Military Review

Capitals of the Roman Empire

75

The Roman Empire in the years 293-305 Clarification: during this period, Diocletian bore the title "August", and Galerius - "Caesar"


Perhaps the topic of the article will cause bewilderment among some readers: we are talking about the Roman Empire, which means, as many might think, the issue of the capital is decided unequivocally - Rome. However, the term "Roman Empire" is also ambiguous, and the issue of its capitals is much more complicated than it might seem at first glance.

The tetrarchic system of government of the Roman Empire, introduced by the emperor Diocletian, required the definition of new political centers. Those in 286 became Nicomedia (now Izmit), which Diocletian himself chose as his residence (first August), and Mediolanus (now Milan), which became the residence of Maximian Herculius (second August). In 293, the capitals were determined for their co-rulers, the Caesars: Sirmius (now Sremska-Mitrovica) for Galerius (co-ruler of Diocletian) and Augustus Treverskaya (now Trier) for Constantius Chlorus (co-ruler of Maximian Herculius).


Diocletian


Maximian Herculius

Capitals of the Roman Empire

Galeriy


Constance Chlorine

In 305, at the end of their 20-year term of reign, Diocletian and Maximian Herculius, as expected, resigned from their powers and began to lead private life: Diocletian retired to his palace near the modern city of Split (Croatia), and Maximian Herculius - to his villa in southern Italy (later the latter tried to return to power, but this ended in his suicide in 310). Galerius in Nicomedia and Constantius Chlorus in Mediolanum became Augustus, and their Caesars, respectively, were Maximinus Daza, nephew of Galerius, in Sirmium, and Flavius ​​Sever, protege of Galerius, in Augustus of Trever.

But already in 306, Constantius Chlorus died, and Mediolanus became the residence of Flavius ​​Severus, and Augustus of Treverskaya became the residence of Constantine, the son of Constantius Chlorus. Constantine and other contenders for power in the tetrarchy began to challenge the power of Flavius ​​Severus, and he could not survive 307, presumably being killed on the orders of Maxentius, son of Maximian Herculius.


Constantine the Great


Maxentius

In 308, the situation with the contenders for power became so difficult that there were already four contenders for the August title. Attempts to agree on the division of power did not lead to anything, and a civil war broke out. One of the most important episodes of this war was the victory of Constantine in 312 over Maxentius at the Mulvian bridge, which is near Rome. In memory of this victory, thanks to the chrysma that Constantine saw on their shields, which Constantine saw in a sign before the battle, by the legionnaires of Constantine, he issued in 313 the Mediolan Edict of Religious Tolerance, proclaiming Christianity as the full religion of the Roman Empire.

And in 313, Licinius, another protege of Galerius, defeated Maximinus Daza, who, after the defeat, committed suicide. Thus, in 313, only two political centers remained in the Roman Empire: Mediolanus, the residence of Constantine, and Nicomedia, the residence of Licinius.


Licinius


Maximin Daza

In 314, Constantine inflicted the first, and in 324 - the final defeat of Licinius and took his capital Nicomedia. We can say that Constantine returned to the city of his youth: he spent a long time here during the Augustus of the East - Diocletian and Galeria. Here in 337 Constantine the Great also died.

After the victory over Licinius, and perhaps even earlier, Constantine decided to build a new united capital of the empire. Such in 330 was the city of New Rome, built on the site of the ancient Greek colony of Byzantium. The name New Rome did not take root, and the city entered history called Constantinople. In fairness, it must be said that the name given to the city by Constantine himself was preserved in the title of the Patriarch of Constantinople:

Actually, Rome all this time did not remain only one of the cultural and religious, including Christian (the residence of the popes), centers of the empire. In 306-312. The Eternal City was the seat of the self-proclaimed emperor Maxentius, with whom, at the same time in 307-308. acted by his father Maximian Herculius. Together they managed to withstand first against Flavius ​​Severus, and when he was eliminated by them, against Galerius. It is noteworthy that after the victory over Maxentius in 312, Constantine did not stay in Rome, but went to Mediolanus.

Sirmius in 375 was chosen as his residence by Emperor Valentinian, who died the same year. In 379, Theodosius was proclaimed emperor here.

