Military Review

Battle of Grunwald. How the army of the Teutonic Order was destroyed

44
Battle of Grunwald. How the army of the Teutonic Order was destroyed
Grunwald. Hood. Wojciech Kossak


610 years ago, Polish, Lithuanian and Russian troops defeated the army of the Teutonic Order in the battle of Grunwald. The allied forces stopped the expansion of the crusaders to the east and laid the foundation for the military-economic decline of the Order.

Onslaught to the East


In the XIII century, the Teutonic Order settled on Slavic lands and began a crusade to the east. At first, the crusaders fought with the Slavic-Russian Union of Prussians-Prussians. By 1280, the Teutons, with the support of Rome and the Holy Roman Empire (at various times, it included Germany, Italy, Burgundy and the Czech Republic), conquered Prussia. Most of the Prussians were destroyed, some were enslaved, some fled to the lands of Lithuanian tribes. Earlier, many Lutich-lyutichs (Slavic people) also fled to Lithuania. As a result, the Slavs played an important role in the ethnogenesis of the Lithuanians. In general, at this time there was no big difference between the Slavs-Rus and the Balts. Moreover, the Baltic tribes preserved the cults of common gods like Perun-Perkunas, Veles and others, more than the Russians themselves. Their Christianization came later.

After the conquest of Prussia, the time of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Russia came. Now the information that Lithuania was then a Russian principality was almost erased. The official language was Russian, two branches of the Russian faith prevailed: paganism and Orthodoxy. The vast majority of the lands and population of the Grand Duchy were Russians. For almost a century, a fierce battle for Jeymatia (Zhmud) was in full swing. In 1382, during a feud in Lithuania (the princes Keistut and Vitovt fought with Jagiello, the crusaders supported one side or the other), the crusaders captured most of the region. However, the pagans continued to offer stubborn resistance until the Great War of 1409-1411. In response, the Teutons, receiving chivalrous reinforcements from Germany, France and the Netherlands, devastated Zhmud several times. Knights literally hunted for pagans - as for wild animals.

In 1385 the Union of Krev was concluded: the Grand Duke of Lithuania Jagiello married the Polish Queen Jadwiga and became the Polish king. Jagiello recognized Vitovt as the Grand Duke of Lithuania, and he, in turn, recognized Jagiello as the supreme overlord of the Grand Duchy. Jagiello and Vytautas were to complete the Christianization of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Russian according to the Western (Catholic) rite. This agreement became the basis for the subsequent Westernization and Catholicization of the Principality of Lithuania and the resistance of the Russian people, who began to see the new center of Russia in Moscow.


“Battle of Grunwald. 1410. " Engraving from the Chronicle of M. Belsky. 16 century

Great War


The Order considered this agreement to be a show. The Teutons did not give up aggression in the region. It was a matter of faith, power, and wealth (land). Even the Christian princes Jagiello and Vytautas, the crusaders considered the “repainted” pagans. Also, the Order did not want to abandon territorial expansion. The knight brothers wanted to secure Zhmud, the Polish Dobrzyń land and Gdansk. Poland sought to return part of Pomerania and Helminsky land captured by the crusaders. It was vitally important for Poland and Lithuania to halt the further advancement of the Order to the east. In addition, the Teutonic Order hindered the economic development of the two Slavic powers. The knights controlled the mouths of the three major rivers of the region: the Neman, the Vistula and the Western Dvina, which flowed through the Polish and Lithuanian territories.

Thus, it was a confrontation not for life, but for death. War was inevitable. Both sides knew this and were preparing to continue the struggle. In the spring of 1409, Zemaitiya again rebelled against the Order. Lithuania supported the Zheymats, and Poland expressed its readiness to stand on the side of the Grand Duchy. In August, Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen declared war on the Lithuanians and Poles. The knights immediately launched an attack and captured several border fortifications. The Poles went on the counterattack and recaptured Bydgoszcz. In the fall, a truce was concluded until the summer of 1410.

