Military Review

Jacob Sverdlov. 100 anniversary of the death of the "devil of the revolution"

102
16 March 1919 of the year, 100 years ago, died Jacob Sverdlov - one of the most ambitious figures of the October Revolution and the establishment of Soviet power in Russia. The name of Sverdlov still bears a whole huge area in the Urals, a lot of streets and squares in various cities of the country. And this is despite the fact that in the arrangement of Soviet Russia, Yakov Sverdlov had a chance to take part less than one and a half years. He died without seeing the end of the Civil War. Who was this person, whose name meets the most ambiguous estimates of both historians and ordinary citizens?


In November 1917, almost immediately after the October Revolution, Yakov Sverdlov headed the All-Russian Central Executive Committee of the Soviets (RSFSR All-Russian Central Executive Committee) and remained its chairman until his death 16 March 1919. Thus, it was Yakov Sverdlov who was formally considered the head of the RSFSR in November 1917 - March 1919. These were the most difficult and dramatic years in stories Soviet Russia, which fell to laying the foundations of the new state, the construction of new political and military institutions, the "Red Terror", the Civil War. And in all these events, the most significant and vivid part was taken by Jacob Sverdlov.

Jacob Sverdlov became the chairman of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee of the RSFSR only in 31 a year. For those times, if not to take into account the monarchs, who received power by inheritance, it was a very young age for the highest head of state. Sverdlov was fifteen years younger than Vladimir Ilyich Lenin and even seven years younger than Stalin. Nevertheless, despite his age, he played such a significant role in party life, that immediately after the revolution he occupied the most important state post in Soviet Russia.

A native of Nizhny Novgorod, Jacob Sverdlov had the usual biography of many Russian revolutionaries of the time. Coming from a Jewish family, in his childhood and youth he bore a different name - according to some data, the future Bolshevik leader was called Yankel Miraimovich, according to others - Yeshua-Solomon Movshevich. His father, Mikhail Izrailevich Sverdlov, was an engraver by profession. After his wife, Yakov Elizaveta Solomonovna’s mother, died in 1900, Mikhail Sverdlov adopted Orthodoxy and married a second marriage to a Russian woman, Maria Alexandrovna Kormiltseva. Thus, Yakov Sverdlov had three full-blooded brothers, two full-blooded sisters and two brothers by his father.

Young Jacob Sverdlov graduated only four classes of the gymnasium, and then went to study the pharmacy craft. And already in such young years he became close with the Nizhny Novgorod revolutionaries. In principle, this was not surprising. For Jewish youth at the beginning of the twentieth century, the path to revolutionaries was one of the most common life scenarios. Young Sverdlov did not escape him either, who quickly realized that it was incommensurably more boring to learn the pharmacy craft than to master the wisdom of underground work.

In 1901, sixteen-year-old Sverdlov joined the RSDLP. After the party split at the II Congress of the RSDLP, he took the side of the Bolsheviks and soon moved to the leading positions in the Yekaterinburg Committee of the RSDLP. In 1905, the twenty-year-old Sverdlov was already a representative of the Central Committee of the RSDLP in the Urals. Even by the standards of the revolutionary environment of those years, such a lightning career, Sverdlov was obliged, first of all, to his personal qualities. What can I say, this man was clever and astute; he understood people from an early age, which later made him the chief personnel officer of the Bolshevik Party.

Jacob Sverdlov played a very important role in the First Russian Revolution of 1905-1907. He headed the Ekaterinburg Council of Workers' Deputies, led the campaign in Yekaterinburg and Perm, was arrested. 1906 to 1909 Sverdlov was in the prisons of the Urals - in Perm and Nizhneturinsk. In the 1910 year, Sverdlov was exiled for three years to the Narym Territory, from where he fled to Petersburg three months later. A young and active revolutionary was noted by Vladimir Lenin himself, after which Sverdlov was co-opted into the Russian Bureau of the Central Committee of the RSDLP.

The next six years in the life of Sverdlov are again prisons and exiles. 5 May 1911 Sverdlov was again exiled to the Narym Territory, but fled from Narym in December. Sverdlov was arrested in February 1913, after which he and Stalin were exiled to the Turukhansk region. This time, Yakov Sverdlov returned from exile only in March 1917 of the year, after the February Revolution, and immediately joined the revolutionary activities.



At first he was sent to work at Yekaterinburg he was used to, and then he personally met with Vladimir Lenin and was included in the party’s Central Committee. Sverdlov headed the Secretariat of the Central Committee of the RSDLP and became responsible for organizing questions and implementing the instructions of the party leadership. However, quite quickly, Jacob Sverdlov gained fame not only as a backstage leader and organizer, but also as an excellent speaker, often speaking on behalf of the Bolsheviks at numerous rallies. It was Sverdlov, by the way, that gave rise to the famous fashion for black leather cuffs, which was adopted by party activists and Red Guard commanders. It is for this jacket Sverdlov and nicknamed "the Black Devil of the Bolsheviks."

I think that in the introduction of the leather "form" a great role was played by the example of Sverdlov. He himself, at any rate, walked in the skin from head to foot, that is, from boots to leather cap. From him, as from a central organizational figure, these clothes, which somehow corresponded to the character of that time, spread widely,


- then recalled Leon Trotsky in the article "In Memory of Sverdlov".

The period between March and October 1917 was a time of rapid strengthening of Sverdlov’s political influence. Pretty soon, Sverdlov turned from a little-known young revolutionary into one of the key figures in the Bolshevik party, which could well compete with Trotsky, Kamenev, Zinoviev, Stalin and other "heavyweights." Moreover, Sverdlov was superior to all the listed Bolshevik leaders in the degree of influence on Vladimir Ilyich Lenin.

It was Sverdlov who presided over the historic meeting of the Central Committee 10 in October 1917 of the year, at which it was decided to seize power by force. He also headed the Military Revolutionary Center, which was directly responsible for the preparation and implementation of the armed uprising. In fact, Sverdlov concentrated in his hands a colossal power, was able to control the personnel questions of the Central Committee of the party.

25 of October (7 of November) of 1917 of the year, during the October Revolution, Lev Kamenev was elected chairman of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee, but already 8 (21) of November of 1917 of the year, at the initiative of Lenin, this post was occupied by Jacob Sverdlov. Lenin believed that Sverdlov, despite his youth, was the most suitable candidate for this post. Sverdlov also headed the commission for the preparation of the Constitution of the RSFSR.

