Military Review

The path of the condottier. Life after the life of Bartolomeo Colleoni

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The path of the condottier. Life after the life of Bartolomeo Colleoni

He first put guns on carriages



В history Bartolomeo Colleoni entered the war as the creator of field artillery, the first to put guns on carriages in an open battle. This condottiere, the son of the condottiere, that is, a mercenary who was treacherously murdered after taking the Tressa castle near Milan, is much more famous as an unashamed robber than a commander.

No wonder: he had a difficult childhood and great hardships, and the very essence of the then wars was, as you know, a legitimate robbery. However, in Renaissance Italy, condottierism acquired a certain romantic halo. The Italians were still very far from national unity, although they fought with the same Habsburgs and Hohenstaufens for some semblance of independence. But they fought more among themselves, preferring otherwise more “respectable" occupations.


Condottiers and soldiers. Fresco of the XV century. Malpag Castle Bergamo

As a result, the demand for military mercenaries, who made a profession out of the war and were ready to serve anyone who paid the most, was rapidly growing. Numerous ready-made detachments formed, but more often something like mobile headquarters, ready to promptly put together entire armies. And the commanders of such headquarters, the condottiers, gained authority comparable to that of the princes, kings and dukes.

Nevertheless, of the many condottieres, it was Bartolomeo Colleoni who was mentioned in the fourth volume of the textbook “The History of Military Art in the Framework of Political History” by Hans Delbrück, a true classic who was so appreciated by K. Marx and F. Engels. Until Colleoni, artillery remained either serf or siege for a long time, and by the way, it was already involved in the siege of Moscow by Khan Tokhtamysh in 1382, that is, long before the wars waged by the Venetian Republic with its neighbors, the Habsburgs, and the Ottoman sultans .

For some reason, Colleoni, who was born in 1400 in Bergamo, is listed in history exclusively as a Venetian mercenary, although he started in the army of the Kingdom of Naples, and later for many years served almost the main enemies of the Most Serene Republic - the Milanese dukes, and Visconti, and succeeded them Sforza.


Intravital portrait of B. Colleoni. Artist J. Moroni

It seems that in Venice this true landsknecht was offered more than in Naples, and he immediately distinguished himself in the siege of Cremona - a fortress on the banks of the Po, which was considered the gateway to Lombardy. After his commander, Francesco Bussone, who appropriated the title of Count Carmagnola, was cut off his head, Colleoni, being not so young, commanded the entire Venetian infantry. He was extremely careful, fought in many battles, including at Brescia, which was liberated from the siege by the Milanese, which dragged on for many months.

Artillery, fire!


The Duke of Milan Filippo Visconti, having made peace with Venice, immediately outbid the experienced warrior, who, it seemed, was no longer afraid of anything. However, after several years of service, the aging duke was frightened of Colleoni’s popularity among the soldiers and sent him to prison. This ruler, whom contemporaries unanimously called brutal paranoid, on the verge of death did not hide his fears that his military leader would take the side of competitors - the Sforza family.


Duke of Milan Filippo Visconti

And so it happened. With the transfer of the ducal throne to Francesco Sforza, Colleoni was released and fought with the army of Karl of Orleans, another contender for power in Milan. A series of victories in 1447 followed, and a temporary alliance with Venice helped Bartolomeo Colleoni return to the banner of the Doges. The Grand Council of Venice solemnly handed him the rod of the commander in chief of all the armed forces of the Most Serene Republic with the assignment of the rank of captain general.

At this time, the Ottomans made their last efforts to finally get rid of the Byzantine Empire, more precisely, with what remained of it on the European continent. There is historical evidence that Colleoni was one of those who expressed their readiness to take part in the next Crusade and even visited many European monarchs for recruitment into the army.

The help of the Europeans to Constantinople was, alas, clearly insufficient, not least because Europe was still recovering from the plague, and England and France were exhausted by the Hundred Years War. Well, the condottier Colleoni, from whom neither a diplomat nor a recruiter turned out, meanwhile gets all new laurels and new trophies in endless wars in Italy.

Being already almost an old man, the Venetian captain-general won his last victory at the town of Molinelli, not far from his hometown of Bergamo, where he was opposed by the troops of Florence, Bologna and even the Kingdom of Aragon, apparently also hired. It was under Molinelli that the condottiere first made extensive use of light field artillery, which led to horse losses unseen in those wars. They fell more than a thousand, while warriors, and on both sides - no more than 700.


The battle of Molinelli. XNUMXth Century Fresco, Malpag Castle, Bergamo

It is interesting that in the Russian edition of “History ...” by G. Delbrück there is no characteristic remark by the author that one of the opponents of the condottier’s army, Count Montefeltro, forbade sparing the surrender, since Colleoni “used artillery too much”. And military historians even doubt the victory of the Venetian captain-general under Molinelli, especially since after the battle he decided to abandon the grandiose plans of a campaign against Milan.

However, this did not prevent the Grand Council of Venice from declaring the commander "the savior of the Republic of Venice" and proposing to erect a monument to him in the city. There was no long wait for an answer from the condottier, although he was very busy - again as commander of the united Christian army for the Crusade. The campaign, however, did not take place - because of disagreements in the ranks of the allies.

Colleono from Bergamo



Don Bartolomeo Colleoni, or rather, Colleono, by that time was perhaps the richest man in Venice, this far from the poorest city in Italy. His fortune in terms of modern currencies obviously reached several hundred million euros or dollars. And the condottiere, not paying attention to numerous relatives, right down to the adopted nephew, expressed his readiness to donate almost all of his wealth to Venice.