In 395, after the death of Emperor Theodosius the Great, the Roman Empire finally disintegrated into two parts, Western and Eastern, and remained in this state until the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476. Mediolanus again became the capital of the West, which was such until 402. when the emperor Honorius, fearing the Visigoths, moved his residence under the protection of the powerful fortifications of Ravenna. Here, in Ravenna, in 476, the last West Roman emperor, Romulus Augustulus, was overthrown. It is noteworthy that this very event, and not the capture of Rome in 410 by the Visigoths or in 455 by the Vandals, is considered to be the date of the fall of the Western Roman Empire.

Ravenna in 493-540 was the capital of the Ostrogoth Kingdom. In 540, the city was captured by the East Roman (Byzantine) troops and from 581 was the center of the Byzantine province of the Ravenna Exarchate, until in 751 it was finally captured by the Lombards.

Constantinople, before its final fall as the capital of the Byzantine Empire in 1453, under the blows of the Ottoman Turks, managed to visit the capital of the Latin Empire (1204-1261). Officially its current name, Istanbul (which is a distorted word "Constantinople"), the city received only in 1930.
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  1. Olgovich
    Olgovich 4 October 2020 07: 34
    0
    The Roman Empire in the years 293-305


    Dacia is no longer shown as part of the Empire.

    But the "true" descendants of the Romans "(they consider themselves as such) still live in Moldova yes

    This is not Rome, this is Chisinau:


    The Chisinau copy was made in Rome and donated to Rumnaia (4 pieces in total), delivered to Chisinau by the decision of Romania
    1. Deniska999
      Deniska999 4 October 2020 07: 58
      +6
      Dacia was abandoned by the Romans back under Aurelian in the 270s. And the map shows the empire of the tetrarchy era. The province of Coastal Dacia, formed after it, has nothing to do with trans-Danube Dacia.
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 4 October 2020 10: 10
        0
        Quote: Deniska999
        Dacia was abandoned by the Romans more under Aurelian in 270s.

        This is written:
        Dacia already not shown as part of the Empire.


        But the romanized population remained.

        And the card, by the way, for the situation 290 years-the horror, how much time has passed since 273, already .... 17 years. lol
        1. Deniska999
          Deniska999 4 October 2020 10: 56
          +4
          Researchers believe that the population was also evacuated. There is a large monograph by Alaric Watson about Aurelian. True in English, but there this issue is raised.
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 4 October 2020 11: 09
            0
            Quote: Deniska999
            Researchers believe the population was evacuated as well

            The army and the urban population (not all) left.

            Most of the countryside remains.

            Romanians didn't come from anywhere
            1. fuxila
              fuxila 4 October 2020 12: 47
              +4
              Historians have not yet come to an unambiguous conclusion about which part of the population left Dacia - more or less. The former (despite numerous invasions of other peoples) is supported by the preservation of the Latin language on this territory, which became Romanian; in favor of the latter - the complete disappearance from the sources for several centuries of any mention of the Romans-Romans living here. There was even a version that the current Romanians are the descendants of the Vlachs-Volokhs ousted from the Balkans by the Slavs (some of their groups still live south of the Danube) and hence the ancient name of Romania - Wallachia. Although, by and large, these Vlachs are the same romanized Dacian-Thracians, like their brethren who lived north of the Danube.
              1. Engineer
                Engineer 4 October 2020 13: 11
                +2
                There was even a version that the current Romanians are the descendants of the Vlachs-Volokhs ousted from the Balkans by the Slavs (some of their groups still live south of the Danube) and hence the ancient name of Romania - Wallachia.

                If we assume that Ipotesti-Kindeshti is not a Slavic, but a Pre-Romanian culture, then we get an almost continuous chain from the ancient Dacians and Thracians to the Romanians
                Apparently, they mostly stayed. They just changed owners. Goths, Gepids, Avars. Of these, the first couple is quite sane.
                1. Operator
                  Operator 4 October 2020 13: 41
                  0
                  Descendants of the indigenous people of the Dacians - 26% (I2), the descendants of the Ants - 18% (R1a), the descendants of the Romans - 16% (R1b), the descendants of the Polovtsians, Pechenegs, Avars and Khazars - 13% (J2 ), descendants of the Vlachs - 9% (E1), descendants of the ready - 2% (I1).
    2. Normal ok
      Normal ok 4 October 2020 12: 36
      +1
      Quote: Olgovich
      The Roman Empire in the years 293-305


      Dacia is no longer shown as part of the Empire.