In the conditions of the construction of a new state, the solution of the agrarian question acquired particular importance. Jacob Sverdlov was one of the initiators of the official party course to split the Russian village into "kulaks" and "poor people". He also acted as the initiator of the policy of revealing, brutally suppressing any anti-Soviet speeches of the Cossacks on the Don.

Jacob Sverdlov. 100 anniversary of the death of the "devil of the revolution"


Naturally, by his actions, Sverdlov has earned hatred from a significant part of the peasantry, not to mention the Cossacks. It was with him that the negative consequences for the people of the revolution were tied to the greatest extent. Opponents of the Bolsheviks in the revolutionary camp - the Left Social Revolutionaries - also had their scores for fanatical Sverdlov. They considered Sverdlov guilty of the anti-peasant policy of the Soviets and during the famous insurrection in the summer of 1918, the first thing they planned was to arrest Sverdlov.

The “whites” hated Sverdlov even more, because he was the initiator of the “Red Terror” policy. In the White movement, the point of view was even popular that in fact the country was ruled by Yakov Sverdlov, and Lenin was more of a symbolic figure. To some extent, the proponents of this version were close to the truth. In the 1918 year, Sverdlov enjoyed enormous influence, especially on the personnel policy of the Central Committee, on the internal policy of the Bolshevik Party.

It is believed that Yakov Sverdlov personally authorized the execution of the former emperor Nikolai Romanov and his family members in Yekaterinburg. Although it is still not known exactly who exactly ordered the destruction of the royal family, but Leon Trotsky recalled that Lenin and Sverdlov did it.

When an assassination attempt against Lenin occurred in August 1918, Sverdlov initiated the "Red Terror". By the way, there is a version that the attempt on Lenin was "ordered" by Sverdlov himself. Fanny Kaplan was a friend of his sister, also a revolutionary. But when the attempt on the leader failed and Lenin got off with injuries, Fanny Kaplan was immediately shot.

The order for the shooting of Kaplan was personally given by Sverdlov, although it would seem that there was a wonderful chance to arrange an indicative trial of the woman who had shot at the leader of the revolution. But Kaplan was quick to shoot as quickly as possible, and the next decision of Sverdlov was the start of the “Red Terror” against representatives of the “exploiting classes”. In connection with the plight of Vladimir Ilyich, Sverdlov exercised the actual control of the Soviet state and was regarded as one of the most likely successors to the leader.

It seemed that in the life of Yakov Sverdlov, who turned out to be on the highest floors of the power of a huge country in 33, everything is going as well as possible. The chairman of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee was distinguished by colossal vigor, great ability to work and initiative. This political machine! He traveled around Soviet Russia, met with workers and Red Army soldiers, strengthened the vertical hierarchy of the party hierarchy. Who knew that the tragic end of the all-powerful Jacob was so close.

6 March 1919, Jacob Sverdlov left Kharkov, where he was on a business trip, to Moscow. According to the official version, exactly on the way to the capital, the chairman of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee became ill with the Spaniard. Recall that the epidemic of the Spanish flu in 1918-1919. raging in almost all countries of the world. She died in these years, according to various estimates, from 50 million to 100 million people. The disease did not understand the young and old, ordinary people and the powerful. Therefore, it is likely that the "Spaniard" could not spare the chairman of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee of Soviet Russia.



9 March 1919, the Central Executive Committee reported a serious illness of its chairman, and 16 March 1919, it was officially announced that Yakov Sverdlov died on 34-year life. Two days after his death, 18 March 1919, Jacob Sverdlov was buried near the Kremlin wall. It was one of the first "Kremlin dead" of such a rank.

We lowered into the grave of the proletarian leader, who did the most for the organization of the working class, for its victory,


- Vladimir Ilyich Lenin emphasized in his mourning speech at the burial of Yakov Sverdlov.

And the leader of the revolution was from what to worry. Sverdlov really was Lenin’s right-handed person, solved numerous organizational issues for him, and now the leader was alone, surrounded by rival amongst himself and very unfriendly to each other tuned Bolshevik leaders of the “first echelon”.

From what Sverdlov died, it is still unknown. Some historians put forward a strange version that Sverdlov was allegedly beaten to death by workers in Orel, before whom the chairman of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee decided to speak. According to another version, Sverdlov was poisoned on the personal instructions of Vladimir Ilyich, who was afraid of increasing his political influence.

On the other hand, if we consider the version of the poisoning, it was probably not Lenin who was involved in it, but those Bolshevik leaders who saw in Sverdlov a dangerous adversary in the upcoming struggle for power.

In any case, it is safe to say that if then, 100 years ago, in 34, the life of Yakov Sverdlov had not been interrupted, the history of Russia could have been different. Who knows, for example, whether Stalin would have come to power, since Sverdlov was smarter than Trotsky and could well, stay alive in the 1919 year, prevent Stalin from gaining.
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  1. Hole puncher
    Hole puncher 15 March 2019 06: 02
    +11
    If this inhuman remained alive, he would have eaten Trotsky and Stalin with giblets. What could the country expect then can only be horrified to guess that Pol Pot would have turned out to be a petty tomboy.
    PS: how did the author calmly walk this figure without mentioning the versions of his participation in the attempt on Lenin and his strange death?
    P.PS: and absolutely did not remember the famous "Sverdlov's Safe", you see Ilya Polonsky has a secret "passion" for the demon of the revolution ...
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. Baloo
      Baloo 15 March 2019 06: 29
      +17
      Quote: Puncher
      P.PS: and absolutely did not remember the famous "Sverdlov's Safe"

      and the brother of a banker in America, who went bankrupt immediately after the death of Sverdlov, and opened in 1916.
      And the telegrams an hour before the assassination attempt, that he takes all the power upon himself?
      1. Grandfather
        Grandfather 15 March 2019 06: 53
        +6
        and we have a police building on Sverdlov Street ... coincidence? don't think so! winked
        1. Baloo
          Baloo 15 March 2019 07: 02
          +1
          We have long been renamed Zhdanov, and Lenin, and Sverdlov, and all the rest.
          1. Ingvar 72
            Ingvar 72 15 March 2019 08: 27
            +1
            Quote: Balu
            We have long been renamed Zhdanov, and Lenin, and Sverdlov

            We have Sverdlov Street, and Dzerzhinsky, and even Tukhachevsky.
            1. vladcub
              vladcub 15 March 2019 19: 18
              +3
              You are not lucky: after all, Sverdlov will say that the wrong person is to perpetuate it. Yes, and Tukhachevsky is in doubt
          2. Hole puncher
            Hole puncher 15 March 2019 14: 48
            +8
            Quote: Balu
            We have long been renamed Zhdanov, and Lenin, and Sverdlov, and all the rest.