But provided that the monument to him will not stand somewhere, but right on San Marco. It is clear that this was precisely the square of San Marco, next to the Doge's Palace, Piazzetta and the Cathedral of the Holy Evangelist. However, prudent Venetians, seemingly not as thieves as Neapolitans or Sicilians, managed to deceive even their "savior".

In fact, in the republic it was never customary to erect monuments to anyone, but an equestrian monument for a city where the main transport is gondolas, and it’s completely nonsense. In those days, to say to the Italian that he “sits on a horse like a Venetian” did not mean to compliment, but to insult. By the way, monuments to the author of wonderful comedies Carlo Goldoni not far from the Rialto Bridge and the King-Liberator Victor-Emmanuel II on the promenade of San Zakaria will appear much later.


Condottier Colleoni. Monument in Venice

Instead of Piazza San Marco, the equestrian monument to Bartolomeo Colleoni was erected in 1496 near a scuola with the same name - San Marco. Sculpted by the great Andrea Verocchio, and cast in bronze twenty years after the death of Colleoni is not such a great master - Leopardi. And since then, a bronze condottier stands on Piazza Giovanni and Paolo (in Venetian - Zanipolo).

The monument was then carefully measured, removed from it and to this day continue to make copies, but more on that below. And the ashes of the commander, who died 75 years old in his magnificent Malpag Castle, were returned to Bergamo. Bartolomeo Colleoni was originally from this city - that is, Bergamas, that is the common name of the townspeople.

The relatives of the captain-general, whom he quite shamelessly deprived in favor of Venice, did much to make Bergamo a Venetian, but it turned out that rich Venice simply kept poor Bergamo for hundreds of years. However, the situation was about the same as with Verona, Padua and several other cities, which were simply given for feeding to rich Venetian families. Just in the case of Bergamo, it turned out to be local - Colleoni-Martiningo.

It is well known that the “servant of two masters” was originally from Bergamo, with a comedic name, more precisely, the nickname Truffaldino. At least it can be associated with the root of truffa, which translates as "fraud." The names of Colleoni are trying to somehow appropriate indecent linguistic roots, and based not only on the triple image of the lower part of the male genital organ on the family coat of arms. However, with a rather consonant local curse, no “eggs” or “scrotum” are found by native speakers in this surname. Further coll - necks, as well as colla - hill, the business of the unfortunate translators does not move.


Colleoni family crest

Today, Bergamo is better known as the epicenter of a pandemic in northern Italy, but this Italian city has for many centuries managed to give the world a lot of celebrities. Starting with the ingenious author of “Love Drink” and “Don Pasquale” Gaetano Donizetti and ending with Massimo Carrera - the last in a cohort of successful coaches of the Moscow football “Spartacus”. Originally from Bergamo, by the way, one of the builders of St. Petersburg is Giacomo Quarenghi.

However, the main tourist attraction there still remains the tomb of the Colleoni family in the upper city. And this is not surprising - almost half of the sights of old Bergamo was built with the money of Bartolomeo Colleoni. And this despite the fact that almost everything that he had left, he gave Venice.

From Moscow to the Polish suburbs


Bartolomeo Colleoni, more precisely, his monument, or more precisely, a plaster copy masterfully painted in bronze, settled in Moscow a little over a century ago. In the Italian courtyard of the Museum of Fine Arts, once named after Alexander III the Peacemaker, and now for some reason Pushkin, probably only because Alexander Sergeyevich is “our everything”.


Don Bartolomeo peacefully adjoins in the Italian courtyard with another condottiere - Gattamelata from Padua, who gave fame and trophies of the same Venice several decades before Colleoni. And the monument to him, much earlier, the work of Donatello, respectively, is well arranged in the historic center of Padua. Other neighbors in the copy of the Verrocchio monument are much more famous - "David" by Michelangelo and two more David - the work of the same Donatello and Verrocchio. But also - copies, although excellent.

In fact, the place of Colleoni or Hattamelata in the Italian courtyard could well have been taken by Marcus Aurelius, again - a copy of the statue from the Capitoline Hill in Rome. However, as a teaching tool for the branch of the university, which was originally considered the museum of Alexander III, more suitable masters from the Renaissance.

Many of the Russians who have visited Venice are happy to find in its labyrinths the “original” work of the great Verrocchio. Moreover, in many places, starting from the Athenian Acropolis and Florence and ending with the Venetian (again. - AP) Cathedral of St. Mark, these statues have long been removed somewhere. For the sake of safety, of course, for which special thanks to the restorers.

Not to say that the Venetian monument of Colleoni, in fact, an indisputable masterpiece, was very popular. If in Bergamo the tomb of a family with a dubious surname is visited by all the tourists who find themselves in the city, then perhaps the most stubborn get to the Venetian Zanipolo. The author, who first arrived in Venice more than ten years ago, did not miss the monument to Gattamelate in Padua, but did not bother to remember that the second condottier had settled quite close to St. Mark's Square.


Monument to Condottiere Gattamelata in Padua

On subsequent trips, and there have already been three of them since then, the condottiere was perhaps the main attraction in Venice. But what a surprise it was when the author realized that he could have seen Bartolomeo Colleoni twice more. And where - in Poland! However, it is not surprising - for some reason today it is considered not quite decent to replicate copies, no matter how brilliant the original.

Today, preference is given to something new, even if it is absolutely mediocre or tasteless. Therefore, one cannot but give credit to the Poles, who at first really only got one copy of Verocchio’s work, and even that from the Germans. Poland received a cast statue of a condottier along with Pomeranian Stettin, which after World War II, it was decided to transfer to Poland and rename it in the Polish manner - to Szczecin.

