Military Review

National flag colors: from divine to mundane

114
National flag colors: from divine to mundane

Everyone sees: the gods themselves, in their earthly appearance, patronize the young pharaoh. Scene from the movie "Pharaoh" 1966


Take new rifles,
bayonet flags!
And with a song in the rifle
let's go mugs.
One, two!
All in a row!
Go ahead, squad.
V. Mayakovsky, 1927


Long way to the national flag ... Who in childhood has not heard this song from the movie "Timur and his team"! But what color is proposed to impose flags on rifles? For example, we can not guess, because we know that it is red. But why? This question is closely related to the concept of "national color" or colors, but what is the reason for their choice, who chooses them and by what criteria? Let us recall that the Chinese philosopher Kun-tzu, who at one time put forward the idea of ​​a "correct state", spoke of the importance of maintaining certain traditions in it. Actually, people understood this perfectly and so, as the thousand-year история maintaining statehood and power with the help of various emblems. In ancient Egypt, for example, before the pharaoh appearing in public, as well as before his army, they carried gilded symbols of deities, his patrons, the insult of which was punishable by death.

In ancient Rome, images of the gods in front of the army were no longer tolerated, but signs were used that symbolized military valor and the personality of the emperor himself. The main sign was the aquila (eagle of the legion), which played the role of the banner of the legion and its most revered shrine. The loss of the "eagle" led to its disbandment and was considered the height of dishonor. In addition to the eagle, a red cloth with an embroidered gold inscription was fixed on the aquila on the crossbar: SPQR (Senatus Populusque Romanus, “Senate and the Roman people”) - another symbol of the sovereign Roman consciousness.

The sign of maniples, cohorts, centuries or horse turms was also a signum, which was a staff with disks fixed on it, crowned with the image of a palm - a symbol of allegiance to the oath.

The imago sign was a chased image of the emperor and appeared already in the era of imperial Rome. He embodied his visible image and was an object of worship.

The sign of the cavalry was the image of a dragon (drako) - a direct borrowing from the Sarmatians and Dacians, and howling during the jump due to the air passing through it. Here, as we see, there was a direct foreign influence, which the Romans did not disdain at all.

A woven cloth, suspended on a spear shaft horizontally, that is, a standard, was also called by the Romans Vexillum. This banner was simpler and was mainly used by veteran units.


Modern reconstruction of the Roman 'Victory Vexillum' based on a find at Dura Europos

Labarum is the same vixilum, but with Christian symbolism, the “christogram” of the letters Χ (chi) and Ρ (ro) crossed with each other.


Reconstruction. Modern "Roman troops" of the era of the decline of the empire carry labarums

The barbarians who defeated the Roman Empire borrowed from it not only Latin and Christian doctrine, but also many ideas regarding state symbols. And, in particular, these borrowings concerned the symbolism of flowers, which, however, also came to us from time immemorial.

The fact that each color in its own way affects human emotions, its perception of the world and even health, people noticed a long time ago. Although our ancestors used different colors and shades quite intuitively, they did it in ancient times, investing in them a well-defined semantic meaning. Three ancient colors: white, red and black. Over time, the color palette expanded, and color preferences were largely associated with the temperament of people, and that, in turn, with the climate of the lands where they lived. Temperamental southerners turned out to be prone to red, black and yellow colors. But the peoples of the northern regions are most comfortable with blue and white, cold shades.

But we are now talking about the Christian color symbolism that was used everywhere after the collapse of the Roman Empire in Europe, since it was she who formed the basis and colors of all European state flags. So, white in Christianity is nothing more than God's heavenly radiance (God's light, the light of faith), and it symbolizes purity, innocence, joy and festivity, it is not for nothing that the Gospel speaks of the white clothes of the angels of the Lord. On Mount Tabor, Jesus' robe also turned white during his transformation. The symbol of the spirit of the saint is a white dove, the Virgin Mary is a white lily. And it was not for nothing that the banner of Joan of Arc was exactly white, like the royal banner of France, strewn with golden white lilies.

Accordingly, the color red symbolizes divine power and love. In the church, it is formerly a symbol of the atoning blood shed by the Savior. The priests also put on red (along with white clothes) during Easter Week, Trinity days, the memory of the Holy Cross and holidays in honor of the evangelists, holy apostles and martyrs.

Black color in Christian culture, be it East or West, is “the abyss of sin and hell” and also a symbol of mourning.

But green is a symbol of life, rebirth, hopes, but also temptation (not without reason green eyes are attributed to Satan). At the same time, it is the color of the Grail, which, according to legend, was made of a solid emerald, as well as the life-giving cross of the Lord. Green robes are usually worn by clergymen on the days of simple liturgies.


