Military Review

Great mysteries of labyrinths

Great mysteries of labyrinths

Labyrinths, natural and artificial, have long excited people's imaginations. They frighten and at the same time irresistibly attract. They were attributed magical properties, they were used in the initiation rites of growing children and the initiation rites of adults in various mysteries and cults. In ancient China, it was believed that evil spirits can only move in a straight line, and therefore even the streets of cities with their bends resembled labyrinths. And the entrances to Chinese cities were often deliberately designed in the form of labyrinths.

Architectural structures, specially designed as labyrinths, pursue the goal of making it as difficult as possible to get out of them or to make it impossible without outside help. But, as we have already said, there are also natural, natural labyrinths that served as prototypes for man-made ones. An example is the underground cave systems. And even any forest with paths leading to no one knows where is also a labyrinth. And the streets of a large unfamiliar city are often represented as a labyrinth.

J. Yerka. Erosion

And any choice facing a person, in essence, is a symbolic entrance to the labyrinth. An excellent illustration of this situation is the painting by V. Vasnetsov "The Knight at the Crossroads".

When solving any problem, the brain must find the only correct path among dozens of false ones.

Versions of the origin of the word "maze"

The word "labyrinth", which came to our language from Hellas, has a pre-Greek origin and is one of the most ancient in the world. There are several versions trying to explain its meaning. According to the first, it comes from the name of the double-edged ax - labris (λάβρυς), which was widely used in religious ceremonies on the island of Crete and symbolized the two horns of the sacred bull. It came to the Russian language through the German language - Labyrinth.

Labrys from Minoan Crete replica

In this case, the labyrinth is the "house of the double ax" or "the sanctuary of the deity with the double ax."

According to another version, this term is derived from the pre-Indo-European word meaning "stone". In Byzantium "labrami" were called monasteries surrounded by stone walls, in Greece - monasteries in caves. This is the origin of the familiar Russian word "lavra". As an example, we can cite the Lavra of St. Athanasius in Greece (Athos), the Holy Dormition Kiev-Pechersk Lavra.

Lavra of St. Athanasius, Athos, Greece

Why build mazes?

What is the purpose of the labyrinths, why were they created over the millennia in different countries and on different continents?

Based on the famous ancient Greek myth of Theseus and the Minotaur, many medieval researchers over the centuries considered labyrinths like Knossos as prisons and places of detention. Often they referred to the opinion of the ancient Greek historian Philochorus (345-260 BC), who considered the Cretan labyrinth a prison for Athenian boys, whose destiny was to become slaves to the winners of sports competitions.

This simplistic and purely utilitarian approach has not stood the test of time. Already in the XNUMXth century, the abode of a terrible monster, into which the heroes of the story were forced to enter against their will, began to be considered as a symbol of the kingdom of the dead, the abode of darkness and shadows, the embodiment of ancient chthonic horror.

Labyrinth with a minotaur. Drawing in a French manuscript, circa 1120

But this approach did not satisfy many researchers, who proposed their own vision of the problem: the labyrinth is a symbol of the path leading to rebirth and new life. In this case, the passage through the labyrinth symbolizes the new birth of a person, his transformation. There is a lot of evidence that the labyrinths were used in the initiation rites of adolescents or the initiation of a select few. Perhaps Theseus and his retinue came to Crete in order to undergo a rite of initiation into the mysteries of the local cult. In this case, the Minotaur (his real name is Asterius, "Star") is not a prisoner, but the master of the labyrinth, an underground deity, the lord of the kingdom of shadows.

Modern scholars suggest that the Greeks divided the single god of the Cretans into two hypostases: the judge of the world of the dead, Minos and his stepson, the Minotaur. Later it was forgotten that the Minotaur did not devour, but tested those who entered the labyrinth. This is confirmed by the fact that история birth of Minos is, in general, a softened version of the plot about the birth of the Minotaur. If the parents of Minos are Zeus who took the form of a bull and Europe abducted by him (this is where the well-known ancient Roman saying originates from: what is allowed to Jupiter, not allowed to a bull), then the parents of the Minotaur were the sacred bull of Poseidon and Minos' wife Pasiphae. Some researchers believe that drawings of the labyrinth type (the oldest of which, painted about 4 thousand years ago on the wall of the tomb, was found on the island of Sardinia) and the first man-made labyrinths could appear as an attempt to depict the movement of the Sun and planets.

There is also a more "cheerful" version of the purpose of the labyrinths, according to which all the labyrinths of Southern Europe laid out of stone were used for cult dances, which reproduced the movement of planets, stars and the Sun along the firmament. These dances differed from others in their particular complexity of figures and movements, and the lines of the labyrinth helped to move in the desired sequence. It is also believed that in ancient Greece the word "labyrinth" was used in a number of cases to designate both a ritual dance platform and the dances themselves.

In ancient Rome, labyrinths were often also called the word "Troy". Virgil mentions the ritual "Trojan" games, the obligatory element of which was intricate dance movements. "Trojan" dances symbolized a difficult road and trials in moving towards a set goal. There is also known evidence of the games of Roman children who built impromptu labyrinths of stones on the streets of cities or in the surrounding fields. A version of one of these games that has survived to our time is the well-known "classics".

Labyrinths of different countries and continents

Currently, the remains of the grandiose labyrinths are found not only in Europe, but also in North Africa, India and China. In the Nazca Desert (South America), giant labyrinths have been found in the form of various animals and insects.

In Celtic mythology, labyrinths are the entrances to the underworld, dancing fairies and elves are often seen on their spirals on moonlit nights.