It was in Stettin back in 1913, just a year after Colleeni's plaster copy was settled in the Volkhonka museum that another cast copy of the condottier was born. The Germans did not stint on a new casting, and in the city, which was once visited by Condottier Bartolomeo Colleoni, who tried in vain to recruit troops for a new crusade, a new monument settled.

This was done not by the example of the Russians, but according to the tradition of the beginning of the XNUMXth century, when all the major cities of Europe and America acquired their museums and classic collections. The sculpture was adopted by the Stettin Modern Museum - at that time it was just the capital of one of the districts of Pomerania. During the years of the First and Second World Wars, the monument was kept intact. The British and Americans hardly bombed Stettin, and the troops of the Third Belorussian Front under the command of Rokossovsky stormed the city usually did not shoot.

After the war, the Poles actively populated Szczecin-Stettin, but for some reason it was decided to send the Colleoni monument to the capital, Warsaw, where the restoration of the city was in full swing. The condottier was first placed in the storeroom of the National Museum, then in the Museum of the Polish Army and finally in the courtyard of the Academy of Fine Arts, which occupied the former Chapsky Palace in the Cracow suburb.

Cast Colleoni stood in this cozy courtyard for a long time, although already in the late 80s, representatives of the museum in Szczecin began to claim it again. The disputes between the museum workers drastically dragged on, and the casting of the sample of 1913 went to the western edge of modern Poland only in 2002.


Szczecin, monument to Condottier Colleoni

The condottier was hoisted on the Aviator Square, but its low pedestal cannot be compared with the Venetian one. But there is an inscription on it, which by definition does not belong in Venice - that Captain General Colleoni, at the age of 54, was visiting the north of Germany. There he tried to enlist the support of the Pomeranian dukes and recruit Landsknechts to the Crusade, but to no avail.

However, the Warsaw was also decided not to be left without a condottier, and for them it was decided to quickly cast another copy. Now she flaunts not in the courtyard, but before entering the Warsaw Academy of Fine Arts, all in the same Krakow suburb, where it is much easier to find it than the epic original at Zanipolo in Venice.
Author:
Photos used:
picabu.ru, wikipedia.com, visitbergamo.com, author
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  1. Aleksandr72
    Aleksandr72 April 7 2020 05: 57 New
    13
    The Italians also named their light cruiser after this condottiere, which entered service on February 10.02.1931, 19.07.1940, Reggia Marina - one of four types "Giovanni delle Bande Nere" - by the way, also named after the Italian condottiere. Two other cruisers of this type, also called "Condottieri A": "Alberto da Giussano" and "Alberico da Barbiano", also bore the names of the famous Italian condottieri. The light cruiser "Bartolomeo Colleoni" was sunk by the Australian cruiser "Sydney" and the British destroyers "Havock", "Hiperion", "Hereward" and "Ilex" in battle on XNUMX off the island of Leros (northwest of Crete).
    1. Catfish
      Catfish April 7 2020 14: 51 New
      +5
      A small illustration for your post, Alexander. hi



      Scheme, life and finale.
  2. DMB 75
    DMB 75 April 7 2020 06: 42 New
    17
    Condottiere, Condottiere's son Yes, that was such a profession. And yes, these people basically did not defend their hometowns by force of arms, but for money they fit into other people's armed showdowns. He really served the Venetians and Milanese at different times, but he never changed anyone and did not deceive anyone. The incorporation of Bergamo into the Venetian terra-farm turned out not to be a robbery in favor of the Republic, but an investment in infrastructure and the construction of fortifications, which to this day are called "Venetian walls". Colleoni was quite clearly aware of where to invest his condottier earnings - and today we can see living proof of this on every corner in Bergamo. In the form of those very orphanages, hospitals, monasteries, educational institutions ... A complex and contradictory historical personality, but after all, it is people with an adventurous character that make history. Thank you for the article, I read it with pleasure.
    1. iouris
      iouris April 7 2020 11: 17 New
      +3
      Quote: DMB 75
      for money fit into someone else's armed showdown

      "O tempores! O mores!" ("O times! O morals!")
      1. cost
        cost April 7 2020 13: 37 New
        +2
        Author: .... Colleoni released

        For some reason, Don Corleone Mario Puzo involuntarily came to mind smile . I drove away this thought from myself by a random similarity of names. But when I read further I came across the names of Sforza and Visconti. - I realized where Puzo got his names for his characters
  3. polpot
    polpot April 7 2020 07: 11 New
    +7
    Thank you wonderful article
  4. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave April 7 2020 07: 36 New
    +6
    not least because Europe was still recovering from the plague
    Strange binding. The plague pandemic ended 40 years before the birth of Colleoni. Then followed a demographic surge and Europe in two generations restored the population.
    1. Liam
      Liam April 7 2020 09: 07 New
      +4
      Quote: 3x3zsave
      not least because Europe was still recovering from the plague
      Strange binding. The plague pandemic ended 40 years before the birth of Colleoni. Then followed a demographic surge and Europe in two generations restored the population.