Basilica of Our Lady of Aparecida (Sao Paulo), Brazil with blue domes. This temple houses the main Catholic shrine of this country.

Blue and blue are, of course, the colors of heaven, as well as a miracle of God, and in addition they are associated with the image of the Virgin, which is why the Virgin Mary is usually depicted in a blue cloak on frescoes and icons. But on icons, as a rule, she is depicted in a purple (dark red, cherry) veil, over clothes of dark blue or green colors. This is due to the fact that purple robes, crimson robes, along with gold ones, were considered the clothes of kings and queens. Therefore, the colors on the icon in this case emphasize that the Virgin Mary is the queen of heaven. But here, too, there is a certain subtlety: in Western Christian art, the lower vestments of Mary were depicted mainly in red, and the upper ones in blue, as a hint that her human essence was covered with divine blue. But in the Eastern Christian tradition, everything is just the opposite - the lower blue color is a symbol of her divine essence, while the upper red robe emphasizes her humanity.

Purple and violet are also primordially sacred colors, symbols of God himself. It is not for nothing that only the highest church hierarchs, for example, bishops, could dress in purple and purple robes. The purple mantle is the garment of cardinals who carry the fire of faith and are constantly ready for martyrdom.

Yellow, or rather, gold, is a sign of eternal light, greatness, divine power, strength and glory, as well as the Holy Spirit and ... divine revelation. That is why, for example, in Russia, church domes were usually covered with gold leaf and the frames of images were decorated with it. It is believed that liturgical robes made of gold brocade can replace any others and are especially appropriate as festive vestments.

Of course, very soon all these church symbols migrated to secular heraldry, where only a slightly more secular character was given to its flowers. Since many kingdoms in the Middle Ages chose heavenly saints as patrons, their emblems immediately fell on their flags and coats of arms, and the colors immediately turned into national ones. For example, in England St. George (Georg) is symbolized by a red straight cross on a white field, but it is also present on the flags of Georgia, Genoa, Ulster and even Barcelona, ​​and it is always found in the coats of arms.


Many crosses - many flags! And then they ended up on the same panel in such an interesting way!

An X-shaped red cross on a white background (in heraldic language - a scarlet cross on a silver field) is a symbol of the patron saint of Ireland, St. Patrick and one of the symbols of Ireland itself, although controversy about his origin has not ceased to this day.

The flag with the oblique "Andrew's" cross is the flag of Scotland - a white cross on a blue background, the cross of St. Andrew the First-Called, but the blue cross on white is the flag of the Russian Navy, and it was also the flag of the Kingdom of Poland (and also the flag of the Navy!) In the XNUMXth century, albeit with the addition of a red canopy with a white Polish eagle in the upper right corner.


Polish flag from 1815 to 1833

When Britain united in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the three crosses of the states that entered it were simply inscribed one into the other, and this was a very convenient precedent in the history of heraldry. Although the first flags of the Commonwealth were not at all the same as they are now!


The first flag of the English Commonwealth in 1649-1651.


The second flag of the English Commonwealth, the first flag of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland during the time of Cromwell in 1651-1658


Oliver Cromwell's standard 1653-1659

So even in Great Britain the path to a single national flag was quite long and difficult, what can we say about the flags of many other European countries with a much more dramatic history!


British Royal Standard used everywhere except Scotland


This royal standard rises above the royal palace in Scotland. After all, what could be stronger than traditions, and isn't it obvious that yellow and red are the national Scottish colors, since they are reflected on the flag of national importance!


But this may well become the flag of Great Britain in the event that the Scots leave the Commonwealth and begin to live on their own ...

Let's look at it on the example of such states as Italy and Russia - ancient, for a long time mainly agrarian, sufficiently multinational and have gone through a very long path of state formation. And starting with Britain, next time we will tell about Italy, especially since quite recently a very interesting discussion began on VO about the history of the national flag of Italy and its national colors. Then it will be Russia's turn.

To be continued ...
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  1. Grandfather
    Grandfather 26 September 2020 04: 30
    +9
    And starting with Britain, next time we will tell about Italy, especially since quite recently a very interesting discussion began on VO about the history of the national flag of Italy and its national colors. Then it will be Russia's turn.