And in India, labyrinths are symbols of meditation, concentration, getting rid of samsara and the laws of karma.

Goa maze, India

Indian labyrinths are often the continuation of the ends of the ancient solar symbol of the swastika in the form of spiral lines.

The natives of America considered the passage of the labyrinth as a cure for bodily and mental ailments.

Legends were made about the most famous of the labyrinths among the people, some famous historians of antiquity told about them, who distinguished five great labyrinths: Egyptian, which, according to Pliny, was located under Lake Moeris, two Great labyrinths at Knossos and Gortana, Greek on the island of Lemnos and Etruscan in Clusium.

Let's remember the most famous labyrinths from ancient times to the present day.

Fayum labyrinth

The largest labyrinth in the world is now recognized as the Egyptian one, which was built near Lake Moiris (now Lake Birket Karun) west of the Nile and 80 kilometers south of Cairo near El Fayum. Therefore, this labyrinth is often called Fayum. It is an annex to the pyramid of the fourth pharaoh of the 484th dynasty Amenemkhet III, who lived in the 430rd century BC. the high priest of Egypt Manetho also calls Labaris (here is another version of the origin of the word "labyrinth"). Some Greek authors even included this structure among the seven wonders of the world. The earliest mention of it belongs to the Greek historian Herodotus of Halicarnassus (circa XNUMX-XNUMX BC), who speaks of this grandiose structure as follows:

I saw this labyrinth inside: it is beyond description. After all, if you collect all the walls and great structures erected by the Hellenes, then, in general, it would turn out that they spent less labor and money than this one labyrinth. And yet the temples at Ephesus and at Samos are very remarkable. Of course, the pyramids are huge structures, and each of them is worth in size many creations (of the Hellenic art of building) put together, although they are also large. However, the labyrinth is superior to these pyramids. It has twenty courtyards with gates facing one another, six facing north and six facing south, adjacent to each other. Outside, a single wall runs around them. Inside this wall there are chambers of two kinds: one underground, others above the ground, numbering 3000, exactly 1500 each. I myself had to walk through the above-ground chambers and examine them, and I speak of them as an eyewitness. I know about the underground chambers only from stories: the Egyptian caretakers never wanted to show them to me, saying that there are tombs of the kings who erected this labyrinth, as well as the tombs of sacred crocodiles. That is why I am only talking about the lower chambers by hearsay. The upper chambers, which I had to see, surpass (all) the creations of human hands. Passages through the chambers and winding passages through the courtyards, being quite confusing, cause a feeling of endless amazement: from courtyards you go to chambers, from chambers to galleries with colonnades, then back to chambers and from there again into courtyards ... An underground passage leads to the pyramid.

Another description of this labyrinth belongs to the Greek geographer and historian Strabo of Amasa (about 64 BC - 24 AD), who in 25 BC. e. made a trip to Egypt as part of the retinue of the prefect of Egypt, Gaius Cornelius Gall:

The labyrinth is a structure that can be compared to pyramids ... In front of the entrances to the halls there are many kind of long covered arches with winding paths between them, so that without a guide, no stranger can find either an entrance or an exit.

The Egyptian labyrinth is also mentioned in their writings by Diodorus Siculus, Pomponius Mela and Pliny. And who lived in the 1843st century. BC. Diodorus asserts that if the famous Cretan labyrinth has not survived, then "the Egyptian labyrinth stood completely intact to our times." Some fragments of this grandiose structure have survived to our time. In XNUMX, they were examined by the German expedition of Erbkam, but since no sensational finds were found, reports of these excavations did not receive much response. Most modern researchers consider the Egyptian labyrinth to be a temple complex in which sacrifices were made to all the gods of Egypt. It is assumed that the labyrinth is connected with the cult of the god Osiris, who was considered the god of the underworld.

Knossos labyrinth of Crete

As for the famous Knossos labyrinth on the island of Crete, Roman sources claim that it was just a miniature copy of the Egyptian one. Living in the 1900st century. AD Pliny, for example, believed that the Knossos labyrinth reached only one hundredth the size of the Egyptian. The Knossos labyrinth has not yet been found. Some historians believe that the palace of the Cretan kings at Knossos was built in the form of a labyrinth: discovered in XNUMX by the English archaeologist A. Evans, it really was a huge complex of buildings grouped around a large rectangular courtyard, interconnected by intricately curved corridors and staircases and light wells. Some of these researchers consider the throne room of the Palace of Knossos as the center of the Cretan labyrinth, others - the central courtyard, paved with plaster slabs, which was used as an arena for the Minoan bullfight - tavromachia (this unusual rite for the Greeks could become one of the sources of the myth about the duel of Theseus and the Minotaur ).

Ruins of the palace of Knossos

Labyrinths of Samos and Rome

Pliny also reports on the grandiose labyrinths on the Mediterranean island of Samos and the underground labyrinth of a certain Etruscan tomb (its description is also known from the writings of Varro). It is reliably known that about 60 labyrinths were built in different provinces of the Roman Empire, and the image of the labyrinths was used as an element of wall and floor decoration. Very often, such images were located near the entrance or right on the threshold and, probably, were considered as a protective symbol. Two such decorative labyrinths were discovered during excavations in Pompeii.

Most often, labyrinths are presented as a series of gloomy, usually underground rooms. This is what the most famous of them looked like, which became the home of the Minotaur.

Theseus and the Minotaur duel, mosaic in Pompey

However, most mazes are much simpler.