The Order, Poland and Lithuania were actively preparing for the decisive battle, forming armies, looking for allies and actively blaming each other for all sins. For a big bribe, the Teutons received the support of the Hungarian king Sigismund. The Teutonic Order was also supported by the Czech king Wenceslas. Large orders of Western European knights and mercenaries (Germans, French, Swiss, British, etc.) arrived to help the Order, who hoped for great booty in the lands of "heretics" and pagans. By the beginning of 1410, the army of the Order was increased to 60 thousand people. Meanwhile, Vitovt achieved a truce with the Livonian Order and escaped a war on two fronts.

Jagiello and Vitovt agreed on a joint campaign in the lands of the Order, intending to defeat the enemy army and take the capital of the Order - Marienburg. To deceive the enemy, the Allies made small demonstrations on their borders. The knights were shown to be attacked from two directions. Therefore, the command of the order chose a defensive strategy, the crusaders were waiting for an invasion from two sides: from Poland along the Vistula to Gdansk and from Lithuania along the Neman to the Ragnit fortress. Part of the troops of the Order was located on the border in castles, and the main forces were concentrated in Sweden, from there to come forward to meet the enemy. The crusaders were going to destroy the main forces of the enemy in a decisive battle.

Polish troops gathered in Wolborz, Lithuanian-Russian - in Grodno. The exact number of warriors is unknown. The forces of the Order are estimated at 51 banners, about 27-30 thousand people, about 100 bombers. The Teutonic army also included regiments of dependent Polish feudal lords. The main force of the Order was well-trained and armed heavy cavalry. But there was also infantry: crossbowmen, archers and gunners. Poland placed 50-51 banners (including several Russians from Podillia and Galicia), Russians and Lithuanians - 40 banners, only about 40 thousand people (according to other sources, up to 60 thousand soldiers). On the side of the allies were units from the Czech Republic and Moravia, Moldova, Hungary and the Tatar horse detachment. The cavalry was also the basis of the allied army, but a significant part of it was light (especially in the Russian-Lithuanian army), the infantry mainly defended the camp.

A banner is a banner, a tactical unit in an army that roughly corresponds to a company. The banner consisted of 20–80 copies, a tactical unit that consisted of a knight, his squire, archers, swordsmen, spearmen, pages and servants. The richer the knight (feudal lord), the more and better the spear was armed. As a result, banners ranged from 100 to 500 fighters.


Yan Mateiko. The Battle of Grunwald

The death of the Teutonic army


On June 26, 1410, the Jagiello army left Velborg and a week later joined forces with Vytautas near Cherven. The Allies launched an offensive in the direction of Marienburg and on July 9 crossed the border of Prussia. The two armies met at the villages of Tannenberg and Grunwald. The army of the great master was the first to arrive there and prepare for defense. Von Jungengen decided to defend himself at the first stage of the battle: prepared traps (wolf pits), set up bombards, covered them with archers and crossbowmen. The order command was going to upset the enemy regiments, and then deliver a powerful blow with a heavy cavalry and destroy the enemy. The knights lined up in two lines at a front line of 2,5 km. In the first line on the left flank were 15 banners of the great Marshal Friedrich von Wallenrod, on the right - 20 banners under the great commander Kuno von Lichtenstein. In the second line, in reserve - 16 banners of the great master.

The Allies lined up in three lines at a front of 2 km, each with 15-16 banners. On the left flank there are 51 Polish banners (including 7 Russians and 2 Czech) under the command of the Krakow governor Zyndaram, on the right flank there are 40 Russian-Lithuanian banners and the Tatar cavalry. Smolensk regiments stood at the junction, which were strengthened by other Russian banners during the battle. At dawn on July 15, 1410, troops were built. The Teutonic Knights wanted the enemy to act first, which led to the breakdown of his ranks and facilitated the breakthrough of the Polish-Lithuanian line. Therefore, until noon, the troops stood and suffered from the heat. Jagiello, apparently sensing danger, also did not want to be the first to start the battle. To provoke the enemy, the Crusaders sent heralds with two drawn swords to Jagaille and Vitovt (the so-called Grunwald swords). The master conveyed that these swords "should help the Polish and Lithuanian monarchs in the battle." It was a challenge and an insult.


