Military Review

Order of St. Andrew the First Called. Russia's highest award

27
10 December 1698 of the year, 320 years ago, Peter the Great established the Order of Saint Apostle Andrew the First-Called, which became the highest state award of the Russian Empire for many centuries - up to 1917.


Order of St. Andrew the First Called. Russia's highest award


Why was the order in honor of St. Andrew the First Called chosen as the highest award? To understand this choice of Peter the Great, you need to dip into history beginning of our era, focus on the person of the Apostle Andrew. As we know, the Apostle Andrew was one of the twelve disciples of Jesus Christ. He was the brother of the Apostle Peter, who is considered the eldest among the disciples of Christ.

Like Peter, Andrew was by profession a fisherman, a native of Bethsaid on the northern shore of Lake Galilee. The life of the Apostle Andrew the First-Called says that, together with his brother Peter (Simon at birth), the Apostle Andrew moved from Bethsaid to Capernaum, where the brothers had their own home, and they continued to fish. Then Andrew became a disciple of John the Baptist, and already from him came to Jesus.

After the crucifixion of Jesus Christ, his twelve disciples divided among themselves those countries where they were to carry the preaching of Christianity. Andrei received the Black Sea lands - Bithynia and Propontis with the cities of Byzantium and Chalcedon, Thrace and Macedonia, Thessaly, Hellas and Achaia, Scythia. Thus, the Apostle Andrew preached on the shores of the Black Sea, on the territory of modern Turkey, Greece, Georgia and Russia. As to whether Andrew the First-Called was in Scythia, there is still no clarity. Already Eusebius of Caesarea in the first half of the 4th century spoke about the ministry of Andrew in Scythia. This version was confirmed by a number of church historians, but there were also doubters. Subsequently N.M. Karamzin in the History of the Russian State also expressed doubts about the truth of the journey of St. Andrew the First-Called on Scythia.

But, in any case, the name of Andrew the First-Called became associated with patronage, firstly, the seaman's profession (after all, Andrew himself was a fisherman by his original occupation), and secondly - with the patronage of the Russian state. By order of Vladimir Monomakh, the hegumen of the Vydubitsky monastery, Sylvester, brought in the Tale of Bygone Years a story about the journey of Andrew the First-Called from the Crimea to Rome through Ladoga. Thus, the history of the appearance of the first Christians in Russia began to be associated with the name of Andrew the First-Called.

However, the official version was criticized and questioned even by church historians, not to mention secular. Even the Rev. Joseph Volokolamsky (1440 — 1515) in his “Enlightener” wrote that Andrew the First-Called did not preach in the Russian lands. Nevertheless, if the official legend attributed to Andrew the First-Called circulation in the Russian lands, he became the patron of Russian statehood.

Why did Peter the Great attend to the creation of an award in honor of the apostle? After all, the famous St. Andrew's flag in honor of the Apostle Andrew was also designed under Peter the Great, and with his direct personal participation. Most likely, Peter the Great drew attention to the symbolism associated with Andrew the First-Called, studying the Western experience - the flag with the oblique cross of the Apostle Andrew by this time was already used in Scotland. But the creation of the order and the introduction of the flag was not a blind borrowing - after all, Andrew the First-Called was honored as the patron of Russia long before Peter.

What was the order of the Holy Apostle Andrew the First Called? First, it included a sign (cross), the key image of which was St. Apostle Andrew the First-Called himself, crucified on an oblique cross, and a silver eight-pointed star with the motto “For Faith and Loyalty”. The badge of the order was worn over a wide blue ribbon over the right shoulder, and the star on the left side of the chest. In special cases, the badge of the order could be worn on the chest, on a golden figured chain.

Peter the Great took the new order very seriously. The first holder of the order was Fedor Golovin. One of the most prominent statesmen of the Peter's era, Fedor Golovin was an excellent diplomat, the head of the Ambassadorial Order, but he was also responsible for the construction of Russian ships, the training of personnel fleet, activities of the Navigation School. The order of the Holy Apostle Andrew the First-Called was granted to him in 1699, immediately after the creation of the order and almost simultaneously with the assignment of the rank of Admiral General.

