Military Review

The landing of the British in Arkhangelsk. Formation of the Northern Front

75
100 years ago, in August 1918, the Northern Front of the Civil War was formed. 2 August, a British squadron from 17 warships approached Archangel. The 9-thousandth landing force was freely landed on the shore. The successful anti-Soviet uprising in the city on the night of August 2, organized by the second-rank captain George Chaplin, contributed to the success of their disembarkation.


Soviet power was evacuated from Arkhangelsk. The military government headed by captain Bers, commander of the Belomorsky cavalry regiment, came to power, which transferred its powers to civilian authorities headed by N. Tchaikovsky, the people's socialist, and formed the Northern Front under the general command of G. E. Chaplin.

prehistory

The key points in the north of Russia were the non-freezing port of Murmansk and the large port city of Arkhangelsk. The Murmansk Port and the Murmansk Railway were built at 1916 to supply Russia with military equipment and materials from the Entente countries. Through Arkhangelsk and Murmansk, the allies during the war years supplied Russia with military supplies. After February, the United States began to provide economic and technical support to the Provisional Government of Russia. Since the summer of 1917, however, military equipment that the Allies continued to deliver through Arkhangelsk and Murmansk began to accumulate in the warehouses of these ports. By the time Russia left the war with Germany, millions of tons of military cargo had accumulated in the ports of Murmansk and Arkhangelsk.

In early March 1918, the Bolsheviks signed a separate peace treaty with Germany. At that time, in Finland, which became independent, there was a civil war between white and red Finns, and German troops were sent to help the white Finns. In April, 1918, Germany landed troops in Finland, and there was a threat that the Germans would seize the railway Murmansk - Petrograd and strategic ports with a large number of military cargo and materials. London and Paris decided to intervene in the north of Russia with the aim of: 1) not to allow the Bolsheviks or Germans to seize the equipment supplied by the Entente in Arkhangelsk and Murmansk; 2) support the Czechoslovak Corps, which was dispersed along the Trans-Siberian Railway; 3) seize strategic points in the north of Russia and re-open the anti-German front in the East, overthrowing the Bolsheviks with the help of the Czechs and whites. England and France asked for help from US President Woodrow Wilson. In July 1918, Wilson agreed to participate in the intervention of a limited US contingent. American soldiers were part of the American Expeditionary Force in Northern Russia (“Polar Bear Expedition”).

At the same time, originally the Westerners were invited by the local Bolsheviks themselves to defend themselves against the White Finns and the Germans. 1 March 1918, the Murmansk Council (Chairman Aleksey Yuryev) informed the Council of People's Commissars (SNK) about the received proposal of British Rear Admiral Thomas Kemp about the protection of the forces of the British forces of the Murmansk Railway from the German and White-Finnish troops. Leon Trotsky, who was the people's commissar for foreign affairs (and an agent of the West within the Soviet government), replied that such a proposal should be accepted. Yuriev concluded the 2 March 1918 Agreement: “1. The highest authority within the Murmansk region belongs to the Murmansk Council of Deputies. 2. The high command of all the armed forces of the region belongs under the rule of the Sovdep of the Murmansk Military Council of 3 persons - one by appointment of the Soviet government and one each by the British and French. 3. The British and the French do not interfere in the internal management of the area: all decisions of the Council of Deputies of general importance, they are inquired by the Department in a form that, according to the circumstances of the case, will be deemed necessary. 4. Allies take care of supplying the region with the necessary reserves. ”

The landing of the British in Arkhangelsk. Formation of the Northern Front


The beginning of the invasion

6 March 1918 in Murmansk from the ship "Glory" landed two detachments of British marines in the number of 176 people with two guns. The next day, the English cruiser Cochrane appeared on the Murmansk raid, the March 18, the French cruiser Admiral On, and the May 27, the American cruiser Olympia. 15 - 16 March March 1918 in London hosted a military conference of the Entente, at which the question of intervention was discussed. In the conditions of the beginning of the German offensive in France, it was decided not to send large forces to Russia. The Entente landing force did not undertake any actions, fulfilling its main task - the protection of military cargo in the port of Murmansk. In May, the British even helped Red to break up the Finns in the Pechenga area.

