Wellington or Blucher? Who defeated Napoleon

Wellington or Blucher? Who defeated Napoleon

12 failures by Napoleon Bonaparte. Two centuries after Waterloo and the final collapse of Napoleonic France, the debate does not stop, to whom does the main merit in the common victory belongs. In a series of publications "Military Review" (“Waterloo. Point of no return ") noted a very special strategic role played by the Russian emperor Alexander I in overthrowing the Corsican upstart. And the author is not going to refute the fact that British capital was behind him.


The last to defeat the French emperor on the battlefield were Gebhard Leberecht von Blucher, 73-year-old Prussian field marshal and Napoleon's 46-year-old 1st Duke Wellington, British field marshal Arthur Wellesley.


Prussian Junker and Eton graduate


Fate would like that at the beginning of the battle that decided the fate of Napoleon, it was the British who opposed it under the command of General Arthur Wellesley, who had recently received the title of Duke of Wellington. This was a refined, albeit poor, aristocrat who was born in Ireland, did not differ in special talents and, with a sin, he graduated from Eton College in half. Then for many years he fought in the Pyrenees, but Napoleon scornfully called Wellington a Sipai general.


This is understandable, because his last opponent was one of many who conquered India, it is not clear why the French emperor forgot his brilliant victories in Egypt and Palestine. However, Wellington, who had repeatedly pounded Napoleon’s marshals in the Pyrenees, was indeed literally a step away from defeat, even defeat, near Waterloo, and his soldiers managed to survive not least because they knew that the Prussians would not abandon them.

However, even with the Prussians the British could be defeated, but it was Gebhard Leberecht von Blucher who did everything to prevent this from happening. Blucher, originally from a quiet suburb of Rostock in Pomerania, which recently moved away from Sweden to Prussia, was also an aristocrat, also not the richest. He did not choose a military career at all for the sake of earning, although he even had to engage in the Swedish army and fight against the Prussian forces in the Seven Years War.

However, the continuous wars waged on the old continent by the Prussian king Frederick II, provided Blucher with excellent opportunities for promotion. That is what he, who was captured by the Prussians, clearly explained to a distant relative - the Prussian colonel von Belling. It cannot be said that Blucher made good use of such opportunities - in a not very high officer rank, the king dismissed the obstinate and not recognizing drill oranges, saying that "captain Blucher can get the hell out of it."


Frederick the Great would know whom he sent "to hell"

If it were not for the age difference, the careers of the two generals, English and Prussian, could well be considered similar. They were sort of confectioners, mercenaries. Wellington in India fought not only out of patriotic motives. But Blucher did go over to the enemy’s side, so that, despite Frederick the Great’s rebuke, he would make his choice and become a real Prussian. He managed to return to service after fourteen years of living in his own estate when Frederick II died, and young Arthur Wellesley, by the way, like Napoleon Buonaparte, was only three years old.

Napoleon began collecting his victories at the very height of the revolutionary wars, and as a military leader he was far ahead of Wellington and Blucher. They advanced to high posts when the authority of General Bonaparte, who became Emperor Napoleon, rose to unimaginable heights. However, this did not stop the Prussian and the Englishman from always wanting to fight the Corsican upstart on the battlefield.


They, each in their own way, regularly annoyed Napoleon, Wellington - from Spain, Blucher - wherever he could, having managed not only to lose, but even to win several battles with the emperor. And so it was until they had to fight together already - on the Waterloo field. And if Napoleon had success there, his last winners could actually be the same Austrian Schwarzenberg or one of the Russian generals.

Old hussar and young colonizer


When the 46-year-old Blucher became a colonel of the "black hussars" and after that he fought with the French almost without interruptions, Arthur Wellesley celebrated his 20th anniversary. He noted that he was elected to the House of Commons of Ireland from the town of Trim. Wellesley’s military career was not bad, he had already become a lieutenant, but was looking for a more lucrative civil service. Napoleon at that time was mainly busy with his studies and family affairs, regularly visiting Corsica.