      The plague did not end 40 years before the birth of Colleoni. Epidemics (not as large as the first) were regularly repeated every 10-15 years over the course of a century. The population continued to decline until the middle of the 15th century, and it recovered until the time before the end of the 16th century.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave April 7 2020 09: 20 New
        +7
        In the 16th century, the population recovered to the level of the beginning of the 14th century. The plague pandemic was preceded by the Great Famine, the number of victims of which is estimated at 10-15 million.
  5. Operator
    Operator April 7 2020 08: 35 New
    +6
    Old Bergamo is an absolutely preserved medieval city, turned into a tourist center with excellent catering and local drinks, where you should go after acquiring immunity from coronavirus laughing

    As for the Moscow plaster copy of the sculpture by Bartolomeo Colleoni: we are not too fast-witted - Russian craftsmen, after building the fortifications of the Moscow Kremlin under the leadership of Alois de Carcano in 1500, erected a small brick copy of it in the architect’s homeland in Milan.
  6. sivuch
    sivuch April 7 2020 08: 51 New
    +2
    Malpag Castle - is it really in the highest Bergamo?
    1. podymych
      April 7 2020 08: 56 New
      +5
      Is it really in the article that he is in upper Bergamo? Sorry, then this is poorly explained, it generally stands separately ...
    2. podymych
      April 7 2020 09: 01 New
      +5
      Here everything seems to be written correctly:

      The monument was then carefully measured, removed from it and to this day continue to make copies, but more on that below. And the ashes of the commander, who died 75 years old in his magnificent Malpag Castle, were returned to Bergamo. Bartolomeo Colleoni was originally from this city - that is, Bergamas, that is the common name of the townspeople.
  7. Olgovich
    Olgovich April 7 2020 08: 57 New
    +2
    Bartolomeo Colleoni, more precisely, his monument, and more precisely, a masterfully painted bronze plaster copy, settled in Moscow a little over a century ago. In the Italian courtyard of the Museum of Fine Arts, once named after Alexander III the Peacemaker, and now for some reason Pushkin, probably only because Alexander Sergeyevich is “our everything”.

    There were many such gypsum copies, for the Museum was created on the basis of Cabinet of Fine Arts and Antiquities of Imperial Moscow University as an educational auxiliary and public repository of casts and copies of classical works of world art.

    Of course, we must return the original to themI am the Museum of Fine Arts named after Alexander III given to him by his builders and contemporaries, moreover, the creation initiative was voiced during his lifetime.

    An amazing, amazing in its beauty and luxury building, built by Russia to preserve and develop art for its people.
    1. podymych
      April 7 2020 09: 06 New
      12
      My dear monarchist, although I disagree with you in political views - I somehow prefer the "red empire", I absolutely agree with you - the name of Alexander III must be returned to the museum.
      The hasty Pushkinization infuriates in the same way as the hasty renaming of everything and everyone. And in general, why is this obsessive desire to assign absolutely inappropriate names to something. The disgusting "name-calling" company of airports is an example. And again, Alexander Sergeevich was credited in vain. I don't even want to know where and what ...
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich April 7 2020 09: 15 New
        -1
        Quote: podymych
        My dear monarchist, although I disagree with you in political views - I somehow prefer the "red empire", I absolutely agree with you - the name of Alexander III must be returned to the museum.

        Dear "redimperial"(How quickly would you be shot if you said that in 30?recourse ), I am not a monarchist, I am an ordinary Russian man who is for the power in the country under which Russia united, growing, people growing and free in choice, work, word and conscience.
        And this clearly does not apply to ...
        hasty renaming of everything and everything.

        You are certainly right
        The disgusting "name-calling" company of airports is an example.

        Charles de Gaulle airport?
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave April 7 2020 09: 30 New
          +4
          Andrei, but Russian toponomics has its own tradition of naming airports and it is beautiful!
        2. podymych
          April 7 2020 12: 58 New
          +5
          In fact, De Gaulle at least blessed such construction sites, but why should Pushkin?
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich April 7 2020 13: 24 New
            -1
            Quote: podymych
            Actually De Gaulle

            А International Airport John F. Kennedy?