      But the "true" descendants of the Romans "(they consider themselves as such) still live in Moldova yes

      This is not Rome, this is Chisinau:


      The Chisinau copy was made in Rome and donated to Rumnaia (4 pieces in total), delivered to Chisinau by the decision of Romania

      The map is clearly not accurate. The Romans moved further along the Black Sea coast and deeper into what is now Bessarabia. For example, in the city of Tira (now Belgorod-Dnestrovsky) there was a Roman garrison. I know, because I myself participated in the excavations of Tyra.
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 4 October 2020 12: 46
        0
        Quote: Normal ok
        The map is clearly not accurate. The Romans moved further along the Black Sea coast and deeper into what is now Bessarabia. For example, in the city of Tira (now Belgorod-Dnestrovsky) there was a Roman garrison. I know, because I myself participated in the excavations of Tyra.

        That's right, but the map dates back to 290, and the official evacuation of the Romans took place in the 270s.

        And you mean those excavations. that in front of the entrance to the fortress (was there more than once)?

        By the way, Belgorod_Dnestrovsky is one of the most ancient cities in the world with incessant history, along with Rome.
  2. Deniska999
    Deniska999 4 October 2020 08: 14
    +1
    It should be noted that the center of power from Rome began to move even before the tetrarchy in the era of soldier emperors. For example, Maximinus the Thracian never visited the capital, being on the Rhine and Danube. Although Trebonian Gallus remained in Rome, his son Volusian actually represented him in the provinces. Under Valerian, a clear division had already taken shape - he himself was in the East, while his son Gallienus ruled the western provinces. The death of Valerian entailed a redistribution of power - in the provinces of Gallienus were represented by his young sons - in Gaul and on the Danube. Then the subsequent emperors - Claudius, Aurelian, Prob - constantly moved around the empire, shifting the center of power to their place of residence. Kara's sons Karin and Numerian similarly shared powers over both halves of the empire.
  3. Operator
    Operator 4 October 2020 10: 09
    +2
    The official name of the capital of the Byzantine state "New Rome" survived until its conquest by the Turks. The name "Constantinople" was given in 1453 by Sultan Mehmed II - an admirer of Emperor Constantine the Great. The name "Istanbul" (a distorted Greek phrase "in the city") was appropriated in 1930 by Kemal Ataturk as part of the Turkicization policy.

    The official name of the Byzantine state "Roman Empire" remained until its conquest by the crusaders in 1204 with the assignment of the name "Latin Empire". After the expulsion of the Crusaders in 1261, the title "Roman Empire" was restored and existed until 1453.

    PS Dacia after the Roman genocide of the indigenous Dacians in the 1st century AD was inhabited by Roman colonists, to whom were then added people from nomadic peoples - Goths, Huns, Antes, Avars, Pechenegs, Ugrians and Bulgars. Nevertheless, the majority of the population of Romania / Romania and Moldavia / Moldova still has Roman ancestors and retained the vulgarized Latin language.
  4. bk0010
    bk0010 4 October 2020 10: 19
    0
    To what a bandit faces at the busts of these Augustus and Caesars ...
    1. Deniska999
      Deniska999 4 October 2020 10: 58
      +4
      But they made a lot of efforts to bring the empire out of the crisis of the III century, being all only peasants by origin and having almost no education.
    2. siberalt
      siberalt 4 October 2020 17: 21
      -3
      I agree 100%. Someone is very similar to Chubais, and someone is the spitting image of Sechin. And for the most part, they look like our State Duma deputies.winked
  5. Kwas
    Kwas 4 October 2020 10: 59
    +3
    I must say that we are talking about the phase of the collapse of the Roman Empire and civil wars. By analogy, it is necessary to count among the capitals of Russia Omsk, Kiev, Bukhara, and where there were still Wrangel and Krasnov. And you can also Warsaw with Helsingfors.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 4 October 2020 11: 53
      +7
      Konstantin! hi
      The phase of the collapse of the Roman Empire lasted two centuries, the collapse of the Russian Empire took place in 10 years. Anology is hardly possible ...
      1. Kwas
        Kwas 4 October 2020 12: 38
        +3
        Well, I would say that we had at least two phases of disintegration, 1917 and 1991. And if you listen to what they say in Kiev, now it is there that the capital of the empire. And the future is covered with darkness, while there is no ideological basis, it is too early to relax.
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 4 October 2020 12: 51
          +4
          "If it is born in the empire,
          Better to live in a remote province, by the sea "(C)
          1. Bad_gr
            Bad_gr 4 October 2020 22: 10
            0
            Quote: 3x3zsave
            And the future is covered with darkness

