Military Review

Little-known wars of the Russian state: the struggle of the Moscow state with Kazan and the Crimea in the first third of the XVI century. Part of 2

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1521 Invasion of the Year

They knew about the approach of the big war in Moscow and urgently advanced troops to the southern and southeastern border. The regiments in Serpukhov were commanded by the princes Dmitry Belsky, Vasily Shuisky and Ivan Morozov-Poplevin. Princes Ivan Penkov and Fyodor Lopata Obolensky led the Kashirskiy Ratiu. Tarusa was covered by the forces of princes Mikhail Shchenyatev and Ivan Vorotynsky. In Kolomna, there were detachments of Yuri Khokholkov and Nikita Kutuzov-Kleopin. Positions on the Ugra were supposed to cover the regiments of the princes Vasily Odoyevsky, Semyon Shchepin Obolensky and Andrey Buturlin. Troops commanded by Petr Rostovsky and Mikhail Vorontsov stood up in Meshchera. Not far from them, the squads of princes Ivan Troekurov and Vasily Krivoborsky's Carpet were located on the Moksha River. Prince Yuriy Pronsky, Ivan Schetina Obolensky, Andrei Saburov stood in Murom, Andrei Kurbsky and Fedor Schuka Kutuzov in Nizhny Novgorod. The troops, which were concentrated in Ryazan, submitted to Ryazan governor Ivan Khabar Simsky. The detachment of Ivan Shamin nominated to Starodub.

However, the passive defensive tactics of the main directions chosen by Moscow voivods did not help - the forces of the Crimean Khan were too significant. The most dangerous was the Moscow direction, where the lord of the Crimean Khanate, Mohammed Giray, was advancing. He was joined by a detachment of Lithuanian commander Evstafy Dashkevich. Passing Muravsky Shlyakh between the upper reaches of the Vorskla and the Seversky Donets, 100-thousand. the Crimean-Lithuanian army reached Bystraya Sosna and, bypassing Tula, turned towards the land of Ryazan. The Crimean horde invaded the Russian limits and July 28 1521 of the year came to the river. Oka in the vicinity of Kolomna. It was here that the Tatars forced the Oka, a small Russian detachment under the command of Yuri Khokholkov was forced to take refuge in Kolomna. Shelves from Serpukhov and Kashira were pushed to the crossing with a big delay. But they were defeated, apparently, separately, and suffered heavy losses. The heavy losses of the Russian troops are evidenced by the death of the grand dukes commander Ivan Sheremetev, Vladimir Karamyshev Kurbsky, Yakov and Yury Zamyatnins. Prince Fyodor Spade Obolensky was captured. The commander-in-chief of the Russian forces was the young Prince Dmitry Belsky, who did not heed the advice of the older and more experienced governor and threw the regiments into battle against the huge enemy army without any hope of success. Part of the Russian forces was able to move away and hide in the cities.

Tatars began to ravage Kolomna places, slowly moving on. The Crimean Khan was waiting for the appearance of the allied forces of the Kazakh Khanate, led by Sahib Giray. Kazan troops were able to break through the border, destroyed Nizhny Novgorod, the outskirts of Vladimir and went to Kolomna, to the gathering place. Having united, the Crimean-Kazan horde began to move in the direction of Moscow. Vasily III Ivanovich hurried to leave Moscow overflowing with refugees and left for Volokolamsk. He left in his place brother-in-law Peter Ibrahimovic, who was authorized to begin peace negotiations with the Crimean Khan. August 1 Tatar troops appeared in the vicinity of Moscow. They were in no hurry to begin the siege of a well-fortified city and were engaged in the destruction of the surrounding area. The headquarters of Mohammed Giray was located on the Severka River, 60 versts from Moscow. Tatar forces in the immediate vicinity of the Russian capital were commanded by the “prince” Bogatyr-Sultan, who was encamped in the village of Ostrov. The request of the Moscow boyars to begin peace negotiations was perceived by the Crimean Khan as complete surrender. Therefore, the main requirement imposed on the Russian government was to give a letter to the Moscow sovereign with the obligation to be an eternal tributary of the Crimean "tsar". In fact, it was about the revival of Moscow’s system of foreign policy dependence on the Tatar “tsar” according to the “charter of ancient times” (according to the Golden Horde model). The Moscow government was forced to satisfy the demand of the Crimean Khan and send the required document.

12 August 1521, the year Mohammed Giray began to withdraw his forces into the steppe. On the way back, the Crimean army approached Ryazan. Khan, on the advice of the Lithuanian governor Yevstafy Dashkevich, decided to capture the city with cunning. He suggested that the townspeople buy a part of the full (part of the full was actually bought, including Prince Shovel Obolensky). Ryazan governor Ivan Khabar Simsky was sent an order to appear to the khan with an expression of submission, as required by the tribute to the tenebrous obligations of his sovereign, who recognized the dependence on the Crimean "king." Khabar Simsky demanded to show the letter and received it. At this time, the Tatars tried to seize the fortress during the next redemption of prisoners, rushing to the open gate. Fortunately, Johann Jordan, the German commander of the Ryazan artillery, did not lose his caution. A volley of guns standing at the gate turned the Tatars to flight. After this failure, the Crimean army left Ryazan.