Church labyrinths of Western Europe

In the European Christian tradition, labyrinths most often symbolized the path from life to death and from death to birth, the path of the cross of Christ, or the movement of pilgrims and crusaders to Jerusalem. In cathedrals that pilgrims visited on the way to the main shrine, labyrinths symbolized the road leading to repentance. These labyrinths have 11 concentric circles or paths (the number symbolizing "sin" in the medieval Christian tradition), along which you had to crawl on your knees. Thus, the total length of concentric circles in the labyrinth of Shartsky Cathedral is about 260 meters: on their knees, the pilgrims covered this path in a little less than an hour.

In the Christian countries of Western and Southern Europe, symbolic labyrinths were usually painted or laid out, picking up multi-colored stones, on the floors of churches and cathedrals. For the same purpose, mosaics and parquet flooring were used. Such labyrinths are usually circular in shape, with a circle called the "sky" in their center. An example is the labyrinth of the Cathedral of Chartres (Notre-Dame de Chartres), created at the beginning of the 1205th century (the most likely date is XNUMX) from white and blue stones. The size of the labyrinth almost coincides with the size of the rose of the stained glass window of the western facade, but does not exactly repeat it. But the distance from the western entrance to the labyrinth is exactly equal to the height of the window. According to the plan of the builders, on the day of the Last Judgment, the cathedral (like all buildings on earth) will collapse. The rose of the stained-glass window depicting this Court on the western façade of the nave will fall on the "sky" in the center of the labyrinth - and the earthly will merge with the heavenly.

Labyrinth of Chartres Cathedral

In some cathedrals, instead of a circle in the center of the labyrinth, they began to depict a cross, which led to the appearance of square-shaped labyrinths.

Labyrinth de la Cathédrale Notre-Dame d'Amiens

Church labyrinths are being built today. In the 2010s. in the process of restoration, such a labyrinth received the Fedorovsky Cathedral in St. Petersburg.

Labyrinth of the Cathedral of the Feodorovskaya Icon of the Mother of God, St. Petersburg

Northern Europe labyrinths

In Northern Europe, labyrinths were laid out on the ground of stones or sod. Such labyrinths are usually horseshoe-shaped. More than 600 labyrinths have survived on the coasts of the Baltic, Barents and White Seas: there are about 300 in Sweden, about 140 in Finland, about 50 in Russia, 20 in Norway, 10 in Estonia, and so on. Most of them, apparently, are associated with ancient fishing magic: local fishermen believed that, having passed through the maze, they would ensure themselves a good catch and a happy return.

But some of the northern labyrinths located next to the burial grounds are probably associated with the cult of the dead. It is believed that they were built so that the souls of the dead could not return to the living. Another echo of these fears is the custom of throwing spruce branches on the way of the funeral procession: it was believed that needles would prick the bare feet of the deceased and prevent him from entering the world of the living.

In the photo below we see the labyrinth of the uninhabited Swedish island Blo-Jungfrun ("Blue Maiden"), discovered in 1741 by Karl Linnaeus.

Blo-Jungfrun Labyrinth, Sweden

Tradition connects this labyrinth with witches who gathered here for the Sabbath. According to another legend, not confirmed archaeologically, 300 witches were executed on this island in the Middle Ages.

Labyrinths of Russia

On the territory of Russia, labyrinths can be seen in Dagestan, on the coast of the White Sea, on the Solovetsky Islands, in the Murmansk region and in Karelia. In the Russian North, labyrinths are often called "Babylon". One of the labyrinths of the Big Zayatsky Island is shown in the photo:

Labyrinth on Bolshoy Zayatsky Island (Solovetsky Islands archipelago). Here, rows of stones from 13 labyrinths converge into a spiral of snakes, whose heads meet in the center

And here we see the labyrinths, which are believed to be associated with the above-mentioned fishing magic. The first of them is the famous Murmansk Babylon:

Murmansk labyrinth Babylon

And this is the Kandalaksha labyrinth located near the former fishing tony Maly Pitkul:

Kandalaksha labyrinth

Living labyrinths

Sometimes a park or garden plays the role of a labyrinth, and living shrubs play the role of walls. These are, of course, the youngest labyrinths at the time of their appearance. In the photo below you see the Hampton Court Maze, the oldest in Great Britain, which was designed by D. London and G. Wise in 1690 (possibly on the site of another, older labyrinth).

Hampton court maze

Its "walls" are trimmed yew bushes. It is this labyrinth that is described in Jerome K. Jerome's novel Three Men in a Boat, Excluding a Dog.

Living labyrinths are still popular today. Having lost their sacred meaning, they remained a good bait for tourists. So, in Australia, the Ashcombe Maze labyrinth was created from more than 1200 rose bushes of two hundred varieties: roses have a different aroma, and therefore visitors can walk through the labyrinth, focusing on the smell.

The longest living labyrinth is currently considered the "Pineapple Orchard" on the former Dole plantation on the Hawaiian island of Oahu. The length of its tracks exceeds 5 km.

Labirint dole

And the title of the largest labyrinth in area (4 hectares) belongs to the French Reignac-sur-Indre, which is formed by corn and sunflower. It is curious that at the end of the season the harvest of this labyrinth is harvested and used for its intended purpose.

Reignac-sur-Indre maze

Thanks to the use of annual crops, this labyrinth changes its shape every year.

