Military Review

Japan hides the true reasons for refusing to deploy US missile defense systems

80

In Tokyo, they decided not to deploy American Aegis missile defense systems on Japanese territory. The Japanese, allegedly, are not happy with their cost and deployment conditions.


This was announced by Minister of Defense Taro Kono.

The minister in an interview with Japanese media claimed that Tokyo did not fit the American proposal for technical and economic reasons. Taro Kono said that in a situation where the country is experiencing a budget deficit, the US missile defense system simply cannot afford.

Another obstacle to the purchase of complexes is the insecurity of the Japanese in the safety of these weapons for themselves. They doubt that the starting engine, which is detached during start-up, will not damage anything if it falls.

In fact, in Japan they hide the true reasons for refusing accommodation.

Japan is well aware that the deployment of Aegis missile defense systems on its territory will become an additional factor for the "irritability" of its neighbors - Russia and China. Moreover, the locations of American systems would become additional targets on the map of Japan, for example, for PLA missile systems, and, accordingly, a new reason for China to expand its activity on the disputed islands.

In addition, the Japanese may have doubts about the effectiveness of Aegis. After all, the American missile defense systems deployed on their destroyers did not even react to the flight of North Korean missiles over the country's territory. True, here it is also necessary to take into account the height of that flight.
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  1. WILL
    WILL 15 June 2020 18: 33
    22
    On Surprise - Adequate act of the Japanese! Still, the US bases would be removed from their territory ... but they certainly will not be allowed to!
    1. alone
      alone 15 June 2020 18: 49
      20
      So the matter is in cost and in terms of deployment .. Actually, the Japanese have a very serious military-industrial complex and would not be surprised if one day they deploy their missile defense systems
      1. Thunderbolt
        Thunderbolt 15 June 2020 19: 08
        +3
        Quote: ANIMAL
        Still, the US bases would be removed from their territory ... but they certainly will not be allowed to!

        Own citizens will not allow, because. while the Japanese are sitting under the nuclear umbrella of the United States, this protects them from direct aggression of the Chinese fleet. Japanese fishermen or oil producers throughout the entire TO region only protect the American nuclear umbrella. Otherwise, it would be like with the Indians, who wanted to start developing a field in the disputed sea area and Immediately, the Chinese Navy began to react with the passage of their destroyers, and their paramilitary "standard fishing" squadrons directly attacked the civilian Indians and tried to ram the Vietnamese border guards. By the way, the Communist Party of Japan and the wing removed from power by voting are in favor of "removing the bases". of the people voting for the party in power, it also votes for the American presence on the islands. They do not consider their presence on Japanese soil an occupation. Well, occupation, when the Japanese were able to cover half of the region with investments.)))
      2. Oleg83
        Oleg83 15 June 2020 19: 17
        +5
        Quote: lonely
        So the matter is in cost and in terms of deployment .. Actually, the Japanese have a very serious military-industrial complex and would not be surprised if one day they deploy their missile defense systems


        SM3 which should have been placed on these bases, a joint development of Japan and the United States. At the same time, there is a program to increase the number of destroyers of the Navy of Japan with Aegis, respectively, all missiles will go to these destroyers
      3. Thunderbolt
        Thunderbolt 15 June 2020 19: 25
        +1
        Quote: lonely
        Actually, the Japanese have a very serious defense industry and would not be surprised if one day they deploy their missile defense systems

        The Japanese supply heads for American interceptors up to SM-3. It would be extremely unprofitable to leave this program; communications were organized by entire institutes and scientific centers. !, we smash this race, to the thunder of the earth, to Massy and Ore, x
      4. Civil
        Civil 15 June 2020 20: 24
        0
        Quote: lonely
        So the matter is in cost and in terms of deployment .. Actually, the Japanese have a very serious military-industrial complex and would not be surprised if one day they deploy their missile defense systems

        Or already done everything ...
        1. Alex777
          Alex777 16 June 2020 10: 46
          +2
          The main thing is that this system, at its cost, does not catch hypersonic missiles. Therefore, for the Japanese, it is useless.
          And we are calmer that there will be no radars. hi
    2. Cyril G ...
      Cyril G ... 15 June 2020 19: 07
      -1
      They can not. The Occupation Mode is not completed ...
      1. Thunderbolt
        Thunderbolt 15 June 2020 19: 29
        -3
        Quote: Cyril G ...
        They can not. The Occupation Mode is not completed ...