With the second gentleman of the Order of the Holy Apostle Andrew the First-Called, no luck. In 1700, the order was awarded by Peter the First to the hetman of Zaporizhzhya Sich, Ivan Mazepa. Of course, this figure cannot be compared with Fedor Golovin, but Peter, handing over the order to the hetman, was guided by political considerations and tried to finally draw the hetman to the side of Russia. But Peter did not come up with this plan - Mazepa still betrayed the king and in 1706 he was deprived of the order. In 1701, the Order found the third bearer - Prussia’s ambassador to Russia Ludwig von Prinzen. With this award, Peter also pursued political goals, seeking to enlist the support of Prussia as one of the most powerful Central European countries.

Thus, of the first three gentlemen of the Order for real services to the country, only General-Admiral Fedor Golovin received it. December 30 1701 (January 10 1702) for the victory at Erestfehr over the Swedish army, the order was presented to Field Marshal Boris Petrovich Sheremetev. It was he who commanded the Russian troops who invaded Swedish Livonia.

The fifth gentleman of the order was again a man who did not make a real contribution to the strengthening of our state - in 1703, Peter presented the order to the Chancellor of Saxony, Count Beyhlingu. Peter the Great himself became only the sixth holder of the Order, having received him in 1703 for a concrete and real military feat - the seizure of two Swedish warships at the mouth of the Neva. For the same event was awarded the Order and his seventh cavalier - Alexander Menshikov. In total, 38 people were honored in the long reign of Peter the First Order. Further, the awards looked like this: under Catherine I, the Order was awarded to 18 people, under Peter II - five people, under Anna Ioannovna - 24 people, under Elizabeth Petrovna - 83 people, under Catherine II - 15 people. That is, as we see, the number of recipients grew. But this is not surprising - the era of Catherine II, for example, really gave our country a lot of distinguished names, was associated with numerous victories of the Russian Empire, strengthening its position in the global political arena.

Almost all the famous Russian commanders and naval commanders of the 18th and 19th centuries were among the gentlemen of the Order of St. Andrew the First Called - Peter Rumyantsev, Alexander Suvorov, Grigory Potemkin, Fyodor Apraksin, Mikhail Kutuzov, Mikhail Barclay de Tolly, Peter Wittgenstein, Mikhail Miloradovich, Petr Bagrati, Michael Bartrai de Tolly, Peter W. Matvey Platov, Fabian Oten-Sacken, Alexander Tormasov.

Interestingly, in the 1807 year, in honor of the conclusion of the Peace of Tilsit, Napoleon Bonaparte was awarded the highest order of the Russian Empire, as well as several French military and state leaders - the brother of Emperor Jerome Bonaparte, marshals Joachim Murat and Louis Bertie, Prince Charles Talleyrand. Five years later, the gentlemen of the highest Russian award will lead the predatory campaign of the French troops on the Russian empire.

In 1815, the famous English commander Duke Arthur Wellington was awarded the Order for participation in the wars against Napoleon. It is noteworthy that during the Patriotic War 1812 of the year only the only Russian commander, General Tormasov, received the Order, but there were many awards for the foreign campaign of the Russian army 1813-1814. (Platov, Miloradovich, Barclay de Tolly, Wittgenstein, Osten-Sacken).

In addition to the military leaders, the order according to the dynastic principle was awarded to members of the imperial house of the Romanovs. A lot of cavaliers of the order among Russian statesmen are Chancellor Viktor Kochubey, Count Dmitry Guryev, Count Nikolay Mordvinov, and Count Stanislav Zamoysky. Under Alexander I, a number of foreign statesmen were awarded the Order - not only Napoleon and his associates, but Frederick William III - King of Prussia, Frederick VI - King of Denmark, William IV - King of Great Britain, Charles X - King of France and so on.

Under Nicholas I, mainly Russian and foreign statesmen and Orthodox figures were rewarded. Among those awarded are Moscow Governor-General Prince Dmitry Golitsyn, Count Peter Tolstoy, Metropolitan of Kiev and Galitsky Yevgeny, Prince Ivan Paskevich, Field Marshal Ivan Dibich-Zabalkansky, Metropolitan of Moscow and Kolomna Philaret, actual secret counselor Dmitry Tatishchev, a graduate student, a graduate student, a graduate student, a graduate student, a graduate student, Dmitry Pasilevich; , Infantry General Alexei Yermolov and many others.