All the interventionist forces in the North were under British command, led first by General F. Pull (then by General E. Ironside). In June, 1,5, thousands of British and 100 American soldiers, landed in Murmansk. The German government, represented by its ambassador to Moscow, Count Mirbach, asked the Soviet government to take further actions regarding this act that violated the conditions of the Brest peace, and offered assistance for the elimination of the Entente landing force. Moscow rejected this offer. In August 1918 was already Chicherin asked for help from the German ambassador Helferich. He invited the Germans to defend Petrograd, while the red troops from the Petrograd district will be sent to protect the North. Germany was no longer up to this, on the French front the decisive battle, the last hope of the German high command, was just ending.

In the meantime, the Westerners inclined to treason the presidium of the Murmansk Council, promising in exchange for monetary assistance, the supply of food and industrial goods. And local authorities promised representatives of the Entente not to interfere with the organization of white troops and promoted the occupation of the region by the troops of the Entente. The British fleet during July slowly mastered the White Sea coast, landed troops in Soroca and occupied the Solovki islands. After that, the British began to prepare for the landing of troops in Arkhangelsk, while at the same time spreading their power to the south along the Murmansk railway. On June 23, all Allied embassies in Vologda withdrew and moved to Arkhangelsk.


The commander of the Allied forces in the north of Russia, English General Frederick Cuthbert Poole


Entente countries ships in the port of Murmansk

In the same period, with the support of the British, the activation of various counter-revolutionary elements takes place. Even before the interventionists arrived, Arkhangelsk was overcrowded with representatives of all kinds of underground counter-revolutionary organizations and circles. Some came here on their own initiative, others were associated with the Anglo-French missions and drove in their direction. They were recruited into the troops and civilian institutions. The local conspirators were led by 2 rank captain Chaplin G. Chaplin, who had previously served in the Baltic Fleet. In the spring of 1918, he appealed to the representatives of Great Britain in Petrograd with a request for admission to the British military service and on the recommendation of the British naval agent Cromi was sent with documents of the British officer Captain Thomson to the North of Russia. Colonel Potapov, the commander of the Red forces, was also involved in the plot. The Belomorsky cavalry detachment, in which many officers from Petrograd were recruited, became the strike force of the conspirators.

The Red Command had insignificant forces in the Murmansk Territory and on the White Sea coast - about 4 thousand people. At the same time they were scattered over a huge space. In the strategically important Arkhangelsk garrison did not exceed 600 people. In addition, the central command did not take into account the importance of the North of Russia, it was considered as a secondary and, moreover, only a possible front. As a result, Moscow did not plan to strengthen its forces in the north, and it could especially strengthen this strategic direction with manpower, given the critical situation and the heavy fighting in the south and east of the country. Therefore, in conditions of the possibility of disembarking the enemy, evacuation of military equipment and ammunition along the Northern Dvina to Kotlas began. Unlike Murmansk, during the nine months of their power in Arkhangelsk, the Bolsheviks managed to transport almost all the reserves to Central Russia.


One of the leaders of the white movement in the north of Russia, captain Georgy Yermolaevich Chaplin (1886 - 1950)

Landing in Arkhangelsk. Formation of the Northern Front

2 August 1918, a British squadron of 17 warships approached Arkhangelsk. The coastal batteries of Mudyug Island near Arkhangelsk practically did not resist. A multi-thousand landing force was freely landed on the shore. The success of their disembarkation was facilitated by the successful anti-Soviet uprising in the city on the night of August 2, organized by the second-rank captain Georgy Chaplin and the hasty escape of the Reds from the city at the sight of the British squadron. The remaining Red Army soldiers did not resist and surrendered. By the end of 1918, the number of British troops in Arkhangelsk will reach 15 thousand people (while more than 10 thousand people settled in Murmansk), and soon the military contingents of other Entente countries — the American soldiers, Canadians and Australians — would join them. ), the French, Serbian and Polish arrows.