Modern labyrinths as a place of relaxation

In conclusion, it should be said that in our time in the United States and Western Europe, modest traditional labyrinths of local importance are being built - not for tourists, but for purely utilitarian purposes. They can be seen in hospitals, schools, some businesses and prisons. And even in some episodes of the American cartoon "Duck Tales" you can see how the nervous Scrooge McDuck quickly walks through his small personal maze. Labyrinths in these countries are considered ideal places for relaxation and effective psychotherapy. It is believed that each person puts his own meaning into visiting such a labyrinth.
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  1. Revolver
    Revolver 10 October 2020 06: 10

    And on the stone it is written:
    If you go straight, you will be married.
    If you go to the right, you will be rich.
    If you go to the left, I will kill you.
    Your Vasilisa laughing
    1. mmaxx
      mmaxx 10 October 2020 07: 23
      There was also a picture with Ilya: "Don't go anywhere, you've already bored everyone." wink
      1. Nazar
        Nazar 10 October 2020 15: 32
        I like the simpler version more: 1. If you go to the left, you will lose your horse. 2. If you go to the right, you will lose your head. 3. If you go straight, you will hit a stone.
        1. Abrosimov Sergey Olegovich
          Abrosimov Sergey Olegovich 11 October 2020 19: 56
          Anecdote on this topic: Ilya Muromets drove up to the stone, reads: if you go straight, you will get a trandule; you go to the right - you will get a trandule; if you go left, you will get a trandule. Ilya Muromets wondered. I was thinking, thinking, and suddenly a voice: are you going somewhere, or are you going to run a trandule right here?
    2. Lionnvrsk
      Lionnvrsk 10 October 2020 07: 51
      Quote: Nagan
      If you go to the left, I will kill you.

      Why, there is such a rule for passing simple mazes - always turn in one direction.
      Just like in life, if you don't know where to go, then go left. laughing But the rule only applies if you use it from the very entrance (wedding?). wink
  2. Olgovich
    Olgovich 10 October 2020 06: 47
    Interesting article.

    And any selectionstanding in front of a person, in essence, is symbolic entrance into the maze ..

    There is just one entrance to the labyrinth.

    The choice begins after occurrences in it ...
    1. dzvero
      dzvero 10 October 2020 08: 15
      The choice is still before entering - whether to enter or well, it's there ...
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 10 October 2020 08: 29
        Quote: dzvero
        The choice is still before entering - whether to enter or well, it's there ..

        It is impossible not to enter - you cannot stop life.

        Rather, it is possible, but it will no longer be input, output....
      2. Nazar
        Nazar 10 October 2020 15: 34
        "sapper" makes mistakes only two times in his life: the first time - when he goes to sappers; 1nd time ... well, that's already clear.
  3. Van 16
    Van 16 10 October 2020 07: 03
    An unexpected but very interesting article. I didn't know that there were so many different labyrinths. And for some reason I remembered how they wandered in the maze "Three in the boat, not counting the dog"))
  4. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 10 October 2020 07: 36

    I saw this one personally.
    A very unusual theme! Thank you, Valery!
  5. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 10 October 2020 07: 40

    My favorite labyrinth.
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 10 October 2020 08: 36
      Even very psychedelic, Anton, your any labyrinth! Good morning! hi
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 10 October 2020 10: 35
        Hi Albert!
        This is Moritz Escher, take an interest. Was at an exhibition of his works, 15 years ago, in the Hermitage.
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 10 October 2020 10: 54
          You, as always, expand your horizons hi
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 10 October 2020 11: 17
            Yeah, like any small pusher. laughing
            1. Krasnodar
              Krasnodar 10 October 2020 12: 13
              And, like there is Th? laughing
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 10 October 2020 12: 18
                Like, yes. Like, everyone I reached out to, got hooked on Erarta laughing
        2. Catfish
          Catfish 10 October 2020 17: 32
          Lucky man, I know his work only from reproductions, but still they make an indelible impression. good

          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 10 October 2020 18: 20
            To be honest, I accidentally hit it. Not that I was not familiar with Escher's work, but at the exhibition - by chance.
          2. The leader of the Redskins
            The leader of the Redskins 10 October 2020 19: 54
            The second is a real perpetual motion machine!))
    2. Undecim
      Undecim 10 October 2020 11: 55
      So you are also a fan of imp-art! I present the eyes of your clients to whom you offer interior design!
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 10 October 2020 12: 16
        I cannot offer interior design and even architectural solutions, only engineering ones.
        1. Undecim
          Undecim 10 October 2020 12: 20
          only engineering
          It's even cooler! Heat supply system in imp-art style!
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 10 October 2020 13: 05
            We are pulling the heating network around the apartment. Finish, take a photo, send it.
    3. Catfish
      Catfish 10 October 2020 17: 04
      Great mysteries of labyrinths

