Born in 1963, Victor Orban, now Prime Minister of Hungary, and part-time professional footballer, graduated from school with an English bias, graduated from law school at the University of Budapest, two years later received a scholarship from Mr. Soros Foundation and graduated from Oxford.
It was he, the former secretary of the Komsomol organization of the school, in 1988 he stood at the origins of the Fides Party, which now rules in Hungary (although, rapidly losing popularity). In 1989, feeling perfectly where the wind is coming from and where, and realizing that this is the real Wind of Change, Viktor Orban spoke out against the presence of Soviet troops in Hungary. That year he had nothing for it, and the troops mentioned left in 1991. A timely speech of a young and hot oppositionist allowed him to quickly make a political career: a year later he was already elected to parliament. This active person was able to lead the Fides Party to victory in the parliamentary elections of 1998 of the year - and at the age of 35 years he became the prime minister of Hungary.
Orban is a right-wing politician (on the verge of “ultra-right”) sense. His goals were: a rapprochement with NATO; Hungary's accession to the EU; tax cuts (while reducing social spending) —that is, a policy of economic liberalism; relations with Russia, according to the statements of the young Orban, are remnants of the past; under Orban, Hungarian nationalism developed from the struggle for the rights of national minorities abroad and the revival of the “old spirit” to the recent heroization of Admiral Horthy.
Under him, Hungary joined NATO (today Orban supports the creation of European missile defense and is joining a supporter of the Alliance expansion) and tried to join the EU (the prerequisites in 1999 were: inflation decreased - however slightly: from 15% to 10% per year; unemployment rate. But Hungary entered the EU only in 2004). Orban made free higher education. Probably, from here, from social programs, and not only from “imperial ambitions” and autocracy, Orban’s political nickname “Hugo Chavez of Europe” has taken root. There is a second nickname: "Right Hugo", the authorship of which is attributed to the deputy of the European Parliament Daniel Cohn-Bendit. And another political nickname: "Viktor".
In the 2002, Fides received only 26% votes. Orban was out of work. But what is “out of work” for Orban? He recalled youth and leaned into opposition, speaking out against the ruling coalition. In 2006, he criticized Prime Minister Gyurcsany. There was no need to look for an occasion: there was no money in the budget. Pogroms and fires began after the public performance of Orban the oppositionist in Budapest.
And in 2008, the global financial crisis hit. Orban once again masterfully played the instrument of the empty treasury. In May 2010, he came to power in Hungary along with the Fides Party (54% of votes, two thirds in parliament), speaking in elections in alliance with the Christian Democrats. Having spent eight years in opposition, this time Viktor Orban did not intend to part with the authorities.
Balancing between populism and nationalism, he rewrote the country's constitution (the new version was approved by parliament a year later as premier of Orban and entered into force on January 1, 2012).
Axel Gilden about it пишет: “On Monday evening, January 2, about 70000 people came to the streets of Budapest at a rally against Prime Minister Viktor Orban - a significant figure for this small country with a population of 10 million, where political rallies are rare. While on Andrassy Avenue and in front of the Opera building they were waving slogans denouncing the authoritarian bias of the head of government, the television showed footage ... of the deserted avenue with only a cordon of policemen! Rough, but effective manipulation: in the provinces, far from the capital, millions of Hungarians only watch state television. ”
From that moment on, the former ideologue of Hungary’s membership in the EU suddenly spoke in a language that the EU and the tolerant West in general do not understand.
First, in the new version of the constitution, Orban struck at homosexuals of all stripes and shades that the Western liberals, especially some of the Germans from Germany, did not like much. Hillary Clinton also entered into a protest: after all, Orban, redid the basic law of the country, violated the rights of sex minorities, defining marriage as a union of a man and a woman.
Secondly, from now on it is considered that the Hungarian people are united by God ("God bless the Hungarians"). The West does not like this either: what about tolerance? Religious Freedom?
Thirdly, abortion and early release for serious crimes are prohibited in the country.