        OK, what do you understand by lifting the occupation regime? I understand that there is no special regime. Freedom of competition between political parties, an independent court, and like a crown ----- 5 percent in the Japanese region
        1. Sergey Averchenkov
          Sergey Averchenkov 15 June 2020 20: 41
          +4
          The presence of a permanent foreign military on its territory.
        2. Avior
          Avior 15 June 2020 21: 27
          -4
          The occupation of Japan officially ended after the entry into force of the San Francisco Peace Treaty, 1952.
          Formally, the Americans are there by agreement.
          1. Cyril G ...
            Cyril G ... 15 June 2020 22: 18
            +6
            That's right, formally.
          2. Aviator_
            Aviator_ 15 June 2020 22: 20
            +1
            In Okinawa, the civil administration appeared only in 1972.
            1. Avior
              Avior 16 June 2020 01: 20
              -3
              since 1951, Americans have been there under an agreement with Japan.
              1. Aviator_
                Aviator_ 16 June 2020 08: 21
                +1
                They remained, and did not go anywhere. Another thing is that until the beginning of the 70s there was an occupation administration, that is, the japas were nobody there.
                1. Avior
                  Avior 16 June 2020 08: 24
                  -3
                  The administration was under an agreement with Japan.
                  Formally, the occupation of Japan ceased in 1952, and Germany in 1949.
                  Further, the troops were there according to the relevant agreements - the Germans in the German Democratic Republic and the Federal Republic of Germany and the Japanese actually had no army at that time, and the former allies did not trust each other
                  1. Aviator_
                    Aviator_ 16 June 2020 08: 30
                    0
                    There were bases under the agreement. And the administration is so, their internal, samurai business. They (Japs) were strongly morally oppressed by the alien administration, no more - the Yankees removed their administration after more than 20 years - and that has fundamentally changed - but nothing. And the Japanese still do not have an army formally, only "self-defense forces."
                    1. Avior
                      Avior 16 June 2020 09: 06
                      -2
                      With Okinawa, things are much more complicated.
                      It was under the control of the States under the San Francisco Treaty, as mandated territory, and there was an American civil administration.
                      But at the same time there was a Japanese civil administration.
                      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Government_of_the_Ryukyu_Islands
                      Only here the inhabitants of Okinawa did not really want to return to Japan.
                      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1971_Okinawa_Reversion_Agreement
                      on this topic a separate article needs to be written.
                      1. Alex777
                        Alex777 16 June 2020 10: 57
                        +1
                        What are you trying to prove? What Japan is not occupied?
                        It is useless to prove. Even the problem with the Kuril Islands is warmed up by the Americans, who threatened to completely take Okinawa away if the Japanese did not butt out for our islands.
                        That Germany is not occupied? This is also useless to prove.
                        The Germans do not have the right to demand the withdrawal of nuclear weapons from their territory. Only if everyone in NATO votes for it. But this will never happen. That's all.
                        All accommodation agreements concluded by the States are legal occupation. And if you take a little interest in the facts, you will find a lot of interesting things in these agreements.
                        The USSR (in our zone of occupation) had the same thing. But we withdrew our troops from Eastern Europe, while the Americans remained unchanged. Even expanded almost to our borders.
                        And state sanctions against the International Criminal Court are a vivid confirmation of the occupation. No one has the right to judge them. hi
                      2. Avior
                        Avior 16 June 2020 11: 36
                        -3
                        It is useless to prove.

                        I see. Maybe you should deal with the question initially - why the USSR did not sign the San Francisco Treaty, why the US signed it with a reservation, why we are talking about these 4 islands, and not about the others, where did the Ryukyu Islands come from in Japan, how is this connected with the Potsdam and Cairo declarations and so on.
                        In general, look not a primitively simplified picture, but a more realistic one, with details.
                        The Germans do not have the right to demand the withdrawal of nuclear weapons from their territory.

