Military Review

25 July 1708 was executed by statesman Vasily Kochubey

26
25 July 1708 was executed by statesman Vasily Kochubey15 (26) July 1708 was charged by the clerk and the general judge of the Zaporozhsky Army Vasily Leontyevich Kochubey on charges of false denunciation of Hetman Ivan Mazepa. Thanks to hard work and knowledge of his business, he reached the highest positions: regent of the military office (from 1681), clerk-general (from 1687), general judge (from 1699), received the title of steward (in 1700). He took part in the Azov campaigns, owned large plots of land with serfs on the Left-Bank Ukraine.

The genus Kochubeev was famous for its ancient history. The founder of the family was considered a notable Crimean Tatar Kuchuk-Bey, who at the turn of 16-17 centuries settled in Little Russia among the Cossacks, was baptized under the name of Andrew. The descendants of Kuchuk Bey have long served the Russian state and its sovereigns faithfully. By their honest service they glorified their family: at first they were granted the title of count, and under the Russian emperor Nikolay I the Kochubeys were granted the princely title. So, Leonty, the son of Andrei Kuchuk-Bey, was famous for being a military comrade of Bohdan Khmelnytsky. But the grandson of Andrew, Vasily Kochubey, received the greatest notoriety in Russian history. He was born near 1640 in the village of Borshchagovka (now the Pogrebischensky district of Vinnitsa region).

Kochubey, under the influence of General Esaula Mazepa, took part in the denunciation of Hetman Ivan Samoilovich. The general officers and several colonels, led, apparently, by Mazepa, accused the hetman of bribery and the desire to form independent ownership from Little Russia. Samoilovich was sent to the link. Mazepa became a hetman. He thanked Kochubey, he received several land holdings, including the famed Nikolai Gogol Dikanka, and the post of general military judge (actually becoming the chief executive in Little Russia). A little later, the hetman begged for Kochubey the title of steward in the 17th century. the stolniki took the fifth place after the boyars, okolnichy, dumny noblemen and duma clerks. The personal relationship between Mazepa and Kochubey was also strengthened. Ivan Mazepa became the godfather for the daughter of Vasily Kochubey. The trust in Kochubey was so great that Mazepa entrusted to him the most intimate thoughts, he announced his desire to secede from Russia.

Apparently, it was Kochubey's daughter Matryona (Motrya) who became the reason for the future breakup of friendly relations. A beautiful and educated girl interested in many suitors. Even Prince Alexander Menshikov offered to marry her to one of his wealthy relatives, but the brightest was denied this. And then there was a surprise, the aged hetman Ivan Mazepa sent the matchmakers to the house of his old comrade, but he also received a resolute refusal from the parents. The marriage between the godfather and the goddaughter was considered impossible.

According to one version, Mazepa seduced a girl. According to another opinion, 16-year-old girl herself fell in love with a rich and noble man. She first spoke about her feelings, and they decided to unite their destinies. Herman sent the matchmakers several times, but his parents stood their ground. Matryona even fled to Mazepa, but he persuaded her to return to her parents, promising to get permission to marry with her. He constantly sent her gifts and letters. In 1707, Matryona married the widowed regimental judge Chuykevich, whom the hetman brought close to him.

Denunciations on Hetman Mazepa

Vasily Kochubey, decided to bring to Moscow about the collusion of Mazepa with the Polish and Swedish kings. As a hetman of the Ukraine, Mazepa became one of the richest people in Russia: there were about 100 thousand serfs under his rule. However, this was not enough for him, he wanted to create from the Ukraine a “independent ownership” under the rule of the Polish crown. The betrayal of the former benefactor was already an ordinary matter for Mazepa: he changed Poland, going over to the side of her sworn enemy Doroshenko; then he left Hetman Doroshenko as soon as he saw that his power was wavering; he betrayed and set up Samoilovic, who warmed him and raised him to the height of the officers' rank. He decided to betray his greatest benefactor, before whom he had recently flattered and humiliated. In 1706, the Swedes defeated the Saxons and forced the ally Peter, the Saxon Elector and the Polish king Augustus II, to abandon the Polish throne in favor of Stanislav Leschinsky, a supporter of Karl XII, and break the alliance with Russia. Moscow was left without allies. Mazepa considered that Peter would be defeated, unable to resist the victorious Swedish army, and began to look for a good place for himself in the future political scenario. Apparently, the thought of "independent ownership" arose earlier, but there was no convenient opportunity to make them a reality. Initially, Mazepa entered into negotiations with the widow Princess Dolskaya (for the first husband of Vishnevetskaya), and then through the Jesuits with the king Stanislav Leschinsky.