Fourth, the Prime Minister brought nationalist ideas to the logical final. The crown and mace of St. Stephen I became the symbol of Hungary, and the preamble of the constitution defines Hungary as the successor of the Magyar state, which hints at the possible territorial claims of Orban to many countries, from Slovakia to Romania. The name "Republic of Hungary" was shortened to "Hungary".
Revanchism is also clearly visible in the vein of nationalist politics. Recently, in Hungary, through the efforts of Orban and Fides, in alliance with the ultra-right party Jobbik, Hitler's ally Admiral Horthy (regent of the kingdom at the time) was rehabilitated. This figure left the following marks in stories: it adopted a “percentage rate” clause at universities (1920); he was a supporter of voluntary rapprochement and then alliance with the regime of Hitler in (1930-s); with Horthy in 1938-1941. three anti-Jewish laws were passed; Finally, sending 1944 to the concentration camps near the 435.000 Jews, which Horthy regretted about the same year, is also an admiral's merit.
The school programs at Orban included works by Albert Vass and Josef Niro (ultra-right writers). Niro is known for praising Goebbels and sitting in parliament during the time of the Crossed Arrows.
The adopted law, which condemned the crimes of communism, aimed not so much against the “crimes” that young Orban spoke about in 1989 year, but against the Socialist Party, which was in the ruling coalition before Orban’s second premiership (it was his opposition), became logical. After all, according to the law, this party is responsible for the crimes of the communist regime before the 1989 year.
Last year, the Hungarian parliament allowed a simplified procedure for obtaining citizenship for all ethnic Hungarians living abroad. It was about Romania, Poland, Ukraine, Slovakia. Orban doesn't make friends with the last country at all: “Viktor” is known for saying during a trip to Slovakia in 2011: “Slovak laws don't bother anyone”. Anxiety among the EU countries was also caused by the fact that 0,6 million ethnic Hungarians live in Slovakia (11% of the country's population).
Nationalistic populism, however, did not help Orban and his party: Fidez began to lose ratings. Probably, the possible association of “Fidesz” with the ultra-right, which is talked about in Hungary, is another attempt to raise popularity.
In order to preserve power, Orban enforced a new electoral law. From this year there can be no two rounds in the elections; reduced number of parliamentarians; in essence, the law destroys small parties.
Freedom of speech, according to Western preachers of various freedoms, Victor Orban suffocates no less thoroughly than the "frantic Hugo" from Venezuela. True, the closure of the opposition radio station "Clubradio" is not due to censorship reasons, but to the winning tender for broadcasting frequency. In the media, you can also find reports that during the reign of Orban, six hundred opposition press employees were dismissed. The law on “objectivity of information”, which is considered to be censorship, has also been adopted.
At the same time, Orban fired the old judges. Now in Hungary you can become a judge only if you are no more than 62 years old.
Как пишет Axel Gilden, the prime minister, “appoints close people to positions in the economic sector, police, army, and even the State Opera, often for periods ranging from 9 to 12 years, in hopes of perpetuating the Orban system in case its architect scenes ... "But thanks to such laws and their people in the system - it will not come down.
It is not surprising that the Prime Minister crushed the Hungarian central bank. The chairman of the Central Bank cannot appoint deputies for himself; this is the responsibility of the prime minister. The Board of Directors of the Central Bank also feels the hand of Orban: the people there are appointed by the parliament, which sets the tone for Fides.
In addition, bankers in Hungary with 2012 were taxed in 0,5% of the assets. In the US, this tax is 0,15%, in many countries it is even less. Orban explained the introduction of the tax reluctance to reduce social spending.
In just one year, two hundred laws were passed in Hungary, not counting amendments to the constitution.
Whatever Orban says, no matter how he rewrites the financial rules of the game, the constitution and laws (the latest innovations are equating vagrants with criminals and criminals and the possibility of parents voting for their children), Hungary, under the supervision of the IMF, will bog more and more into the swamp economic crisis. In the first quarter of 2012, Hungary’s GDP declined by 1,3%, showing the worst result in the EU after the “leading” Greece in the crisis.