Vytautas attacked the light cavalry, including the Tatars Jalal ad-Din (the son of Tokhtamysh, he hoped with the help of Lithuania to seize power in the Horde). The bombers fired several shots, but the efficiency was low, and it started to rain. Traps and arrows did not stop the light cavalry. The light riders in the frontal attack could not do anything with the heavy knights of Wallenrod. Then Wallenrod's cavalry went on the counterattack, and Vitovt's light cavalry rolled back. It is believed that this was a typical tactic for the Eastern cavalry to lure the enemy into a trap. Part of the knights, believing that this was a victory, was carried away by the chase and rushed to pursue the Russian-Lithuanian cavalry. The crusaders reached the camp, where they got bogged down in the fight against infantry (militia warriors). When these crusaders, frozen in battle with the militias, abandoning their prey, returned to the battlefield, the battle was already lost. The other part of Wallenrod's cavalry joined the battle with the remaining troops of Vytautas. The stubborn felling began. Russian banners, including Smolensk regiments, took a hit and suffered heavy losses. The advanced gonfalons fell almost completely, but they were replaced by the rear. They fulfilled their task: the heavy knightly cavalry got bogged down, lost mobility and striking power.

Meanwhile, von Liechtenstein's banners hit the Polish army. They were joined by several Wallenrod banners. The blow was scary. The advanced Polish gonfalons suffered huge losses. The knights captured the great Krakow banner. The Teutons took this as a victory. But the Poles violently rush into a counterattack, the second-line gonfalons enter the battle. The battle was extremely stubborn, one of the crusaders broke through to Jagail himself, but he was cut down. At 5 o'clock having decided that the victory was already near, the great master led the reserve gonfalons into battle. Obviously, von Jungingen was late with the introduction of fresh forces into the battle. In response, the Poles threw the third line into the battle, and the light Tatar, Lithuanian and Russian cavalry returning to the battlefield began to surround the enemy’s heavy gonfalons bogged down in a heavy wheelhouse. On the Grunwald hills, the crusaders were driven into two "cauldrons". They quickly grew into walls of the remains of all regiments, light cavalry, Lithuanian and Polish infantry. The Order Army drowned in blood. The Wallenrod knights tried to break through, but everywhere they were beaten off. The encirclement ring pulled together. As a result, the main forces of the order of the cavalry were destroyed and captured. The last battle the rest of the cavalry and the Prussian infantry tried to give in the camp near the village of Grunwald, but then they were quickly swept away. A small part of the order army fled.

It was a complete rout. Almost the entire command of the Order was lost, including the great master Jungingen and the great marshal Wallenrod, from 200 to 400 order brothers (there were 400-450 of them in total), many foreign knights, mercenaries. Many were captured. The losses of the Order are estimated at 22 thousand people (including 8 thousand killed and about 14 thousand prisoners). The losses of the allied army were also heavy, up to 12–13 thousand killed and wounded. But in general, the army retained the combat core and combat readiness, unlike the enemy.

The allied command made a mistake: for three days the troops "stood on the bones." Light banners did not send to take almost defenseless Marienburg-Malbork. When the army moved, the king was in no hurry, he was already sharing the skin of the Teutonic bear, distributing it to the city and fortress. At this time, the decisive Svetsen commander Heinrich von Plauen (he did not have time to take part in the battle) was the first to get to Malbork and organized his defense. The Allies could not take an impregnable fortress; they had to leave. In the northeast the Livonians stirred, in the west the Germans gathered new forces.

Thus, it was not possible to crush the Teutonic Order on the move. In 1411, peace was made. The Teutons returned the disputed territories to Poland and Lithuania, paid indemnity and ransom for prisoners. The expansion of the Teutonic Order to the east was stopped. Grunwald was the beginning of the military-political decline of the Order. His authority, military power and wealth were undermined. Soon the leading positions in the region were taken by the union of Poland and Lithuania.