Serbian soldiers

American sailors from the cruiser "Olympia"

British officers award distinguished soldiers of the Polish battalion

On August 4, the Supreme Administration of the Northern Region (VUSO) was formed in Arkhangelsk, consisting of six Social Revolutionaries and two Cadets, chaired by People’s Socialist Nikolay Tchaikovsky. This government was one of the most democratic in the series of all that arose during the years of the Civil War. In particular, it announced the organization of local government in the Northern Region, the restoration of violated freedoms and organs of the Constituent Assembly, zemstvos and city councils, and the fight against hunger among the poor. All land (including formerly privately owned) was transferred to the zemstvos administration. The land acts adopted by the government of the Northern Region were a kind of symbiosis of the Cadet and Social Revolutionary agrarian programs.

The White forces initially consisted of officers volunteer teams, an infantry regiment formed in Arkhangelsk through mobilization, 2 artillery battalions and peasant groups totaling up to 3 thousand people. Chief was Chaplin. All units operatively obeyed the Allied command and were supplied by the British. Mixed units such as a Russian-French company or a Slavic-British legion were also created.

As in other regions of Russia where counterrevolutionary forces seized power, civilian and military authorities clashed. The socialist government (the Social Revolutionaries) tried to "deepen the gains of the revolution", was suspicious of representatives of the old administration and officers, suspected of being "counter-revolutionary." New authorities and troops were corrupted by “democratic” demagogy, order collapsed, a mess and anarchy arose (everything that had already happened in the period from February to October during the rule of the Provisional Government). The military part of the white movement in the North (right) also had a negative attitude towards the Supreme Government, composed of representatives of the socialist parties. On the night of September 6, 1918, Chaplin led a group of officers with the support of the provincial government commissioner N. A. Startsev, made a coup, removing the socialist ministers from power and exiled them to the Solovetsky monastery. Chaplin stood for the military dictatorship in the region, spoke very critically about the Constituent Assembly - the “Constituent Assembly”. In response, the Social Revolutionaries raised a peasant uprising, accusing the Rights of having wanted to restore the monarchy. As a result, under the pressure of the Entente, the power of the Supreme Administration was restored, but the cabinet was formed from a more moderate element (from the popular socialists and the Cadets). Chaplin was removed from command, in his place they put Colonel Durov, a former military agent in London. Later, Chaplin was returned from exile, and he headed the rifle regiment.


Pier in Arkhangelsk

The northern front had strong differences even against the background of the rest of Russia. There was no solid line of defense in the northeast and north directions. Natural conditions (tundra, swampy forests and swamps, harsh and snowy winter) in these areas determined the methods and forms of warfare, which were mainly conducted along the main transport communications - rivers and roads. The maneuvering of troops in impassable taiga and swamps was excluded. The terrain was generally wild, harsh, sparsely populated, and could not feed large masses of troops. That is, the struggle was conducted only in certain directions, which coincided either with the direction of the railway lines or rivers, which did not allow for the deployment of significant forces and the troops stopped for a long time, reaching the first strong defensive node. In addition, a harsh winter, long autumn and spring thaws generally stopped serious operations for a considerable time.

At the beginning of the campaign, the British command had the most serious forces surpassing the Red forces. At the same time, initially there were few whites; they were enough to form only small detachments. Therefore, the offensive was conducted by the interventionists. Westernizers could advance to two operational directions: one coincided with the railway line and went to Vologda, Yaroslavl and Moscow, that is, eventually led to the vital centers of Russia and areas convenient for the location and operation of significant troops; the other went to Kotlas, Vyatka, coinciding with Kotlas with Northern Dvina, and then with the railway Kotlas - Vyatka. This direction took place in a wild, inaccessible area and led to an area that had no political, military strategic, or industrial (economic) significance. However, in this direction, the Westerners could establish contact with the Czechs and the Whites, who acted on the Eastern Front, on the condition of a breakthrough to Perm and Vyatka.

And the strategic need for an offensive and a connection with the Czechoslovak Corps soon disappeared. After all, before there was an idea to recreate the Eastern Front from the Czechs and white against the Bolsheviks and Germans. But in August of 1918, it became clear that Germany lost the “Second Marne” - a decisive battle on the Western Front. Troops rolled to the unequivocal defeat of the German bloc. An expensive project to recreate the Eastern Front has lost its meaning. Therefore, the British went to the North not for the battle with the Reds, but for the occupation of the most important points of Russia, the realization of the strategic plans of the owners of the West. The other Russians, the whites, had to fight the Reds, ensuring the bleeding and exhaustion of the Russian civilization and people.