      Now, if any labyrinth is full of all kinds of riddles, then this will be one of the first.
  6. nnm
    nnm 10 October 2020 07: 42
    Thanks to the author for an interesting article.
  7. stalki
    stalki 10 October 2020 07: 47
    It was very pleasant to read. Didn't expect to see something like that here. Thanks to the author for such a historical background. My children are very fond of labyrinths, I specially buy books, collections of labyrinths. Will have something to tell them.
  8. ee2100
    ee2100 10 October 2020 09: 02
    The author gave quite a lot of information, but did not understand the essence of the question.
    My friend at the university is engaged in psychology and in his work the maze occupies the main place. He told me a lot about him, but from his "bell tower". I myself had to "enlighten myself" in this matter.
    You can make a lot of guesses for what the ancient people built them. In fact, they were most likely used as sacred structures.
    It is customary to divide European labyrinths into Mediterranean ones and labyrinths of Western and Northern Europe. A few words about the latter. In fact, in Western collections, you can often see a labyrinth on the floor, but they were also built near cathedrals. In Russia, labyrinths are mainly located in the north along the coast of the seas. The most famous is Solovetsky, restored in Soviet times. The labyrinth on the Hare Island was built by the soldiers of Peter I, under his direct supervision.
    Until the twentieth century in Russia, these structures were called Babilons, from the name of the Tower of Babel. The article mentions this, but somehow in passing. Those. the maze is a view of the tower from the top. The author correctly pointed out the connection between the word "laurel" and the word labyrinth, but did not draw further conclusions.
    Until now, a separate magazine devoted to labyrinths is published in Sweden a couple of times a year.
    An "inventory" of all the old northern labyrinths was carried out and here are some conclusions. They are all made of stone. All of them are located not far from the reservoir, 75% have an entrance to the labyrinth from the water side, in all labyrinths there are at least 4 turns and about 60% of the labyrinths have an open "exit", i.e. the last stone does not cover it.
    The last labyrinth (not a remake) was built in Estonia in the XNUMXth century by a man who survived a shipwreck.
    Conclusions. The labyrinth itself symbolizes the path to God, the four turns are the symbol of the cross. Those. the labyrinth is a walking church used by sailors. The labyrinths on the floor in the camp are an example of how to make a labyrinth correctly.
    This knowledge, as I wrote, was known back in the XNUMXth century, but later "faded"
    Now many are building labyrinths, but especially in their own, incl. and selfish purposes.
    1. Arkady Gaidar
      Arkady Gaidar 11 October 2020 09: 58
      EE2100, I'm not sure that you have fully revealed the sacred meaning of the labyrinths.
      Many thanks to the author for such an unexpected article. It is really incomplete and does not reveal the meaning of using labyrinths.
      Once upon a time the material of the "mysteries of the labyrinths" was needed for the book, I even had to attend and participate in one of these rituals in order to figure out what it is.
      And here it is important to note that the cerebral hemispheres themselves resemble a labyrinth. In short, mystics, in contrast to psychiatrists and psychologists, divide the human mind not into consciousness and subconsciousness, but into the material mind (consciousness) and the center of communication with the highest hypostasis of the world (psychologists have the subconscious, while mystics have these centers associated with God, their own the soul and essence (personality) of an earthly person.
      But I confess that I myself have not fully understood all aspects of the "mystical" perception of the human mind. It takes much more time and diligence.
      And the labyrinths are just obliged to activate that part of our brain that is associated with the higher principle. And in this case labris (ax), quite a suitable definition, to reflect the essence of the human mind and, accordingly, labyrinths. After all, the human mind is not only the most complex organ in the body, but also a very useful tool and weapon at the same time.
      In most mystical Traditions I know, Evolution was invented not by Darwin or soulless nature, but by the Almighty. So that only the most mature Souls, who have successfully passed all earthly trials and labyrinths, come to him in the "Kingdom of God". Conscious and beneficent (Christian mystical Tradition). And church obeisances are for the general public, which for the most part was immature for a highly moral life.
      Something like that. Although I am sure that I have familiarized myself with about a tenth of these deep mystical views. I took only what was needed for the book. So this knowledge awaits its heroes, who today, in the age of the dominance of the theories of materialism, are hard to find in the daytime with fire (that's about this, about the transfer of the keys to the doors of knowledge) hi
    2. ee2100
      ee2100 11 October 2020 12: 39
      My institute friend dealt with memory problems i.e. somewhere that you wrote it nearby, but I am more material and see the "problem" of mazes like this.
      1. Arkady Gaidar
        Arkady Gaidar 11 October 2020 14: 50
        EE2100, how to see this or that problem, everyone decides for himself. In philosophy, it is therefore called "opinion", which is the personal point of view of a particular individual. And in this case, I reflected what I researched for the above book, as one of the directions of mystical thought and philosophy of idealism (applied aspect). That's all hi
        1. ee2100
          ee2100 11 October 2020 21: 19
          The labyrinth itself is indeed a very interesting geometric figure. And around him a lot of things were heaped up, both in antiquity and modern masters of sacralization of everything that your heart desires.
          If you look at one point for a long time, then, as a result, you can see the light at the end of the tunnel.
          1. Arkady Gaidar
            Arkady Gaidar 13 October 2020 14: 21
            EE2100, I'm not trying to convince you of my point of view, or to dissuade you in yours. And he just gave the data I know. I would like you to believe that this is exactly the way you think about it, this is your personal right.
            And by the way, the absence of huge states and superpowers in ancient times (in the modern sense) is also associated with the mystical worldview of that time. Through mystical Traditions, people were engaged in the knowledge of the world and the knowledge of God, where a person was independent. There they were not forced and are not forced to repent and serve ritual service, but they offer to learn to be a HUMAN, with a capital letter. But as a result of constant degradation, the world outlook degenerated into religion, with their often stupid bows and sometimes incomprehensible services. That is, in ludins (not to be confused with Humans), independence and freedom of thought were completely lost, and faith in the authorities of faith was erected in them.
            I repeat, what you believe in is your own business! And I just filled in the gap that you did not mark in your comment.
            Well, if you are still interested in understanding this issue, about the supremacy of matter or idea in the world, then I propose to answer one seemingly simple question from the dialectic of materialism. It seems this is the second basic proposition of the theoretical dialectic of materialism: It is asserted that matter is eternal and is in constant motion. And this adds up to the volatility of the entire world. Everything flows and everything is constantly changing, going from simple to complex. There is no Spirit (idea) at the head. Permanent variability is an intrinsic property of world matter.
            But then the question arises: Since everything is constantly flowing and changing, being one of the most important properties of matter, why then the natural laws of nature in particular remain unchanged? They are well known to all of us from the course of physics and chemistry, for example, well, you can take the law of gravitation, or the chemical laws of interaction of different substances, for a jump-start. If everything around is subject to constant changes, then the natural laws of nature, as part of that very matter, must also constantly change. but, as we can see, they remain unchanged, which makes it possible for the sciences to study their laws. And then the final question is logical: what exactly keeps the laws unchanged (what force), denying them variability together with the rest of the matter to which they belong? And don't you then find it correct to say that since some latent Force keeps the laws that govern matter, more important than the self-propelled matter mentioned here, in constancy?
            I don't have to answer this question. This is for your personal reflection, to understand what exactly it is doing, for example, Orthodox mysticism, which you apparently consider to be prejudices and relics of the past. Yes, and what is even more interesting, as in modern sciences "practice is the criterion of truth", the mystics of antiquity learned through practice to find what they were looking for and get the necessary answers hi
            I wish you all the best! smile
            1. ee2100
              ee2100 13 October 2020 17: 15
              About the labyrinths. I expressed my point of view on this supposedly "mystery problem" from the information that I received. If you paid attention, the labyrinths are classified into Mediterranean and (conventionally) European northeastern. The latter are younger and have a different meaning. There is nothing mystical here.
              The question here is not faith, but knowledge.
              I will think about your rhetorical question and if something worthwhile comes to mind, I will unsubscribe you. I'll read it in more detail, but what immediately draws attention is the thesis that there are no rules without exception.
            2. ee2100
              ee2100 13 October 2020 17: 45
              Your question about the primacy of matter being in continuous development (movement) and its contradiction with the basic natural law is scholastic. To know this, you must first decide who we are and where we are from. And in fact - who is "whipping" after us.
              Everyone decides this question for himself now.
              You are right, laziness and, as a result, degradation allowed the churchmen of all confessions to seize power over the world outlook of man. Now the media have replaced them, or rather propaganda.
              I wrote in my commentary that my friend is engaged in collective psycho-practice, through supposedly "know yourself" from here and "mystical" labyrinths. Yes, people need it, mostly women, but nevertheless.
              1. Arkady Gaidar
                Arkady Gaidar 13 October 2020 18: 18
                EE2100, so I have already written to you several times that mystics are engaged in the issues of Cognition of the world. And one of the main questions of this Knowledge "Who am I? Where am I from? And why am I?"
                And you look narrowly at the labyrinths themselves. Naturally, there is nothing mystical in the construction itself. It's all about Practices, that is, how this construction is applied in the very Cognition of oneself and the surrounding world.
                And about the question left to you, I repeat again, answer yourself! for I know the answer to it. But I didn’t give a ready answer and don’t want to. After all, this is a matter of personal growth for everyone. In addition, as mystical philosophy asserts (here again I will refer to one of the Traditions of Knowledge - Orthodox mysticism), each of us has the right to both know about what interests him and not know about what he is not interested in. Freedom of choice!
                Philosophers are often regarded as worthless scientists because they are preoccupied with patterns of mental judgment that cannot be put into practice. But with mystics from ancient times, the opposite can be traced. A knowledgeable person (for example, a Sufi, or a Christian) embodies in practice what he has learned as a result of working on himself (by the way, this is where the Masons have a construction sivolik - processing (cutting) a stone (their Soul, Higher Self)). That is, taking into account the Laws of the Universe, each mystic makes far-sighted decisions, which now and subsequently should bring some good results. And so in everything and all life!
                You are writing about people (ludins) to whom your acquaintance teaches collective practices and for whom most often this is nothing more than a hobby that does not reach true DEPUTY. Thus, from the point of view of the mystics (here I remember one of the most famous contemporaries to us, George Gurdjieff), people are not Humans and inherently are not far from animals.
                But I wrote so much after I had already said goodbye. By the way, your friend may find the book mentioned above useful. There is also about collective Practices.
                Once again, all the best!
                1. ee2100
                  ee2100 13 October 2020 19: 03
                  The question is not the topic. Why "Arkady Gaidar"?
                  1. Arkady Gaidar
                    Arkady Gaidar 13 October 2020 19: 41
                    A talented children's writer who died in the battles for the Motherland in the fall of 1941.
                    1. ee2100
                      ee2100 13 October 2020 19: 47
                      Very ambiguous personality. He was kicked out of the CPSU (b), an alcoholic, he got drunk on youngsters, but he volunteered to die. The latter succeeded.
                      A writer of his time.
                      1. Arkady Gaidar
                        Arkady Gaidar 13 October 2020 19: 59
                        Yes, it is ambiguous. But it must be borne in mind that he received a severe concussion during the civil war. And during the breaks, when he didn’t blow his mind, he always tried to be useful to society. And they did not take him to the front as a volunteer, because of the same severe concussion. So he went to the front as a military correspondent.
                        But that has nothing to do with this article.
                        If you asked in order to find out whether I associate myself with this person, the answer will be no. Just a tribute to the memory of one of those who lived purposefully.
                        Well, ending our conversation, in addition to the above book, I will leave a link to one of my articles, which has already been blocked several times, in view of the information openly stated in it))
                        In the original, the article is titled: "Psychotronic weapons and our future" (on the methods of influencing the psyche and the prospects for the development of means for this). But now it's some kind of poker)))
                        Good luck!
                      2. ee2100
                        ee2100 13 October 2020 20: 12
                        Is it "how to participate in the World Series of Poker"?
                      3. Arkady Gaidar
                        Arkady Gaidar 13 October 2020 20: 20
                        I have no idea! Although the authorship seems to be mine)))
                      4. ee2100
                        ee2100 13 October 2020 20: 33
                        You will deal with the universe!
                      5. Arkady Gaidar
                        Arkady Gaidar 13 October 2020 20: 53
                        In the sense, figure it out? What for?
                      6. ee2100
                        ee2100 13 October 2020 21: 20
                        About the game of poker and the universe, as disclosed
                      7. Arkady Gaidar
                        Arkady Gaidar 13 October 2020 21: 32
                        I do not care. All interested parties have already read this article. And now they are blocking it, then they are trying to undermine the opinion of me by posting some bullshit about the game of poker, only there is little sense from this. I have to move on, and this is the past. It is a pity, of course, that many ordinary people will not be able to read and figure out what's what with this psychotronic weapon. But it is not possible to fight on all fronts at once.
                        Some forces in society are interested in retaining power over human minds and therefore they are jarred when they openly talk about methods and means. And I will not explain why, but many of these warriors will lose the very power for which they are so insidious. About this, too, is in the replaced article)))
                      8. ee2100
                        ee2100 14 October 2020 07: 49
                        Send to e-mail: [email protected]
                      9. Arkady Gaidar
                        Arkady Gaidar 14 October 2020 08: 20
                        If I find. It was written 3 years ago.
                      10. ee2100
                        ee2100 14 October 2020 08: 40
                        I will be grateful
  • Korsar4
    Korsar4 10 October 2020 10: 56
    Interesting are the plants from which the labyrinth is created. There are already requirements for a hedge. For Europe, yew and boxwood are typical breeds. We participated in the laying of a small one: from thuja, a variety of emeralds and cotoneaster. The kids love it. Me too. If there is an opportunity to pass without disturbing anyone, I will definitely do it.
  • A. Privalov
    A. Privalov 10 October 2020 11: 02
    The ancient Greeks had an ancient tradition - to carry the most beautiful
    girls to the island of the Minotaur. And while we sailed to the island, on a ship
    it happened that upon arrival the girls demanded wine,
    continuation of the banquet and the Minotaur.
    The Minotaur huddled in a corner, cried and shouted:
    - Yes, is it a labyrinth, or a courtyard ...!?
  • Operator
    Operator 10 October 2020 11: 21
    The most ancient labyrinths in the history of mankind are stone spirals on the Karelian Isthmus, the Solovetsky Islands and the Kola Peninsula. In nearby burials, bone remains of people were found - carriers of the haplogroup R1a (direct ancestors of the Aryans, Slavs and part of the Scandinavians) dating back to 7 thousand years BC.