            A Houston Intercontinental Airport named after George W. Bush?
            And so forth?
      2. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave April 7 2020 09: 24 New
        +8
        Disgusting airport name calling company
        Exactly!!!
  8. Lamata
    Lamata April 7 2020 10: 15 New
    +2
    The stern and warlike uncle was.
  9. Undecim
    Undecim April 7 2020 11: 23 New
    +9
    Bartolomeo Colleoni entered the history of wars as the creator of field artillery, the first to put guns on carriages in an open battle.
    This is how Internet myths are born, which then multiply exponentially.
    Neither as the creator of field artillery, nor as installing guns on carriages in a field battle, Bartolomeo Colleoni did not go down in history.
    He went down in history as the first time in Italy who massively used firearms in battle, both artillery and arquebuses, which were considered immoral and contrary to the concepts of knightly honor.
    In view of this, Count Federico da Montefeltro ordered the enemy not to spare, and the captive arquebusiers cut off their hands and gouge out their eyes.
    Hans Delbrück, a true classic, describes all this very colorfully in Volume IV of the textbook “History of Military Art in the Framework of Political History”.
    As for the creation of field artillery, its creator went down in history to Charles VII, who first used mass field artillery in the last battle of the Hundred Years War - the Battle of Castillon in 1453.
    1. Lamata
      Lamata April 7 2020 11: 25 New
      +2
      That is, chopping and pricking piously Yu, but shooting from an arquebus is not good.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim April 7 2020 11: 53 New
        +8
        The point is not in piety, but in the fact that noble nobles were killed by artifact arquebusiers.
        As the then historian Frönsberger wrote: “So no longer will you need a real person, no courage, since all kinds of cunning, deception, betrayal along with these disgusting weapons received such an advantage that neither the ability to fence, fight, fight, nor weapons, nor weapons, nor strength, not art and courage can no longer, do not mean anything. For it often happens that a brave hero is killed from a cannon by a useless, expelled guy who would not dare to speak to him or even look at him at another time. "
        And Luther declared the arquebus and the cannon the creations of the devil and hell.
        1. Lamata
          Lamata April 7 2020 11: 55 New
          +2
          I agree that this point of view was. And so Luther, with his fabrications, introduced Europe to such a place. !!!
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave April 7 2020 12: 33 New
            +3
            There would be no Luther, there would be someone else. Not the fact that it is better. One "great martyr" Bruno is worth something!
            1. Lamata
              Lamata April 7 2020 13: 04 New
              +1
              Yes, there were many benefactors, the question is, why did they carry their blessings with fire and sword.
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave April 7 2020 13: 17 New
                +2
                I will answer in Odessa: but what, once it was different?
                1. Lamata
                  Lamata April 7 2020 13: 47 New
                  0
                  hi it wasn’t, but I wanted it so much.
        2. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave April 7 2020 12: 23 New
          +3
          Hmmm. A century and a half before, after Kurtre, somehow no one bothered with such subtleties. Relations between estates were easier, or what?
          1. Undecim
            Undecim April 7 2020 12: 31 New
            +4
            Do you mean Battle of the Golden Spurs?
            Oddly enough, but there the effect was completely opposite. Perhaps due to the fact that the weapon was used traditional, familiar.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave April 7 2020 12: 39 New
              +4
              Absolutely right! A crowd of commoners slaughtered 700 knights, without the slightest indignation from the higher class and the condemnation of the church.
              I didn’t lead the battle of Legnano, because I don’t understand the estate of the "company of karoccio".
              1. Undecim
                Undecim April 7 2020 12: 50 New
                +2
                In those days, I did not particularly orient myself, but carochcho is, as far as I remember, a cart - an altar.
                Perhaps you mean the legendary Compagnia della Morte, which guarded this cart in the specified battle and consisted of 900 knights who vowed to fight to death? This, apparently, is a beautiful fairy tale.
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave April 7 2020 13: 00 New
                  +4
                  900 knights
                  300, Viktor Nikolaevich, or even less. It is unlikely that the then Milan, was able to recruit more “thugs”.
                  1. Liam
                    Liam April 7 2020 13: 29 New
                    +5
                    Carrocho was defended by the common infantry of the commoners, and the cavalry of the knights escaped towards Milano after the first skirmish. The truth then returned and struck from the rear than which predetermined the outcome. There were no special mouths in either 900 or 300 sabers
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave April 7 2020 13: 39 New
                      +2
                      Hmmm. But what about Galvano Fiammo?
                      I'm really curious!
                      1. Liam
                        Liam April 7 2020 13: 44 New
                        +5
                        Fiammo wrote a beautiful legend 150 years later.
                      2. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave April 7 2020 13: 49 New
                        +3
                        Good. How was it really?
                      3. Liam
                        Liam April 7 2020 14: 01 New
                        +6
                        The battle was a surprise for both armies. The Italians advanced from Milan. The avant-garde of the Milan cavalry about 700 people 15 km from the city stumbled upon the vanguard of the Germans about 300 people and attacked merrily. The victory was close, but then the main forces of Barbarosa came and the Milanese gave dera. galloped rushed past the carroccio towards the city. the infantry was left alone and the Germans confidently decided that the battle was won. But the infantry, contrary to custom, did not run away at the sight of the knight's cavalry, and while the Germans stormed them, the fugitives from milano, along with the rest of the cavalry from the allied cities, who at the beginning of the battle were still in the city. hit from the rear and it was already the turn of the Germans to run away
                      4. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave April 7 2020 14: 07 New
                        +4
                        Thank you so much!!! Seriously!
                        Question: where does infa come from? If possible, Russian-language research, but come down in English, Spanish. I can’t cope with Italian ...
            2. Undecim
              Undecim April 7 2020 13: 30 New
              +2
              Anton, in the original source, the "chronicler" of the XIV century, the monk Galvano Fiamma, has three mouths: the first of 900 knights, the second of 300 commoners, the third of 300 war chariots, each of which had 10 fighters.
              Further, it is obvious that subsequent "chroniclers" have already chosen options depending on their preferences and sobriety. Therefore, the chariots and knights have sunk into oblivion, as unlikely, 300 fighters are left, but they are knights, someone is commoners.
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave April 7 2020 13: 37 New
                +3
                Well, there is, a comrade from Italy, who speaks the language of Dante and can enlighten us regarding the battle of Legnano, based on studies of the descendants of that battle. I'm not joking or joking, if that.
                1. Undecim
                  Undecim April 7 2020 13: 42 New
                  +3
                  If this "comrade" owns the syllable and writes an article based at least on Gianazza and Grillo, it will be very interesting. And then the retelling of articles from Wikipedia about weapons and condottieri are already tired.
                2. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave April 7 2020 13: 48 New
                  +2
                  I agree too. But, unfortunately, the Italian comrades that the Town Hall, that Liam, are active only in the comments, alas ...
                3. Undecim
                  Undecim April 7 2020 13: 51 New
                  +2
                  I can’t blame them myself.
                4. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave April 7 2020 13: 53 New
                  +3
                  I will quote myself. "But this flagellanism is not necessary !!!"
                5. Undecim
                  Undecim April 7 2020 14: 00 New
                  +3
                  This is just a statement of fact. How can I demand from people that I myself don’t do.
                  It's like that. Some people who do not write would like to wish creative activity, and some who are already very prolific, creative paralysis.
            3. Liam
              Liam April 7 2020 14: 04 New
              +4
              You or comrade Undić or comrade Decimus how many articles have you written or is activity only in comments too?)
            4. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave April 7 2020 14: 14 New
              +3
              Decimus and Undecimus, this is Latin. Viktor Nikolaevich really wrote more than a dozen articles, but the frank dishonesty of some "authors" turned him away from creativity. I wrote six, did not publish a single one, because the search for illustrations freezes completely.
            5. Liam
              Liam April 7 2020 14: 25 New
              +5
              Quote: 3x3zsave
              this is latin


