Joining one fifth of Russia. Siberian adventures of ataman Galkin

Joining one fifth of Russia. Siberian adventures of ataman Galkin

Model of the Krasnoyarsk prison in the Krasnoyarsk Museum of Local Lore


Son of his father


The roots of our hero date back to the time of Ivan the Terrible. Then, taking advantage of the defeat of the Kazan Khanate, Russian Cossacks, hunters and other "hunting people" surged into Siberia. Ivan Galkin’s father was one of the Cossacks who conquered Siberia under the command of Ataman Yermak himself. And the son was clearly determined to continue the activities of the parent.

He had enough abilities and determination for this. The first time the participation of Galkin was mentioned in 1618 - then he helped build the Yenisei prison. Since then, he has scuttled around Siberia for at least 34 years - Ivan will lay his last prison in 1652.

We did not have exact dates for Galkin's birth and death - some studies sin on the 1657th, others believe that our hero was still alive in the 1660s. Be that as it may, by Siberian standards, it is more than solid - we are talking about constantly undertaken campaigns through the wild lands. And the life experience of our hero turned out to be appropriate.

Ready for intrigues and ambushes


In the winter of 1629, Galkin, commanding a detachment of 35 service people, chased the rebel natives.

Then on the Yenisei rebelled Tubian prince Kayan. Starting with the assassination of the Russians sent for the fur tribute, he continued with attacks on larger units. But most of the things from Kayan went to the other natives. By raiding them, he increased his authority and persuaded those who did not have time to suffer from themselves to alliances against the Russians - it would not be worse.

Galkin pursued one of these rebellious princes. But the latter was able to escape long enough to have time to receive impressive help from Kayan himself. This did not save the natives - after a hard battle they were defeated.

True, Galkin barely moved back to Krasnoyarsk, as the enemy, apparently receiving reinforcements, dealt a second blow. The Russians were surrounded, and began to shell from bows. In open space, Galkin’s squad could be quickly interrupted.

But Ivan, not being a fool, found a solution on the go - he ordered his people to make an impromptu fence from skiing and sledding. Based on these ersatz fortifications, they managed to hold out for five days. This, of course, was not a continuous assault or shelling, but rather a series of attempts. But the matter was still difficult - and Galkin and his people successfully transferred it.

The Tubins disappeared, but only in order to arrange another ambush. But their self-confidence, and their strength, were far from the same. Galkin repulsed all the attacks and successfully returned under the protection of the Russian walls.

Founder of fortifications


Galkin, like any “conquistador of Siberia,” distinctly sensed the taste of money and was not shy about chasing precious sable skins. So, for example, he traveled thousands of kilometers along the Lena and its tributaries, collecting yasak from everyone he sees. And he scored 716 rubles - an extremely serious amount at that time.

But with all this pursuit of “soft gold” Galkin did not comply with the scheme “immediately weld up at all costs, and then at least the grass does not grow.” He always thoroughly approached the issue of securing the sovereign of the conquered territories. If you didn’t succeed in setting up a prison, at least make a description of the area, so that it would be easier to go next time.

But it was better, of course, to put a prison. Well, or a winter hut - if the place is successful, it will eventually grow into this very prison. In any case, having entangled the natives with a network of fortifications, you will eventually collect more yasak - and Galkin understood this very well.


Monument to Ivan Galkin in Ust-Kut

The list based for one person is impressive. Idirminsky winter hut, Ust-Kutsky prison, Barguzinsky prison - in the latter, by the way, he actively grew bread and fodder crops - Bauntovsky prison, and so on.

This love of construction allowed Galkin to become an absolute record holder in joining territories for the whole history Russia - at least, has to operate on the scale of one person and dozens of helpers.

Traveling along the rivers of Siberia, participating in skirmishes with the natives, erecting fortifications, he "staked out" vast land areas beyond Moscow. For example, researcher Mikhail Kretschmar believes that about 1/5 of modern Russia was added to the merits of Galkin.

Do not spare neither your own nor others


With all this reasonableness, Galkin was a man of extreme decisiveness. For example, in 1633 he seized power in the Lensky prison - the future of Yakutsk. The local clerk, Parfen Khodyrev, turned out to be a little popular person - few people like the hot-tempered despot of local proportions.