    All the other labyrinths are bare borrowings from the Black Sea Aryans, spread by them in the 2nd millennium BC. Europe, Asia and Africa (Egypt).
    1. AllBiBek
      AllBiBek 10 October 2020 23: 26
      And here just grains of relatively reliable information were superimposed on folk history and other new age.
      Near the same Kandalaksha labyrinth, for example, ancient sites were found. This is not surprising: they have a convenient strategic position, and people have never ignored such places.
      The sites were dug in the 70s, and reports accurately figured out the "age of early metals".
      Adepts of schizotericism and ufology automatically prescribed this into Middle Eastern analogies, and brought up the date "2000 BC".
      Meanwhile, the early metals of the North of Europe are the times of Alexander the Great, during the Catastrophe of the Bronze Age even the Neolithic did not start everywhere, there were no prerequisites. The "early metals" here are several centuries after the end of the Aryan migrations.
      4000 years ago - Karelia and Kola in swamps, the process of formation of Lake Ladoga is under way, the Neva delta occupies a third of the Leningrad region, and so on.
      Any monument of human activity, such as a parking lot or settlement of such a prescription in the Leningrad region or Karelia or on the Kola, is valuable in itself for one fact.
      And then suddenly - from the time of the cataclysms of four thousand years ago, as many as several hundred labyrinths survived, this is an order of magnitude more than the confirmed sites of the same age.
      Doesn’t it bother you?
      1. Operator
        Operator 11 October 2020 00: 26
        The first Ugric (N1c1) and Sami (N2) appeared in Europe in the 1st millennium BC. The first Scandinavians (I1 + R1a of the Western European subclade) appeared in the north of the Scandinavian Peninsula in the 1st millennium AD.