In September, 1707 in Moscow received a denunciation by the side of the general judge Vasily Kochubey. He was sent by the Sevsk monk Nicanor. However, this news was considered false. Peter believed that his faithful servant wanted to defame (denunciations happened before), moreover, it was known about personal hostility between Kochubey and Mazepa. In January, 1708 Kochubey sent Peter Yantsenka (Yakovlev) with a verbal report on the hetman’s treason. However, Peter considered this denunciation to be false, having entrusted the investigation to Mazepa's comrades: G. Golovkin and P. Shafirov. Mazepa was informed about this denunciation, and he took precautions.

Kochubey sent a third denunciation. This time he acted together with Colonel Ivan Iskra (he suspected his wife of treason with Mazepa), and the priest Svyatoylaya. The news of the hetman’s treason was given to the Akhtyr colonel Osipov so that he would hand it over to Kiev governor D. Golitsyn. The king was sure of Mazepa’s loyalty, and the grandees, who received generous gifts from the hetman, did not find grounds for accusations of treason. Yes, and Mazepa acted cautiously, did not give reason to doubt his loyalty.

Execution

Kochubey and Iskra were arrested and taken to Vitebsk, where they were met by Golovkin and Shafirov, appointed for the investigation. Under torture, the arrested "confessed" that their denunciations are false. Basil Kochubey and Ivan Iskra sentenced to death. 15 (26) July 1708 Kochubey and Iskra were beheaded under the White Church, where the camp of Hetman Mazepa stood. Their bodies were buried in the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra. Kochubey's wife and his sons were arrested.

Frightened by denunciations and investigation, Mazepa accelerated negotiations with Stanislav Leschinsky and Karl XII. Secret negotiations culminated in a union agreement. Mazepa pledged to provide the Swedish army with fortified points in Seversk land for wintering, provisions and fodder. In addition, he promised to lure the Zaporozhian and Don Cossacks and the Kalmyk Khan to the side of the opponents of Moscow.

In the fall of 1708, Peter ordered Mazepa to join the Russian army at Starodub with Cossack regiments. But the hetman hesitated, dissuaded disease and distemper in Little Russia, caused by the movement of the Swedish army. In late October, Mazepa openly went over to the side of the Swedes, escaping with the treasury to the camp of Karl, who stood in Gorki, southeast of Novgorod-Seversky. However, the Cossacks did not support Mazepa.

Tsar Peter I, realizing his mistake, summoned Vasily Kochubey's widow, Lyubov Fyodorovna. She was generously bestowed and returned to the family all the confiscated property. The Tsar declared Vasily Leontievich Kochubey “a husband of honest, glorious memory” and ordered to add two golden crosses with the motto “I rise when I died” to his family coat of arms.
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  1. Sakhalininsk
    Sakhalininsk 25 July 2012 07: 32
    +2
    Interesting and informative story
  2. Deniska999
    Deniska999 25 July 2012 08: 27
    +3
    Thank you for the article!
  3. biglow
    biglow 25 July 2012 08: 44
    +1
    a good article, only of which state is he a leader, all these are ordinary showdowns in the criminal enclave as the Zaporizhzhya Sich was
    1. TAGIR
      TAGIR 25 July 2012 12: 28
      +1
      Kochubey served Russia, and we are talking about Little Russia
  4. urich
    urich 25 July 2012 09: 03
    +2
    Mazepa was still that boor ... No matter how you read it, he seduced the daughter of a friend, there the wife of a friend ... The peasant had everything. Wealth, serfs, women clung like bees to honey. Polyakov betrayed, went to where it was better, as soon as the smell of fried, Petra betrayed ... But now there is a hero in Ukraine! Fuck the American dream, there is "their own" Ukrainian example for some. And although it is impossible to reject the facts of courageous actions in battles and patronage (Mazepa did a lot both for ordinary citizens and for Ukrainian culture), now everyone chooses for himself what outweighs in Mazepa more the hero and philanthropist or the libertine and traitor. History always develops in a spiral. Here are just some ALWAYS heroes, others, like Mazepa, depending on the political situation.
    1. Bandera
      Bandera 25 July 2012 12: 47
      -7
      With regard to Mazepa, one can draw an analogy with Alexander Nevsky. He led an army to repel the Teutons, but betrayed his brother Andrew and King Danil of Galitsky, who were preparing an uprising against the Mongols. He faithfully served the khans of the Golden Horde. Contemporaries spat in the back of this prince and hated him. Today, for the sake of the correct story, they made a symbol from him, forgetting about his "wrong" deeds.
      With respect to Russia, Mazepa is a traitor. Regarding independent Ukraine, he is a hero.
      1. loc.bejenari
        loc.bejenari 25 July 2012 14: 24
        +6
        first of all, he as a person is a complete der ..... mo
        and the fact that, for the sake of politicians, they concocted him a hero, so then on the conscience of those goats-politicians
        a man who sold his fellow tribesmen into slavery has the right to be a national symbol
      2. Baemaley99
        Baemaley99 26 July 2012 00: 35
        +1
        In Poltava, some kind of g ... were writing "Mazepa is a hero of Ukraine" but smart people were found and corrected this inscription by removing two letters in the word HERO, RO. And the result was right. Who was he? embezzler, seduced his godmother (whoever was baptized understands), betrayed Peter who trusted him so much that he handed him Kochubei and Iskra. And dumped with the dough to the Turks. Doesn't it look like anything?
        1. igor67
          igor67 26 July 2012 00: 44
          +1
          Quote: Baemaley99
          that he gave him Kochubey and Spark