                        given that Germany never demanded this, why would NATO vote for it? The knowledge about Germany, I see, is with you like about Japan.
                        I just took an interest in the facts and found a lot of interesting things in them.
                        What I wish you smile
                      3. Alex777
                        Alex777 16 June 2020 15: 16
                        +1
                        Maybe you should deal with the question initially, why the USSR did not sign the San Francisco Treaty,

                        What is there to understand?
                        The head of the Soviet delegation, First Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of the USSR A. A. Gromyko regarded the treaty as a separate peace and emphasized that the representatives of the PRC were not invited to the conference, and the territorial rights of China to Taiwan, the Pescador and Paracel Islands are not fixed in the text of the treaty , as well as the sovereignty of the USSR over South Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands
                        That is why I said that the reason is in the Americans and their interests. Including chop off the Kuril Islands from the USSR.
                        Truman directly turned to Stalin for the base on Matua, but was beautifully sent.
                        given that Germany never demanded this, why would NATO vote for it?

                        Oh well. And why would they demand if they know what is useless? Although the German greens have demanded this repeatedly. And Poland will never agree until the Yankees give the go-ahead.
                      4. Avior
                        Avior 16 June 2020 16: 35
                        -4
                        What they agreed in Yalta, they wrote.
                        And if they didn’t agree to drag the Chinese Communists to sign and enter into the agreement that Taiwan should belong to them, they didn’t enter it.
                      5. Avior
                        Avior 16 June 2020 16: 46
                        -5
                        Well, since they do not require it, then there is no problem. What are you talking about.
                        The Germans do not mind, the Americans, too, what questions can there be?
                    2. tikhonov66
                      tikhonov66 17 June 2020 13: 02
                      +1
                      "... Maybe you should deal with the question initially - why the USSR did not sign the San Francisco Treaty
                      ..."
                      - not worth it.
                      "... why the USA signed it with a reservation,
                      ..."
                      - and do not care.
                      "... why we are talking about these 4 islands, and not about others, where the Ryukyu Islands came from in Japan, how is this related to the Potsdam and Cairo Declarations, and so on.
                      ..."
                      - not interested.
                      There would be a desire, but for the "reasons" - the case will not arise.
                      As the hero of one famous fable said
                      "You are guilty of what I WANT (!) To eat ..."

                      "...
                      In general, look not a primitively simplified picture, but a more realistic one, with details.
                      ..."
                      - The most REALISTIC picture (with details) is that the MILLION Kwantung Army of Japan, which held the defenses IN LONG-TERM DEFENSE FACILITIES and in the PERMITTING ALTITUDES of the LOCATION - was Erased in the POWDER - less than on August 9th.

                      Everything else - there is your OPINION (glitches), which you apparently have the right to (everyone is crazy in his own way ...), but which is not able to cancel DIRECT FACTS
                      - and this is MATCH!
                    3. Avior
                      Avior 17 June 2020 13: 06
                      -3
                      Claudia change, the button sticks.
              2. Aviator_
                Aviator_ 16 June 2020 18: 52
                0
                As for "did not want", this is propaganda chatter. I was there in 2014, Americans - like flies in the outhouse - there are still several bases. Osprey is flying. And the japas in Okinawa and Honshu are exactly the same. I even got the impression that Okinawa for them is like the Crimea for us - a place for summer holidays. I did not notice separatist sentiments.
              3. Avior
                Avior 17 June 2020 13: 03
                -1
                these discussions were 50 years ago.
                Now it's clear.
            2. tikhonov66
              tikhonov66 17 June 2020 13: 18
              +2
              "... With Okinawa, everything is much more complicated.
              ..."
              -?!
              "... It was under the control of the States under the San Francisco Treaty as a Mandatory Territory, and there was an American civil administration ...."
              - ABOUT! That is, in other words - Okinawa was OFFICIALLY OCCUPIED by the USA - as a result of the CAPITULATION of Japan in the Second World War ...
              "...
              But at the same time there was a Japanese civil administration.
              https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Government_of_the_Ryukyu_Islands
              ..."
              - so what?!
              Someone has to TRANSLATE "from American to Japanese" orders of the occupation administration. Really the Amerovian officials - THE SAME "to break the language" ?!