            And the past is even more covered with darkness. As has been said more than once, "we have a country with an unpredictable past."
            We know what happened in ancient Rome 2000 years ago, we can even look at the faces of the rulers of those years, but if you ask any schoolchild about the history of Russia, they will only remember Peter I (Tsar-reformer), Ivan the Terrible (despot), and also Nicholas II (killed with his family during the Revolution). And also we will hear a bunch of everything that foreign experts wrote to us, presenting it to us as the history of our country.
            I wonder if our government thinks, having connected normal (not crooks) our historians, relying on all sorts of historical documents, to restore the history of the country, excluding all sorts of fictions. And based on them, write normal history textbooks for schools, replace those comics that are now called textbooks?
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 4 October 2020 22: 20
              +1
              You shouldn't attribute other people's words to me.
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 4 October 2020 22: 43
                +1
                This is how they become oracles.
              2. Bad_gr
                Bad_gr 5 October 2020 12: 55
                +1
                Quote: 3x3zsave
                You shouldn't attribute other people's words to me.

                Sorry my cant sad
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 5 October 2020 15: 52
                  +1
                  Nothing happens. hi
        2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 4 October 2020 13: 16
          +4
          Quote: Kwas
          Well, I would say that we had at least two phases of disintegration, 1917 and 1991. And if you listen to what they say in Kiev, now it is there that the capital of the empire.

          Constantine, specify Kiev which capital of the empire?
          1. Nikolai Korovin
            Nikolai Korovin 4 October 2020 15: 18
            +1
            If there were a capital, there would be an empire. From the Eastern Roman Empire (it would be necessary to get rid of the derogatory term "Byzantium", invented in the 1453th century), by XNUMX only the city itself and the western coast of the Bosphorus and partly the Sea of ​​Marmara remained. And yet this stub was called an empire. Consequently, the Kiev Empire can be.
          2. Korsar4
            Korsar4 4 October 2020 15: 21
            +4
            The empire has many signs. And imperial thinking is also important.

            It is far enough from the White Sea to the Sea of ​​Japan. There is where to roam.
            1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka 4 October 2020 16: 42
              +4
              Hello, Sergey!
              The state can bear many names, have various forms of state structure and government, but Byzantium, the Eastern Roman Empire, regardless of the era after Emperor Constantine, deserved to be called an empire, although it was the force of continuity.
              Kyevshchena, with all the acceptance that capital Kiev is the mother of Russian cities - definitely not.
              In the scientific literature, from 7 to 20 (approximately) markers "IMPERIA" are reflected!
              Kievan Rus, even at the peak of dawn under Svyatoslav Igorevich, Vladimir the Red Sun, Vladimir Monomakh - lacks from 3 to 10 basic and optional signs of the Empire !!! Even the Mongol empire covers us by markers twice or more. Sadly, but alas ...
              However, this also applies to the Commonwealth, at the time of dawn. By the way, Russia has accumulated institutions (imperial identification) by the end of the reign of Aleksei Mikhailovich, if not under Fedor Alekseevich.
              At the same time, the main ones: multinationality and polyconfessionalism were originally possessed by Rus.
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 4 October 2020 16: 46
                +3
                I agree. This is an eternal question - what, for example, Sweden would like to live in - the times of Charles XII or in a more peaceful time.