    To be continued ...
    or maybe start with Russia, without a long queue, the next version of the "tricolor" is too interesting. if with the Red Banner of the USSR, everything is pure and transparent, like a tear of a child, then with the "tricolor" it is dull like a "pervach". There are both "merchant fleet" and "Vlasovites" and damn what else, get to the bottom of the truth, Author, Vyacheslav Shpakovsky! very interesting.
    1. The leader of the Redskins
      The leader of the Redskins 26 September 2020 05: 52
      +8
      But it was interesting to read! We look forward to continuing!
    2. Ross xnumx
      Ross xnumx 26 September 2020 06: 00
      +2
      Purple and violet are also primordially sacred colors, symbols of God himself. It is not for nothing that only the highest church hierarchs, for example, bishops, could dress in purple and purple robes.

      There is one more interesting feature:
      1. kalibr
        26 September 2020 07: 43
        +5
        A wonderful addition! Thanks!
    3. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 26 September 2020 06: 16
      14
      And if without mockery.
      I will not anticipate the events of the national symbols of state power.
      I would like to point out the opposite, Vyacheslav Olegovich missed the practical meaning and appearance of the flag. In fact, its old Russian name "banner" is more accurate. In the meaning of pulling together howls around him.
      Initially, I dare to suggest that a stick (pole) with tree branches or even a skull of an animal (or even non-animal) was used in the role of a flag, pennant, battle banner. From here grow the legs of the Roman aquila and signum! Gold on red.
      The color scheme with the reference "southern and northern" peoples also seems to me far-fetched. The task of the battle banner is to be visible on the battlefield, so the oldest color of the flag is red !!! In the absence of a chemical industry, it was necessary to strain to acquire such a banner. Even cooler and more expensive is purple. Ponte is more expensive than money.
      Here is the vexillum "Senate and the people of Rome" !!! Gold on red.
      Well, who was late, he chose from what is not busy. Well, or plagiarized, brazenly and shamelessly.
      Rome with its aquila has been gone for five centuries, and eagles on the coats of arms of Europe dazzle! I think if the aquila of Rome was a cat, they would be full of cats !!! True, natural dyes tended to fade and fade, so it is not surprising that after a while the relic turned from red to black.
      The system of flags historically had an alternative system of nomads in the form of brunchuk with a different number of tails.
      And not necessarily horses, for example, the Pelymians went into battle with brunchuk with fox tails, and the Bashkirs, according to legend, with wolves.
      I think if the Mongolian powers turned out to be a more successful and long-term formation, then in front of the UN building, along with the "Danish and British types of flags", a dozen brunchuk with horse, wolf and peacock tails were developing !!! laughing
      Thank you Vyacheslav Olegovich for the raised topic. At the end of the cycle, it would be nice to highlight the versions of the appearance of royal crowns and crowns!
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 26 September 2020 06: 56
        +6
        Introduced numerous flags with cats. I was glad.

        In any case, representatives of the feline family are well represented in heraldry.
        1. bubalik
          bubalik 26 September 2020 08: 02
          +9
          hi
          Introduced numerous flags with cats. I was glad.


          ,, but there were


          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 26 September 2020 08: 10
            +9
            The bottom one is good. Sumo fighter before going out.
            I presented the flag of every feline on this forum: from the Urals to the North-West.

            Isn't it time to open a heraldic office yet?
          2. Catfish
            Catfish 26 September 2020 08: 24
            10
            Seryozha, thank you very much for the cats! smile

            1. Korsar4
              Korsar4 26 September 2020 08: 27
              +5
              Top from which ship?
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 26 September 2020 08: 33
                +5
                It looks like this.
                1. Korsar4
                  Korsar4 26 September 2020 09: 03
                  +4
                  "Flying Cat"?
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 26 September 2020 09: 10
                    +6
                    Well, yes, something like that: there is such a profession - to be a Sailor! drinks
                    1. Korsar4
                      Korsar4 26 September 2020 09: 13
                      +4
                      Cartoon like where

                      "Whale Academician,
                      Academician for cats ".
                      1. Catfish
                        Catfish 26 September 2020 09: 17
                        +5
                        This? Found only a film strip.
                      2. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 26 September 2020 09: 27
                        +4
                        This. Zakhoder.

                        And I immediately associate with Bulgakov "White Guard":
                        “I ask, how is“ cat ”in Ukrainian?”.
                      3. Catfish
                        Catfish 26 September 2020 09: 39
                        +6
                        In this regard, a reasonable question arises: how will "whale" be in Ukrainian? I do not want to say anything, the surname itself is Ukrainian. smile
                      4. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 26 September 2020 09: 47
                        +5
                        Of course, the "whale". But when the "cat" is used "and with a speck." Let the philologists correct.
                      5. Catfish
                        Catfish 26 September 2020 10: 00
                        +5
                        "- How difficult it is ... how subtle it is!" (from) laughing
                2. Phil77
                  Phil77 26 September 2020 10: 16
                  +4
                  Quote: Sea Cat
                  This? Found only a film strip.