              "... Only here the inhabitants of Okinawa did not really want to return to Japan.
              https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1971_Okinawa_Reversion_Agreement
              on this topic a separate article needs to be written.
              ..."
              - Yes, do not write anything here.
              In any occupied country - there will always be a handful of Judas,
              ready to be SOLD to the invader "for a barrel of jam and a basket of cookies".
              - in Kiev occupied by the Nazis - they even scraped together Judas in embroidered shirts for a "festive" demonstration. And in occupied France - the same was the "French" administration of Marshal Petain ...
            3. Avior
              Avior 17 June 2020 13: 23
              -4
              The Ryukyu Islands, which Japan captured, fell under the Cairo Declaration and, in accordance with the Potsdam Declaration and the terms of surrender, were excluded from Japan, which was reflected in the agreement.
              Teach the materiel before multiplying the kapluksy.
  • tikhonov66
    tikhonov66 17 June 2020 12: 49
    0
    "...
    OK, what do you mean by lifting the occupation regime?
    ..."
    How is that "what" ?!
    - get rid of the "unobtrusive" presence of an OFFICIAL FOREIGN MILITARY CONTINGENT - on the territory of the "independent" state "Japan"
    - it's OBVIOUS, "Watson" ...
    8-))
    In a word -
    - YANKS - GO HOME !!!!
    Well, like - PSHLI OUT!
  • tihonmarine
    tihonmarine 15 June 2020 19: 20
    +2
    Quote: ANIMAL
    Still, the US bases would be removed from their territory ... but they certainly will not be allowed to!

    And who will give them, the gut is thin.
  • APASUS
    APASUS 15 June 2020 19: 35
    +2
    Quote: ANIMAL
    Still, the US bases would be removed from their territory ... but they certainly will not be allowed to!

    They can’t remove the bases, because in Japan the Japanese themselves do not own anything
  • antivirus
    antivirus 15 June 2020 20: 09
    -1
    in fact, the yapis will wait for the Taiwan missile defense systems. and at the price and rank of not the last second-rate powers. Taipei will not deceive Tokyo ..... there is trust in (and to) missile defense.
  • knn54
    knn54 15 June 2020 20: 13
    +2
    Japan is the most independent of the Yankees-dependent countries.
    1. cniza
      cniza 15 June 2020 20: 33
      +2
      Somehow it is tricky, but there is something in it, up to a certain point ...
    2. Wolf
      Wolf 15 June 2020 21: 12
      0
      There is no such.
  • RUSS
    RUSS 15 June 2020 20: 38
    -7
    Quote: ANIMAL
    On Surprise - Adequate act of the Japanese! Still, the US bases would be removed from their territory ... but they certainly will not be allowed to!

    Why should the US leave Japan? At the Potsdam Conference, the question of Japan was resolved unconditionally.
    1. Cyril G ...
      Cyril G ... 15 June 2020 21: 10
      +5
      We kind of left Germany, so the states have nothing to do either in Germany or in Japan
  • RUSS
    RUSS 15 June 2020 20: 45
    -11 qualifying.
    Quote: ANIMAL
    On Surprise - Adequate act of the Japanese! Still, the US bases would be removed from their territory ... but they certainly will not be allowed to!

    To remove US bases from Japan is a review of WWII results, which is what our current authorities are against, I mean a review of the results
    1. Katanikotael
      Katanikotael 15 June 2020 21: 19
      10
      if something and the Soviet (Russian) base should be in Europe for these very results! Our bases were kicked out from there, and the United States’s from Japan, what double standards?
      1. RUSS
        RUSS 15 June 2020 21: 27
        -7
        Quote: Katanikotael
        if something and the Soviet (Russian) base should be in Europe for these very results! Our bases were kicked out from there, and the United States’s from Japan, what double standards?

        You are like from kindergarten
    2. Cyril G ...
      Cyril G ... 15 June 2020 21: 29
      +4
      What side is the revision of the results?
      1. RUSS
        RUSS 15 June 2020 21: 47
        -6
        Quote: Cyril G ...
        What side is the revision of the results?