            In Novosibirsk we have not only Sverdlov Street, but also the no less muck of Moses Solomonovich Uritsky ... By the way.
            1. Astra wild
              Astra wild 17 March 2019 07: 14
              0
              Yes, you can be "proud"
          3. Serg koma
            Serg koma 16 March 2019 07: 30
            +4
            Quote: Balu
            We have long been renamed Zhdanov, and Lenin, and Sverdlov

            Now they bear the "proud name" of Bandera, Shukhevych, etc.
        2. wooja
          wooja 15 March 2019 07: 42
          +3
          Sverdlov was the holder of the party cash desk ... treasurer ... and the love of money that just does not overcome and creates ...
          1. vladcub
            vladcub 15 March 2019 19: 21
            +1
            Dad is an engraver to earn money, and his son also "earned" but in a different way
            1. wooja
              wooja 15 March 2019 19: 28
              +1
              Jewish environment ... everything is on the verge there, Babel wrote about it very correctly ... but it didn’t help him,
        3. Vladimir 5
          Vladimir 5 15 March 2019 22: 16
          +5
          Baloo .. This scoundrel, partner Leiba Bronstein, regicide and the bloody executioner of Russia to betray Anathema and forget forever ...
      2. Astra wild
        Astra wild 15 March 2019 13: 46
        +3
        For me, the news is that Y. M. has so many relatives, but I have not heard about the brother of a banker.
        It looks like Sverdlov's father was a swindler, and what is more, it is written in his "family" to be a swindler
        1. Serg koma
          Serg koma 16 March 2019 07: 35
          0
          Quote: Astra wild
          For me, the news is that Y. M. has so many relatives, but I have not heard about the brother of a banker.

          Read comments more often and don’t hear that. lol At least look at Wiki - before taking on faith.
    3. wooja
      wooja 15 March 2019 07: 52
      +8
      Finances and communications of the Bolsheviks is a separate song .... It is not for nothing that during the years of repressions they sewed espionage, it seems not without reason or did not want to shine Jewish mafia ties, and as a result they were revealed ....
      1. Ingvar 72
        Ingvar 72 15 March 2019 08: 29
        +10
        Quote: wooja
        did not want to shine Jewish mafia ties

        For this they still do not like Stalin - he shot them no less than the Nazis, but not for national reasons, but for political reasons. Wise was a Georgian! laughing
        1. wooja
          wooja 15 March 2019 08: 33
          +5
          unfortunately he did not have the opportunity to bring this matter to the end .... but he worked in the right direction ....
      2. Baloo
        Baloo 15 March 2019 13: 59
        +2
        Quote: wooja
        Finance and communication of the Bolsheviks separate song

        Many prominent Bolsheviks worked in the First World War in the commercial structures of Parvus throughout Europe and in Russia.
        1. wooja
          wooja 15 March 2019 14: 05
          +1
          in the 20s migrated to joint ventures of Soviet Russia, concessions and people's commissariats, the business life of post-revolutionary Russia was in full swing ...
        2. hohol95
          hohol95 15 March 2019 16: 20
          +7
          If the Bolsheviks worked in the structures of Parvus, then why the BRITISH structures in which the "Romanov family" worked have not yet been disclosed?
          The British ordinarily put both their hands and money to eliminate Rasputin.
          And one more interesting FIGURE - Pyotr Lvovich (Ludwigovich) Bark.
          Russian statesman, prominent state banker, manager of the Ministry of Finance (since January 30, 1914), privy councilor (since January 1, 1915), member of the State Council (since December 29, 1915), The last Minister of Finance of the Russian Empire (from May 6, 1914 to February 28, 1917).
          In 1935 he received the title of Baronet of the British Empire.
          1920 - in exile in England. He lived in London, where the highest financial circles attracted him to work as an expert and adviser. He had weight in this capacity and gradually gained great authority in government circles. At the same time, Bark led the London branch of the Association of Figures of Russian Financial Institutions. The author of memoirs posthumously published in the journal "Renaissance".
          One of the founders of the Union of Zealots of Memory of Emperor Nicholas II.
          1. vladcub
            vladcub 15 March 2019 19: 26
            +3
            Remember in the film "State Border", Serge persuaded Danovich to rob former bankers: Germans and Jews
            1. hohol95
              hohol95 15 March 2019 22: 43
              +3
              Do you know that ALL THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY of RI was after the GERMANS?
              And the fact that COAL OF DONBASS for the RI fleet was several times more expensive than imported COBON coal?
              At the same time, CHINESE migrant workers were massively imported to coal mines!
              They were CHEAPER!
            2. hohol95
              hohol95 15 March 2019 22: 45
              0
              I still remember the movie "His Excellency's Adjutant"!
              And the jeweler that the Cheka in Kiev was looking for was NOT German and NOT Jewish!
          2. wooja
            wooja 15 March 2019 21: 29
            0
            British structures are ubiquitous .... they finance everything ...,
            1. hohol95
              hohol95 15 March 2019 23: 05
              +3
              They do not finance everything! They finance SALE people!
              But their shame is -
              The Thai-Burmese Railway, also known as the Death Road, is a railway between Bangkok (Thailand) and Rangoon (Burma), built by Imperial Japan during World War II. The length of the road was 415 kilometers (of which almost 13 km (8 miles) of bridges). The road was used to supply Japanese troops in the Burmese Campaign.
              Hard labor was used in the construction of the road. The working and living conditions were terrible. About 180 thousand Asian convicts and 60 thousand prisoners of war anti-Hitler coalition built the Death Road. During construction, about 90 thousand Asian convicts and 16 thousand prisoners of war died from hunger, disease, and abuse. Among the deceased prisoners of war, there were: 6318 British, 2815 Australians, 2490 Dutch, 356 Americans and several Canadians. The construction of the Thai-Burmese railway was recognized as a war crime.
              Hiroshi Abe - Warder of the POW Camp Sonkrai was found guilty of the death of 3000 prisoners and sentenced to 15 years in prison.