However, Wellesley did not give up military service, taking long-term leave, and two years later, when he received the rank of captain, he resumed his career in the 58th Infantry Regiment. Then he, a good rider, retrained as a dragoon, unsuccessfully married to a certain Kitty Pekingham with a good dowry, but received a tough refusal. In desperation, Arthur, fond of playing the violin, burned all his instruments and decided to focus on military service.

By the time that Wellesley began, according to the practice in the British army, to buy one officer rank after another, Blucher was already entitled to count on becoming a general simply by his seniority. However, he received it only when he again had to fight with the French and defeat General Michaud on the Rhine near Kirrweiler. In anticipation of the next increase, Blucher first received independent command - at the head of the observational corps on the border with France.

Until 1801, the already quite old Prussian was no different in battle, although military campaigns were the most suitable for that. However, speaking about the age of Blucher, one should not forget that the Prussian army was still ruled by the Friedrich generals, many of whom were under 80. In 1801, Blucher was awarded the rank of lieutenant general, who by definition assumed a very good pension, but a restless hussar I was not going to rest.


One of Blucher's monuments was erected on the Rhine, not far from the crossing point on New Year's Eve 1814

His future English ally by that time for almost five years, although with interruptions, was found in India. Lt. Col. Wellesley went there in 1796 when the promising revolutionary General Bonaparte marched victoriously at the head of his half-starved Italian army through the mountains and valleys of Piedmont and Lombardy.

Arthur's older brother Roger made an unexpectedly brilliant career, becoming the Governor-General of India, and then again invited the already smelling gunpowder Colonel, who had distinguished himself not only in India, but also earlier, in the Dutch campaign of 1793-1795. The future duke himself greatly appreciated that experience, noting that the time spent in the Netherlands "at least taught me what should not be done and this valuable lesson was remembered forever."

In the battles against the troops of the Principality of Mysore where Tipu-Sultan ruled, Wellesley acquired not only combat skills, but also in rear work, which were very useful to him later, including near Waterloo. During the siege of Seringapatama, the Colonel failed a night attack, which was supposed to clear the way for heavy guns, in which not only lost 25 people, but was also slightly wounded in the knee. In the morning, the British could advance again, but their commander decided "to never attack the enemy, who prepared for the defense and took a convenient position, not verified by reconnaissance in the light of day."

It cannot be ruled out that a successful military career came as a surprise to Arthur Wellesley, although the duke Wellington himself did not later deny the fact that he was greatly helped by the patronage of his older brother. In addition to purely military duties, the English aristocrat who received the rank of general did an excellent job with the duties of the governor of Mysore, one of the largest provinces in India.


General Wellesley at the Battle of Asai, 1803

The real British colonialist in those days was to fight almost constantly. The most impressive victory of General Wellesley was the battle of Asai, in which, with a detachment of five thousand, he smashed to pieces the 50th army of the Marathas. Just like Bonaparte at Mount Tabor, but Bonaparte always had guns - either a lot, or better quality than the enemy. And Wellesley had only 17 guns against a hundred at the Sultan.

Not only in the fields of Eaton, as the authors of some Wellington biographies write, but also in the Indian campaigns the character of the future “Iron Duke” was formed. By the way, do not forget that there were no playing fields in Eaton when Arthur Wellesley studied there. And he, who once burned his violins, acquired the legendary tremendous endurance, obviously, in India. Adding to it, in general, common sense for the English nobleman, decisiveness, combined with punctuality, attention to detail and reasonable caution, we get that cold cocktail, which can safely be called "Duke of Wellington."

Marshal Forward and the Iron Duke


Ice and fire, as you know, often turn out to be near, because fate eventually brought Wellington and Blucher in the end. Blucher was sometimes hot not at the best, but he, like Wellington, knew how to squeeze everything out of his soldiers, albeit with completely different means. Obviously, it was not in vain that life led him through a check by such an ally as the Austrian prince Schwarzenberg, with his not icy, but rather, some kind of cotton temperament.

The first serious test "for Bonaparte" for Blucher was the campaign of 1806, in which he joined the rank of lieutenant general under the leadership of General York. They managed to take their regiments, broken by Marshal Daw at Auerstedt, to Lübeck, but there they nevertheless had to surrender. In the captivity of the French, Blucher's bitterness against Napoleon, whom he considered not so much the continuation of the revolution, violating all monarchical foundations, but simply as an invader, grew unlimitedly.