Thus, taking into account the fact that the command of the Entente was not going to enter the fight against the Red Army directly, but only to further inflame the fratricidal civil war, pitting the Russians against the Russians, the British chose the second direction and began to develop their efforts here. Here the Entente troops could receive the support of a powerful fleet. After the capture of Arkhangelsk, a fleet was formed for operations on the navigable rivers Severnaya Dvina and Vaga, consisting of 11 monitors, as well as minesweepers and gunboats captured in the city. He became the main force of the interventionists.

The advance of the allied forces along the Northern Dvina proceeded slowly and with great difficulty. Nature was harsh and inhospitable. At the same time, the hastily formed flotilla of the Red Army, which had no large ships, opposed the interventionists, gradually incapacitating one enemy ship after another. As a result, the advance of the Westerners proceeded extremely slowly and cautiously; neither the Allied Command, nor the soldiers wanted to bear serious battles and great losses in Russia. And during the entire autumn campaign of 1918, the interventionists advanced in the Murmansk region only just 40 km south of the town of Soroki, then the front passed through Chekuyevo on the r. Onega, Obozerskaya station, Sred - Mehrenga - Kodysh on the Elitsa river, Maly Bereznichek on the Vahe river, Topsa - Tulgas on Northern Dvina and through the Trufanov mountain on the r. Pinege.

Having missed the initial favorable balance of forces and the effect of surprise, and the possibility of rapid advance along the railroad in the south, the interventionists later met with stubborn resistance from the Red Army units (from the 6 Army), and operations on the Northern Front acquired only local significance, reducing to the struggle for individual road junctions and individual directions. The actions of separate roundabouts were widely spread. Having achieved their first successes, the Westerners stopped for a long time, and only in the middle of October did 1918 begin to show activity along the Arkhangelsk railway. At the same time, these offensive attempts were not widely developed due to the difficulties of the local climate and the increasing resistance of the Red forces.

Thus, the British command, having spent the month with the seizure of Arkhangelsk, was not in a hurry to make a breakthrough to the central regions and vital centers of Soviet Russia, starting movement in a secondary direction. The British acted slowly and passively, which allowed Moscow to strengthen its position in the north and avoid the threat of creating a united Northeast anti-Soviet front. The invaders did not use the strategic advantage in the North — the fleet, the numerical and qualitative superiority of the landing forces over the Red troops, losing precious time, which allowed the Red command to strengthen the direction of the troops and strengthened on the main points.


English signalers in Dvinsky Bereznik

Americans fighting in the village of Tulgas. A small village on the banks of the Northern Dvina. The extreme point to which the Americans were able to advance in the fall of 1918 of the year, advancing on Kotlas. In November 1918, they were knocked out and retreated to Shenkursk
Author:
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  1. polpot
    polpot 10 August 2018 05: 50
    +6
    Bastards are rare, good allies and enemies are not necessary.
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. Each other
      Each other 13 August 2018 11: 22
      -2
      Tell them about the "bad allies":

  2. bistrov.
    bistrov. 10 August 2018 06: 17
    +6
    The goals of the Anglo-Americans over the centuries have not changed: this is the dismemberment of Russia into parts, turning them into their colonies and, if possible, making these parts fight against each other.
    Something similar is happening now in “Ukraine,” with the almost complete inaction of today's Russian authorities and the last rulers of the USSR.
  3. Olgovich
    Olgovich 10 August 2018 06: 22
    -10
    In August 1918, Chicherin pI asked for help from the German ambassador Helferich. Invited Germans for the defense of Petrograd, while the red troops from the Petrograd region will be sent to defend the North.

    In how they sang with their masters, to whom they already sold a third of the country. They were also ready to give the capital to those with whom Russia fought for almost 4 years for independence.
    As for the intervention-: there were no Bolsheviks, there was no intervention, there was no need. As soon as Germany had new Bolshevik servants, there was a need, for with Germany there was a World War to the death of powers that underwent devastating aggression.

    1. Foul skeptic
      Foul skeptic 10 August 2018 08: 43
      +7
      there were no Bolsheviks, there was no intervention, there was no need.

      This chain on the left should be supplemented with the phrase "such social intolerance of some people towards other people would not have been created"
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 10 August 2018 09: 07
        -6
        Quote: A vile skeptic
        there were no Bolsheviks, there was no intervention, there was no need.