"Two swords." Wojciech Kossak
Author:
Photos used:
https://ru.wikipedia.org/, https://bigenc.ru/
44 comments
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  1. fuxila
    fuxila 16 July 2020 05: 52 New
    28
    As soon as I read about the "Slavonic Union of the Prussian-Poruss tribes", I immediately realized that Alexander Samsonov was writing this. lol
    The Prussians were a conglomeration of Baltic tribes related to modern Lithuanians and Latvians, and their language was partially preserved in written sources. The names of the leaders and gods are clearly not Slavic: Bruten, Videvut, Ukapirms, Bretkunis, Potrimps, Patols ... And they themselves did not call themselves Prussians, using self-names: skalvy, salmon, yatvyav, warma, etc. The name Prussians was used by neighbors to designate these tribes.
    1. Basil50
      Basil50 16 July 2020 07: 52 New
      +9
      The author also forgot to indicate how these * orders * actually appeared in the Baltic states.
      Another Lyashsky king gave those lands to the Germans. Gave something that did not belong to him. It turned out to be very generous not giving his own. At one time, successors of the * orders * even waved gift certificates from the Lyashsky king, proving * the legality * of the gift and the right to inherit. That's just the Poles do not like to remember about that. Shy apparently.
      By the way, the battle at the * Green Forest * itself was very instructive.
    2. Bar1
      Bar1 16 July 2020 09: 13 New
      +3
      Samsonov, it is necessary to highlight the SOURCES of his narration. If this is just a textbook, then there is nothing to discuss.
      In 1385 the Union of Krev was concluded: the Grand Duke of Lithuania Jagiello married the Polish Queen Jadwiga and became the Polish king. Jagiello recognized Vitovt as the Grand Duke of Lithuania, and he, in turn, recognized Jagiello as the supreme overlord of the Grand Duchy. Jagiello and Vytautas were to complete the Christianization of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Russian according to the Western (Catholic) rite


      and who should Jagiello Christianization?
      In general, this abnormal explanation of historians about "voluntary" Christianization is the most awkward moment in the entire history of both Russia and Nerus.
      Most likely it was so, these peoples did not have any "voluntary" Christianization, and it was the crusaders who carried this Christianization on their swords. Why would the peoples abandon the faith of their ancestors and switch to a foreign faith and foreign Jewish gods?
      And this war and other wars were precisely for YOUR FAITH and for your worldview, because it is not known what these so-called pagans were like.
      In general, if you look at the old surviving buildings with huge domes, like the Pantheon or huge blocks, like the temple of Jupiter or even a huge stone building, like aqueducts, or even the pyramids, which for Christians is something beyond, then we can say that the villains are . pagans i.e. antique, i.e. the previous civilization looks more solid and large-scale before the Christian civilization. What non-Christians built, Christian civilization cannot repeat.
      For example, pagans built and used aqueducts, but the Christians didn’t need them, and the aqueducts are destroyed, although they could still serve cities, the same Rome.
      After Christianization, for example, the shape of the crown changed from all the masters from the Sun to an incomprehensible form. And among the masters of Russia, they all changed to the stupid Monomakh hat. All the lords wore crowns, and the Russian lord had a hat, historians consider this situation normal. It is clear that such a story is a lie.
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 16 July 2020 06: 20 New
    -1
    Soon the leading positions in the region were taken by the union of Poland and Lithuania.
    ... i.e. the union of Poland and Russia? smile
    After the conquest of Prussia, the time of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Russia came. Now almost erased information that Lithuania was then a Russian principality. The official language was Russian, two branches of the Russian faith prevailed: paganism and Orthodoxy. The vast majority of the lands and population of the Grand Duchy were Russians.
  3. svp67
    svp67 16 July 2020 06: 34 New
    +5
    The official reason for this war was the refusal to fulfill the promise made earlier by the Lithuanian prince to give the lands of Jeymatia to the order, for the support provided earlier by the order
    prepared traps (wolf pits)
    Modern archaeologists have dug up the entire field of that battle, but have not found confirmation of this information ...
    It is strange that I did not find in the article information about the exploit of the Smolensk regiments. Which is already commendable and suggests that the author became a little more cautious in his statements. Could not, at that time, Smolensk put out several regiments, there were not enough human resources, although this does not exclude the feat of the feat of one particular detachment recruited from the Smolensk ...
    And yet, I read and was surprised ...
    They quickly overgrown with walls from the remains of all regiments, light cavalry, Lithuanian and Polish infantry.
    The author so often recalled the Russian component of the combined army, but then forgot to mention or considered that all Russian soldiers were killed before this stage of the battle?
    1. Sneaky Urus
      Sneaky Urus 16 July 2020 11: 04 New
      11
      the article, in general, is incredibly crude with a lot of "jambs". From the preface there is an erroneous opinion that the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was simply the savior of the entire northeastern Russia - Novgorod, Moscow, Tver, Ryazan. By the way, the "east" of Russia (and the south) had already been captured by the ON. Of course, there was no talk of salvation. The expansion of the Teutons was limited to Zemaitia, which, as you rightly noted, Vitovt himself gave into the hands of the Order for his help in the war with the Muscovites. Moreover, he forced the Zhmudey to obey, having made a military campaign to them in 1405. But he changed his mind solely because exactly in 1409 he concluded the Pskov Peace with Vasily I. Having untied his hands, he realized that Zhmudia must be returned, concentrating not on hegemony in the Russian lands, but on the unification of closely related tribes, which were the Samogites and the Lithuanians. To create the national nucleus of a huge principality. Even if the order had won the Battle of Grunwald, it would simply have been entrenched in Zhmudia without crushing the principality of Lithuania itself. Vitovt was able to quickly recover after the disaster on Vorskla in 1399.
      That's the whole price of the expression "stopped the expansion of the Teutonic Order to the east."
      1. Bar1
        Bar1 16 July 2020 12: 06 New
        -10
        Quote: Sneaky Urus
        The expansion of the Teutonic Knights was limited to Jemaitia, which, as you rightly noted,