Most likely, General Wellesley also did not have warm feelings for the French emperor, who also settled in the Iberian Peninsula in a businesslike way, where the English themselves had almost been masters since ancient times. The British army, which supported the Spanish Bourbons, whom Napoleon simply arrested, and the Portuguese Braganza, who soon fled to Brazil, needed a worthy leader.

Arthur Wellesley left India when his brother Richard expired as governor-general. Interestingly, the brothers stopped on the island of St. Helena on the way to Misty Albion and lived in the same house of Longwood House, which was subsequently rebuilt so that Napoleon spent his last years there. Wellington was one of those who, after a victorious return from India, insisted on the need to fight Napoleon precisely in the Pyrenees, leaving the rest of Europe to its kings and emperors.


One of the not-so-famous portraits of Wellington by the great Goya. Agree, he has some other

Since 1809, Wellington has been conducting ongoing operations against French marshals in Spain and Portugal. He did not have time to catch Napoleon’s campaign to Madrid, which probably saved him from defeat. Wellington drove the French out of the Spanish capital in the same unsuccessful year for Napoleon in 1812, and a year later, having finally cleared the Iberian Peninsula, he became field marshal.

Many of the French soldiers and officers who fought with the British for several campaigns in the Pyrenees, already in June 1815 will again go to battle against the "red uniforms." At Katr Bra and near Waterloo. And General Blucher, returning from captivity after the Tilsit Peace, was appointed to the post of Governor General of Pomerania. Napoleon wisely did not give up this huge Prussian province of Sweden, where his former marshal and distant relative Bernadotte soon became the sovereign master, later King Karl Johan XIV, the founder of the current ruling dynasty.

Only a year later, Blucher received the rank of general from the cavalry and ... did not receive any appointment in the Russian campaign of 1812. This happened only because the old hussar did not hide his hatred of Napoleon, whom King Frederick William III openly feared, which is why he preferred to send Blucher to resign. The Prussian corps in the Russian campaign was commanded by the very York von Wartenburg, with whom Blucher in 1806 retreated from under Auerstedt. General York ultimately became the winner of the lost campaign of 1812, concluding the Taurogen Convention with the Russian general Dibich.


Blucher leads his army from Linyi to Waterloo

York actually pulled Prussia from the influence of Napoleonic France, and Blucher, who immediately returned to the army, became one of the heroes of the campaigns of 1813 and 1814, in which he commanded the Silesian Army. He participated in all the battles in which he could, and there is some special logic stories that Blucher was able to bring his soldiers to the Waterloo field, who called him Feldmarschall Vorwärts! (Field Marshal or Marshal Forward!).

But the appearance of the English army on the fields of Flanders, besides under the command of Wellington, is not easy to call logical. It is clear that when Napoleon returned from the island of Elba to Paris in the spring of 1815, English troops were no longer needed in Spain. But Field Marshal Wellesley himself received his ducal title for peace, concluded in Toulouse following the results of the Spanish campaigns after the first abdication of Napoleon. Prior to this, he refused to march on Paris at the head of an army half consisting of Spaniards and Portuguese, whom he simply dismissed for fear of robbery and plunder on French soil.

By the way, the famous nickname Iron Duke (Iron Duke), which was assigned even to several ships of the British Grand-fleet, is not associated with specific events. It stuck to Wellington much later than Waterloo because of his rare political stubbornness, including as prime minister.


After Waterloo, the Duke of Wellington lived a very long time

Wellington arrived directly from the Vienna Congress in Flanders, more precisely, in Brabant near Brussels, to the Anglo-Dutch army. There, by the way, he quite emotionally defended the right of the French to decide for themselves whether they needed the Bourbons or someone else. And the troops of the combined army, in which the British, Welsh and Scots were only a little more than the Dutch, were very prudently stationed on the French border.

As a result, the British and Prussians took the first blow of the revived Napoleonic army. Near Waterloo, it was Wellington’s unprecedented endurance and the stamina of his soldiers, combined with the equally unprecedented impulse of Blucher’s army that ultimately overthrew France the Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte.