                  Good morning! Take a look there-downloaded.
                3. Catfish
                  Catfish 26 September 2020 10: 45
                  +2
                  Good morning to you too! I already dropped by, thanks. smile
              2. Astra wild
                Astra wild 27 September 2020 13: 47
                +1
                Constantine, I don’t know filmstrips. I know more precisely, but in my childhood I did not have
          3. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 26 September 2020 10: 35
            +4
            laughing "On that day, Piglet finally decided to run away from home and become a sailor" (C)
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 26 September 2020 10: 48
              +4
              In vain he is, they will devour it, how to give it to drink - they will devour it! laughing
            2. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 26 September 2020 11: 14
              +3
              Shchazzz !!! There are many of you here, lovers of ham negative am
              "Who else wants a Komisar body?" (FROM)
              "Fifteen Piglets on a dead man's chest!"
              And if some cats start to object, then some dog can lend a tank to pigs ... laughing
            3. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka 26 September 2020 12: 37
              +3
              We saw these dogs from the height of the fence !!! It's good that cows don't fly !!!
            4. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 26 September 2020 12: 44
              +4
              This your Kitty has not yet seen dogs that are three meters up, chasing squirrels through the trees! laughing
            5. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka 26 September 2020 13: 36
              +2
              Quote: 3x3zsave
              This your Kitty has not yet seen dogs that are three meters up, chasing squirrels through the trees! laughing

              Well, the dogs! belay Soon it will be impossible for an honest cat to laugh without a reply from the fence !!! crying
              Now I’ll move to the attic - and I’ll say that I’ve thought up fleas about them !!!
            6. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka 26 September 2020 13: 47
              +3

              Dog, Not gone
            7. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 26 September 2020 13: 53
              +4
              The attic is not a problem for dogs at all.
            8. Catfish
              Catfish 26 September 2020 15: 10
              +3
              I support my tailed brother in all my endeavors. drinks good
      2. Catfish
        Catfish 26 September 2020 15: 02
        +4
        ... then some dog can lend a tank to pigs ...

        This is how much you need to drink to imagine this ... laughing
      3. Astra wild
        Astra wild 27 September 2020 13: 44
        +1
        Anton, you remembered: "The optimistic tragedy" of Lavrenev and "Treasure Island". Now we also need a parrot of Captain Flint: "piastres, piastres"
      4. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 27 September 2020 16: 50
        0
        My Beautiful Stranger! First of all I remembered that I have my Argentine tank!
  • kalibr
    26 September 2020 07: 41
    +5
    Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
    It would be nice at the end of the cycle to highlight the versions of the appearance of royal crowns and crowns!

    I think in general to move smoothly to heraldry, because this topic - for example, the crescent moon in the images on the flags, was raised many times on VO, but somehow everyone did not get it. I think the time has come.
    1. bubalik
      bubalik 26 September 2020 08: 10
      +5
      smoothly move to heraldry,
      ,,, an interesting topic and little covered on VO.
    2. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 26 September 2020 10: 56
      +2
      It would be nice to start with symbolism.
      I am sometimes asked the question: what kind of fish is hanging on your chain? Are you like "Aries"? ... I have to explain long and tediously about early Christian symbols
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 26 September 2020 11: 16
        +3
        Immediately I remember: "Do you want me to smell like chess?" (from).
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 26 September 2020 11: 22
          +3
          In response, I recall: "Not a syphilitic, but a philatelist!"
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 26 September 2020 11: 38
            +2
            “They say he ambles.
            It means differently from everything ”(c).
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 26 September 2020 11: 41
              +2
              "And I have a" push "- right!" (C)
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 26 September 2020 12: 01
                +2
                “I only need to cross the line,
                How I turn into a kunguru man ”(c).
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 26 September 2020 12: 04
                  +2
                  "We will send a dozen, another, ships,
                  And there will be a colony in Botany Bay! "(C)
                  1. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 26 September 2020 12: 20
                    +2
                    “Otherwise I’ll give you both a squad,
                    So let us enter into a relationship without violence! " (from).
                  2. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 26 September 2020 12: 32
                    +1
                    "What does the knife have to do with it? What does robbery have to do with it? Change the wording!" (FROM)
                  3. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 26 September 2020 12: 58
                    +2
                    "Well, who is a repeat offender -
                    So I don’t have an understanding ”(c).
                  4. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 26 September 2020 13: 16
                    +1
                    "We walked through the rear,
                    Holding on, so as not to cut their sleepy "(C)
                  5. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 26 September 2020 13: 22
                    +2
                    “We jump on the heads of our enemies,
                    On the necks of these blond beasts "(c).
                  6. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 26 September 2020 13: 33
                    +1
                    "One more jump, and" two, twelve ",
                    Now I have already passed the stage "(C)
                  7. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 26 September 2020 13: 53
                    +1
                    “And a huge stage at the gate
                    I looked at the gate ”(c).
                  8. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 26 September 2020 16: 32
                    +1
                    I'm sorry, but ...
                    "And a huge stage, five thousand,
                    Sitting on his knees "(C)
                  9. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 26 September 2020 22: 55
                    +1
                    Different versions.