          Kochubey’s house was preserved in Baturin, but Peter sent Menshikov, he carried out the massacre there, recently excavated there, found hundreds of remains and children and adults, put a chapel at the burial place.
    2. Vyalik
      Vyalik 25 July 2012 13: 23
      +4
      For this, now he flaunts on Ukrainian money. But the traitor always remains a traitor. Mazepa was looking for who would pay the most and who would get the most benefit, but he didn’t care about the people from the big bell tower.
  5. klimpopov
    klimpopov 25 July 2012 09: 27
    +2
    a lot has been written about Mazepa, but most of all I liked the story of the 12 thirty kilogram medal, which Peter I approved and ordered to put it on him when Mazepa was caught.
    I read the article + to the author with interest.
  6. Curculum
    Curculum 25 July 2012 10: 14
    +5
    About Mazepa, since this topic still worries many, I propose a brief abstract of the article by Emilia Kosnichuk, “Facts”, April 7. 2001 .:
    “… In order for Moscow to recognize the decision of the Kolomak Rada in 1687, where Mazepa became hetman, he paid Golitsyn 10 thousand ducats. A whole army of hetman agents worked in Moscow, Warsaw, Bakhchisarai. For communication with the Poles and Swedes, he maintained countless Catholic confessors. All this "subservient" went out of the way. Everyone knew about Mazepa's unheard-of condition. Even foreign ambassadors did not hesitate to borrow from him. It is known, for example, that Karl XII borrowed 280 thousand thalers from Ivan Stepanovich. And when Mazepa was dying, 160 thousand ducats were found with him. And to his Motre, the getman now and then tossed round sums. And the "potter's" feasts (two kilometers from Baturin): they were famous for such luxury that they lifted the owner almost to the royal pedestal. I'm not even talking about the fact that Karl XII Mazepa paid for the shelter of 30 wagons filled with gold and silver coins. Where such untold wealth comes from is still a mystery. Maybe the assertions that Mazepa "picked up" the treasures of his own destroyed fellow countrymen are true? ... At the court of the Polish king Jan Kazimir Mazepa learned to eliminate competitors. Rival number one in 1662, he considered Pasek, with whom he served as a "rest". Ivan slandered him before the king, for which Pasek slapped him in the face. "Offended" Mazepa drew his saber right in the palace ... The trial took place. Pasek received from the king 500 ducats (as an innocent victim), and Mazepa was expelled from the palace. "The Polish magnate Falbovsky received a" simple Ukrainian "in his house - and what did he get in gratitude? Mazepa took his wife away from him. True, Mrs. Falbovskaya herself fell in love into a handsome Ivan, but the gentry believed that Mazepa had betrayed the man who had benefited him. "
    "And the story with Peter I - what preceded it? Mazepa presented his people in an unfavorable light and advised the Zaporozhian Sich to be ruined. The Zaporozhians said that it was Peter I who oppressed the freedom-loving" Cossacks. "Therefore, they say, Mazepa called the Swedes to his land. After their defeat at Poltava, Ivan was ready to “surrender” the Swedish king to Peter along with his generals.The Mirgorod Colonel Apostle and the cornet general Sulima, who went over to the side of the Swedes with Mazepa, later, with his knowledge, fled from them. Mazepa not only shared with them that he was disappointed in his "patron", but also promised to hand him over to Peter I, if the tsar guarantees him personal safety. "
    "Mazepa sold to the" basurmans "not only silver frames from icons from Orthodox churches, but also Orthodox people from Podol and Volyn. In 1691, an unknown nun brought a letter to the Frolovsky monastery, which said that Mazepa sold Christians to Turks, and even indicated the price It is believed that it was with this letter that Mazepa's conflict with his mother began. Is it possible to keep silent about such cases today? They must either be reasonably refuted, or motives must be found. Perhaps Mazepa wanted to help people survive? After all, in 1690 there was a pestilence in Ukraine : because of the locust infestation, the cattle ate the grasshoppers, and the meat smelled so that it was impossible to eat. "
    “Some historians are inclined to think that Mazepa, having converted to Orthodoxy, built a large number of churches, donated to the church, only tried to hide his sympathy for Catholicism from the people. A probable descendant of Getman, Ivan Fedoseevich Mazepa says:“…. There is an interesting version: the exiled from the palace chambers of Jan Casimir, where Mazepa was considered a Catholic, in revenge he converted to Orthodoxy ... ”.
    “About Motra: the story with Motrei of 1704-1705 is transparent like glass. Kochubei wrote to Peter that“ Mazepa invited Motrya to him and forcibly defiled him with fornication. ”All biographers are inclined to believe that Motrya was a very limited creature that his parents kept in bridging, knowing that the "old lecher", being a friend of the house, can use his daughter in his own interests. Is it worth commenting on Mazepa Motre's reproach: how could she stop loving him, having received such an expensive diamond ring from him? …. "
    “Gatman, enjoying the full confidence and favor of Peter I, behaved within the limits of his subordinate (or subordinate) Little Russia as a satrap with unlimited power. This allowed him to collect in his hands untold wealth, the size of which should be told separately. And at that time, as Moscow did not collect taxes from Little Russia, they remained completely at the disposal of Mazepa, he did not try to help local people dying of hunger. "
  7. dr.u-514
    dr.u-514 25 July 2012 10: 46
    +1
    very informative!
  8. suharev-52
    suharev-52 25 July 2012 12: 05
    +2
    How much we do not know in our history. Learning and learning is a must for a lifetime. Sincerely.
    1. TAGIR
      TAGIR 25 July 2012 12: 29
      +3
      That's what you need to teach at school
  9. TAGIR
    TAGIR 25 July 2012 12: 30
    +2
    Instead of the history of the CPSU
  10. Skorobogatov_P
    Skorobogatov_P 25 July 2012 12: 59
    +4
    Mazepa is a villain. A simple, ordinary villain. And if it weren’t for the Russophobes and the Russian liberals who had turned in their brains, they would have forgotten about it long ago, or would have thought of it like Don Juan. He’s also a traitor, or rather, an oath. Our Svidomites forget, or maybe they don’t know, an oath of apostasy is one of the greatest sins for the Orthodox. That is why the people of Ukraine did not follow him, because our ancestors were Orthodox.
    1. Vrainbow
      Vrainbow 27 July 2012 14: 15
      0
      Let's unite, huh? fellow
  11. mechanic11
    mechanic11 25 July 2012 14: 14
    0
    At first they betrayed Samoilovich-together, and then Mazepa replayed. Kochubey-not Slavic origin-as indicated -Tatar roots. Why should he (Kochubey) feel sorry? What measure do you measure, such will you be measured. Directly worked in the sweat of a plow face I didn’t let go of my hands. (distinguished by hard work.)
  12. loc.bejenari
    loc.bejenari 25 July 2012 14: 54
    +5
    about Kochubey, you can write -pal in the struggle for a just cause
    it is possible and on another - gobbled up the administration
    but about the geek Mazepa - besides the fact that he is a geek, there is nothing more to write
    Hero of Ukraine bl .... I
    first served faithfully to the Poles and was a Catholic (the Orthodox could not study at a Catholic institution)
    as soon as the wind changed -crossed
    how he managed to avoid execution when he was caught with a detachment accompanying Slavic slaves in the Crimea is a mystery
    I think, and then the loot defeated the good
    and then-became the largest oligarch of Ukraine -thousand acres of land thousands of serfs -developed military treasury
    and then the patsan just laughed (in modern terms)
    tried to swallow a piece too tough
    and no freedom of the homeland has nothing to do with
    again these damned grandmas
    stink mind
    and he was betrayed by the church not for the betrayal of Peter, but for incest (fornication with his goddaughter)
  13. 8 company
    8 company 25 July 2012 16: 29
    +1
    One should only be surprised: the 18th century, Peter I apologizes to the wife of an illegally repressed .... And this is the 20th century, another dictator is in power - I. Dzhugashvili-Stalin:

    On June 11, 1937, the case against Marshal Tukhachevsky, commanders Uborevich and Yakir, Kork, Feldman, Eideman, Primakov and Putna in espionage, treason and preparation of terrorist acts was considered in a closed court hearing without the participation of defenders and without the right to appeal the sentence. At 23 hours 35 minutes the verdict was announced - all eight were sentenced to death. Immediately after that, Tukhachevsky and the rest of the accused were shot right in the building of the Military Collegium of the USSR Supreme Court. The following relatives of Tukhachevsky were repressed: mother Mavra Petrovna (died in exile), wife Nina Evgenievna (execution), daughter Svetlana (camp), brother Nikolai (execution), wife of brother Nikolai (camp), brother Alexander (execution), wife of brother Alexander (camp), sister Elizabeth (camp), husband of sister Elizabeth (shooting), sister Olga (camp), husband of sister Olga (camp), sister Maria (camp), husband of sister Mary (shooting), daughter of sister Mary (link), sister Sophia (link). In his memoirs "Enemies of the People" A. Antonov-Ovseenko writes that Svetlana Tukhachevskaya managed to survive the Vorkuta camps and return to Moscow.
    One of the first five Soviet marshals, the first cavalier of the military orders of the Red Banner and the Red Star, Vasily Konstantinovich Blucher, died of severe torture (according to the forensic expert, death came from a blockage of the pulmonary artery by a blood clot in the veins of the pelvis; an eye was almost knocked out) in the Lefortovo prison NK November 9, 1938. His body was immediately burned in the crematorium. Only 4 months later, on March 10, 1939, the courts sentenced the dead marshal to capital punishment for "espionage in favor of Japan", "participation in an anti-Soviet organization of the right and in a military conspiracy." They were sentenced to death: the first wife of Blucher Galina Pokrovskaya, the wife of her brother Lydia Bogutskaya, the second wife of Blucher Galina Kolchugina. The third wife, Glafira Bezverkhova, was sentenced by a special meeting at the NKVD of the USSR to eight years in forced labor camps. The brother of Vasily Konstantinovich, Captain Pavel Blyukher, the commander of an aviation link at the headquarters of the OKDVA Air Force (according to other sources, died in prison in one of the camps in the Urals on May 26, 1943) was shot. Of the five children of the marshal from three marriages: the eldest daughter - Zoya Belova in April 1951 was sentenced to 5 years of exile, the fate of the youngest - Vasilin (at the time of Blucher's arrest on October 24, 1938, he was only 8 months old), according to Glafira Lukinichna's mother, who served time and was fully rehabilitated (like all other family members, including Vasily Konstantinovich) in 1956, and remained unknown.