Under Alexander II, the highest award of the Russian Empire was received, for example, by German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck - among many other statesmen of foreign countries. Even the Ottoman sultan Abdul-Aziz, who received it in 1871, did not pass by the award (and after a few years, the Russian Empire again entered the war with Ottoman Turkey).

The last Russian emperor Nicholas II also did not stint on the awards. During the years of his rule, many Russian statesmen, monarchs and high officials of a number of foreign states received the order. For example, August Wilhelm, Prince of Prussia, was awarded the highest award of the Russian Empire in January 1914, and the First World War soon began, in which the prince actively participated in fighting against Russia. By the way, two decades later he joined the Nazi Party and remained a prominent figure in the Nazi movement, for which he was sentenced after the war by the American tribunal to three years in prison. In September, 1916 was honored by the Emperor of Japan, Hirohito. Shortly before the February Revolution, January 27 1917, the king of Denmark, Frederick IX, received the award.

Thus, we see that, historically, the order was awarded only to extremely significant people - state, political, military and religious figures of Russia, as well as foreign states. The possibility of awarding an order to an ordinary person, even if he was distinguished, defending his native country in battle or having any other merits, was excluded. This was the main feature of the Order of St. Andrew.

The Soviet government liquidated the order of St. Andrew the First-Called, as well as other awards of the Russian Empire. In the Soviet Union were introduced their own orders and medals. However, in 1998, by the decree of the President of the Russian Federation Boris Yeltsin, the Order of the Holy Apostle Andrew the First-Called was restored as the highest state award of the Russian Federation.

The first holder of the revived order was Academician Dmitry Likhachev. Then the order was awarded to designer Mikhail Kalashnikov, President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev, Patriarch Alexy II, writer Alexander Solzhenitsyn, ex-President of the USSR Mikhail Gorbachev, President of Azerbaijan Heydar Aliyev, Chairman of the PRC Xi Jinping, etc.

Among those awarded with the modern order of Andrew the First-Called, most of all writers are Solzhenitsyn, Aliyev, Gamzatov, Sergey Mikhalkov and Granin. Four scientists and designers - Likhachev, Kalashnikov, Shumakov and Petrovsky, three artists - Zykina, Arkhipova and Grigorovich, one religious leader - Alexy II, one military leader - Sergey Shoigu, one former head of the Soviet state - Mikhail Gorbachev, three foreign heads were awarded the Order. states - Heydar Aliyev, Nazarbayev and Xi Jinping.
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  1. Conductor
    Conductor 10 December 2018 06: 49
    +12
    Most Russian contemporary awards look strange. Especially MSG and Solzhenitsyn !!!! Well, Mazepa is modern. . The family row of the Aliyevs is also strange. The Chinese are sideways what Comrade Xi did for the Russian Federation.
    1. Ross xnumx
      Ross xnumx 10 December 2018 07: 09
      +3
      Quote: Conductor
      Most Russian contemporary awards look strange.

      The awards are not so much strange as the reasons that prompted them. I have already published it, but I will try again to draw your attention and find out: "Why, without fear of sin ..."