              For 3 THOUSAND SOULS - only 15 years ...
              How democratic and liberal ...

              Bridge on the River Kwai
  2. The comment was deleted.
  3. Olgovich
    Olgovich 15 March 2019 06: 57
    +10
    From what Sverdlov died, is still unknown. Some historians put forward the strange version that Sverdlov was allegedly beaten to death by workers in Orel, before whom the chairman of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee decided to address.
    Joshua Movshevich was beaten to death by workers on the platform of the station in Orel, according to the Russian State Agency for State Administration of Information and Politics).

    Deserved it. Why does one person have so much malice, atrocity for everything Russian?
    1. Ingvar 72
      Ingvar 72 15 March 2019 08: 31
      +12
      Quote: Olgovich
      in one person

      Why one? There were a lot of them in the Cheka at different positions, Russian people shot in batches.
    2. rusin
      rusin 15 March 2019 10: 47
      -8
      A criminal, terrorist, executioner of the Russian people and one of the founders of the Soviet state, Yeshua Movshevich Aptekman-Sverdlov. Not without reason, many streets in eReF are named after the mass murderer of Sverdlov, thereby emphasizing the continuity of the current government with Soviet thugs.
      1. wooja
        wooja 15 March 2019 11: 22
        +1
        not everything is so simple ... and not all in the past ....
      2. Serg koma
        Serg koma 16 March 2019 07: 01
        0
        Quote: rusin
        executioner of the Russian people

        Do you wish to throw slogans from under the sovereign of the sovereign? Get a poem according to the 6th grade program, these verses are easy enough to understand and remember (you probably skipped that year?). And by the way, do not ascribe epithets to Stalin (for the construction of the railway), after reading the poem ...
        "RAILWAY" (excerpt. Written in 1864, ie before the birth of YM Sverdlov) N. A. Nekrasov
        Vanya (in the coachman armory). Dad! who built this road?
        Dad (in a coat on a red lining). Count Peter Andreevich Kleinmichel, darling! (Conversation in the carriage)

        "......
        II
        “Good dad! Why in charm
        Smart Vanya to keep?
        You let me in the moonlight
        Show him the truth.
        This work, Vanya, was terribly enormous, -
        Not on the shoulder alone!
        There is a king in the world: this king is merciless,
        Famine is his name.
        He leads the army; at sea by ships
        Rules; in an artel drives people
        Walks behind a plow, stands behind
        Masons, weavers.
        He drove the masses of people here.
        Many are in a terrible fight
        Calling this barren barren to life
        They found the coffin here.
        Straight path: narrow embankments,
        Columns, rails, bridges.
        And on the sides, all the bones are Russian ...
        How many of them! Vanya, do you know?
        Chew! exclamations were heard formidable!
        Stomp and gnashing of teeth;
        A shadow came upon the frosty windows ...
        What is there? The crowd of the dead!
        ......... "

        PS Count (since 1839) Pyotr Andreevich Kleinmikhel (December 11 (November 30) 1793 - February 3, 1869) - Russian statesman from the German family Kleinmikhel, protégé Arakcheeva and unquestioning executor of the will of Nicholas I. In 1842–1855, he was the chief manager of communication lines and public buildings. He oversaw the construction of the Nikolaev railway.
      3. RUSS
        RUSS 16 March 2019 16: 53
        +1
        Quote: rusin
        A criminal, terrorist, executioner of the Russian people and one of the founders of the Soviet state, Yeshua Movshevich Aptekman-Sverdlov. Not without reason, many streets in eReF are named after the mass murderer of Sverdlov, thereby emphasizing the continuity of the current government with Soviet thugs.

        I am sure the time will come and rename all the streets and cities bearing the names of these ghouls.
    3. Astra wild
      Astra wild 15 March 2019 13: 52
      +4
      Ol'govich, but why such confidence that his workers "caressed", you have not seen? It seems to me a plausible version with poison, and I will roughly name who the organizer is: _L. D. Trotsky, he went up sharply after the death of Sverdlov.
    4. Serg koma
      Serg koma 16 March 2019 06: 18
      0
      Quote: Olgovich
      beaten to death by workers on the platform of the station in Orel

      Take a word? Said "A", say "B". If you are so "enlightened", please at least give a link to the document (RGAPSI), otherwise these statements of yours turn into "rumors"; "fiction"; "fantasy".
  4. wooja
    wooja 15 March 2019 07: 38
    +3
    The secrets of the politics of that time will never be published ..., the bizarre connections of revolutionaries of all stripes and shades are forever buried in the archives ... we can only make assumptions, but as life shows, the worse our assumptions are, the closer they are to the truth ... Leninsky guard ...., Sverdlov ..., red terror, expropriation, it seems that if there were relatives like Sverdlov and Trotsky, the Bolsheviks had no problems with money ... but the terrarium of the internal party struggle was still the same ..., I think that the USSR turned out to be so strange and contradictory as a consequence of this struggle, which never ended, the Jewish, mafia nucleus still existed before the collapse of the union, and then became legal ...
  5. bober1982
    bober1982 15 March 2019 07: 58
    +8
    Stalin sat in Turukhansk exile together with Sverdlov, and not just sat, but whiled away time with him - living, earning food, cooking, spending time together. Stalin his dog, in spite of Sverdlov called With a, and if you believe evil tongues - both spat on each other in soup plates to spoil in this way.
    The Sverdlov clan was subsequently destroyed by Stalin almost at the root.
    1. Baloo
      Baloo 15 March 2019 09: 03
      0
      Quote: bober1982
      Stalin sat in Turukhansk exile together with Sverdlov, and not just sat, but whiled away time with him - living, earning food, cooking, spending time together. Stalin his dog, in spite of Sverdlov called With a, and if you believe evil tongues - both spat on each other in soup plates to spoil in this way.
      The Sverdlov clan was subsequently destroyed by Stalin almost at the root.

      there was infa in the internet that the Fritz on his father somehow had a side to the Sverdlovsk clan
      1. bober1982
        bober1982 15 March 2019 09: 08
        +3
        This clan was great and powerful, as it is understood that Sverdlov’s elder brother Zinovy ​​(Zalman) was the godson of Gorky, and the future general of the French army.
    2. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 15 March 2019 18: 40
      +6
      Especially about soup plates it’s heartily written. It’s a pity, now there’s no one to ask.
      1. Serg koma
        Serg koma 16 March 2019 07: 14
        +3
        Quote: Aviator_
        ask