                    It's not so easy to take away some canonical version of a song.
                    Although, I agree, your version was performed more often.
  • kalibr
    26 September 2020 15: 36
    +1
    Anton, of course. The topic is being thought over. But anyway, then everything will be there ... including early Christian symbolism. Although about her was in the cycle about the crusaders here in the VO, and then migrated to the book "Crusaders".
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 26 September 2020 16: 50
      +2
      It's never too late to hammer into immature brains! As the Indian sage Sahi porcupine used to say: "At least a little mind can enter a small crack in the head!"
      1. kalibr
        26 September 2020 16: 51
        +2
        Quote: 3x3zsave
        porcupine Sakhi: "A little mind can enter a small crack in my head!"

        This is yes ...
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 26 September 2020 17: 00
          +1
          Alas, the brain is not exported.
          1. kalibr
            26 September 2020 17: 03
            +1
            Anton, how well you said. There was a material about Polish soldiers reviling our soldiers ... Well, comments ... oh ... relevant.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 26 September 2020 17: 21
              +1
              Alas, hamsters always rule, because their children are tired of their "valuable advice", and sent them far, and for a long time!
              1. kalibr
                26 September 2020 19: 52
                0
                Quote: 3x3zsave
                Alas, hamsters always rule, because their children are tired of their "valuable advice", and sent them far, and for a long time!
                And this is rightly noticed!
  • kalibr
    26 September 2020 07: 47
    +3
    Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
    I think if the Mongolian powers turned out to be a more successful and long-term formation, then in front of the UN building, along with the "Danish and British types of flags", a dozen brunchuk with horse, wolf and peacock tails were developing !!!

    Have you tried your hand at the genre of alternative history? Very convincing. In general, I have always had a dream to write a book "Stories from history". Short and capacious stories. About what happened, how it appeared ... But it's interesting. And not only in ordinary history, but also with AI elements. Your example ... oh, takes a soul. But now such a book, alas, will be a shot in the box.
  • mr.ZinGer
    mr.ZinGer 26 September 2020 08: 05
    +3
    Your annoying slip of the tongue is not a brunchuk, but a bunchuk.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 26 September 2020 12: 28
      +3
      Here in half, my winged paws and no less crooked editor on the phone!
      He gave me all the chipmunks, I ruled him, but alas, the victory turned out to be his! repeat
  • RUSS
    RUSS 24 November 2020 15: 01
    -2
    Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
    I would like to point out the opposite, Vyacheslav Olegovich missed the practical meaning and appearance of the flag.

    By the way, about the labarums, during the victory races on June 24, 1945, Soviet servicemen also carried labarums and, as historians say, a decision was made to use them precisely on the basis of the labarums of Rome.
  • kalibr
    26 September 2020 07: 37
    +3
    It is impossible without a "queue". You yourself write - "muddy history". Need to muddle it up! Basic principles, traditions ... Just what Peter knew, what he was guided by. And he was guided, and again by the Western tradition, not ours. Therefore, the "introduction" is necessary.
  • Catfish
    Catfish 26 September 2020 08: 18
    +7
    ... with the Red Banner of the USSR, everything is clean and transparent like a tear of a child,

    Ever since the days of the sailing fleet, a red flag raised on a gafel meant; "Fire." In our time, this has been added: "I load ammunition (explosive or flammable substances)." The same flag is raised at shooting ranges and ranges during firing with military shells (and not only by them). In short, this flag simply means "danger".
    So, what kind of "pure tears" are there. smile
    1. bubalik
      bubalik 26 September 2020 08: 49
      +5
      ,,, in 1694, the English admiralty introduced a mandatory sign for the designation of English corsair ships - a red flag, named by analogy with the state flag of Great Britain "Red Jack". At that time, in naval terminology, a red pennant meant a warning of danger, and in this case signaled to the oncoming ship that resistance was useless.
      ,,, If the victim continued to move, a red flag was raised, symbolizing the impossibility of showing mercy.
      In short, pirates belay
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 26 September 2020 09: 13
        +5
        In short, pirates
        laughing
    2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 26 September 2020 12: 29
      +4
      However, raising a white lantern or a flag at the command post meant and means a ceasefire.
  • Mavrikiy
    Mavrikiy 26 September 2020 08: 20
    +2
    Quote: Dead Day
    if with the Red Banner of the USSR, everything is clean and transparent like a tear of a child,