        about the Battle of the Ice, of course not heard?
        1. Sneaky Urus
          Sneaky Urus 16 July 2020 15: 26 New
          10
          Quote: Bar1
          about the Battle of the Ice, of course not heard?

          of course not!!! wink Few people know about him ...
          What is the Battle of the Ice? The continuation of many years of skirmishes of the Germans with the Novgorod lands. In significance and consequences, one of the small battles. And after the Ice, the Germans repeatedly invaded, like the Russian squads. The Battle of 1268 was much larger.
          1. Crimea26
            Crimea26 17 July 2020 18: 04 New
            +1
            It is believed that the Rakovor battle + skirmishes in the last 15-20 years became the late description of the "Battle on the Ice". The description of the "battle on ice" among the "Livonians" is very different from the "Russians" both in place and during the battle, and the place of the battle has not been determined.
      2. zenion
        zenion 16 July 2020 14: 49 New
        -2
        They did not explain to the people who then ruled the CPSU, or United Russia? To whom to attribute this victory. Here it’s a little clear that United Russia further moved its army and captured Berlin, as well as Russia.
    2. luxing
      luxing 16 July 2020 11: 32 New
      +2
      from other sources it is known that there were Smolensk regiments!
      1. Sneaky Urus
        Sneaky Urus 16 July 2020 11: 58 New
        +3
        "other sources" is Jan Dlugosz in "History of Poland"? yes Authoritative source. He wrote about 3 regiments (banners) of Smolyan. The number of banners is unknown.
    3. Aitvaras
      Aitvaras 16 July 2020 13: 35 New
      +6
      It is unlikely that the Russians from Smolensk, i.e. K. for several. years before these events in Smolensk there was a rebellion against the power of the Principality of Lithuania. Vitovt brutally suppressed the uprising of the townspeople and left a garrison of the most reliable and selected soldiers of the principality in the fortress. Then Smolensk was a member of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and bordered the lands of the Moscow principality, both principalities competed for Russian lands .In those days, troops gathered along the garrison of fortresses, from there the names of these Smolensk regiments. With the number of troops in this battle, the author clearly got excited, in the Middle Ages in Europe the armies were not so numerous.
      1. Sneaky Urus
        Sneaky Urus 16 July 2020 15: 31 New
        0
        Dlugosh described Grunwald (by the way, this is the Polish name for the German Grunfeld. German historiography calls this battle Tonenberg, and Lithuanian at Zalgiris) only a few decades after the events. Apparently, he relied on good sources.
        I agree with you that the author of the article got very excited with the number. The Lithuanian historian Gudavičius estimates so - the Order is no more than 12 thousand, allies - Poles and Lithuanians - no more than 20 thousand.
      2. ship
        ship 19 July 2020 23: 52 New
        0
        "It is unlikely that Vitovt's army included Russians from Smolensk" - well, that's just for you.
    4. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 17 July 2020 09: 12 New
      0
      Quote: svp67
      It is strange that I did not find in the article information about the exploit of the Smolensk regiments.