Today, over the field of the famous battle is a lion, installed in honor of the son of the King of the Netherlands, wounded in battle

How different were these two winners of Napoleon, one can judge by this fact. Blucher literally demanded to shoot Napoleon, which Wellington immediately opposed. He did consider softness towards France a guarantee of a future peace, returned border fortresses to her, and imposed a British veto on a multi-million dollar indemnity.
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  1. Vladimir_2U 14 February 2020 05: 59 New
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    "Remember Petka! The surname Blucher does not translate at all!" laughing
  2. Kote Pan Kokhanka 14 February 2020 06: 19 New
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    Interesting presentation! Thanks!!!
    1. Mountain shooter 15 February 2020 15: 41 New
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      We know little about the Napoleonic wars in Europe! Somehow it wasn’t taught us very much ... unlike the French revolution ...
      Thanks to the author!
  3. Vladimir_2U 14 February 2020 06: 37 New
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    He did consider softness towards France a guarantee of a future peace, returned her border fortresses and imposed a British veto on a multi-million dollar indemnity
    It seems that since then, England and France have ceased to squabble and even joined in.
    1. alebor 14 February 2020 12: 05 New
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      In fact, this British policy applied to all continental powers: to maintain a balance of power, not allowing any one country to strengthen at the expense of others.
  4. Olgovich 14 February 2020 07: 32 New
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    Who defeated Napoleon

    Napoleon defeated Kutuzov- Without the defeat of the Great Army by Russia, there would be nothing.

    Prussia would pull the strap in the French yoke. and England was sitting on the skeleton ......
  5. Lamata 14 February 2020 07: 37 New
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    Napoleon’s Russia was victorious, the 600 army of the little one was almost completely (as I read, about 000 soldiers were gone) gone in Russia.
  6. Viktor Sergeev 14 February 2020 07: 56 New
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    Wellington, Blucher, shit question: Barclay de Tolly and Kutuzov, that's who won. Who knocked out the best, who smashed the then EU and brought the squeeze into the union?
    1. Lamata 14 February 2020 08: 55 New
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      Our knocked out. As Napoleon said about Borodino, the French were worthy of victory, the Russians were worthy of not losing (as a keepsake, I’m not sure)
      1. Fibrizio 14 February 2020 10: 36 New
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        But to minimize the feat of other nations is not worth it. Many nations have fought for decades against Napoleon.
        Our contribution is great, but it is a contribution to the common cause. No single country would ever defeat Napoleon.
        Patriotism is good of course. But ignorance is darkness. I am sure that almost no one from the audience will tell how many Napoleon’s troops grind the British in Spain.
        Well, at least not be an enemy of France, Britain would be a complete naval blockade of Russia. And we wouldn’t do anything about it. The scope is not the same.
        1. Lamata 14 February 2020 10: 50 New
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          You see, in 1812 we were alone with Napolen, the Angles were moving in Portugal and that’s all, well, Geril in Spain. And in the army of Napoleon, the French made up about a third, the rest all of Europe.
          1. Fibrizio 14 February 2020 11: 01 New
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            Yes, and the other half opposed them.
            You, like the bulk of our people, forget that the very British drove the French from Africa, the Middle East. They arranged for them a blockade of ports. Victory is forged not only at the front, often the rear gives victory. There will be no pig iron or wool - there will be no cores and uniforms. There will be no supply of materials for the production of gunpowder - there will be nothing to shoot. Or maybe the food will end.
            I am not at all begging our merits, but in this mess we are far from the first persons. We rather connected to this fuss closer to the middle (and by the way, at the beginning it was very mediocre (where we blame the Allies according to the version of the classic story we have adopted).