    But how to say, here everyone can find their secret meaning and plan for themselves, as in the songs of Vysotsky. Besides the fact that we picked up the flag of the Paris Commune, we did not violate the succession of the Rurikites. The flag under Ivan the Terrible was red. request Although the highways cared least of all about it, here you go. repeat
    1. kalibr
      26 September 2020 08: 47
      +4
      Quote: Mavrikiy
      The flag was red under Ivan the Terrible

      About it will be ...
  • Korsar4
    Korsar4 26 September 2020 06: 15
    +6
    The conversation about colors can be long and separate. Goethe was seriously involved in this. The Luscher color test is now popular.

    I really like the detailed Books of Michel Pasturo, dedicated to individual colors.
    1. kalibr
      26 September 2020 07: 38
      +5
      Yes, Sergei, in our advertising course, great attention is paid to the study of the influence of color. But the Japanese prevail here.
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 26 September 2020 07: 44
        +5
        I have more associations with the specialized knowledge of landscape architects.
        1. kalibr
          26 September 2020 07: 51
          +4
          Quote: Korsar4
          I have more associations with the specialized knowledge of landscape architects.

          Here I "pass". But the colors in the ad ... the topic is also very interesting!
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 26 September 2020 07: 59
            +5
            What bait does which fish bite?

            True, the first annoying association is a bitten apple.
            1. kalibr
              26 September 2020 08: 12
              +5
              Quote: Korsar4
              What bait does which fish bite?

              Exactly...
  • The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 26 September 2020 06: 15
    +3
    Anecdote about colors:
    Petka runs to Chapaev:
    - Vasily Ivanovich! There the whites are advancing!
    - What do they have there?
    - Infantry.
    - My horse, a saber and a red shirt!
    Petka is perplexed:
    - And why a red shirt?
    - But they wound me in battle, and the blood is red, it is not noticeable on red, and the fighters do not shrink, they will continue the attack! ...
    Beaten off.
    The next day, again, the whites climbed.
    - What's there?
    - Cavalry.
    - My horse, a saber and a red shirt!
    - Why a red shirt?
    The explanation was repeated, they repulsed the attack.
    Third day, attack again.
    - What's there?
    - Tank!
    - A horse for me, a saber, and a red shirt!
    Why a red shirt? !!! The explanation is repeated.
    - Vasily Ivanovich, have you ever seen a tank?
    - No...
    - Then dress better brown pants ...
  • Van 16
    Van 16 26 September 2020 07: 59
    +6
    "All flags will visit us"
    Interesting topic, thanks!
  • Boris55
    Boris55 26 September 2020 08: 25
    +2
    The topic is really interesting. Multicolored flags are like stars on shoulder straps that determine the status of a state ... It is for this reason that the world cannot understand how Russia, which has such a flag, can behave this way - a corporal is not supposed to object to a general.

    Maybe there will be interesting information for your next article (I would like about us):





    ps
    So where did 5508 years of our history go?
    1. kalibr
      26 September 2020 08: 45
      +5
      The next one will be about Italy. The third is about us ...
    2. Simple
      Simple 26 September 2020 10: 01
      +4
      Quote: Boris55
      So where did 5508 years of our history go?


      It hasn't gone anywhere.

      In the Christian mar, it is customary to talk about dates "before or" after "the Nativity of Christ.
      1. Boris55
        Boris55 26 September 2020 10: 26
        -5
        Quote: Simple
        In the Christian mar, it is customary to talk about dates "before or" after "the Nativity of Christ.

        ~ 7,5 thousand years ago there was an all-planetary war that set in motion the tectonic plates of the Earth, as a result of which part of the land went under water, and part of it surfaced. This event is reflected in the Bible (and not only in it) as the "Flood". When the surviving rulers realized that there was no one and nothing to continue the war, a truce was concluded and a new account of the days of a new civilization began.

        The purpose of the report from the birth of Christ is to hide the past civilization and prevent people from understanding the goals of the present, as reflected in the last book of the Bible "Apocalypse". The surviving "Atlantists" are leading the world to another disaster.