        How so there is no one to ask - "sat", saw, knows laughing
        Quote: bober1982
        both spat on soup bowls

        Even Stalin’s dog
        Quote: bober1982
        Stalin his dog, in spite of Sverdlov called Yashka,
        occasionally fed wassat
    3. vladcub
      vladcub 15 March 2019 19: 31
      -1
      This is how the "comrades-in-arms" spit in each other's soup. This is "friendship" and I understand. With such "comrades" and the enemy is not necessary
  6. rayruav
    rayruav 15 March 2019 08: 02
    +7
    however, he gained a specific contingent for Ulyanov
    1. wooja
      wooja 15 March 2019 13: 58
      0
      the real organizer (s) were nowhere to be seen ... so Ilyich is one of many leaders ... everything is covered in mystery ...
    2. vladcub
      vladcub 15 March 2019 19: 33
      0
      More than specific. I would say yes the moderator will swear
  7. Moskovit
    Moskovit 15 March 2019 09: 03
    +11
    Such as Sverdlov is not enough in New Russia. In a short time, a new state was built, which fought off internal and external enemies. And in LDNR, they can only kick coal.
    Without praising Sverdlov, all lovers of counting the money of the Bolsheviks would like to recall the conditions in which they lived, how they owned innumerable treasures. Now any mayor of a small Russian city has a hundred times more junk.
    1. bober1982
      bober1982 15 March 2019 09: 21
      -2
      Quote: Moskovit
      I would like to recall the conditions in which they lived, how they owned innumerable treasures.

      They (Sverdlov and the company) really owned innumerable riches - gold and diamonds, including the tsarist one, which they plundered, all this then disappeared, as if it had fallen into a black hole.
      1. Moskovit
        Moskovit 15 March 2019 11: 28
        +3
        No. It has not disappeared. Look what was built in the USSR in the first five-year plans.
        Although this did not exclude individual excesses.
        1. bober1982
          bober1982 15 March 2019 11: 53
          -1
          Quote: Moskovit
          Although this did not exclude individual excesses.

          Sverdlov, by the way, was a real Ural godfather - before the revolution, he literally made a gang in the Urals, he was engaged in robberies professionally, these were not small individual excesses.
          1. Moskovit
            Moskovit 15 March 2019 12: 59
            +7
            Stalin also engaged in expropriation. But for some reason they pray at him. And Sverdlov godfather. Be consistent
            1. bober1982
              bober1982 15 March 2019 13: 17
              0
              Quote: Moskovit
              And Sverdlov godfather.

              Therefore, they do not "pray" to him, as you put it, by the way Sverdlov's appearance is deceptive, he had nothing in common with a modest and well-read Jewish youth, he enjoyed authority among criminals. He had his own criminal gang in the Urals.
              1. wooja
                wooja 15 March 2019 13: 53
                0
                Sverdlov left on time ...., they not only pray for Stalin ..., many problems and secrets were left with Sverdlov, and certain circles are very grateful for this ....
              2. Moskovit
                Moskovit 15 March 2019 14: 39
                +3
                Where did you get this information? Would the Bolsheviks have entrusted such a post to a criminal.
                1. wooja
                  wooja 16 March 2019 05: 52
                  +2
                  why not ?, a socially close element ... even today trust
                2. rusin
                  rusin 16 March 2019 12: 54
                  +2
                  Quote: Moskovit
                  Would the Bolsheviks have entrusted such a post to a criminal.

                  They also trusted us, since murderers, rapists, robbers and swindlers fought against tsarism and Russia hated by the Bolsheviks. Among them, the Bolshevik-robber Kamo (TerPetrosyan), the red brigade commander-killer N. Makhno, the commander of the Red Army regiment Moses Vinnitsky (Mishka Yaponchik), a bandit -Comcor G. Kotovsky and many others.
        2. Baloo
          Baloo 15 March 2019 14: 02
          0
          Quote: Moskovit
          No. It has not disappeared. Look what was built in the USSR in the first five-year plans.
          Although this did not exclude individual excesses.

          The film is the property of the republic and diamonds for the dictatorship of the proletariat just about this. However, the whole truth about Stalin's "political opponents", who every two weeks sent parcels with bryuliks from the gokhran across the river to relatives, we did not fully learn. And in vain, it's time to disavow this topic for a long time.
          1. Moskovit
            Moskovit 15 March 2019 14: 41
            +5
            As far as I remember, in these films and books there was no mention that high-ranking Bolsheviks did this. Moreover, these are works of art
    2. gsev
      gsev 15 March 2019 17: 55
      +6
      Quote: Moskovit
      Such as Sverdlov is not enough in New Russia

      In general, Sverdlov single-handedly did the work that everyone is doing now !!! the administration of President Putin. And then there was no Internet and modern telephony. But Russia then was larger in area and did not concede in population .. It was Sverdlov who succeeded in the year that he was allowed to go on a managerial job to place people in government posts who, for a salary of no more than the maximum party maximum, were able to liquidate the main occupier in Ukraine and organize a March XNUMX uprising Korea, For thirty years of his defaulters at the head of the Russian state, no one, even with the help of foreign and domestic special services, was able to provide evidence that he received more than the maximum party for his work. His leather jacket does not look against the backdrop of the wealth of Serdyukov and Vasilyeva .... The liberation of Crimea against the backdrop of the expulsion of Turkish, Japanese, American, French and other invaders and their accomplices does not look. In my opinion, he is hated by new life-goers, imagining themselves to be a new elite, because he proved that a simple Bolshevik worker can rule the country better than landowners and capitalists.
  8. Spiridonovich2
    Spiridonovich2 15 March 2019 10: 00
    +5
    This fanatic organized the bloody genocide of the Russian people. He began with the execution of the royal family, destroyed the peasantry, aristocracy, and the Cossacks. Jewish Yeshua declared peace to the huts, the war on the palaces, which did not prevent him from hiding the loot from those shot in his safe. After death, there turned out to be 900 thousand rubles in gold, not a lifting amount for those times. In 30 years, having come to power, the great Stalin stopped the destruction of the Russian nation. The current descendants of the bloody executioners, all of their crimes assigned to Stalin.
    1. Denis Medveezhikoff
      Denis Medveezhikoff 15 March 2019 12: 21
      -1
      Not of course ...
    2. Ural-4320
      Ural-4320 15 March 2019 15: 25
      +3
      I’m afraid to imagine that my grandchildren will study history from 1991 onwards. And about safes, and about orders, and about gangs, and about personalities, and about the return of the shelf, etc., etc. ...
      1. wooja
        wooja 16 March 2019 13: 14
        +1
        they will write beautifully about this, racketeers will become princes and knights without fear and reproach ...
    3. hohol95
      hohol95 15 March 2019 16: 31
      0
      Your proposal for deciding the fate of the royal family?
  9. Astra wild
    Astra wild 15 March 2019 15: 58
    +4
    Colleagues, like most of us, I was formed in the Soviet Union and was brought up on the ideals of the October Revolution. And now I HURRY: at school they told us that Y. M. was a faithful assistant to Lenin. This was not directly stated, but it was understood that Stalin intentionally killed ALL people close to Lenin.
    Now, as an adult, I learned that: half of Lenin's "comrades-in-arms" had to be in: "soaked with ** re" back in civilian life, and even better in youth. At least the people have less torment.
    1. hohol95
      hohol95 15 March 2019 16: 30
      +6
      ALL were "good, white and fluffy" - on all sides of the Civil War!
      The French and British have long ceased to "sprinkle ashes on their heads" and "throw squash caviar" around their historical figures! And we still can't calm down! Under Cromwell, more were killed than under Ivan IV, namely, ALL Europe considers him a SPIRIT and a rapist ...
      1. vladcub
        vladcub 15 March 2019 19: 39
        0
        Cromwell is English, which means "correct"
        1. hohol95
          hohol95 15 March 2019 22: 51
          0
          And Jean-Paul MARAT is French!
        2. hohol95
          hohol95 15 March 2019 22: 56
          0