            I bet you love Samosonov’s articles. There he is just about the very birthmark (fastening) he always writes.
            1. Lamata 14 February 2020 19: 25 New
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              No, I do not like. Africa and BV were not so critical for Europe, yes for the English. The main thing was in Europe. Are you not an Anglophile and a connoisseur of European values? Paul 1 is then polish towards Napoleon, but was killed. Al 1 played the English pipe. In addition to the French, the great army included Poles, Germans, Dutch, Spaniards, Portuguese, Italians, and Austrians. Turkey was troubled in the south (Kutuzov’s victory at Ruschuk), the Swedes climbed until 1809. Persians in the Caucasus. oh so.
              1. Ryazan87 19 February 2020 00: 19 New
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                Turkey was troubled in the south (Kutuzov’s victory at Ruschuk), the Swedes climbed until 1809.

                Considering that the war with Turkey 1806-1812 and Sweden 1808-1809 began at the initiative of the Russian Empire, and in both wars the Russian troops crossed the border without declaring war, your passage looks strange.
          2. Lamata 14 February 2020 13: 35 New
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            Negative versus true facts? or hired by the Champs Elysees?
          3. Ryazan87 19 February 2020 00: 16 New
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            , The Angles were moving there in Portugal

            a mere trifle:
            "..In 1812, Napoleon had five armies on the Iberian Peninsula: the Northern, Central, Portuguese, Andalusian and Aragonese.
            Northern Army - about 46 people;
            Portuguese army - about 45 people + 000 people in the Oviedo area (Marshal Marmont);
            The Central Army - about 14 combat-ready soldiers and officers + 000 Spaniards.
            The Andalusian army - 45 people, was under the command of Marshal Sult.
            Aragonese army - 58 people, commanded by Marshal Suchet.
            Total: 215 thousand French soldiers are forced to somehow respond to "movements."
            It seems that the emperor would gladly replace all Italians and Westphalians with the French but ...
        2. bubalik 15 February 2020 16: 12 New
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          But to minimize the feat of other nations is not worth it.
          yes
          ,,, in addition to Wellington, we can mention Sir George Skovell.
  7. Slug_BDMP 14 February 2020 09: 41 New
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    "... Who won?
    Wellington? Not. Without Blucher, he would have died. Blucher? Not. If Wellington had not begun the battle, Blucher would not have finished it ... "
    V. Hugo "Les Miserables"
  8. Operator 14 February 2020 11: 45 New
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    Why is “the Duke of Wellington” and not “Field Marshal Wellington” - such as not “Generalissimo Suvorov”, but “Prince Suvorov” (duke in English means both the duke and the prince)?
    1. Senior seaman 14 February 2020 12: 46 New
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      The then rules of etiquette. The title is always ahead of the rank. Even with us - the battleship “Prince Suvorov” or “Prince Potemkin-Tauride”, and not “Generalissimo Suvorov” or “Field Marshal Potemkin”
      What is curious is the opposite for Peter. "Boyar Prince Golitsyn," because the princes are like dirt, and most of them can’t smell the boyars :)))
      1. Operator 14 February 2020 15: 10 New
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        I'm talking about today's article, and not about pre-revolutionary rules of etiquette.
        1. Senior seaman 14 February 2020 16: 54 New
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          Well, like an article on a historical theme ...
          1. Operator 14 February 2020 18: 14 New
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            Those. is it time to rename Suvorov from Generalissimo to Prince? laughing
            1. Senior seaman 14 February 2020 20: 08 New
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              Yes, Alexander Vasilievich, as it were, the Prince of Italy and Count Rymniksky ...
              1. rich 14 February 2020 22: 25 New
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                Operator hi Senior Sailor hi
                Yes, all the titles of Alexander Vasilyevich torture to list! yes
                But on purpose, for Ivan and Andrey, I will give the full title in seniority:
                Alexander Vasilievich Suvorov - Obergrand of the Sardinian kingdom and prince of royal blood with the title of “cousin of the king”, Count of the Holy Roman Empire, His Grace Prince of Italy and Count of Suvorov-Rymnik of the Russian Empire, Nobel Count of Fokshansky of Bessarabia, Life Guards Lieutenant Colonel, Russian Generalssimus Field Marshal of the Austrian and Sardinian troops
                1. Operator 16 February 2020 09: 49 New
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                  It is necessary to separate flies from cutlets - aristocratic titles from military ranks (in the case of Suvorov, his highest military rank was the generalissimo of the Russian Empire, and not the gobbled general field marshal of the Holy Roman Empire of the German nation - shrunk by the time to the size of Austria-Hungary).