        The confrontation between the West, East and Russia did not begin today ...
        1. Simple
          Simple 26 September 2020 10: 31
          +6
          No comment.
          laughing
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 26 September 2020 11: 58
            +4
            Naturally. In this case, only the epicrisis can be a commentary.
            1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka 26 September 2020 12: 33
              +4
              Petya give me brown pants, but not for me! laughing
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 26 September 2020 12: 39
                +5
                Vasily Ivanovich! In this case, only diapers!
                1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                  Kote Pan Kokhanka 26 September 2020 13: 51
                  +3
                  Uh-huh, I'll put it on and go to a thoughtful institution, where seven thousand years of history have blown, bastards perched !!!!
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 26 September 2020 13: 58
                    +2
                    "Oh my little, I slept a little,
                    Oh yes I dreamed in a dream "(C) laughing
                    Song of the Novouregoit Cossacks.
        2. kalibr
          26 September 2020 15: 39
          +3
          Quote: Boris55
          ~ 7,5 thousand years ago there was a planetary war that set in motion the tectonic plates of the Earth, as a result of which part of the land went under water, and part of it surfaced.

          It is said that if God wants to punish someone, he deprives him of his mind. Confess, what have you sinned?
        3. Astra wild
          Astra wild 27 September 2020 13: 26
          +1
          Colleague Boris, you +: hanged
          1. Boris55
            Boris55 28 September 2020 08: 08
            0
            Laughter laughter, but no one explained where the chronology came from.
            From the Byzantines? And where did they get this date? And what to do with the Decree of Peter-1 on the transition to the chronology, in which he mentions the old chronology and the summer of the "star temple"?

            In general, the transition to personalities above the comments written, says only that people are not in the subject and follow the generally accepted pattern. No one even tried to wrinkle his forehead.
  • mr.ZinGer
    mr.ZinGer 26 September 2020 08: 46
    +2
    There is such a version for the British naval flag.
    [/ quote] In July 2018, the mayor of the city of Genoa asked Queen Elizabeth II of Great Britain to pay rent for the last 247 years for using the Genoese flag of St. George. The British received the right to use this flag on their ships in 1190 to protect their ships from pirate attacks in the Mediterranean.

    The Genoese Republic was the most powerful maritime power of that time and pirates, seeing ships under the Genoese flag, tried to "bypass" or "float" by their side. Nobody wanted to get involved with the best navy of the time in the Mediterranean, which was only a competitor of the fleet of the Venetian Republic.

    There is no exact data when the flag of St. George became the symbol of Genoa, but some sources say that it was used by Byzantine soldiers stationed in Genoa in the X-XI centuries, even before Genoa left the control of the Holy Roman Empire.

    The Genoese took an active part in the First Crusade in 1096-1099, earning huge money at that time for the delivery of crusader troops to the Middle East. And the red cross on a white background also became a symbol of all the crusades.

    The agreement on the lease of the flag of Genoa was apparently reached by the king of England, Richard I the Lionheart, who stopped in Genoa in 1190 on his way to the Middle East during the Third Crusade.

    For the lease of the flag, the British pledged to make annual payments to the Genoese. These payments continued for several centuries and, according to the mayor of Genoa, who refers to the ledgers, ceased 247 years ago, thus leaving England in debt to the Republic of Genoa.

    The Genoese Republic, however, ceased to exist in 1797, when it was occupied by Napoleon's troops. So, it is not clear to whom the British should write out the payment.

    And the flag of St. George, rented from Genoa, firmly established itself first in the English fleet, and then became an integral part of the flag of the British Empire, which is often called the "Union Jack", because of the complex composition of several flags of the territories that are part of the UK. [Quote]
  • Simple
    Simple 26 September 2020 09: 56
    +7
    A small note on the history of the formation of the UK flag:

    After the unification of Scotland and England, ships at sea initially carried both flags. This meant that two flags had to be hoisted in one place, one above the other. Since raising one national flag over another means that one nation was defeated by another, Scottish ships carried the cross of St. Andrew over the cross of St. George, and the British did it the other way around.