              I doubt that someone heard the Romans pronounce their C- as C or as C. In this matter, I prefer to trust Italians who believe that as Ch
              Quote: 3x3zsave
              turned him away from creativity

              Quote: 3x3zsave
              completely freezes.

              Well, the smart ones learn from the mistakes of others. At least it is considered so. Why write poorly or argue with the editorial policy or write on the conveyor for mercantile reasons, it’s better not to write, but to kill quarantine time in the comments. In addition, comments are almost always obtained instructive of the articles themselves. Except when opponents do not discuss but are rude)
            6. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave April 7 2020 14: 39 New
              +2
              It’s hard to disagree with the last paragraph. With the last sentence, especially by looking at your profile, too.
            7. Liam
              Liam April 7 2020 14: 49 New
              +3
              Did you find a lot of rudeness there?)
            8. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave April 7 2020 15: 00 New
              +1
              From your side - no. Don't take everything literally. I understand that the experience of communication in the "opinion" section can even drive a complete humanist into misanthropy, however, I did not mean any negative things about you.
            9. Liam
              Liam April 7 2020 15: 19 New
              +4
              We are all human beings with the same sets of pluses and minuses, regardless of the sections of the site. Kolkhoz rudeness differs from cultural rudeness only in form. But the second is even worse than the first because who is given more and more is required. The History section is also full of rudeness and cynicism. And the quality of communication is declining steadily compared to previous times)
            10. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave April 7 2020 15: 22 New
              +2
              Viktor Nikolaevich applauds you.
              I’ll say that this world is not getting better, and we are with it.
            11. Liam
              Liam April 7 2020 15: 43 New
              +3
              Quote: 3x3zsave
              Viktor Nikolaevich applaud you

              This is unlikely. I reproached him the other day that I also became frequent with rudeness)
            12. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave April 7 2020 15: 56 New
              +4
              Oh! If you only knew how many times I reproached Shpakovsky for such a thing ... However, apart from reciprocal respect, "no miracles."
            13. Liam
              Liam April 7 2020 18: 09 New
              +5
              And you are one of the most positive in nature on the site and you are the "trait d'union" of the regular members of the section, it would be strange if the caliber reacted differently.
            14. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave April 7 2020 19: 26 New
              +3
              Oh damn! Lived, called !!! They didn’t stigmatize me, but no one called it a "liberated trade union" yet! This is a test !!! good laughing laughing laughing
              Now seriously. "The soul of the company" was "Mikado" - a psychologist, ecologist and peacemaker. I, as a man of the street, are not fit for him, because in my marginal essence, with subjects that are unpleasant to me, either I do not communicate, keeping "armed neutrality (as, for example, with Andrei Vasiliev" Operator "), or I will rot until the final Meanwhile, again, apparently in connection with my misery, any of my mutually favorable communication on the forum of this resource began with a conflict. The only exceptions are, perhaps, the same “Mikado” and “Cat.” By the way, the first one is still communicates with people "displaced" from the site by the same Shpakovsky.
              Here's a confession. Thank you, Father! laughing
        3. Undecim
          Undecim April 7 2020 16: 14 New
          +1
          It does not interfere. In this case, I can only applaud.
        4. Liam
          Liam April 7 2020 18: 17 New
          +3
          The only cure for the degradation of communication is healthy disputes and the exchange of sound, not entirely identical opinions on me.
          You are one of the most well-read on the site and love to "spread" to smithereens different nonsense. It is worth admitting that you are doing this reasonably and with facts. I "shoot at the red cross" in the form of Fomenkovism and its analogues in other sections is not very interesting. But it is interesting to catch you on inaccuracies or a controversial point. This is useful for the topic and my Ego is enough). Nothing personal in general. hi
        5. Undecim
          Undecim April 7 2020 18: 25 New
          +1
          Nothing personal in general
          Long experience of work has long ago developed in me the habit of not transferring "production" relations to personal ones.
        6. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave April 7 2020 19: 36 New
          +1
          Again.
          Bravo to both of you !!!
      2. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave April 7 2020 19: 35 New
        +1
        Bravo to both of you !!!
  • podymych
    April 7 2020 17: 16 New
    +1
    Do not consider it work, tell me in which edition of Delbrück you found such details? In the soviet volume IV, and in the third too, alas, I did not find this ... Did you look bad?
    1. Undecim
      Undecim April 7 2020 18: 14 New
      +2
      "Delbrück GG The history of military art in the framework of political history."
      (St. Petersburg: Publishing House “Nauka” “Juventa”, 1996-1999. Series “Historical Library”)
      http://publ.lib.ru/ARCHIVES/D/DEL'BRYUK_Gans_Gotlib/_Del'bryuk_G.G..html.
      Fourth volume, p. 29 ff.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim April 7 2020 18: 54 New
        +4
        Or do you prefer the original edition?
  • faterdom
    faterdom April 7 2020 12: 42 New
    +4
    This is who gave the world "soldiers", mercenaries working for solidi (soldo).
    Who would say in today's Russia that "soldier" and "solid" are cognate words ....
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave April 7 2020 12: 47 New
      +5
      And, like, Caesar’s legionnaires fought for their homeland?
    2. Kostya Lavinyukov
      Kostya Lavinyukov April 7 2020 13: 23 New
      0
      I heard an alternative version according to which a soldier is formed from the word salt (she could have been paid a salary during the time of Rome). Yes, and our word is clearly borrowed.
  • faterdom
    faterdom April 7 2020 13: 21 New
    +2
    Quote: 3x3zsave
    And, like, Caesar’s legionnaires fought for their homeland?