                However, as Levitansky wrote brilliantly:

                "Times do not choose."
                1. Korsar4
                  Korsar4 4 October 2020 20: 03
                  +1
                  Leap after leap: Kushner, not Levitansky.
            2. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 4 October 2020 16: 58
              +4
              And imperial thinking is also important.
              From this perspective, Poland is an empire laughing
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 4 October 2020 17: 09
                +3
                There is already a question of "ambition and ammunition". But with False Dmitry in the Kremlin - who knows how it could turn.

                It's not "imperial points" to gain every year.
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 4 October 2020 18: 13
                  +3
                  It would hardly have been otherwise. Muscovy is too large a piece for the Commonwealth. However, the antithesis is also true.
                  1. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 4 October 2020 18: 21
                    +2
                    There is still a question of centrifugal and centripetal forces.
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 4 October 2020 18: 35
                      +3
                      Undoubtedly. There were always an abundance of the first in Poland, for "in Poland, they were wooed." Historical and political oxymoron, a country that has lived in a state of plebescite for 500 years
                      1. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 4 October 2020 18: 37
                        +2
                        I was only in Gdansk.

                        And literary associations are a dime a dozen.
                      2. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 4 October 2020 18: 42
                        +4
                        Gdansk is as Polish as Narva is Estonian.
                      3. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 4 October 2020 18: 45
                        +1
                        I have not been to Krakow, I have not even reached Belovezhskaya Pushcha.

                        But even in the vicinity of Polotsk, the influence of Poland is felt.

                        Another pot-bellied Pole - botanist liked to pin up. And a classmate is working in Poland.

                        Much is intertwined.
                      4. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 4 October 2020 18: 58
                        +2
                        But even in the vicinity of Polotsk, the influence of Poland is felt.
                        On this issue, it is better to discuss with Nikolai. He visits Polotsk regularly.
                      5. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 4 October 2020 19: 02
                        +1
                        Even here he told.

                        At least lay the gradient in the western direction - from Mozhaisk and Smolensk.
                  2. Liam
                    Liam 4 October 2020 18: 48
                    +1
                    Quote: 3x3zsave
                    Gdansk is as Polish as Narva is Estonian.

                    Whose, then?
                    hi
                  3. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 4 October 2020 18: 59
                    +3
                    He was German for 250 years.
                  4. Liam
                    Liam 4 October 2020 19: 16
                    +2
                    250? In the structure of Prussia since 1793 In the structure of the German Empire from 1871 to 1918
                  5. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 4 October 2020 19: 26
                    +1
                    1793-1945, Danzig.
                  6. Liam
                    Liam 4 October 2020 19: 27
                    0
                    Well, anyway, 152 turns out. Since 1918, by the way, a free city. Outside the states
                  7. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 4 October 2020 19: 33
                    +2
                    Oh yes, right! I'm sorry! Half a day the balance was knocked out, the head was swollen from the tsifiri.
          3. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 4 October 2020 19: 07
            +2
            Quote: Liam
            Whose, then?

            Well, how can I say ...
            On the site of the Estonian settlement, the Danes built a castle, the Swedes - a fortress, the Russians - a city. In Narva, even now, 90 percent of the population is Russian, and at the time of the collapse of the USSR, no one there not only spoke Estonian, but did not even understand it.
            So whose city is this?
          4. Liam
            Liam 4 October 2020 19: 11
            +2
            I asked about Gdansk
          5. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 4 October 2020 19: 28
            +2
            So whose city is this?
            Vepsian! laughing
          6. Korsar4
            Korsar4 4 October 2020 19: 45
            +2
            Another place that I have not been, but planned, is the Vepsian forest. In your Leningrad region.
          7. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 4 October 2020 19: 54
            +2
            I tried two years ago. I got to Tikhvin and found out that the cultural natural-historical project was covered with a copper basin 5 years ago. Alas.
          8. Korsar4
            Korsar4 4 October 2020 19: 59
            +2
            The spruce forests are still there. Very famous spruce forests.