        And such that the occupation of Japan is agreed upon by the victorious countries and this is one of the results of WWII.
        1. Cyril G ...
          Cyril G ... 15 June 2020 22: 17
          +9
          So why then did the occupation of part of Germany cease on our part? Just spare me the double standards.
  • vfwfr
    vfwfr 16 June 2020 00: 43
    0
    They will not allow or do not want to, since the local population earns money from the supply of food and the rest? ;)
  • zenion
    zenion 16 June 2020 14: 12
    0
    The Americans will say that if it weren’t for them, then the USSR would have bombed all the islands of Japan with nuclear bombs and made them unsuitable for life. In order to prevent this from happening, the Americans bombed two Japanese cities to show the Red Army that if they attack Japan, they will completely erase it from the world map. The Red Army was frightened and decided that it was better not to touch the Japanese, let them live.
  • Junior Private
    Junior Private 15 June 2020 18: 58
    +6
    The Japanese understood for a long time, and now they have become semi-official to understand that if something happens, the Chinese will not talk with them and the United States will not come to the rescue, and it’s not worth giving once again reasons for irritating our neighbors. Japan is not Poland.
  • Thrifty
    Thrifty 15 June 2020 19: 05
    -3
    There it constantly shakes, a sensor error, and the pro system will give a massive salvo on completely civilian sides, thereby provoking a war in the region.
    1. RUSS
      RUSS 15 June 2020 19: 28
      -2
      Quote: Thrifty
      There it constantly shakes, a sensor error, and the pro system will give a massive salvo on completely civilian sides, thereby provoking a war in the region.

      You just invented it now?))))
    2. cniza
      cniza 15 June 2020 20: 32
      +2
      Quote: Thrifty
      There it constantly shakes, a sensor error, and the pro system will give a massive salvo on completely civilian sides, thereby provoking a war in the region.


      Come on, if it were so, then this missile defense cannot be exploited anywhere ...
    3. Ross xnumx
      Ross xnumx 16 June 2020 05: 41
      -1
      Quote: Thrifty
      There it constantly shakes, a sensor error, and the pro system will give a massive salvo on completely civilian sides, thereby provoking a war in the region.

      Quote: RUSS
      You just invented it now?))))

      One writes that he can, the other denies ... Who is right?
      Cases of false positives for missile attack warning systems regularly occurred during the Cold War.
      You, Mr. RUSS, can give a XNUMX% guarantee that the electronics will not "go wild" as a result of exposure to electronic warfare, exposure to radiation as a result of any accident at a Japanese nuclear power plant, a power surge, or other unbridled nature? The broom sometimes shoots.
      And this missile defense system error will be for Japan the first step to the apocalypse.
      That is exactly what they do not want.
      I can’t say for sure that the Japanese military will lose to the Chinese. History shows the opposite. As for the Russian army, here the answers are given in the last century. Moreover, the final.
      Japan is an island nation. The fact that the Japanese yen is on the list of reserve currencies does not mean that the Japanese economy is completely independent. It is not a fact that neighbors: the Russian Federation and China will have a greater impact on the development of the Japanese economy than the United States.
      The presence of US military bases in Japan is a necessary measure of "protection" of the established (so far) system of international relations. I don’t know what is the biggest “nuisance” for Japan: weakening of the USA or strengthening of China?
      1. RUSS
        RUSS 16 June 2020 06: 40
        -2
        Quote: ROSS 42
        You, Mr. RUSS, can give a XNUMX% guarantee that the electronics will not "go wild" as a result of exposure to electronic warfare, exposure to radiation as a result of any accident at a Japanese nuclear power plant, a power surge, or other unbridled nature?

        There was a case in the USSR, remember officer Petrov Stanislav Evgrafovich?
        But in Japan, it seems, no ......
        1. Ross xnumx
          Ross xnumx 16 June 2020 06: 46
          -1
          Quote: RUSS
          But in Japan, it seems, no ......

          In the USA, it seems, “yes” ... sad
  • Thunderbolt
    Thunderbolt 15 June 2020 19: 38
    0
    Quote: Cyril G ...
    They can not. The Occupation Mode is not completed ...
  • The comment was deleted.
    1. Kuzmitsky
      15 June 2020 19: 53
      0
      Let the Japanese first drive the Americans out, and then, maybe we can give them some island. Hokkaido, for example.
      1. Mouse
        Mouse 15 June 2020 20: 13
        +2
        Bash to bash? Don’t do it! yes
      2. The comment was deleted.
      3. RUSS
        RUSS 15 June 2020 20: 26
        -3
        Quote: Kuzmitsky
        Let the Japanese first drive the Americans out, and then, maybe we can give them some island. Hokkaido, for example.