    Yes. Even fighting each other. No legion for grandmothers fought for Yugurt, Mithridates or Spartacus.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave April 7 2020 13: 25 New
      +4
      Scionion legionnaires fought for their homeland. The legionnaires of Caesar fought for Caesar, the promised allotments and slaves.
      1. Catfish
        Catfish April 7 2020 14: 45 New
        +4
        A still from the Italian film They Fought for the Motherland.

        Scipio African and his fighting guys. wink
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave April 7 2020 20: 34 New
          +2
          Uncle Kostya, did you watch this movie yourself?
          1. Catfish
            Catfish April 7 2020 20: 49 New
            +2
            Did not watch. But you must? I don’t go to the movies, but I ignore the box. If only online find. What is the name?
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave April 7 2020 20: 51 New
              +3
              Damn, well, did you post a picture?!?!?!
              1. Catfish
                Catfish April 7 2020 20: 58 New
                +2
                So it was about Scipio, not about the film.
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave April 7 2020 21: 12 New
                  +2
                  That is, did you stick the first image you got from Yandex? Why not Luke Skywalker?
                  But damn it, I’m rushing right now: it’s like Italians shot it, like Mastroiani in the role of Scipio, but this is not in Marcello’s filmography! Well, Uncle Kostya definitely looked, once laid out ...
                  And then such an ahedron leaves around the corner! request
                  I'll burst into tears ...
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish April 7 2020 21: 21 New
                    +2
                    I'll burst into tears ...

                    I can send a package of paper scarves, there are extra ones. smile
                    What is the problem? I was there higher and a photo of the cruiser "Colleoni" stuck, do you have any questions about it?
                    Are you in trouble at work?
                    By the way, the ahedrons do not leave the corner, only tanks can do this, and even that is not all.
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave April 7 2020 21: 24 New
                      +2
                      Okay, forget it, I will manage with sandpaper, as always. I'll be angrier.
                      1. Catfish
                        Catfish April 7 2020 21: 26 New
                        +2
                        And I, damn it, wonder where all the sandpaper from the shops disappeared ... request
                      2. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave April 7 2020 21: 37 New
                        +2
                        Pampered residents of Moscow and St. Petersburg are throwing toilet paper from the shelves, and the harsh Ryazan guys only respect sandpaper !!!
                      3. Catfish
                        Catfish April 7 2020 21: 50 New
                        +2
                        And where to go !? We have an outbreak of an epidemic in Zaoksky, the governor closed two villages and now police patrols oversee there so that citizens do not hang around the street idle. Unpleasant.
                      4. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave April 7 2020 22: 01 New
                        +3
                        So I told you a month ago, this quest is like this: "Food, water and ammunition. Survive in the Russian outback !!!" Did you think everything would be like in 93? "Drank, fought, shot, dispersed"?
                      5. Catfish
                        Catfish April 7 2020 22: 04 New
                        +2
                        I didn’t think anything, my children are bothering me, and I’ll somehow get out of it. But with a drink for the next six months - the point. Everything else is available. You will be more difficult in St. Petersburg. Is there a trunk?
                      6. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave April 7 2020 22: 14 New
                        +4
                        Well, from where, Uncle Kostya? Well I am a peaceful marginal from St. Petersburg and "I respect the Criminal Code" ... laughing
                      7. Catfish
                        Catfish April 7 2020 22: 17 New
                        +2
                        So I am for the legitimate and I ask, I myself have no "leftists". It is not very difficult to collect certificates and money, and buy what you need. With all due respect to the code ... smile
                      8. bubalik
                        bubalik April 7 2020 22: 23 New
                        +4
                        I myself have no "left"
                        ,,, and the fact that I water the flowerbed is a hobby laughing
                      9. Catfish
                        Catfish April 7 2020 22: 25 New
                        +3
                        Pokemon, young man, be ashamed ... stop
                    2. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave April 7 2020 22: 31 New
                      +3
                      I live in a rented apartment. So, Sergey is right.
                    3. Catfish
                      Catfish April 7 2020 22: 33 New
                      +2
                      Perhaps he is right, but I did not understand what.
                    4. bubalik
                      bubalik April 7 2020 22: 36 New
                      +3
                      ,,, and what is the story of the monument to Zhukov?
                    5. Catfish
                      Catfish April 7 2020 22: 38 New
                      +2
                      Oh well, it’s in the fig, Sergey, I don’t want to talk about it and in general, it's time to sleep.
                    6. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave April 7 2020 22: 44 New
                      +2
                      What is uncharacteristic for you recourse
                    7. bubalik
                      bubalik April 7 2020 22: 46 New
                      +5
                      time to sleep