      Some win cups, others engrave the names of winners on them!
      1. Conductor
        Conductor 10 December 2018 07: 20
        0
        I support.
    2. vladcub
      vladcub 10 December 2018 18: 09
      0
      Here it turns out some kind of absurdity: the highest order of the Republic of Ingushetia should be awarded for the person of merit, but according to the written rules, ALL states awarded the highest awards for diplomatic reasons, like Peter 1 who awarded Mazepa the award of comrade Xi.
  2. Ravik
    Ravik 10 December 2018 07: 50
    +4
    Solzhenitsyn order of Judah is more suitable.
    1. vladimirZ
      vladimirZ 10 December 2018 08: 13
      +7
      And Gorbachev also needs the Order of Judah!
      And in general, it is strange to give the order with the motto "For Faith and Loyalty" to just anyone, including foreigners.
      The very motto of the order implies rewarding only those persons who have proved this right to the order by longevity of work and protection of Russia.
      And therefore all these awards are strange, and some upfront, of future enemies and traitors - Mazepa, Napoleon with his marshals, the Muslim Ottoman Sultan, Friedrich, Solzhenitsyn, Gorbachev and others. The devaluation of not only the Order of St. Andrew, but the entire system of state awards.
      1. DimanC
        DimanC 10 December 2018 10: 08
        0
        It was already in the USSR that the order became only a reward, and then the order as a sign - it was a reckoning as a knightly order or its closest analogue
      2. vladcub
        vladcub 10 December 2018 18: 22
        0
        Is rewarding the Romanian King Mihai with the Victory Order in the order of things? Okay, Eisenhower or Montgomer, they commanded the allied forces, and Mihai is a clear example of diplomatic considerations.
        The author did not mention that Napoleon also rewarded Russians based on diplomatic calculations
  3. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 10 December 2018 08: 49
    +5
    Thanks for the interesting stuff.
  4. Olgovich
    Olgovich 10 December 2018 09: 39
    +9
    The highest award of the state is for the outstanding services of the highest officials of the state.
    Awarding them with the Mechenny Medvedev-caused the outrage of so many: more stupidity and undermining the authority of the order, it is impossible to imagine.

    But the very return of the Order, the restoration of continuity and centuries-old traditions can only be welcomed.

    Yes, and he is beautiful, unusually.
    1. Moore
      Moore 11 December 2018 11: 30
      +2
      For once, I agree with you.
      Beautiful order.
      But it is remembered by the awards of the lyceum, Judah and outright crooks.
      I have nothing against the artists - think of some order for them with rhinestones and name them something appropriate, for example: "Order of Stanislavsky" - someone with golden notes, someone with brushes, someone with a movie camera.
      But as for the momentary creative ideas with the Gobachev-Solzhenitsyn, this is a real bastard ...
      1. Tarhan
        Tarhan 12 December 2018 17: 07
        -1
        For once, I agree with you.
        Beautiful order.


        EVERYTHING goes in a circle, everything is successive. Now, I understand what the designers of the Victory Order came from.



  5. BAI
    BAI 10 December 2018 09: 57
    +5
    The sign of the order in special cases could be worn on the chest, on a golden figured chain.

    The chain is even more beautiful than the order.
  6. Larum
    Larum 10 December 2018 10: 32
    +9
    What a wonder. Order for their own, for the elite.
    But Shoigu or Gorby is not so important. The elite is cosmopolitan. Kids all over the world live
    1. Vladimir 5
      Vladimir 5 10 December 2018 13: 46
      +2
      Those who are awarded are absolutely right, those who are awarded, and the order is only a revived historical sign, falling into someone’s hands ...
  7. Black joe
    Black joe 10 December 2018 14: 30
    +6
    The order is chic, I will remember only its history, because his presence on a number of contemporary characters only discredits this outstanding award
  8. Victor Red
    Victor Red 10 December 2018 17: 19
    0
    Thus, we see that, historically, the order was awarded only to extremely significant people - state, political, military and religious figures of Russia, as well as foreign states. The possibility of awarding an order to an ordinary person, even if he was distinguished, defending his native country in battle or having any other merits, was excluded. This was the main feature of the Order of St. Andrew.

    Somewhere I heard that under Paul there was a reward precisely not by rank. Is it so?
    1. pacific
      pacific 10 December 2018 22: 18
      +3
      Under Paul I, Lieutenant Commander Alexander Belli, the commander of an amphibious assault detachment (200 sailors with 2 guns), was awarded "out of order". In 1798-99, he marched with his detachment through all of Italy from Ancona to Naples and Rome. At the same time, he was always opposed by several times large French troops.
      Paul I is credited with the phrase: "He planned to surprise me? Well, I will surprise him too!" And he ordered to reward Cap.-Lieutenant Belli with the Order of Anna, 1st degree, if I am not mistaken, with a bow. In the statute of the order it was written that the 1st degree is given only to the ranks of the general. At this time, on the entire Russian squadron, only Commander F.F. Ushakov himself could be awarded this order
      1. Victor Red
        Victor Red 11 December 2018 00: 46
        0
        Thanks for the comprehensive answer.
      2. Conductor
        Conductor 11 December 2018 03: 18
        0
        Only Anna was without a bow
  9. kind
    kind 10 December 2018 18: 37
    +3
    Among those awarded with the modern order of Andrew the First-Called, most of all writers are Solzhenitsyn, Aliyev, Gamzatov, Sergey Mikhalkov and Granin. Four scientists and designers - Likhachev, Kalashnikov, Shumakov and Petrovsky, three artists - Zykina, Arkhipova and Grigorovich, one religious leader - Alexy II, one military leader - Sergey Shoigu, one former head of the Soviet state - Mikhail Gorbachev, three foreign heads were awarded the Order. states - Heydar Aliyev, Nazarbayev and Xi Jinping.