      Well then ...
      The other part of Wallenrod's cavalry joined the battle with the remaining troops of Vytautas. The stubborn felling began. Russian banners, including Smolensk regiments, took a hit and suffered heavy losses. The advanced gonfalons fell almost completely, but they were replaced by the rear. They fulfilled their task: the heavy knightly cavalry got bogged down, lost mobility and striking power.
      1. ship
        ship 20 July 2020 00: 22 New
        0
        The Smolensk regiments perished, but did not let the heavy knightly cavalry through and the Teutonic "pincers" did not work. It was the Smolensk regiments that did not allow this to be done.
        And, the glory went to others.
  4. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 16 July 2020 06: 55 New
    +2
    In Poland, namely in Krakow, there are a lot of monuments, memorials and reminders of the Battle of Grunwald. From the station wherever you go, no matter what you see.
  5. Cartalon
    Cartalon 16 July 2020 07: 48 New
    14
    If any of the normal authors post an article on the topic, it will be possible to discuss, and it is a sin to discuss Samsonov’s writings
    1. Astra wild
      Astra wild 16 July 2020 16: 11 New
      -1
      However, you rate Samsonov "highly".
      1. Cartalon
        Cartalon 16 July 2020 16: 49 New
        +7
        And what is there to evaluate, he takes a chapter from some kind of book of 50 years, adds some sort of gag and is ready
  6. BAI
    BAI 16 July 2020 08: 26 New
    11
    First, the author has Russian regiments from Podolia and Galicia, then from Smolensk. Some kind of mess.
    Polish historian of the XNUMXth century, Jan Dlugosh, wrote: “The“ banners ”were called by the names of Lithuanian lands, namely: Trokskaya, Vilenskaya, Grodno, Kovenskaya, Lida, Mednitskaya, Smolenskaya, Polotskaya, Vitebsk, Kiev, Pinsk, Novgorod, Brest, Volkovyskaya, Drogichinskaya, Melnitskaya, Kremenetskaya, Starodubskaya.
    1. Bar1
      Bar1 16 July 2020 09: 35 New
      -4
      Quote: BAI
      First, the author has Russian regiments from Podolia and Galicia, then from Smolensk. Some kind of mess.

      about Chervonnaya and Black Russia did not hear of course?
    2. svp67
      svp67 16 July 2020 11: 12 New
      -1
      Quote: BAI
      First, the author has Russian regiments from Podolia and Galicia, then from Smolensk. Some kind of mess.

      Because these are "Rusyn" regiments, as they were called in the ON
      1. Bar1
        Bar1 16 July 2020 11: 20 New
        0
        Quote: svp67
        Quote: BAI
        First, the author has Russian regiments from Podolia and Galicia, then from Smolensk. Some kind of mess.

        Because these are "Rusyn" regiments, so they were called

        Have you come up with this?
        1. svp67
          svp67 16 July 2020 12: 16 New
          +4
          Quote: Bar1
          Have you come up with this?

          Many residents of Transcarpathia are still called Rusyns ...
          [media = https: //www.youtube.com/watch? v = vqZc8cQe5Iw]
          1. Bar1
            Bar1 16 July 2020 13: 08 New
            -4
            Quote: svp67
            Many residents of Transcarpathia are still called Rusyns ...
            [media = https: //www.youtube.com/watch? v = vqZc8cQe5Iw]