        This chain on the left need to be supplemented the phrase "such social intolerance of some people towards other people would not have been created"

        No, don't. negative
    2. bistrov.
      bistrov. 10 August 2018 12: 17
      +11
      Quote: Olgovich
      with whom Russia fought for almost 4 years for independence.

      The worthless “emperor” Nikolay-2 himself entered this war, which deservedly became both the end of his and his entire parasitic family (this family alone had 50 million gold rubles worth of jewelry), and his “empire” based on oppression and robbery of the working people.

      What kind of “independence” did Russia “fight for, this time no one attacked it, Russia itself was the first to invade Germany, East Prussia and Austria-Hungary, Galicia, but the mediocre tsarist generals were completely imposed by the Germans and Austrians, had to be invaded the Russian troops escaped from there, then they lost their territories, the Germans reached almost Petrograd and captured the whole of “Ukraine”, and only the revolution that took place in Germany saved both the rotten French, the cunning English, and those who clung to them from defeat USA, at that time a novice world gendarme and aggressor.
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 10 August 2018 12: 39
        -10
        Quote: bistrov.
        The worthless "emperor" Nikolay-2 himself climbed into this war

        Yeah, the same SAM "climbed", like the USSR in the Second World War fool
        Quote: bistrov.
        and what kind of "independence" Russia "fought" for her this time nobody attacked, Russia itself was the first to invade the territory of Germany, East Prussia and Austria-Hungary, Galicia

        AT SCHOOL, dear man, to school! And remember the tragedy Russian city KALISH- shot by artillery, burned, with invaders hacked and torn alive hundreds of women and childrenmen shot and sent to concentration camps are the FIRST days of the war.

        Quote: bistrov.
        reached almost to Petrograd and captured the whole "Ukrainey "and only revolution that happened in Germany saved from defeats both rotten French, cunningly-fop English, and the United States clinging to them

        Oh my god! belay lol !
        I've had enough .... Bye! lol
        1. bistrov.
          bistrov. 10 August 2018 18: 21
          +10
          Quote: Olgovich
          like the USSR in WWII

          Maybe it was the Red Army that "moved" its troops to Hitlerite Germany and its satellites on June 22, 1941, and not the Wehrmacht, consisting of 190 divisions, attacked the borders of the USSR?
          Who at 2 am on June 22 bombed Minsk, Kiev, Vilnius, Riga, Sevastopol?
          What do you smoke there?
          1. Gopnik
            Gopnik 10 August 2018 18: 25
            0
            So in 1914, Germany declared war on Russia, and not vice versa.
          2. Koshnitsa
            Koshnitsa 10 August 2018 19: 35
            -4
            Exactly so, the first shots in August 1914 sounded from German territory, two Russian border guards were killed, the captain-in-chief lost the officer.
            Fascism did not exist yet, but Germany has already attacked Russia.
            True, there were smart people in the leadership in Russia, and in order not to run to the Volga, they struck back.
            1. Rastas
              Rastas 10 August 2018 23: 33
              +2
              In 1870, France declared war on Prussia, and in the German General Staff, learning about this, uncorked bottles of champagne.
            2. bistrov.
              bistrov. 11 August 2018 05: 45
              +3
              Quote: Koshnitsa
              two Russian border guards were killed, the captain of the captain lost the officer.

              And, what? An ordinary border incident, of which there are many on the borders now, had to be turned into a four-year, bloody war, which ended in the collapse of Russia?
              1. Koshnitsa
                Koshnitsa 12 August 2018 00: 31
                -2
                Before that, Germany had declared war on Russia, and she attacked first.
          3. Olgovich
            Olgovich 11 August 2018 09: 03
            -4
            Quote: bistrov.
            Maybe it was the Red Army that "moved" its troops to Hitlerite Germany and its satellites on June 22, 1941, and not the Wehrmacht, consisting of 190 divisions, attacked the borders of the USSR?