                  It's time to tie up with a golem cargo cult in Russian texts, when Field (Field) Marshal Wellington with a servile squat and whispering is called the Duke.
                  1. Ryazan87 19 February 2020 00: 26 New
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                    Really fasten - Austria-Hungary appeared 60 years after the disappearance of the Holy Roman Empire.
                  2. Senior seaman 19 February 2020 10: 22 New
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                    Excuse me, Andrey, but this is a stupid and, worse, illiterate nitpicking. Because the general’s name was Arthur Wesley! And “The First Duke of Wellington” is the title he was bestowed for victory. Not just a “duke" and not just a "Wellington", but rather that a "Duke of Wellington."

                    And in general, since you are working on historical material, then the terms should be used historical. And if the sources say - Duke of Wellington, then so it should be written.
                2. SKIF555 17 February 2020 15: 38 New
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                  The most important title and position is Alexander Vasilievich Suvorov!
              2. Ryazan87 19 February 2020 00: 27 New
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                Let me ask you a curiosity, and it’s not you who wrote “Shooter. Way to the Balkans”?
                1. Senior seaman 19 February 2020 10: 03 New
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                  Guilty. repeat
                  And not only him :)))
                  1. Ryazan87 19 February 2020 10: 52 New
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                    I read) the materiel pleased, well, neat inserts of real people.
      2. Catfish 14 February 2020 21: 39 New
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        Good evening, Ivan! hi And what’s interesting, the Germans have both cruisers, that in the first, that in the second war they were called modestly without rank and title - simply "Blucher". Like, everyone should already know who Blucher is and what he is famous for. smile
        1. Senior seaman 14 February 2020 22: 58 New
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          And the limes and surname did not bother, calling the battleship "Iron Duke"
        2. alsoclean 15 February 2020 00: 07 New
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          And both cruisers died frankly ridiculous ....
          1. Catfish 15 February 2020 00: 10 New
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            Here you are right, some kind of chronic bad luck for ships with this name, although it would seem ... request
            1. alsoclean 15 February 2020 00: 54 New
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              Not only. Names such as Scharnhorst and Gneisenau also do NOT speak in favor of lucky ships.
              And also: both Cologne, both Konigsberg, both Karlsruhe .... wink
              1. Catfish 15 February 2020 01: 59 New
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                You can’t argue, that's right.
    2. Sertorius 16 February 2020 01: 10 New
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      duke in English means both the duke and the prince

      "Prince" in English - prince. Duke to designate the prince is used much less often and not in official documents.
  9. ANB
    ANB 14 February 2020 14: 18 New
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    Razin is quartered. His Yesauls are quartered and hanged.
    Pugachev is quartered.
    Participants in the uprising of ordinary people are mostly executed.
    In Europe, peasants rebelled were treated similarly.
    Napoleon killed many more people. Link to the Elbe.
    He escaped, killed another people.
    Link to Saint Helena.

    It seems to me alone that the nobles considered themselves a different race (higher than ordinary people) regardless of nationality?
    1. podymych 14 February 2020 15: 19 New
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      By the way, yes, five Decembrists were hanged, but not one was killed on Senate Square. And there are hundreds of soldiers and the public ... Not really, somehow.
    2. Trilobite Master 14 February 2020 16: 22 New
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      Quote: ANB
      It seems to me alone that the nobles considered themselves a different race (higher than ordinary people) regardless of nationality?