    Following this, James I instructed his heralds to unite both flags equally.
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 26 September 2020 10: 10
    +4
    Purple and violet are also primordially sacred colors,
    About purple, due to the difficulties of obtaining a natural dye, I agree. The sacredness of violet lies in the fact that blueberries do not grow in the Mediterranean. laughing
    Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich!
    1. Korsar4
      Korsar4 26 September 2020 11: 20
      +2
      And in the mountains - not so far from the Mediterranean Sea? Don't forget about vertical zoning. Humboldt deserves respect.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 26 September 2020 11: 32
        +4
        Probably, but not on an industrial scale.
        "Lingonberry fields, cloudberry fields,
        No mosquitoes, no midges ... Well, think, I lied ... "(C)
  • Undecim
    Undecim 26 September 2020 10: 23
    +7
    Although the first flags of the Commonwealth were not at all the same as they are now!
    Here you, Vyacheslav Olegovich, fell into a classic mistake, since in this case Commonwealth is translated not as "commonwealth", but as "republic".
    In 1649, after the execution of Charles the First, Parliament announced the abolition of the English monarchy as "unnecessary, burdensome and dangerous for the good of the people." At the same time, the House of Lords was dispersed.
    On May 19, 1649, Parliament solemnly passed the "Act declaring England to be a Commonwealt". Formally, the 41-member Council of State was declared the supreme body of power, in fact Cromwell ruled, which in 1653 was declared Lord Protector for life.
    That is, formally, from 1649 to 1660 there was a republic in England, in fact, in modern terms, a military junta headed by the dictator Cromwell.
    So the flags from 1649 to 1660, there are three of them - these are the state flags of Britain, which was also a republic for some time.
    1. kalibr
      26 September 2020 15: 41
      +2
      If the mistake is classical, then it is not a mistake!
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 26 September 2020 20: 05
        +5
        It's like stumping an owl or an owl on a stump - the result is one. Likewise, a mistake, whether classical or methodical, is still a mistake.
        1. kalibr
          26 September 2020 20: 36
          0
          Only for you (and a little for me). For a huge number of people, mass opinion is not a mistake. And this is both bad and good at the same time. Like everything in this world.
          1. Undecim
            Undecim 26 September 2020 20: 39
            +3
            And this is both bad and good at the same time.
            I don’t know about it well, but I can cite many examples of classic mistakes leading to tragic consequences.
            1. kalibr
              26 September 2020 20: 41
              +1
              Quote: Undecim
              and here are examples of classic mistakes leading to tragic consequences

              And that's bad. What's good? It's good when people say "and everyone knows that." It's easier to work with such ...
        2. Astra wild
          Astra wild 27 September 2020 13: 20
          +1
          Victor Nikolaevich, but I feel sorry for the owl, that you are about her stump, and even more so we will stump. What cruelty
      2. Liam
        Liam 26 September 2020 21: 02
        +1
        One of the classic mistakes of authors on VO is to divide topics into several parts, of which the first is introductory, nothing, which forces regular commentators to fill out the thread with questionable KVN
  • Country Councils
    Country Councils 27 September 2020 10: 25
    0
    And why only about color, and even not in the subject? .. pictures are more important:
    lion of the tribe of Judah:
    harp of David;
    crosses of the Order of the Templars (Temple of King Solomon).
    That would be more interesting
  • Astra wild
    Astra wild 27 September 2020 13: 16
    +1
    [quote = Korsar4] Top from which ship?
    I saw it somewhere in a cartoon, but now I don't remember
  • Astra wild
    Astra wild 27 September 2020 13: 54
    +1
    The Lord punished me: lately I always started with "History", and yesterday I forgot and prompted Vyacheslav Olegovich. Henceforth science
    1. Phil77
      Phil77 27 September 2020 14: 01
      +1
      Quote: Astra wild
      The Lord punished me: lately I always started with "History", and yesterday Vyacheslav Olegovich forgot and wasted

      Yes! God did not follow. Probably was very busy. wink bully
      1. Astra wild
        Astra wild 27 September 2020 14: 49
        +1
        Good afternoon. Either I was "very busy" or I was tired and decided that I was already an adult girl and should think by myself
        1. Phil77
          Phil77 27 September 2020 17: 38
          0
          Quote: Astra wild
          and she must think

          Oh! Great option! Excellent!
          wink hi
          1. Astra wild
            Astra wild 27 September 2020 19: 35
            +1
            And it's so hard to think what is easier for the hoyachs: repeat after the author or admired Tartaria
            1. Phil77
              Phil77 27 September 2020 20: 09
              +1
              Quote: Astra wild
              And it's so hard to think what is easier for the hoyachs: repeat after the author or admired Tartaria

              Hmm. However, even though I don't like him, the words from the song are on target:
              * My thoughts are my horses ... *
              A certain Gazmanov O.
              1. Astra wild
                Astra wild 28 September 2020 16: 17
                0
                He is a good writer
                1. Phil77
                  Phil77 28 September 2020 18: 47
                  0
                  Well, the author? comrades *.
                  Well, as a summary, someone likes the pop, and someone is crazy about the priest! In a word, to each his own. winked