          Jean-Paul Marat (fr. Jean-Paul Marat, May 24, 1743-1793) - one of the leaders of the French Revolution, a radical journalist, leader of the Jacobins. Known under the nickname "Friend of the people", in honor of the newspaper that he published. Suffering from a serious skin disease, Marat did not leave his house and constantly took sulfur baths to alleviate his suffering. During one of these sessions, on July 13, 1793, when he was looking through proofs of his last journal, he came to him under the guise of a noblewoman Charlotte Corday, who he received right in the bathroom. After a 15-minute conversation, Charlotte stabbed him with a dagger, which she brought with her. Marat died, only having to shout: “A moi, ma chère amie!” (To me, my friend!), Turning to his roommate, who was in the next room.
        3. RUSS
          RUSS 16 March 2019 16: 56
          -1
          Quote: vladcub
          Cromwell is English, which means "correct"

          You can get to Caligula, the topic is not about that.
      2. Ural-4320
        Ural-4320 16 March 2019 13: 56
        +2
        And don't say. One holy inquisition is worth something. And the 'Hammer of the witches "? ..
    2. naidas
      naidas 15 March 2019 21: 28
      +2
      Then most of them, trying to live with whites, chose reds, but you see these whites more to your liking:
      Hundreds of Russians, daring not to submit to the new dictator Kolchak, hung on trees and telegraph poles along the Siberian Railway. (M.Seyers and A.Kan "The Secret War against Soviet Russia.")
      Or hanging on the lanterns in Pskov at Balakhovich?
      American General Graves: “In Eastern Siberia, for every person killed by the Bolsheviks, there were a hundred people killed by anti-Bolshevik elements.”
      The Russian writer William, who fought in the Denikin army: “They caught him on the word“ comrade ”... They made him the organizer of their gangs. True, in order to gain consciousness, I had to fry it in a free spirit ... At first I was silent: only my cheekbones tossed and turned. Well, then, of course, he confessed when his heels were browned on the grill. “In the middle of the village they dug a pole, tied it (the Red Army) higher; They wrapped a rope around the skull, stuck a stake through the rope and - a circular motion! At the end, the soldiers refused to turn, gentlemen, the officers took up. And suddenly we hear: crack! - the cranium shook ...
  10. krops777
    krops777 15 March 2019 17: 34
    0
    If this inhuman remained alive, he would have eaten Trotsky and Stalin with giblets.


    It is unlikely that Trotsky was a protege of the Anglo-Saxon Masons, and Stalin surrenders to me, I have no other explanation for the divine forces outside of earthly origin.
  11. vladcub
    vladcub 15 March 2019 19: 36
    +4
    Quote: Moskovit
    Stalin also engaged in expropriation. But for some reason they pray at him. And Sverdlov godfather. Be consistent

    Stalin had an old overcoat, and Yashenka had a full safe of bruliks. Catch the difference
    1. naidas
      naidas 16 March 2019 18: 48
      0
      Quote: vladcub
      Yashenka has a full safe of bruliks. Catch the difference

      And where did this save game Yasha keep, 100% at work in the Kremlin, and not at home or on bank accounts.
  12. naidas
    naidas 15 March 2019 21: 07
    +2
    Yakov Sverdlov was one of the initiators of the official party policy of splitting the Russian countryside into “kulaks” and “poor people”

    And what other proposals did the Bolsheviks have at that time?
    He also initiated the policy of raskazachivaniya, the brutal suppression of any anti-Soviet actions of the Cossacks in the Don.

    I wonder what were the proposals for resolving the land issue in the Don without rasskazachivaniya?
    Brutally suppressing, releasing the officer on his word of honor. And in response to the inhabitants of Tsaritsyn from honest officers: “So I came, and with me two hundred thousand troops, many hundreds of guns, brought three thousand cylinders of asphyxiant gas, I will strangle your whole land and then everything will perish alive. (...) Tomorrow is the day for packing, the day after tomorrow put down your weapons and with the ringing of bells with banners go to meet your brothers by blood. If you raise your hand in madness against your brother, the Don Cossack, blame yourself, painful death from gas awaits you. "
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 16 March 2019 17: 34
      +2
      "brought three thousand cylinders of suffocating gas" For me personally, Anton Ivanovich Denikin is not a "matchmaker and not a brother", but I doubt that he was going to use gas in Tsaritsin. And in the Don region, it is unlikely that there was so much gas, there was (if at all there was)
      1. naidas
        naidas 16 March 2019 18: 47
        0
        Quote: vladcub
        Anton Ivanovich Denikin is not a "matchmaker and not a brother", but I doubt that he was going to use gas in Tsaritsyn