      No, not one.
      The nobles considered themselves superior to the peasants, the aristocrats placed themselves above ordinary nobles, the August families did not consider anyone as full-fledged people, the clergy considered themselves standing above all of them, the merchants identified themselves as a separate caste, I’m not talking about such professional ones, so to speak, “associations”, such as, for example, sailors who divided all people into two categories: “sea wolf” and “land rat” or convicts convicts, who still go into an unfamiliar cell and ask something like “people in there are huts, "because for them professional criminals are not people for them - and all this was, and remains international.
      Yes, and any of us, whether he be a judge, for the same crime (for example, an accident), having hesitated a little, will weigh the heels of the colony on some young major in the Mercedes, while he will regret the hard worker on the Zhiguli and conditionally. Unless, of course, he refers to hard workers, and not to majors. If on the contrary, the hard worker is not lucky. request As the French say, "such is the fat thing." smile
  10. BAI
    BAI 14 February 2020 14: 34 New
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    Wellington and Blucher did not win, but finished off Napoleon. After 1812, he never had such an army.
  11. Yuri 14 February 2020 17: 55 New
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    And here is an English look at this question:
    “Blucher?” “Well, yes, it was like that. He served there at Wellington.”
    In 1812, it was not the Russian army that won, but winter.
    Spanish popular resistance, depriving France of hundreds of thousands of soldiers? - who told you ??
    Was France completely devastated and bloodless? - not worth mentioning.
    Leipzig, the Battle of the Peoples (in which the English army would be lost, like a school trip) - there is no print ink to write about it. "

    Only the British are able to fashion a brilliant victory decisive for world history from an event that actually had almost no strategic importance (except for their global propaganda success). For the reason that the outcome of the Napoleonic Wars was a foregone conclusion and inevitable.

    It would be more interesting to hear the author’s opinion on the role of the Pear in the success of the Blucher / Wellington tandem
    1. podymych 14 February 2020 19: 53 New
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      About Pears, I have a little in the material about Waterloo. See https://topwar.ru/167139-vaterloo-tochka-nevozvrata.html It is difficult to consider him guilty of losing Waterloo - he is simply no match for Blucher.
      1. Yuri 14 February 2020 20: 14 New
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        Thank you for the link
    2. Prometey 17 February 2020 10: 12 New
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      Quote: Youri
      Only the British can fashion a brilliant victory decisive for world history from an event that actually had almost no strategic significance


      Well, yes, Napoleon refused to fight after Waterloo. So nothing special.
  12. Marine engineer 14 February 2020 18: 40 New
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    The article is good.
  13. fk7777777 14 February 2020 21: 16 New
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    When you read, it seems that the author is clearly a lover of non-traditional relationships, just love for men. That herr, this horseradish, and Bonopar fu byak refused him, and his mother did not raise him for such. Not well, nuts? ...
  14. fk7777777 14 February 2020 21: 29 New
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    By the way, the Austrian empire, this is the Holy Roman Empire, i.e., the first fascist Reich, which Napoleon destroyed in 1806. It turns out that Sasha’s number of times, he defended the interests of the Reich in the first place? ... A lot is not understood in how they present Old information about Napoleon, like he’s bad and that’s all, and all G, g'ondons are kind of saints, p'la, ... It’s also an interesting moment, if Napl didn’t deal with garbage when going to Russia, abolished serfdom while sitting in Moscow in 1812, introduced the civil code, which he himself established in France, how would history turn around then? Illarionitch, what would he do? Number of times to whom would I give orders?
    1. Prometey 17 February 2020 10: 10 New
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      Quote: fk7777777
      By the way, the Austrian empire is the Holy Roman Empire, i.e., the first fascist Reich that Napoleon destroyed in 1806. It turns out Sasha’s number of times, defended the interests of the Reich in the first place? ...


      To write such nonsense to hell? What fascist reich in the 19th century? Damn, have a snack.
  15. fk7777777 14 February 2020 21: 57 New
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    An interesting moment, like in half a year, Napl, on his downs not only reached Moscow with fights (Comrade Karl Sson crawled), but also entered Moscow and shed it back? After all, everything was on foot, just when you look at the weapons of that time in the museum, it’s not at all clear when they still had time to do something there while they bring down the fluff, and all the princes to it, it’s easier to retire. Something is being said ...
  16. NF68 15 February 2020 15: 56 New
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    All together won. And if they didn’t act together, they would get good lyuli.
  17. WHAT IS 18 February 2020 21: 35 New
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    Thanks for the interesting article.
  18. Operator 19 February 2020 11: 00 New
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    Quote: Senior Sailor
    if the sources say - Duke of Wellington, then it should be written

    ... whispering and crouching on the cards - the cargo cult is the same.