Muscovy was in an extremely difficult position. The lands to the south and east of Moscow were ravaged, a lot of people were taken to full, the ninth year was a hard war with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In these conditions, the re-invasion of the Crimean and Kazan troops could have disastrous consequences. It was necessary to end the war on the western border as quickly as possible and to strengthen the defense in the east and south. Errors of the past have been analyzed and taken into account. The Grand Duke of Moscow increased the number of troops located in the southern "Ukraine". Troops began to be deployed all along the border: the Bolshoi Regiment was stationed near Devic, the Forward Regiment was at the mouth of the river Sturgeon, the Regiment of the Right Hand was under Golutvin, the Left Hand Regiment was opposite Roslavl, the Watchdog Regiment was on Kashira. At the same time, guard outposts that advanced to the steppe in the direction of the city of Azov and along the southern borders of Seversk land began to be organized, and the construction of fortifications along the line of the future Great Transit Line began.

Further events

The presence on the border of a large army forced Khan Mohammed Giray to abandon the idea of ​​repeating a successful campaign. In addition, 14 September 1522 was a truce between Muscovy and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Crimean Khan Mohammed Giray in December 1522, the army moved to Hadji Tarkhan (Astrakhan). In the spring of 1523, he managed to seize the city without a fight, Astrakhan Khan Hussein fled. However, the Nogai troops came to the aid of the Astrakhans; the legs suspected the Crimean Khan of wanting to subjugate all the steppe peoples to their authority. Crimean Khan at this time released almost the entire army. Therefore, when in the 1523 year the Nogai army led by Mamay-Murza and Agish-Murza attacked the camp of the Crimean Khan, he had only 3 thousand warriors. During the clash, Mohammed Giray and the heir to the throne, Bogatyr Sultan, were killed. This was followed by a devastating leg invasion in the Crimea, which ravaged and robbed the entire peninsula, but failed to take the cities. Mohammed’s successor on the Crimean throne was his son Gaza I Gerai. However, the Crimean nobility in a hurry did not coordinate its choice with Istanbul. Gaza I ruled over the Khanate for only 6 months, since the Port soon chose another candidate. The uncle of Gaza, Gerai Saadat I Gerai (Saadat-Giray) became the new khan of the Crimean khanate. Gaza was soon killed. The new ruler of Bakhchisarai had to restore the state destroyed by the enemy, temporarily postponing the plans for campaigns to Russia.

Fight with Kazan. Moscow had to solve the problem of a stubborn and dangerous enemy - the Kazan Khan Sahib Giray. At the beginning of autumn 1522, he sent troops of the Tatars and meadow Mari to the Galician land. September 15 Kazan troops destroyed the Russian outpost in Parfeneva, and on September 28 captured the monastery in Unzha. The Moscow-Kazan negotiations that began after this ended in failure. In the spring of 1523, Sahib Giray ordered the execution of all the Russian merchants and the Russian envoy captured during the 1521 coup. However, the time for the execution of the Kazan Khan chose the wrong one. Soon came the news of the rout and death of Mohammed Giray and the destruction of the Crimean Khanate by the Nogai detachments. The Kazan Khanate turned one on one with two strong enemies - the Russian state and the Nogai horde.

In August, 1523 was assembled in Nizhny Novgorod and the army was assembled, but the Moscow monarch did not take risks, and sent a small ship of troops under the command of Shah-Ali to Kazan. In September 1523, the Russian regiments crossed the river Sura. Ship's army, under which Shah-Ali was, devastated the Cheremis (Mari) and Chuvash villages on the banks of the r. Volga, reached the outskirts of Kazan, and then turned back. The equestrian army, reaching the Sviyagi River, clashed on Ityakovo field with Tatar forces. Tatars could not stand the impact of local cavalry and ran. 1 September 1523 began the construction of a Russian fortress on the right, Kazan bank of the Sura, at the place of its confluence with the r. Volga. At the same time, the local population — the Mari, the Mordovians, the Chuvash — took thousands of people to the Russian state as hostages and prisoners. The new fortress was named in honor of the Grand Duke - Vasil-city (the future Vasilsursk).

Sahib Giray tried to seize the initiative in his own hands and in October 1523, he made a campaign under Galich. After a short siege and unsuccessful assault on the city, the Khan's army retreated, taking many prisoners away. Fearing a retaliatory strike, the Kazan Khan sent an ambassador to Bakhchisarai, asking him to send cannons, pishchals and janissaries.