            I visited Kologriva. But it was much easier for me.
          9. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 4 October 2020 20: 12
            +2
            Very famous spruce forests.
            Undoubtedly. However, I do not go into a single spruce forest without a guide. Too much pressure on my urbanized psyche.
          10. Korsar4
            Korsar4 4 October 2020 20: 20
            +2
            "In a pine forest - to have fun, in a birch forest - to marry, in a spruce forest - to hang yourself" (c).
          11. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 4 October 2020 20: 29
            +2
            I remember this saying. For me it is correct.
        3. Trilobite Master
          Trilobite Master 4 October 2020 20: 27
          +3
          In 2015 I had a chance to visit the village of Radogoshch - in the very center of the Vepsovskaya Upland. An interesting place, on one side of the hill on which the village stands, all the streams flow into the Baltic Sea, and on the other, into the Caspian. Earlier in this village, they say, there was a museum of Vepsian culture, such an amateur, held on by enthusiasts. Now I do not know, but then I did not get into it.
          For hunting, mushrooms, fish - the places are, of course, gorgeous. Wilderness. Buses to the village run twice a week. But the local school still teaches the Vepsian language. Locals consider Radogoshch the capital of the Vepsian region.
  • Catfish
    Catfish 4 October 2020 17: 14
    +2
    There is where to roam.

    God forbid! In the seventeenth they roamed - still reverberates.
    1. Korsar4
      Korsar4 4 October 2020 17: 50
      +2
      You can "roam" in different ways. There is the Cossack Ermak, and there is Stenka Razin. And it looks like, not the same thing.
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 4 October 2020 18: 18
        +2
        It is all true, but without tanks on the street it is somehow calmer. And I saw them near my house twice in my life, in childhood and already in adulthood (this is not counting the shooting from the bridge at the White House).
        1. Korsar4
          Korsar4 4 October 2020 18: 26
          +3
          In 1991 he attended a training camp at the military department. What happened in Moscow is not clear. No information. At night, tanks in the nearest military unit were actively growling.

          In 1993 I went to work by Ostankino.

          Life is more than calm by our standards.

          1987 - a visit to Poti and 2007 - to Gyor-az-Zor: also a relatively quiet time. Only the bells rang out.

          However, what is still ahead.
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 4 October 2020 18: 47
            +3
            In 1953, I crawl out onto the balcony and shout in delight: "Mom, look, tanks!" He was instantly expelled from the balcony into the room, and the door to him was locked. Tanks and 87 mm. antiaircraft guns stood on a nickle around the "Board of Honor of Collective Farms" on Samoteok. But there was no shooting.
            In 1991 they stood near the publishing house "Literaturnaya gazeta" on Tsvetnoy, in 93 there.
            I watched the firing from the bridge in a live broadcast, sitting on the fifth floor of a house located five hundred meters from this mosia, after each shot in the sideboard, dishes rattled. He did not walk into the street following the well-known saying - "Pans fight, the forelocks of slaves crackle." As it turned out later, he did the right thing.
            1. Korsar4
              Korsar4 4 October 2020 18: 53
              +3
              Sometimes you don't know where it starts to thicken.