        In this connection, the first inhabitants of the Karelian Isthmus, the Kola Peninsula and the Solovetsky Islands were the ancestors of the Slavs, part of the Scandinavians and the Black Sea Aryans (R1a of the common European subclade).

        PS The pan-European subclade R1a was divided into Western European, Eastern European and Black Sea subclades in the 5th millennium BC.
        1. AllBiBek
          AllBiBek 11 October 2020 10: 22
          Is this how to be with you?
          I tell you about verifiable biology and facts, and you tell me about Klesov's pseudo-genetics (thanks for not Fomenko and Nosovsky) in the format of memorized mantras.
          Okay, genetic analysis.
          Who did it? What finds? By what method? From what monuments? What is their date? How are dates dated and calibrated? Where can I see the results?
          In the end, why the Kola labyrinths so openly resemble mushroom rings, and what is the connection of mushrooms with the world of the dead among the Proto-Finns and Proto-Ugroans - at least you can tell? And what kind of haplogroup were those mushrooms that Klemov used to try when he sucked the "genetic history of mankind".
          1. Operator
            Operator 11 October 2020 14: 01
            In general, genetic analyzes of Y chromosomes do not need any external dating of bone remains for a simple reason - the average accumulation time of one mutation in a chromosome is 25 years (plus or minus less than one year for specific genes). Therefore, they act outrageously simply - they take gene material from the living carriers of a specific haplogroup of a specific subclade and compare the number of mutations that have occurred in comparison with that found in the burial. A long time ago, in the field of population genetics and DNA genealogy, a timeline was built for all haplogroups of Homo Sapiens, starting with the appearance of the first carrier of haplogroup A 224 thousand years ago.