            it is now so called. And the "Rusyn" is grating on the ear from the obvious synthetics of the word.
            In general, in the title of the same Gigimont 3, along with the King of Poland and Prince of Russia.
  7. serg.shishkov2015
    serg.shishkov2015 16 July 2020 08: 43 New
    0
    About 30 years ago I came across an art book * The Pursuit of Grunwald *, I can’t say how true the historical ones are, but it was interesting to read, interesting notes, a list of banners that participated in the battle
    1. Astra wild
      Astra wild 16 July 2020 16: 43 New
      0
      Colleague Shiskov, I read about Grunwald from Sinkevich; "The Crusaders" and was going to ask colleagues: what would they advise to read from fiction about that period?
      1. serg.shishkov2015
        serg.shishkov2015 17 July 2020 11: 38 New
        0
        I unearthed the book I mentioned yesterday and reviewed it fragmentarily - it’s really interesting there! and everyday life of ordinary people is shown and for residents of the former USSR it is closer! Tarasov wrote, if I'm not lying, a resident of Belarus! and the afterword is documentary! To be honest, I'm really only interested in two periods of history - the Second World War and the period from 5 million years to a billion! Although the Jura somewhat falls out of this segment! dinosaurs are uninteresting to me - miserable 150 million years! Zilch next to the trilobite of the genus Olenus, which is at least half a billion!
        1. Astra wild
          Astra wild 17 July 2020 20: 23 New
          -1
          Serge, I’ll search the Internet for this book.
          Sorry, but I did not quite understand: besides WWII, what other historical period are you interested in?
          1. serg.shishkov2015
            serg.shishkov2015 18 July 2020 06: 51 New
            0
            Paleontology! In Sarov, fossils lie directly on the surface! You just have to bend over and lift it up! In those years when I BURNED it, I put together a very decent collection! students also connected when I was working at school! several dozen species were identified with a high degree of reliability! it's something incredible! the fragment of the Pterigotis clan scorpion is about a billion years old!
      2. serg.shishkov2015
        serg.shishkov2015 17 July 2020 11: 40 New
        0
        I answered you, but the comment mistakenly put in a heap! read if you see fit!
  8. Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 16 July 2020 12: 01 New
    20
    In general, if you remove the author's fantasies in the style of "Prussians-Porussians", then you get a good essay of a seventh grader - a solid five from a school teacher. For diligence. Well, in the form in which it is published, it is suitable only for anamnesis.
    In fact, probably, there is no such battle that could be described in so many mutually exclusive ways, and this is in the presence of extensive material on it. Even Klim Zhukov presented his reconstruction, where he described an unreasonable mess both from that and from the other side. smile
    In general, the situation is seen as follows.
    It is unlikely that we will find in the story two characters who would hate each other more than Jagiello and Vytautas. Both demonstrated the lowest social responsibility, attracting the Order to their own internecine struggle, promising and betraying, bargaining support from the Order and paying for it with lands. But then the stars came together - the cunning and narrow-minded cousins ​​got tired of fighting with each other and decided to take away from the Order what they themselves had given him while they were biting each other, pretended to reconcile, organized a kind of coalition and unleashed an aggressive war against the Germans, which, in general, were protected.
    At Grunwald, both brothers dreamed of one thing - to substitute an ally under the German ice rink, to watch from the sidelines how the Germans were hanging on to their comrades-in-arms, after which they heroically enter the battle and win, and then dictate conditions to both of them. They stood for a long time on the battlefield, pushing each other: "You start", "No, come on first." The Germans are already tired of waiting. But then the Tatars were zealous, they rushed to the attack and began. The Germans chose the weaker Lithuanian-Russian army as their target and thought that they had crushed it, after which they turned towards the Poles. The Poles resisted. They alone were, in general, not much less than the entire army of the order. And Vitovt, meanwhile, gathered those who had fled, pulled up reserves that did not participate in the first clash and rolled on the Germans again. The overall numerical superiority of the coalition affected and the Germans fell. The German commanders fought to the last and all perished. Stupidity, of course, but very chivalrous.
    After the battle, it dawned on Yagailo that Vitovt would receive more dividends for anybody if he finished off the Order right there, using the fruits of victory. As in that bike - the goldfish offers to fulfill any desire, but warns that whatever the man asks, the neighbor will have twice as much. The man thought and said: "Pluck out one of my eyes." laughing
    Jagiello did everything so that the forces of the Order could recover faster and he continued to hang over Vitovt as a potential threat - he hesitated as soon as he could to the Order lands, and then at the first opportunity he ended the company.
    Then the negotiations, the world, in short, took away from the Order what they themselves handed over to him earlier, and then they calmed down. They continued to set Germans on each other.
    This is one of the versions of the events of the "Great War" 1409-1411. Personally, I like her more than others. smile
    That's it, I will not comment on Samsonov anymore. It is bad for my health. Yesterday, including my efforts for a hundred comments, they threw him out. sad
    I won't go here again today. No.
    Colleagues, see you all on other branches. smile
    1. Aitvaras
      Aitvaras 16 July 2020 13: 17 New
      0
      I agree with the latest commentary and version about this story, in short, the new adventures of Winnie the Pooh with his faithful and sad friend, the Eeyore Eeyore, are comparatively more beneficial to health.
    2. Astra wild
      Astra wild 16 July 2020 16: 35 New
      +3
      "It's bad for my health," however, the author's reputation
      I remembered a joke from the past. A conversation between two friends.
      -I went through yesterday. Put on "Tender May" at least vomit me.
      And the author has such an action
    3. Aleksandr56478
      Aleksandr56478 17 July 2020 01: 45 New
      +1
      Definitely for your comment plus from me good The most sober vision of the specified historical characters, processes and actions associated with them. Two relatives deserve a separate article, since at that pace of their life an ordinary person would simply "burn out with his mind."
  9. Diviz
    Diviz 16 July 2020 13: 15 New
    +1
    Slavic-Russian Union - how to understand? Slovan is a slave and Russian is fair?
    The language has changed, one word is wrong to understand and the whole story is turned upside down.
    The main thing to understand is simple - the potential of the military power of the belligerents. To create a large number of weapons, to prepare people, you need a bridgehead, technology because this is the key to victory.
    On July 15, 1389, there was a war in the Kosovo field with the Ottoman Empire. It can be assumed that the parties studied the enemy's weapons and, over time, improved the same armor. Only now no one wants to come up with an idea and lay out an article about the weapons of the belligerent parties. For some reason, everyone thinks about quantitative superiority, but no one wants to write about who made the best weapons, had more advanced knowledge.
  10. Constanty
    Constanty 16 July 2020 15: 14 New
    0
    Typical propaganda article with a political message - like this Author.
    Forcing to emphasize the participation of Russian - in fact Rusyn - troops and reducing the share of Polish troops (even with a tendency to indicate the participation of Poles on the side of the Teutonic Order)