The loss of independence by the central bank is contrary to EU principles. Angela Merkel, for example, didn’t approve of Orban’s idea. In addition, Hungary has come to the dangerous end of financial bankruptcy. The results of the "reform", in addition to the negative reaction of the EU, were: consumer price increases in Hungary and public protests.
"I am Hungarian, and studied in Kiev, - пишет one of the readers of the resource "Foundation for Strategic Culture", Jano. - I can say that the average person lives worse than under socialism. There is no domestic industry. From 12 sugar factories remained 1! 70% sugar import! No Globus, Ikarus, Videoton, MOM, etc. Yes, the roads are good, yes, there are many entertainment centers, and many cars, yes, you can freely travel around the world. But there is no spirituality, false values of life, villages are dying out, and villages are the nation’s gene pool. In a crisis, many families went bankrupt, the level of education at the lowest level! ”
Another user, Varvara, adds to this that “schools in the Hungarian province that the state cannot contain, it simply donates to the Catholic Church ...” There is and such readers, who directly call Orban a protege of Masonic circles and Soros. They speak of the “positive role” of “Victor” as a “myth” and groundless “propaganda”.
Thinking about the upcoming election campaign, Mr. Right reformer in November 2011 asked for money from the legal bank of all reformers and promises of future happiness - the IMF, and at the same time the European Commission, because Hungary is in the EU. And there have been waiting for his requests. This week commissions from these two institutions arrived in Budapest. In order for the meeting to take place, Orban, who is rapidly losing popularity in the country, donated his own amendments to the laws, including on the Hungarian central bank.
The negotiations will focus on a loan of $ 18,3 billion. The purpose of the loan: to improve the economic situation in the country. Hungary can receive money not earlier than October, but rather at the end of the year.
Economists at Bank of America by Rafaella Tenconi and Mae Dawn they say: “Orban needs a loan in order to secure re-election in 2014 year. This is the last opportunity to strengthen the economy and score points before the start of the campaign, if, of course, the negotiations are completed before the end of the summer. Delaying them will increase the risk of a default economy in the 2013-2014 years. ”
In pursuit of money to amend the Orban economy at the end of January 2012 сказал: “I am tough only when the interests of my country demand it from me, and I compromise when the interests of the Hungarian people demand it from me.” Understanding that he was in a hurry with the reforms of laws and the judicial system, Orban promised Europe to completely redo the three provisions of the new constitution - the central bank, the personal data protection agency, and the age of judges. This, he said, will be done "easily, simply and quickly."
Here Orban coolly broke up with the party of the right-wing Jobbik who supported him, who in general demanded the country's withdrawal from the European Union (logically and completely in the spirit of the nationalists). But Viktor, ready to negotiate with the EU and the IMF and “easily, simply and quickly” return the laws to their former place, began to look a lot like a political chameleon.
However, he, having passed the “perestroika” path from the Komsomol secretary to the enemy of the USSR and communism, was always a chameleon. Of those same chameleons who scratch a lot of their tongues on TV, but with which Ikarus and Globes disappear. And behind which looms the old face of J. Soros.
By the way: Orban - no, no, Hugo Chavez. Venezuela moves up, and Hungary - down. Chavez is popular, but Orban is not. As the international practice shows, loans from the IMF, unless you do not have oil (like Chavez or like another autocrat, comrade Putin from the KGB), do not lead to prosperity and welfare, but to new loans from the IMF.
Therefore, in the election year 2014, no matter how Mr. Orban doesn’t shine through laws and the constitution, Fidesu doesn’t shine. Victor Prime Minister will have to go to football coaches: he has experience of such work.
Victor Orban: Komsomol activist, anti-Soviet, Soros scholar, football player, nationalist and prime minister
- Oleg Chuvakin