            Russian city KALISH from the first day of the war It was captured by Germany and it organized a bloody SLAUGHTER of civilians - HUNDREDS of women, children, the elderly, the city was BURNED by artillery and torchbearers, the hostages-SHOT, part of the concentration camp was taken away.
            Find differences with WWII, yes.
            And-study, study, etc., so as not to carry nonsense about Russia's "attack" on Germany
      2. vladcub
        vladcub 11 August 2018 12: 49
        +3
        If you are deeply mistaken about him: Nicholas 2 BEFORE LAST hoped that he would be able to settle everything. You can read about this in Denikin: "The Way of the Russian Officer": he cites the documents of that era. It just happened as in Krylov's fable: "The Wolf and the Lamb": the lamb is Serbia, and through it Russia
  4. rkkasa xnumx
    rkkasa xnumx 10 August 2018 06: 36
    +4
    In August 1918, Chicherin already asked for help from the German ambassador Helferich. He invited the Germans to defend Petrograd, while the red troops from the Petrograd region will be sent to defend the North

    Mr. Samsonov, where did the firewood come from?
    1. BAI
      BAI 10 August 2018 11: 54
      +5
      Of course, there was no German invitation to defend Petrograd. Just, as always, the anti-advisers misinterpreted the following documents:
      GERMAN AMBASSADOR'S CERTIFICATES IN MOSCOW

      K. Helferich and the People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs

      G. V. CHICHERINA ABOUT ATTEMPTS

      BUILD INTERACTION AGAINST INTERVENTION

      ANTANTS IN THE NORTH OF RUSSIA IN AUGUST 1918.



      K. Gelfferich:

      How seriously the Soviet government itself assessed the situation, it turned out from the message that Mr. Chicherin made to me on the evening of August XNUMX on behalf of the Council *, coming to me unexpectedly and right from the meeting in the Kremlin.

      At first he informed me that, due to the advance of the Entente troops from Murmansk and the landing of the British in Arkhangelsk, his government was no longer interested in the desire expressed by him in Berlin that the German-Finnish advance in Karelia towards the Murmansk coast should be prevented. An open military alliance with us is supposedly impossible given public opinion; however, a valid parallel action is possible. His government intends to concentrate its troops around Vologda in order to cover Moscow. In any case, the condition for the parallel action is that we do not take Petersburg; Petrozavodsk is also advisable not to occupy. In fact, this statement meant that the Soviet government, in order to protect Moscow, was forced to ask us to cover St. Petersburg. This was confirmed when Chicherin informed me on August XNUMXth that his government should withdraw its troops from Petrozavodsk to Vologda, so that the route from Murmansk to Petersburg is free, and prompt intervention on our part is desirable; that martial law was established in Vologda and that he should ask me to withdraw from there our sub-commission on prisoners of war ...

      G.V. Chicherin:

      When the Entente actually waged a war against us in August, occupying Arkhangelsk and moving south from it, acting in the east with the help of Czechoslovakians and in the south pushing the volunteer army of Alekseev, Vladimir Ilyich (Lenin - sost.) Attempted to use the antagonism of two warring imperialist coalitions to weaken the onslaught of the Entente in front. After a long meeting with Vladimir Ilyich, I personally went to the new German ambassador Gelfferich to invite him to agree on joint actions against Alekseev in the south and about the possibility of sending a German detachment, by agreement with us, to attack the Entente forces near the White Sea. Further development of this plan was interrupted by the sudden departure of Helferich ...

      * This refers to the Council of People's Commissars (comp.).



      Chicherin G. Lenin and foreign policy. World politics in 1924, - M., 1925. S. 5;
      Helfferich, K. Der Weltkrieg. - Berlin, 1919. Vol. 3. S. 466-467 (translation by V. Myrkin).

      There was an idea to coordinate actions against the Entente (with Germany there is already peace, with the Entente both Russia and Germany have a war). But they didn’t even manage to finish it completely, not to do something.

      You can find fault with the word “cover”, but “defense” is fighting, and “cover” is just standing next to you. And that, "cover" - in the interpretation of the German ambassador. Chicherin does not even have such a word.
      1. Gopnik
        Gopnik 10 August 2018 12: 37
        -9
        Shameful and traitors, what else to talk about these Bolsheviks ...
        1. Looking for
          Looking for 10 August 2018 16: 56
          +4
          Well, you are with this Olegovich, a pair of boots.
      2. Olgovich
        Olgovich 10 August 2018 12: 54
        -5
        Quote: BAI
        Of course, there was no German invitation to defend Petrograd.