When this same Khodyrev came into conflict with Galkin, the latter simply took 12 loyal servicemen who were personally loyal to him and rudely overthrew Parfen. However, he did not begin to kill - the ex-clerk, although he was disgraced, he wrote petitions to the higher authorities for a long time.

With the enemy, Galkin, when necessary, was completely ruthless.


Yakuts in the XNUMXth century

Leading the Lensky prison, he ran into rioting Yakuts. He tried to go against them in 1634, but unsuccessfully. Then he beat off the siege of the prison. And even after their removal he persuaded the surrounding Yakuts not to disperse as they planned, but to pay yasak. Those, possibly sensing weakness in such proposals, revolted in 1635, and even more furiously than before.

Then Galkin was tired of all this.

He chose one of the Yakut towns protected by a double row of log walls. And he held a demonstration - he took it, losing only 3 people irrevocably, and killed there everyone he could catch, including women with children. What had an instant effect on the natives - they immediately confessed, took the oath, dragged the grand yasak, several times higher than the "annual norm" established in Lensky prison.

Like the Dutch in Manhattan


But do not think that our hero was a kind of berserker, wound up with the taste of blood and each time he wanted more.

For example, Galkin showed flexibility in the methods of collecting yasak. Of course, it was often easier to take by force. But what if the natives had more fur than was established by the conscription, but didn’t want to “arbitrarily” —then did he himself go through these places?

Then Galkin did not hesitate to resort to trade. Beads, beads, and other inexpensive, convenient for transportation nonsense, went into business. It was possible to understand the logic of the natives - we have a full sable, you can always shoot. And when such a curiosity is brought back, one must take it while there is an opportunity.

So the savages took it - and Galkin gladly gave it. Becoming in return an extremely wealthy man. In 1638, our hero managed to buy in this way one and a half percent of all official (i.e. taxed by the tsar's tax) sable mining for all of Siberia.

And after that, which is characteristic, he did not heal happily until the end of his days somewhere in Moscow — he was not such a man, the son of Yermakov’s Cossack Ivan Galkin. He continued the development of the frontier.
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Photos used:
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  1. Same lech 28 January 2020 06: 18 New
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    How many more names of Russian pioneers will emerge from the depths of history. what ... how little we know about the development of Siberia and the Far East.
    1. GKS 2111 28 January 2020 07: 18 New
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      Cossacks expanded and strengthened Russia to the Pacific Ocean. We owe them all the blessings (wood, oil, gas).
      1. pit14 3 February 2020 09: 31 New
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        All these benefits do not belong to us, but only a small population and this is a fact.
    2. Mountain shooter 28 January 2020 09: 26 New
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      Quote: The same Lech
      How many more names of Russian pioneers will emerge from the depths of history. ... how little we know about the development of Siberia and the Far East

      The mighty were types. Real "passionaries" ... Fear was unknown to them ...
  2. Hunter 2 28 January 2020 06: 19 New
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    Siberia is divided into Eastern and Western! Ermak with his father Galkin - annexed Western Siberia.
    Galkin himself was never in Western Siberia; he conquered and annexed only Eastern Siberia. Just making clarifications. hi
  3. Vladimir_2U 28 January 2020 06: 24 New
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    Joining one fifth of Russia. Siberian adventures of ataman Galkin
    Well, thanks for at least no adventures.
  4. rocket757 28 January 2020 07: 16 New
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    That's right, Russia was growing in Siberia!
    Be that as it may, they were brave people ...
  5. Olgovich 28 January 2020 07: 47 New
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    Traveling along the rivers of Siberia, participating in skirmishes with the natives, erecting fortifications, he "staked out" vast land areas beyond Moscow. For example, researcher Mikhail Kretschmar believes that about 1/5 of modern Russia was added to the merits of Galkin.


    Hardly more than Peter Ivanovich Beketov. who founded the article mentioned Lensky prison (future Yakutsk) and annexed to Russia Yakutia and Buryatiawhere he founded the city Cheat.