        Do not doubt Denikin is not a Don Cossack, he would not use gas against the Russians.
        1. vladcub
          vladcub 16 March 2019 21: 06
          +2
          Thank you for enlightening, otherwise I doubted. But seriously, I understand your idea, but you have a little roughness: "Denikin is not a Don Cossack, he would not use gas against the Russians," but would the Don Cossacks use it? So logically it turns out
          1. naidas
            naidas 16 March 2019 23: 02
            0
            I don’t know about you, everything is logical for me and the Krasnov ultimatum to Tsaritsin and his use of gases. On October 5, in battles near Astrakhan, the Wrangel troops opened "hurricane fire and attacked the 304th Infantry Regiment at the Salty Zaimishch ... under cover of bursting shells with suffocating gases." According to the recollections of the Reds, chemical shells were actually used in battles near Tsaritsyn and later on Perekop. It is known that some of the English gas shells were stored in the Novocherkassk art warehouse. Well, if Denikin himself did not give orders for the use of gas shells, then Wrangel applied it.
            By the way, Yudenich and Kolchak did not disdain to use gas shells, and even in the north the whites with foreign assistants generally came off in shelling with gas shells.
  13. sergo1914
    sergo1914 15 March 2019 21: 41
    +4
    Yeah. How much poison in the comments. And then they personally opened the safe. And the inventory of this safe was personally made. And the best people of RI this ghoul personally soaked. And commentators personally took notes. Have you read your scribbles? Not funny?
    1. naidas
      naidas 16 March 2019 18: 50
      +1
      And with a high degree of probability Skripal is also he.
  14. Alexander Greene
    Alexander Greene 15 March 2019 22: 28
    +2
    Quote: sergo1914
    Yeah. How much poison in the comments. And then they personally opened the safe. And the inventory of this safe was personally made. And the best people of RI this ghoul personally soaked. And commentators personally took notes. Have you read your scribbles? Not funny?


    There is no laughing matter here, you have to cry, it’s how many gullible today divorced, they believe every word spoken or written.
    Today we live in a very troubled time, in the entire post-Soviet space, anti-Soviet people are waging an ideological war against the working people, and there is a massive fooling of the population: powerful processing, brainwashing and clogging.

    They slander the Soviet Union that everyone allegedly lived there, as in a prison, and trembled with every knock on the door. But those whose snout was down were shaking, honest people worked and slept peacefully.

    They slander the leaders of the revolution. In order to overthrow them, all kinds of fables are invented about them, such as to show that they are the same as they, that they also sing on a friend's plate and steal money from the people. The villains always think that everyone else is also villains.

    And in order to understand the Bolsheviks, first of all, you need to have honor and conscience, and not poor mind. Great revolutions give rise to great people, today's inhabitants simply cannot understand this, so they draw the Bolsheviks as they imagine them, and usually draw from themselves.

    None of the Bolsheviks enriched themselves; many people cannot understand this from the current bell tower. By virtue of their petty-bourgeois consciousness, today's scribes write how much gold and diamonds Sverdlov has hidden. Until now, they believe in a bike about his safe, which was allegedly found in a warehouse 16 years later. The first person in the state died and no one opened the safe did not ask what important documents there? Absurd.

    And two words about the origin of this myth. Allegedly in the next secret folder of the Politburo in 1994, Yagoda found a letter to Stalin, but interestingly, this secret document was already published in Figaro magazine in 1958.

    Just think how such a secret document from a secret secret folder could get into open printing?
    1. wooja
      wooja 16 March 2019 13: 20
      +3
      Whatever the Bolsheviks were, they had the confidence of the people ... and revolutions always raise dirt and foam .... so this foam is trying to slander the wave that raised it from the bottom ...
    2. vladcub
      vladcub 16 March 2019 20: 37
      +4
      Green, you say "slander the leaders of the revolution." For you I don’t know, maybe ALL the leaders, but I RESPECT: Lenin, Stalin, they really were LEADERS. With respect, at least for their ideological spirit, I treat: Dzerzhinsky, K. Zetkin, R. Luxemburg, Kalinin, Marx, Engils, Kropotkin Plekhanov, the same Spiridonova
      1. Alexander Greene
        Alexander Greene 16 March 2019 21: 05
        +1
        Quote: vladcub
        Green, you say "slander the leaders of the revolution." For you I don't know, maybe ALL the leaders

        And why did not Sverdlov please you? He never departed from Bolshevism, always supported the Leninist position. Today, a lot of garbage was also inflicted on his grave. The main slander is that the royal family was executed on his instructions. In fact, this is not true, it is known that before the execution in Moscow there was Goloshchekin, who received the order to bring the tsar to Moscow for an open trial, but the Ural Council did not obey this decision, accusing Goloshchekin and Yakovlev of betraying the cause of the revolution.
        1. sergo1914
          sergo1914 16 March 2019 21: 11
          0
          Quote: Alexander Green
          Quote: vladcub
          Green, you say "slander the leaders of the revolution." For you I don't know, maybe ALL the leaders

          And why did not Sverdlov please you? He never departed from Bolshevism, always supported the Leninist position. Today, a lot of garbage was also inflicted on his grave. The main slander is that the royal family was executed on his instructions. In fact, this is not true, it is known that before the execution in Moscow there was Goloshchekin, who received the order to bring the tsar to Moscow for an open trial, but the Ural Council did not obey this decision, accusing Goloshchekin and Yakovlev of betraying the cause of the revolution.


          And why did the family and Nicholas II end up in the Urals? Their Sverdlov and Lenin stole from relatives?
          1. Alexander Greene
            Alexander Greene 16 March 2019 21: 28
            +1
            Quote: sergo1914
            And why did the family and Nicholas II end up in the Urals? Their Sverdlov and Lenin stole from relatives?

            I do not understand the question. Don't you know who the royal family exiled to Siberia? And where are the relatives?
            1. gsev
              gsev 17 March 2019 01: 09
              +1
              Quote: Alexander Green
              I do not understand the question. Don't you know who the royal family exiled to Siberia?

              Probably it is necessary to inform the inquisitive that the tsar’s family was sent to the Siberian exile by order of the interim government in August 1917. Moreover, the interim government also considered more stringent measures against the tsar’s family. In August 1917, Sverdlov held the 6th Congress of the RSDLP and hid Lenin from the provisional government in Razliv, and after August 8 in Finland.
              1. Alexander Greene
                Alexander Greene 17 March 2019 12: 06
                +1
                Quote: gsev
                Probably it is necessary to inform the inquisitive that the imperial family was sent to the Siberian exile by order of the interim government in August 1917.