                      uncharacteristically
                      ,,, darkens the old partisans.
                    8. Catfish
                      Catfish April 7 2020 22: 53 New
                      +3
                      FN - this is already too much, even for me. request
                2. Phil77
                  Phil77 April 8 2020 19: 10 New
                  0
                  Hello Seryog! Is the topic with the monument still interesting? request
                3. bubalik
                  bubalik April 8 2020 19: 11 New
                  +2
                  ,, write in a personal, only tomorrow I can read there.
            2. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave April 7 2020 22: 42 New
              +3
              That for me - only a flower bed!
            3. Catfish
              Catfish April 7 2020 22: 55 New
              +3
              What can you say: "Flowers in the garden are good in the spring ..." As there is further and you know. smile
  • bubalik
    bubalik April 7 2020 22: 20 New
    +4
    police patrols oversee
    ,,, and what, Ausweis ask? Lived damn ,,,
  • Catfish
    Catfish April 7 2020 22: 21 New
    +3
    Seryozha, I haven’t been there and I don’t know how they work. I have information from official sources of the city.
  • Liam
    Liam April 7 2020 21: 55 New
    +4
    Italian films about Scipio, two. The first one was filmed in the 30s with Mussolini in the typical dictatorship style of heroism, pathos, etc. And the other one from Mastroiani is a comedy in fact. It tells about Cato's investigation regarding Scipio of the fact that there was a large sum of money after the African campaign
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave April 7 2020 22: 06 New
      +2
      If you believe Wikipedia, then three, the first shot in 1914. But in the same wiki, in the filmography of Mastroiani, I did not find the 1971 film.
      1. Liam
        Liam April 7 2020 22: 27 New
        +3
        In Italian there is
        La moglie del prete, regia di Dino Risi (1970)
        Scipione detto anche l'Africano, regia di Luigi Magni (1971)
      2. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave April 7 2020 22: 40 New
        +1
        Yeah thanks! The funny thing is that this film is in the article about Scipio, but not in the filmography of Mastroiani. I mean Wikirus.
  • mr.ZinGer
    mr.ZinGer April 7 2020 18: 51 New
    +2
    When I saw the monument to Zhukov near the Historical Museum, I wanted so much to say to the author "Have you seen Colleoni in the Pushkin Museum ?!", that's where the power is.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave April 7 2020 20: 49 New
      +4
      I drink in the company of the Sphinxes on Vasilievsky Island several times, all the time I want to ask them a question: "Have you seen the Shemyakin brothers opposite the Crosses?"
      1. Catfish
        Catfish April 7 2020 21: 23 New
        +2
        At one time, I saw Peter at the back of the Art Museum. They put him there specially from the eyes away? And where is he now?
        As for the Zhukov monument, I’d better not say anything, otherwise the patriots will devour it.
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave April 7 2020 21: 32 New
          +3
          If Shemyakinsky, then sits in the middle of Petropavlovka, if "five hundred rubles", then stands on Sampsonievsky Prospekt, if railway, then it will soon replace Vladimir Ilyich for 30 years, two main ones are also in place.
          1. Catfish
            Catfish April 7 2020 21: 38 New
            +2
            It was Shemyakinsky imbecile, having seen it, we decided that we sorted out port wine and trampled on serious glitches.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave April 7 2020 21: 52 New
              +3
              So you need to drink less on such a job! In the storerooms, something else can be seen. Vaughn Tarasyuk reincarnated as a "knight without fear and reproach", brandished a flamberg at Romanov's zaslanets (the guys came quietly and peacefully for plates) and flew out of the Hermitage in no time.
              1. Catfish
                Catfish April 7 2020 21: 56 New
                +3
                I remember this story, but the Emperor, having seen the Shemyakin masterpiece, would surely strangle the author with his bare hands.
        2. The comment was deleted.
      2. Korsar4
        Korsar4 April 8 2020 18: 26 New
        +1
        What answer?
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave April 8 2020 19: 50 New
          +1
          Yes, in different ways, Sergey, depending on their mood.
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 April 8 2020 20: 07 New
            +1
            The creatures that inhabit the city have their own stories.
            Come to the right key.

            “Like a stranger’s wife
            Hugged a birch tree "(c).
            1. Phil77
              Phil77 April 8 2020 21: 16 New
              +2
              About Anton Sphinxes:
              * Blizzard, cold, snowfall.
              Sphinxes freeze and tremble
              But they do not sleep or sleep.
              Sphinxes guard the city ... * Sokolov Artyom. laughing
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave April 8 2020 22: 25 New
                +2
                It was a deal. A couple of times and shared clothes with them
              2. Korsar4
                Korsar4 April 8 2020 22: 51 New
                +1
                “Either a cat, or a bird,
                Was she a woman? ” (with).
            2. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave April 8 2020 22: 05 New
              +3
              Exactly!
              My favorite dialogue.
              "Call to the psychological support service.
              - Hello, my name is Anna. How can I help you?
              Hello, Anya, the best day of my life is ending ....
              - Do not despair!
              - I'm standing on the roof ...
              - I ask you to go down a floor below ...
              - At the very edge ...
              - Do not despair, because life is so beautiful ...
              - One...
              - May I help you? (Pulling the microphone back to colleagues: These suicidans are sick of it!)
              -Come, Anya. I'm in Barcelona. It's such a sunset here! I'm going to die of happiness !!!! "
  • Was mammoth
    Was mammoth April 7 2020 23: 05 New
    0
    Well, I don’t understand, but, why do the Poles need a monument to the International Federation of Journalists and the "cool", but an Italian? And even more so in Moscow? Kind of far away.