Moscow in response to the attack on Galich began to prepare the campaign of the Russian army in Kazan. The “prince” Shah-Ali was led at the head of the army, his assistants were governors Ivan Belsky, Mikhail Gorbaty and Mikhail Zakharyin. The independent local cavalry was commanded by Ivan Khabar and Mikhail Vorontsov. The naval army entered the campaign on May 8, 1524, and the horse army on May 15. The foreign policy situation was very successful. At this time, the offensive on the Crimea began 80 thousand. Polish-Lithuanian army. Kazan Khan Sagib-Giray hastily left Kazan and fled to Crimea to ask for help from the Turkish Sultan. Khan in Kazan left the 13-year-old nephew Safa-Girey (reigned in 1524-1531, 1536-1546, July 1546 - March 1549). The Russian horse army on Ityakov field defeated the Kazan troops. In a fierce battle, the Kazan army suffered heavy losses. The ship's army landed near Kazan on July 3 and began to wait for the approach of the local cavalry. Kazan Tatars did not expect the approach of the Russian cavalry and on July 19 attacked the fortified camp of the Moscow army. However, they received a fierce rebuff and departed. Kazan residents blocked a military army in the camp without cavalry, repeating attacks from time to time. The situation became more complicated when food supplies began to run out in the army of Shah-Ali and I. Belsky. To help them from Nizhny Novgorod came the second ship's army under the command of Prince Ivan Paletsky. The detachment had 90 ships with 3 thousand soldiers. On the shore, a naval army was accompanied by 500 horsemen. Having learned about the movement of Russian forces, Cheremis prepared an ambush. The first to completely defeat the cavalry detachment - only 9 people were saved. Then, during a night stop, Kazan troops attacked flotilla Paletsky. Most of the Russian soldiers were killed or captured. Only part of the squad was able to leave and get to the camp near Kazan.

15 August all Russian regiments joined and began to besiege the city. However, the Russian army has not achieved notable success. Tatar detachments that remained outside the fortress made frequent attacks on Russian forces besieging Kazan. Soon, realizing the futility of their efforts, the Russian command began negotiations with the Tatars, agreeing to lift the siege from the city in exchange for a promise to send Kazan ambassadors to Moscow to conclude a peace agreement. The hasty retreat of the Russian regiments became salutary for Kazan. The Nogai army invaded the territory of the Khanate and ravaged the southern regions. The government of the young Khan Safa-Girey was interested in establishing peaceful relations with the Russian state. In November, the Kazan Ambassadors arrived in the Russian capital of 1524. Peace negotiations ended successfully and the parties signed an agreement. His only condition was the transfer of the territory of the Moscow State to the Kazan Fair, which was held annually on June 24. In 1525, it opened in Nizhny Novgorod.

Little-known wars of the Russian state: the struggle of the Moscow state with Kazan and the Crimea in the first third of the XVI century. Part of 2


Relations between Moscow and Bakhchisarai. Relations between the two states remained tense, but I could not organize large marches to the Crimean Khan because of constant internal strife. In 1525, Saadat Giray moved 50-ths to the Moscow State the army, but behind Perekop, the “tsar” learned about the rebellion that his brother Islam Giray raised. Similar история was repeated in 1526, the

The Russian government continued to strengthen the southern "Ukraine". First in Kolomna, and then in Zaraysk, the construction of stone fortresses began. The first serious test of the strength of the Russian defense occurred in the autumn of 1527, when 40-thousand moved to Russia. Crimean army. Moscow received in advance news of an enemy attack and managed to send an army to the southern frontiers. The army was led by Fyodor Lopata Telepnev, Ivan Sheepskin Telepnev, Vasily Odoyevsky, Ivan Shchetina Obolensky, Nikita Schepin and others voevody. The eastern border was also securely covered: the troops were stationed in Murom (under the command of Vasily Shuisky), in Nizhny Novgorod (Simon Kurbsky), Kostroma (Mikhail Schenyatev) and Chukhloma (Danil Maramuk Nesvitsky). The population, living in places where enemy forces could pass, was gathered in cities. The Grand Duke with reserve regiments camped in the village of Kolomenskoye, and then came to the Oka. September 9 Tatars approached the Oka River and tried to cross over. However, all their attempts were repulsed. After the enemy began to retreat, cavalry regiments were sent out, they overtook the Tatars at Zaraisk. In a battle by the river Sturgeon, the Crimean Tatars were defeated.

The positive experience of the 1527 campaign was used in subsequent years. Russian regiments continued to be installed in Kolomna, Serpukhov, Kashira, Ryazan, Tula, and on the dangerous "Senkin ford." They intensified when the greatest threat. In 1530-1531 new wooden fortifications were built in Chernigov and Kashira, construction of a stone fortress in Kolomna was completed.
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  1. Leisure
    Leisure 26 June 2012 08: 59
    +4
    Now for the average student, any war is little known, and not only war.
  2. zombies
    zombies 26 June 2012 15: 18
    +1
    Hmm, about these events now in textbooks, at best, two lines ....
    1. Odinplys
      Odinplys 28 June 2012 00: 18
      0
      Quote: zombi
      Hmm, about these events now in textbooks, at best, two lines ....


      And these lines would be true ....
      Tatars are the Russian people ...
      Our ancestors ... Russians ... Tatars ... together with Nevsky beat enemies ...
  3. Ross
    Ross 26 June 2012 21: 50
    0
    Thank you Alexander for the excellent historical series.