    We must not forget that the Lithuanian army (including three Smolensk banners, the Novgorod banner of the Grand Duke Lingven Semyon in the initial phase under pressure from the Teutonic forces of retreata and the outcome of the battle was decided by the crown troops (without the mythical 7 Russians) under the command of the Krakow governor Zyndaram)

    It was a victory for the Polish and Lithuanian troops - with a strong emphasis on the former.
    Another thing is that it was mostly spent by the Poles :-(
  11. Gato
    Gato 16 July 2020 16: 54 New
    +2
    Better to read Senkevich. The historicity is the same, but the artistic value is much higher.
  12. Alexander Trebuntsev
    Alexander Trebuntsev 16 July 2020 19: 04 New
    0
    The financial component of the outcome of the battle is not mentioned. As far as I remember, the order was then overlaid with such an indemnity that the amount exceeded more than 20 times the output of Muscovite Rus Orde. Russia barely collected 5 thousand. silver for tribute, and here we were talking about more than 100 thousand (conditional raccoons).
  13. danske75
    danske75 17 July 2020 20: 12 New
    -2
    Russian-Lithuanian military .... what side are there Russians? :) Smolensk regiments? Well then, maybe the Lithuanian-Tatar military.
    1. poppy admiral
      poppy admiral 20 July 2020 00: 12 New
      +1
      For the gifted "humorists". Look at the maps of Poland and Lithuania at that time. And on modern maps of Belarus, Ukraine, Russia. Three-fourths, if not more, were occupied by Russian principalities. Then that was the name of all Russians, both Russians and Ukrainians and Belarusians. And the Tatars were also under Grunewald. Learn materiel "smart guy". And purely a guess? You are not accidentally from Ukraine, the tady mustache is clear with you.
      1. ship
        ship 21 July 2020 23: 58 New
        0
        This is a friend from the Polish - Belarusian party, well, very enlightened.