    It was to replace Beketov that Galkin arrived at the Lensky prison.
  6. Nagaibak 28 January 2020 09: 36 New
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    A kind of free interpretation of Russian history.))) "He chose one of the Yakut towns, protected by a double row of log walls. And he held a demonstration - took it, losing only 3 people irrevocably, and killed there all who could catch, including women with children . "
    I would like the details of such a terrifying event. Which town? Title? Where is it located? The number of defenders and the population.))) Cossacks, of course, were not good uncles giving out gifts, but if we talk about atrocities and cruelties, it is desirable to give facts, at least some.))) Something I do not remember what Russian locals would call savages. Not met in the literature. But the fact that Russian immigrants were instructed to endow with land of worse quality than for example the Siberian Tatars, I met this in those documents that I once studied. And they didn’t shoot the sable, but they caught it with the help of various traps.
    1. Kronos 28 January 2020 12: 28 New
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      I would like to believe that Siberia was not conquered by such methods as other peoples their territories, but do not think that it is better than other r
      1. Nagaibak 28 January 2020 13: 16 New
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        Kronos "but do not think that is better than other p"
        Do you offer to believe unconfirmed information?))))
      2. Bersaglieri 28 January 2020 14: 24 New
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        Yes the same. Russians and Spaniards with the Portuguese acted approximately the same in relation to the "savages" (because in Siberia and South America the autochthonous population still remained). Puritans in North America were simply genocidal.
    2. Trilobite Master 28 January 2020 18: 04 New
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      Quote: Nagaibak
      I would like the details of such a terrifying event.

      Harsh time, harsh people, harsh methods.
      But one thing is right: when describing such, let's say, an ambiguous event, such as the total extermination of the population of an entire town, it would be nice to specify something - the name, location, number of victims ... Otherwise, some wise guy will read this article and he’ll write his own on some conditional “rusofob.ru” about how the Russians slaughtered the population of Siberia in whole cities by “hundredthsch” at a time every day.
      I Ryzhova Valery all the time I urge to take a more responsible attitude to the information presented, to make reservations if the information is from dubious sources, etc. Now, it seems, something similar will have to remind Timur.
      I understand that you won’t throw words out of a song, yes, in fact, the worst sin before history than “ejecting words” can be only a direct lie, and even then not by much, but still it’s better to specify and substantiate some things as much as possible, preferably with reference to the source of information. And here is not even a list of references.
      1. 3x3zsave 28 January 2020 18: 44 New
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        Harsh time, harsh people, harsh methods.

        "Severe men play jazz" (C)
        Ek, you, Michael, are accused of pet pet Russophobia! laughing drinks
        1. Trilobite Master 28 January 2020 18: 48 New
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          Quote: 3x3zsave
          Ek, you, Michael, stuck

          Come on, Anton, no one called me that recently. Or do I not know something? smile
          1. 3x3zsave 28 January 2020 19: 02 New
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            Yesterday, Operator.
            "And also, an earthworm" (C) laughing
            1. Trilobite Master 28 January 2020 19: 38 New
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              Ah, the Operator ... Well, that’s yes ... I was thinking something new ... Well, nothing, let it be amusing. smile And besides the "Russophobe" was something? Well, not like a "Tatar historian", but something new? If there was nothing new, I won’t even look, but I would have looked ... laughing
              1. 3x3zsave 29 January 2020 20: 59 New
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                Well, Andrei Vasiliev, a noble and experienced opponent, at the time, put the pluses under the comments. laughing
      2. Nagaibak 29 January 2020 09: 17 New
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        The Master of Trilobite "And here is not even a list of references."
        Now they are pulling out everything in a row.))) Such a world trend. Show that Russia illegally owns Siberia. Conquered, killed all, and so on. And we unfortunately play along with them with such articles.
        1. Trilobite Master 29 January 2020 10: 27 New
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          Quote: Nagaibak
          The world trend is this.

          Oh well, what other trend? Siberia belongs to Russia, no one is encroaching on it. Some small-town Natsiks may stir up the water, but this is not a "global trend", but the direct result of the action of some "non-profit organization", something like the "International Congress of the Yakuts" or the "World Tungus Forum". smile
          Simply, the article is written so that its meaning can be understood as you like, without going beyond the scope of the content. In particular, the episode with the destruction of the settlement.
          He chose one of the Yakut towns protected by a double row of log walls. And he held a demonstration - he took it, losing only 3 people irrevocably, and killed there all those whom he could catch, including women with children.