                Thanks for the hint, I just could not think that someone does not know this, I will try to eliminate this gap.
  15. A-lex
    A-lex 15 March 2019 22: 48
    +4
    Why are mostly Jews involved in revolutionary affairs?
    1. wooja
      wooja 16 March 2019 13: 21
      +2
      money and power
    2. naidas
      naidas 16 March 2019 18: 51
      +1
      Quote: A-Lex
      Why are mostly Jews involved in revolutionary affairs?

      They educated and sent to play the violin, repair shoes, or to be cabmen.
      And which way would you choose?
    3. gsev
      gsev 17 March 2019 01: 16
      +1
      Quote: A-Lex
      Why are mostly Jews involved in revolutionary affairs?

      Of course I can’t confirm the document, but in the home of my grandmother in the village of Sibrovka near Tambov, the landowner’s estate was destroyed without the help of Jews. In general, Sverdlov and Lenin simply formalized legislatively what the Russian peasants did in the summer of 1917.
  16. The comment was deleted.
    1. wooja
      wooja 16 March 2019 14: 24
      0
      The chosen people were ahead of academician Pavlov ....,
      1. lopuhan2006
        lopuhan2006 16 March 2019 14: 26
        -2
        And the Kuraevs and Solovievs will explain who ....
  17. Astra wild
    Astra wild 17 March 2019 07: 20
    0
    Quote: Serg Koma
    Quote: Balu
    We have long been renamed Zhdanov, and Lenin, and Sverdlov

    Now they bear the "proud name" of Bandera, Shukhevych, etc.

    And these names are completely filthy. In the passport to have such a stamp is equivalent to what is written
    shit
  18. Astra wild
    Astra wild 17 March 2019 07: 43
    +1
    Quote: naidas
    Quote: vladcub
    Yashenka has a full safe of bruliks. Catch the difference

    And where did this save game Yasha keep, 100% at work in the Kremlin, and not at home or on bank accounts.

    There were no banks in Moscow then
  19. M. Michelson
    M. Michelson 19 March 2019 02: 09
    +1
    Radical Sverdlov contributed a lot to ensure that the October revolution turned into the Great Socialist Revolution.
    And further. If Sverdlov really wanted to straighten Lenin's brains with a bullet, then think whether the latter had any motives to eliminate him (other than stupid "rivalry")?
  20. Lieutenant Colonel of the USSR Air Force in stock
    0
    Who is against Stalin?

    "There are people, the leaders of the proletariat, about whom they do not make noise in the press, perhaps because they themselves do not like to make noise about themselves, but who, nevertheless, are the juices of life and the real leaders of the revolutionary movement. Among such leaders is the I M. Sverdlov.
    An organizer to the marrow of bones, an organizer by nature, by skill, by revolutionary upbringing, by instinct, an organizer of all his ardent activity — such is the figure of Y. M. Sverdlov.
    What does it mean to be a leader-organizer in our conditions when the proletariat is in power? This does not mean picking up assistants, compiling an office and giving orders through it. To be the leader-organizer in our conditions means, firstly, to know the employees, to be able to grasp their strengths and weaknesses, to be able to approach the employees, and secondly, to be able to arrange the workers ....
    Ya. M. Sverdlov was just that kind of leader-organizer of our party and our state.
    I am far from claiming full acquaintance with all the organizers and builders of our party, but I must say that of all the outstanding organizers I know - after Lenin - only two that our party can and should be proud of: I.F. Dubrovinsky, who died in exile in Turukhan, and Ya. M. Sverdlov, who was burned to death while working to build the party and state. "

    "Proletarian Revolution"
    No. 11 (34), November 1924
    Signed I. Stalin
  21. Lieutenant Colonel of the USSR Air Force in stock
    0
    Hey counter-revolutionaries, who is against Lenin here?
    “Comrades, the first word at our congress,” Lenin said, opening the VIII Party Congress, “should be dedicated to Comrade Yakov Mikhailovich Sverdlov ... if for the whole party as a whole and for the entire Soviet Republic Yakov Mikhailovich Sverdlov was the main organizer ... then for the party congress he was much more valuable and closer ... Here his absence will affect the entire course of our work, and the congress will feel his absence especially acutely. "
    “In this era, at the very beginning of the 18th century, before us was Comrade Sverdlov, as the most minted type of professional revolutionary ... We lowered to the grave, ”Vladimir Ilyich mournfully said at the Kremlin wall on March XNUMX,“ the proletarian leader who did the most to organize the working class, to win it. ”
    “Memory of Comrade Yakov Mikhailovich Sverdlov ... ”said Lenin,“ will not only serve as an eternal symbol of the revolutionary’s devotion to his work, will serve not only as a model of combining practical sobriety and practical skill, full communication with the masses, with the ability to direct them, but it will also serve as a guarantee of "that the ever wider masses of the proletarians, guided by these examples, will go forward and forward to the complete victory of the world communist revolution."
  22. Lieutenant Colonel of the USSR Air Force in stock
    0
    Quote: wooja
    comment

    Uncle, and they spied on everyone, even you ....
  23. Lieutenant Colonel of the USSR Air Force in stock
    0
    Quote: gsev
    Quote: A-Lex
    Why are mostly Jews involved in revolutionary affairs?

    Of course I can’t confirm the document, but in the home of my grandmother in the village of Sibrovka near Tambov, the landowner’s estate was destroyed without the help of Jews. In general, Sverdlov and Lenin simply formalized legislatively what the Russian peasants did in the summer of 1917.

    Because Gusev studied poorly, otherwise he would have known that in the CPSU (B.) Only Russians and Jews were in excess of a proportional majority. About the Pale of Settlement, restrictions for the Jews did not hear anything? Why would they love the monarchy and the king of the Black Hundreds?
  24. Lieutenant Colonel of the USSR Air Force in stock
    0
    Quote: vladcub
    Quote: Moskovit
    Stalin also engaged in expropriation. But for some reason they pray at him. And Sverdlov godfather. Be consistent

    Stalin had an old overcoat, and Yashenka had a full safe of bruliks. Catch the difference

    Do you think nonsense beautifies you? http://leninism.su/lie/4162-obolgannyj-yakov-sverdlov.html
  25. Lieutenant Colonel of the USSR Air Force in stock
    0
    Quote: Puncher


    They are from the same casket, however.