              A couple of years ago I went to the electric trains on Yaroslavskoye through a corridor from the riot police. In Pushkino, the exit from the train was also controlled and the helicopter circled. A local mess was trying to start.
            2. Korsar4
              Korsar4 4 October 2020 18: 57
              +3
              Looked - 6 years have passed. What does not hurt, is erased from memory faster.
  • siberalt
    siberalt 4 October 2020 17: 26
    +2
    The Romans had neither Gorbachev nor Yeltsin. That's why they fell apart for so long.
    1. ycuce234-san
      ycuce234-san 4 October 2020 18: 25
      0
      There the co-government would have eclipsed Cleopatra and Alexander. It is interesting to think about which Roman resort the first lady would have chosen as her capital ...
    2. AllBiBek
      AllBiBek 6 October 2020 01: 02
      0
      In the days of Rome, there was no USA, and Britain was a Roman colony.
      And one fig had to build two walls across the island in order to live relatively calmly.
  • fuxila
    fuxila 4 October 2020 12: 34
    +4
    I will fill in a small author's gap about Ravenna: from 476 to 493. Ravenna was the capital of the so-called. barbarian state Odoacer. And the emperor in the Russian historical tradition is still usually called Diocletian - i.e. with the letter "t", not "t".
    1. siberalt
      siberalt 4 October 2020 17: 32
      0
      It is impossible to pronounce the "C" sound without the front teeth (only the "T" sound is received). Is this why in the images of Roman emperors they are all with closed mouths and no one smiles? laughing And it is written as it is heard, just like our victims of the exam.
    2. AllBiBek
      AllBiBek 6 October 2020 01: 03
      0
      So in the Russian historical tradition, Gaius Julius Caesar is also Kai Julius Caesar. AND?
      1. fuxila
        fuxila 7 October 2020 12: 24
        0
        And he is also Kui Rui Petuy. AND?
        1. AllBiBek
          AllBiBek 7 October 2020 14: 56
          0
          And in vain you are ironic.
          Open any pre-revolutionary textbook or monograph on the history of antiquity, there he will be Kai and his surname is Caesar.
          He became Guy and Caesar in the course of a set of measures to correct spelling in the USSR in the 20s. The most famous of those measures is the abolition of "ъ" with or without reason, together with the abolition of a number of symbolic letters. At the same time, we changed the spelling of a number of geographical objects and the full name of the pack of personalities. Then there was the development of a bunch of alphabets for peoples without writing, mainly based on the Latin alphabet. A little later there was a massive Educational program, and after - the transition of all new alphabets to the Cyrillic alphabet.
          1. fuxila
            fuxila 8 October 2020 15: 21
            0
            1000 years ago in the annals of Prince Vladimir they called Volodymer, and as soon as they did not write the name of the governor Sveneld. The same goes for the names of localities and peoples. 200 years ago the name of the Goths was written as Goths. But what does this have to do with today?
  • Yaik Cossack
    Yaik Cossack 4 October 2020 18: 46
    -4
    How strong are the clerical historiographic elements in modern historical science and mass consciousness? Even Marxists and Soviet historians)))

    Constantine was certainly “the Great,” as Christian apologists flatteringly called him. Although he, for the introduction of Judeo-Christianity and the limitation of the traditional Roman religion (ideology), should be called "Apostate" (as later Christian writers called Emperor Julian).

    Even the "Great" all characterize the emperor Theodosius. All his "greatness", praised by the papists, is the defeat of Arianism, the massive replacement of the Roman contingents in the army with barbaric federates and the final closure and destruction of ancient temples and the Olympic Games.
    About times, about morals))))
  • paco.soto
    paco.soto 4 October 2020 20: 59
    +1


    All over Europe there are many Roman architectural monuments in sight, and recently in Madrid I saw Roman ruins quite deep in the metro.
  • Selevc
    Selevc 5 October 2020 17: 02
    0
    The history of the East Roman Empire is more than 1000 years of obscurantism of historians and mysteries of history !!! But in fact, they are mysterious for the masses of ordinary people and are known only to a narrow circle of specialists !!!
    Why is that ??? Why is the Eastern Roman Empire called by the name of its provincial town - not even by the name of the capital !!! ???
    In fact, the history of the relationship between Constantinople and Rome is the history of 1000 years of conflict in which Rome defeated in 1453 !!! The losers are crossed out from everywhere and even their name is consigned to oblivion !!!
    But what came before that? Why was Russia baptized according to the Constantinople rite and not according to the Roman one?

    The answer is simple - because about 800 !!! for years the center (political, religious, cultural, commercial, etc.) of Europe was in Eastern Europe in Constantinople !!! Rome was in ruins and decay and Western Europe was the dark edge of the European world !!!
    And Russia adopted Christianity in the then center of Europe and the Dark Ages are called Dark Ages only for Western Europe - these were the heyday of Eastern Europe !!! Therefore, modern Russia actually has its deep roots in the East Roman Empire !!! And that is why Western historians have always hidden, sowed mud at this period of history and in every possible way call the Slavs - either the Finno-Ugrians, the Mordovians, or some other "primitive Neanderthals" !!!

    But since in modern Russia, schoolchildren study according to the Soviet templates of history, and in Soviet times they studied according to the templates of tsarist Russia (which the Germans wrote and was approved by the tsar, who was also half German), so it all wanders from one textbook to another !!! Dark Ages of European History !!! For whom is the dark question ???

    By the way, there was a period in the history (Dark Ages) of such a rise in Constantinople when the patriarchs appointed popes in Rome !!!