        Under the new constitution, it will not work to give anything away)))
      4. cniza
        cniza 15 June 2020 20: 31
        +1
        Quote: Kuzmitsky
        Let the Japanese first drive the Americans out, and then, maybe we can give them some island. Hokkaido, for example.


        What hangover should we give them something?
        1. The comment was deleted.
          1. cniza
            cniza 15 June 2020 20: 41
            +3
            Yes, I think not silushki, but just thought - okay then we'll figure it out, but apparently in vain ...
            1. The comment was deleted.
              1. cniza
                cniza 15 June 2020 21: 01
                +1
                This is history and how, and what influenced these decisions, the documents cannot fully answer ...
                1. The comment was deleted.
                  1. cniza
                    cniza 15 June 2020 21: 57
                    +1
                    I do not dispute this and I hope that everything was done correctly ...
      5. RUSS
        RUSS 15 June 2020 20: 40
        -2
        Quote: Kuzmitsky
        Let the Japanese first drive the Americans out, and then, maybe we can give them some island. Hokkaido, for example.

        The United States, unlike Russia, simply will not withdraw troops from Japan, as we had previously withdrawn from Germany.
  • Mouse
    Mouse 15 June 2020 19: 49
    +3
    Riot on the ship? recourse
    1. cniza
      cniza 15 June 2020 20: 30
      +2
      Or an attempt to flirt.
      1. Mouse
        Mouse 15 June 2020 20: 33
        +2
        Yes, what flirting there .... pure bargaining ... yes hi
        1. cniza
          cniza 15 June 2020 20: 36
          +2
          So this is implied, lulling of vigilance and numbing, hope without bargaining ... lol hi
  • Vladislav_2
    Vladislav_2 15 June 2020 20: 24
    0
    yes the reason is not THIS laughing ..... if nato tramples on the sidelines for a smoke))) .... and to smash their boats into the trash, it costs nothing! ... and they know about it
  • cniza
    cniza 15 June 2020 20: 29
    +1
    In addition, the Japanese may have doubts about the effectiveness of Aegis. After all, the American missile defense systems deployed on their destroyers did not even respond to the flight of North Korean missiles over the country's territory.


    If this is true, then the United States breeds suckers.
    1. Mouse
      Mouse 15 June 2020 20: 37
      +2
      If this is true, then the United States breeds suckers.

      So ... this is a favorite pastime of the sucker states to breed ... wink and I think that profitable ....
      1. cniza
        cniza 15 June 2020 20: 39
        +2
        So the Japanese do not really fit into this category, they are trying ...
        1. Mouse
          Mouse 15 June 2020 20: 42
          +1
          Weak in this field ... state bases they have ... and not Japanese in the states ...
          Of course, they can have fun, for a plaisir ... laughing but on their ass and sit ....
          1. cniza
            cniza 15 June 2020 20: 59
            +2
            So to us it makes no difference, on our own or someone else's, if only we sat exactly ...
            1. Mouse
              Mouse 15 June 2020 21: 01
              +2
              And do not cough! wink
              1. cniza
                cniza 15 June 2020 21: 02
                +2
                Yeah, and didn’t even think of chewing ...
  • Knell wardenheart
    Knell wardenheart 15 June 2020 20: 29
    0
    The Japanese, unlike the Poles, know what nuclear bombing is, and they also know that their neighbors have three countries with nuclear weapons and not always unambiguous relations with the United States - so they will be careful about the deployment of US missile defense elements.
  • The comment was deleted.
  • The comment was deleted.
  • Gennady Fomkin
    Gennady Fomkin 15 June 2020 20: 47
    0
    Oh Lord, and these began to suspect something.
  • The comment was deleted.
  • domashniy domovoy
    domashniy domovoy 15 June 2020 21: 01
    +2
    a little press and everything will be in order.
  • phair
    phair 15 June 2020 21: 37
    0
    Occupied country. Way 2
  • The comment was deleted.
  • Cowbra
    Cowbra 16 June 2020 04: 01
    +1
    Autumn is expensive, the owner)
  • An64
    An64 16 June 2020 11: 17
    0
    "Japan is hiding the true reasons for refusing to deploy US missile defense systems" - I like such categorical headlines! How do you know what the Japanese are hiding or not hiding.
    Of course, we can assume that in addition to the named reasons, there are others, then write the headline - "The Japanese may have unnamed reasons for refusing to deploy US missile defense systems."