          You can evaluate it as a major act of genocide with thousands of victims and conclude that the Yakuts have big cities, which means a developed culture, statehood, etc., and the Russians destroyed all this.
          And you can understand that the prison was burned, beaten off by the Yakuts from the Russians (because, where did they have their cities with a double row of walls) and, accordingly, all who were in it - the rebels and their destruction is absolutely lawful, expedient, justified and should be considered feat of arms.
          Specific information is needed so that the understanding of the event is unambiguous.
          1. Nagaibak 29 January 2020 11: 46 New
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            The master of the Trilobite "Oh, what other trend? Siberia belongs to Russia, no one is encroaching on it."
            Previously, Ukraine also had Russian land.))) They will pull Potanin and other soil workers out of naphthalene.))) They will come up with a special Siberian language, conversations are already in full swing. They will come up with their story and voila ..)))
  7. vladcub 28 January 2020 09: 57 New
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    Times were turbulent and people matched. We live in "greenhouse" conditions in comparison with people of the 17th century, and that which, from our point of view, was immorally in line with the then moral.
    And Ivan Galkin, by that time, was just a good kid: “Parfen’s rude boot. He didn’t kill,” but he could have killed. Then you could find a bunch of cuts from: “he stabbed himself” to “ran away somewhere. While I went out of need, and he screeched through the window” and that’s it.
  8. Talgat 148 28 January 2020 10: 25 New
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    Colonizer!
    1. svp67 28 January 2020 19: 24 New
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      Quote: Talgat 148
      Colonizer!

      Civilizer ...
  9. svp67 28 January 2020 14: 46 New
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    Yes, there were people ... Well, that's about whom and about the need to make films, it’s a bottomless well of stories and stories ...
    1. Fishery 28 January 2020 15: 09 New
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      I'm afraid that such films will be banned, as introducing ethnic strife)
    2. Astra wild 28 January 2020 16: 58 New
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      Sergey, you are right: a wonderful action movie could be made from Galkin’s biography
  10. Astra wild 28 January 2020 16: 55 New
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    Timur, you have a good story, but for the sake of justice, the word: "natives" somehow warps. Another phrase: "he simply took 12 loyal personally loyal service people and rudely overthrew Parfen." My personal opinion is that this phrase could be built in a slightly different way. For example: "Galkin took 12 reliable colleagues and rudely removed Parfen." Agree that the meaning is the same.
    I read the text twice the first time I enjoyed it, and then, I confess, I deliberately looked for flaws.
    1. 3x3zsave 28 January 2020 17: 21 New
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      My respect, Beautiful Stranger!
      Sherzad produces very different materials. And that is great! Today, for example, a good Eastern came out. Unfortunately, Timur ceased to accompany his articles. request
    2. sergo1914 28 January 2020 19: 25 New
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      Quote: Astra wild
      Timur, you have a good story, but for the sake of justice, the word: "natives" somehow warps. Another phrase: "he simply took 12 loyal personally loyal service people and rudely overthrew Parfen." My personal opinion is that this phrase could be built in a slightly different way. For example: "Galkin took 12 reliable colleagues and rudely removed Parfen." Agree that the meaning is the same.
      I read the text twice the first time I enjoyed it, and then, I confess, I deliberately looked for flaws.



      Parfen just switched to another job. We had a similar story recently.
      1. Astra wild 29 January 2020 10: 57 New
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        I was still small and heard how my grandmother sometimes read in the newspaper: “in connection with the transfer to another job” and commented: “it seems that the garbage was thrown away”
  11. Astra wild 28 January 2020 17: 14 New
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    Quote: Tonya
    I'm afraid that such films will be banned, as introducing ethnic strife)

    Watching that movie. After all, you can bypass the episode with the massacre in the town. How many films are there, where the character’s biography was “combed”.
    And if the characters are given other names and say: "all coincidences are random and complete fiction
  12. pit14 3 February 2020 09: 37 New
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    Galkin is not what he was designated in the article. Basically, all this was "designed" by Beketov. Galkin is simply one of many who, among other things, has become famous for atrocities.
    What is the Yakut ostrog look here https://studopedia.net/8_15990_sergievskaya-bashnya-XVII-v-litografiya-bi-lebedinskogo-.html
    A small essay on the Yakut defense structures here http://www.a-nevsky.ru/books/russkoye-derevyannoe-oboronnoe-zodchestvo21.html
    By the beginning of the 20th century, the sable in Yakutia was destroyed, restored during the Soviet period. My grandfather is a career hunter, he got the first sable in the 70s, before he had never seen him