            This method fully correlates with the radioisotope analysis of carbon in organic objects in the burials of human bone remains.

            PS A wide advertising campaign for the sale of dried fly agarics is now launched on the Internet - you, as a fan of mushrooms, will clearly like it laughing
  • Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 10 October 2020 11: 28
    And we at school in the classroom played "Labyrinth". On a 10x10 field, as for "Sea Battle", you draw a labyrinth, in it mines, holes, stairs, doors, keys. The main condition is to be passable. Well, you drive a comrade. You call the coordinates of the entrance, he puts a point at himself and begins:
    - Up.
    - Wall.
    - Down.
    - Passed, mine is nearby ...
    And so on, until the exit. Lessons are so boring ... smile
  • Force multiplier
    Force multiplier 10 October 2020 11: 51
    Labyrinth de la Cathédrale Notre-Dame

    Labyrinth of the Cathedral of Theodorovsk Icon Mother of God

    Maze Blo-Jungfrun

    The labyrinth is associated with the cult of the Great Goddess (and this is not exactly what Gimbutas imagined)

    The so-called "christogram" on the labarum (!) Resembles a labrys and apparently has a solar (or solar-lunar) symbolism (Constantine saw it in the sun)
    1. AllBiBek
      AllBiBek 11 October 2020 10: 27
      Labrys, in principle, cannot be a solar sign. It is lunar in its purest form.
      At the time of the spread of Christianity in the Obolonskys' house, everything had already been mixed more than once or not twice, and symbolism became complicated to mutually exclusive in a bunch of moments, but in general, solar signs for early cultures are agriculture, but lunar calendars are cattle breeding, and in specific formats , keeping a cow in a stable and grazing in the morning in the morning and driving it into a stall in the evening is not it.
      1. Force multiplier
        Force multiplier 11 October 2020 13: 06
        The priests of Apollo at Delphi were called Lab [r] Iads. The first priests were brought there by Apollo himself, they were Cretans from Knossos. In Hierapolis there is the Temple of Apollo (Apollo Lairbenos (!)), The main temple of the city. In the theater of the city, Apollo is depicted with a labrys. On the coins of the city - labrys
        The binding of sacred symbols to the calendar of agricultural works is still too oversimplification.
        1. AllBiBek
          AllBiBek 11 October 2020 13: 45
          So this is an eclectic cult; the Greeks, where the Achaeans mixed with the Cretans, which the Dorians confused even more.
          Greek mythology is not at all a subtle collection of myths, these are 4 solid volumes, and even if you remove all the adventures of Zeus from them to the left, it will become thinner only by a third.
          1. Force multiplier
            Force multiplier 11 October 2020 21: 14
            The symbol is associated with a solar deity, regardless of its origin.
            Greek mythology is ancient literature, primarily Hesiod and Homer
  • kalibr
    kalibr 10 October 2020 15: 09
    Great stuff!
  • Moskovit
    Moskovit 10 October 2020 16: 25
    Another labyrinth is presented in the movie "Sorcerers". ))
    The Palace of Knossos is very large by the standards of that time (approximately like the dachas of some of our officials). Well, and among the sailing fishermen, he could cause ecstasy with his size. All the premises there are purely utilitarian - storage of wines and grain, living rooms, a throne room. If they wanted to confuse someone, so maybe the inspectors from the local Cretan headquarters)).
  • Yura
    Yura 10 October 2020 21: 13
    Very good informative article! After reading to say the work directly, I went to make coffee for myself, in the process of this sacred action, some thought haunted, and at one moment it took shape - the labyrinths were built a long time ago, so long ago that no one knows the beginning and before as they became sacred, they had a purely utilitarian, practical meaning. People used caves and catacombs for shelter and protection, and in order that some of them would not get lost, maps were needed, and here it can be assumed that in order for others to know the path to the exit (which could not necessarily be where the entrance was) laid out these maps are made of stones with the only correct path, and the one who first entered the cave had to go through this labyrinth many times in order to remember all the transitions, turns, etc. through the legs .. After all, it is difficult to explain in words - first you go straight, then left, then immediately same to the right, then down, then with a turn to the left up and so several dozen times, unless you remember that. It seems like a crazy idea, but on the other hand, why not. What do you say, dear author?
    1. Yura
      Yura 10 October 2020 21: 27
      In addition, later it could be maps of dungeons in fortresses and castles, disguised as an intricate drawing, which was given one or another meaning.
      1. AllBiBek
        AllBiBek 11 October 2020 10: 31
        In castles there are no dungeons as such, there are one or two secret passages outside the castle, and the standard location of the basements under it. Maximum, exit to the quarries, where the stone was chopped, and they are all monotonous worse than domestic pop music. Herringbone, or double herringbone. Getting lost is unrealistic.
        The same goes for palaces. It's just not the scale to deploy the catacombs.
        It's more difficult under the cities.
    2. AllBiBek
      AllBiBek 11 October 2020 10: 33
      Uh ... Most of the "labyrinths" described in the material - you are waist-deep at most, and most often they will not reach your knees.