also sometimes goes with great creak.
          Some crap will happen to me, I’ll get sick, there’s nothing to do ... But you don’t want me to do that, do you? smile
          1. Astra wild2
            Astra wild2 3 November 2020 20: 06
            0
            Fomenko and his army are eager for this, but I don't want to.
            Have you already written where you can read it?
            1. Trilobite Master
              Trilobite Master 3 November 2020 20: 39
              +3
              Only in my profile here. smile The rest of my "prose", perhaps, may be stored in the court archives. smile
  • Sergey M. Karasev
    Sergey M. Karasev 2 November 2020 15: 19
    +3
    One side:
    But in the army of the crusaders there were many Czech mercenaries - former taborites and "orphans" who were forced to flee after the defeat in the battle of Lipany

    Right there in the next paragraph:
    In the army of Vladislav, there were more than a thousand combat and cargo carts, which could not be effectively used due to the insufficient number of former Hussites who knew how to correctly build Wagenburg and fight in it.

    Author, will you decide whether there were many Czechs or not? Or did you mean that not all Czech Taborites knew how to build Wagenburg and fight in it.
    Which, by the way, did not help anyway, it only increased the irrecoverable losses, tk. those who took refuge in Wagenburg were completely killed or captured, and could have escaped with Hunyadi's troops.
    1. VLR
      2 November 2020 15: 35
      12
      There were quite a few former Hussites, but not enough for a thousand carts. Therefore, Hunyadi did not even begin to close the Wagenburg, lining up the carts in an arc. If it was built according to the rules, the Ottomans would have to storm it much longer. And the infantry, of course, had no chance of leaving with Hunyadi's cavalry.
      1. Sergey M. Karasev
        Sergey M. Karasev 2 November 2020 16: 38
        +4
        Exhaustive answer. good
  • samarin1969
    samarin1969 2 November 2020 20: 53
    +2
    [quote The left flank (about 19 thousand people) was led by the beylerbey (governor) of Rumelia Sehabeddin Pasha (Shihabeddin Pasha). The sanjak-beys of Crimea, Plovdiv, Nikopol, Pristina and other European regions obeyed him.] [/ Quote]
    Perhaps this is the proto part of the title. But the Crimean sandzhak could not have formed earlier than 1475. It was in this year that Kaffa and Mangup fell and Mengli-Geray was captured. Even the formal dependence after the "visit" of Damir-Kyahya to the Crimea in 1454. hardly attracts to "sanjak". And the battle of Varna took place in 1441. ...
    Perhaps I'm wrong, but I would like to comment on the respected author.
    It is pleasant to read the text without excessive "academic" conventions. hi The role of personalities in history is indeed much higher than the supporters of any "objective theories" try to imagine.
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 2 November 2020 21: 06
    +3
    Valery, thank you for your work. I read it like an interesting novel ...
    P
    S
    To be continued? What are your immediate plans?
    1. VLR
      2 November 2020 22: 53
      +4
      Yes, the next article in the series has already been announced at the end of this one. And then 2 or three more very interesting articles on the Ottoman Empire.
      1. Astra wild2
        Astra wild2 3 November 2020 18: 37
        +1
        THANKS. You have ALL materials INTERESTING
  • Icelord
    Icelord 3 November 2020 10: 15
    +5
    Thank you, Valery. Thank you for the article.
    PS You have a similar photo of an engraving depicting azab, mirrored, a saber on the right, and a quiver on the left side
  • sivuch
    sivuch 3 November 2020 13: 43
    +1
    the use of artillery was mentioned several times. It is only in Europe that the first known application of classical art, i.e. on carriages, capable of maneuvering on the battlefield - this is Monleri, 1461, if I'm not mistaken, a year. Did the Turks already have one?
    1. VLR
      3 November 2020 14: 21
      +2
      Primitive, like "mattresses"
  • Gennady Fomkin
    Gennady Fomkin 3 November 2020 14: 41
    +1
    That's how easy it is to lose your head laughing The "brothers" turned out to be wiser this time, having sat in their koliba, hut, bead, shilёvatitsa. Not forgetting to hand over to the Ottomans their monarch, who was slaughtered like a ram. laughing
  • Gennady Fomkin
    Gennady Fomkin 3 November 2020 14: 55
    0
    Quote: sivuch
    the use of artillery was mentioned several times. It is only in Europe that the first known application of classical art, i.e. on carriages, capable of maneuvering on the battlefield - this is Monleri, 1461, if I'm not mistaken, a year. Did the Turks already have one?

    The Ottomans could not ignore the changes that were outlined in the military affairs of Europe, because the success of their further expansion both in Europe and in Asia and North Africa depended on their successful response to the latest innovations in military technology and tactics. The first cases of the use of guns by the Ottomans date back to 1394 and 1402. In 1422, the Ottomans used cannons on their first attempt to take Constantinople, albeit without much success. However, 8 years later, in 1430, the Ottoman siege artillery largely contributed to the fall of the second Byzantine city after Constantinople - Thessalonica. During the wars with the Hungarians in the 40s. XV century and repelling the next crusade by Christians in 1444, Ottoman artillery was first used not only for the siege of cities, but also in field battles and for shelling such moving targets as Christian ships.
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 3 November 2020 18: 49
    +2
    Meanwhile, thank you, Valery! Late, of course, with gratitude, but, by the way, as always ...
  • Phil77
    Phil77 3 November 2020 20: 13
    +4
    Quote: Sea Cat
    Try to compare faces.

    I tried it, didn't convince me, Tabakov is good in this role.

    Clever, cunning, cunning enemy.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 3 November 2020 21: 26
      +5
      Relatives of the prototype believed that the role was played brilliantly.
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 4 November 2020 13: 49
        +3
        Are you talking about your niece with a New Year's card: "Thank you for being as kind as Uncle Walter"?
        Something I doubt the veracity of the rumors about this "niece". The postcard itself was printed, but the text in German never.
  • Igor Litvin
    Igor Litvin 6 November 2020 21: 42
    0
    Quote: Proxima
    Demoralizing a motley army is not difficult. The more upsetting is Vladislav's stupid act. Many thanks to the author for the series of articles! hi

    Vladislav Yagailovich, in fact, was the king of Poland and Hungary formally, everything was ruled by the hardened Chancellor Olesnitsky. Vladislav decided to give a master class and demonstrate to the public, especially his own in Poland, that the boy has matured and now he will be "number one". The result was a disaster.
    Respect to the author, a whole series of articles at the highest level - I haven't seen this for a long time! Good luck!
    P.S. Cardinal Giuliano Cesarini is not sorry, this one at the Cathedral of Constance headed a commission created to rewind the results of the Battle of Grunwald.
  • Molot1979
    Molot1979 Yesterday, 09: 50
    0
    The life of Catholics has taught nothing. In 1268 they broke their oath before the Battle of Rakovor. And they were completely crushed. They did the same in 1444 - and again a complete defeat. Maybe God still exists and really doesn't like perjurers?