    Has anyone heard of Stalin's apology?
    1. Argonaut
      Argonaut 25 July 2012 16: 54
      -2
      But the true and obsessed with their idols communists and current pro-communists, such facts - on the drum.
    2. Kars
      Kars 25 July 2012 17: 11
      0
      Quote: Company 8
      1937 case on charges of Marshal Tukhachevsky


      A monument should be erected for Tukhachevsky Vissarionych. A little bit more, and all of the Red Army would have been generally not combat ready.

      I even gave money for this one.
  14. DUTCH
    DUTCH 25 July 2012 17: 45
    +3
    Mazepa had a sad end, lice ate it! In my opinion, a worthy death for a "worthy" person.
  15. igor67
    igor67 25 July 2012 21: 47
    0
    In the city of Batkrin there is a beautiful museum, Kochubey’s house, a park where a couple in love met under an oak tree,
    1. igor67
      igor67 25 July 2012 23: 05
      +1
      Quote: igor67
      the city of batkrin

      in the city of Baturin, a typo came out,
  16. igor67
    igor67 26 July 2012 00: 48
    0
    Kochubey's house
  17. ahtung: partizan
    ahtung: partizan 26 July 2012 01: 04
    +1
    And yet an article about Kochubey and not about Mazepa. I liked it because I heard a lot about the first and only here I could find out the details.