    In short, they depreciated the highest order. For what military merit did they receive it ??? Although the statute says:
    The Order of the Holy Apostle Andrew the First-Called is awarded to prominent state and public figures, outstanding representatives of science, culture, art and various sectors of the economy for exceptional services contributing to the prosperity, greatness and glory of Russia.
    Of the visible here, only Likhachev, Kalashnikov, Shumakov and Petrovsky and Shoigu, the rest is garbage that does not contribute to the prosperity, grandeur and glory of Russia.
  10. rayruav
    rayruav 10 December 2018 19: 03
    +3
    awarded Nazarbayev, Solzhenitsyn, Gorbachev, Aliyev is no longer an order
  11. The centurion
    The centurion 10 December 2018 19: 18
    +2
    One touching custom is associated with the status of the Order of St. Andrew the First-Called in Russia. In 1797, Paul I by law determined that every grand prince (son of the emperor) from birth becomes a knight of the Order of St. Andrew, and the grand princess (daughter of the emperor) is a knight of the Order of St. Catherine. After the baptism of the child, they were girded with a blue Andreev or Alai Catherine ribbon. A similar rite was adopted by the Russian aristocrats, only without awarding the order. This tradition has gradually passed into the masses and preserved to this day. In maternity homes, the baby’s blanket is tied with a blue ribbon, the girl’s blanket is pink ribbon and then the baby is handed over to the father.
  12. denart50
    denart50 11 December 2018 19: 37
    0
    The order says: "For faith and loyalty" ...

    And what side are Gorbachev, Solzhenitsyn, Nazarbayev with Aliyev, Xi Jin Ping?
    Somehow the statutes of awards are not respected, and - thereby - their values ​​are leveled ...
  13. Antares
    Antares 11 December 2018 23: 48
    0
    In 1700 the order was awarded by Peter the Great Hetman of Zaporizhzhya Sich Ivan Mazepa

    Ivan Mazepa - hetman of the Zaporizhzhya Army. Voisko His Tsar Majesty Zaporizhzhya
    And the chief ataman was the chief ataman.
    On February 8, 1700, Mazepa became the second holder of the Order of St. Andrew the First-Called, established by Peter. Peter personally assigned the signs of the order to the hetman "for many of his noble and zealously diligent and faithful services in military writings." Since that time, the hetman was referred to in the documents “The troops of Zaporizhzhya on both sides of the Dnieper hetman and the glorious rank of St. Apostle Andrew the Cavalier”
    I do not think that the order was "unlucky". Whoever got it, Peter did not give the order. Even to himself, neither title nor order ...
    The order was spoiled more by the last kings giving it as more of its reward than for the labors for RI.
  14. Ognjen26
    Ognjen26 12 December 2018 03: 00
    0
    It's funny. How did Hirohito, who became Emperor of Japan in the 1920s, manage to receive the Order of St. Andrew? Here either the name of the emperor was confused - as far as I remember, the emperor of Japan after Meiji (from 1912 to 1921) was Akihito (amendment: Taisho (former Prince of Yoshihito); or the word "future" was omitted.
  15. Twilight Cat
    Twilight Cat 26 February 2019 20: 04
    0
    Gentlemen of the regulars, those who understand, explain: what modern analogs coincide in statute with the Order of St. Andrew the First-Called, in the current award system of the Russian Federation or in the award system of the USSR. C / a Twilight Cat. PS I would be very grateful if you show a table of correspondence between the RI / USSR / RF awards. Naturally, if there is one in nature ..