        Quote: BAI
        There was an idea to coordinate action against the Entente (with Germany - already peace, with the Entente both in Russia and Germany - war). But they didn’t even manage to finish it completely, not to do something.
        You can find fault with the word “cover”, but “defense” is fighting, and “cover” is just standing next to you.

        YOU confirm the author’s words about the invitation — it WAS:
        In reality, this statement meantthat the Soviet government to protect Moscow, forced to ask us to cover St. Petersburg.
        Do you even read yourself? lol
        .
        Quote: BAI
        with Germany - already peace, with the Entente both in Russia and Germany - war

        With OCCUPIERS, who gave a third of the world-countries. Bravo! good
        With the allies in the war against the aggressor -... war? belay Tell me, when is the Blasheviks of the USA and England ....... declared a war? fool laughing lol
        1. BAI
          BAI 10 August 2018 14: 28
          +7
          You are the text to which you read carefully. The words of the German ambassador are not at all the words of the representative of Moscow (Chicheren). Chicheren has NO REQUEST FOR PROTECTING PETROGRAD. Do not wishful thinking.
          1. Gopnik
            Gopnik 10 August 2018 15: 11
            -3
            Why not, when Chicheren wrote in Russian in white: "on the possibility of sending a German detachment, by agreement with us, to attack the Entente troops near the White Sea."
            And the German ambassador is still more clearly spelled out
            1. BAI
              BAI 10 August 2018 16: 37
              +5
              Entente troops by the White Sea

              With your permission - Petrograd by the Baltic Sea. And where is Chicherin's word "Petrograd"?
              And the interpretation of Chicherin’s words by the German ambassador is a personal matter of the ambassador.
              1. Gopnik
                Gopnik 10 August 2018 17: 55
                -2
                The German ambassador has the word Petrograd "In fact, this statement meant that the Soviet government, in order to protect Moscow, was forced to ask us to cover Petersburg", while Petrograd itself did not occupy.
                And the "personal matter" is your judgment, and the German ambassador is the official person of a power friendly to the Bolsheviks.
          2. Olgovich
            Olgovich 11 August 2018 06: 09
            -2
            Quote: BAI
            You are the text to which you read carefully. The words of the German ambassador are not at all the words of the representative of Moscow (Chicheren). Chicheren has NO REQUEST FOR PROTECTING PETROGRAD. Do not wishful thinking.

            I'm not interested in what Chicherin carries.

            The German says the request of the Bolshevik Government:
            this statement meant that the Soviet government, to protect Moscow forced to ask us to cover St. Petersburg
    2. vladcub
      vladcub 11 August 2018 12: 51
      0
      Leading from the forest: father chopping, and I drive.
  5. rkkasa xnumx
    rkkasa xnumx 10 August 2018 06: 59
    +16
    I’m interested in this - what are the local Voshnikov leaders seeking? Do they want only olga-like ones to remain in VO?
    Why are anti-Soviet leaders allowed to frolic in full, to lie, to engage in trolling, to name the ancestors of the majority of those now living in the territory of the former RI and the USSR stupid, scum, garbage - etc words? And why are comments removed that repel this demoniac?
    Collars that - all entirely of blue blood, white bones? I doubt it. Or are they just Ivan, not remembering kinship?
    1. apro
      apro 10 August 2018 08: 24
      +5
      Alexei to the platform for exchange of opinions. For all. And for those characters whom you voiced.
      There is something to say. Published. Enter into a meaningless debate ... it is possible. But the opponent essentially nothing. Besides the slogans can not say. He does not have his own position. And this is not a shout out.
      1. rkkasa xnumx
        rkkasa xnumx 10 August 2018 15: 26
        +3
        Quote: apro
        Alexey to the platform for exchange of opinions. For all. And for those characters whom you voiced

        Quote: BAI
        Do not take to heart. Remember - stocks of beads are limited.

        This is understandable, but it seems that the anti-advisers seem to have complete freedom of action in the military, and the conditions for discussion are not equal for everyone. And something it starts to strain me.
        1. Gopnik
          Gopnik 10 August 2018 15: 37
          -7
          Well, of course, you would like, as in the USSR, to "ban and not let go" all those who write the truth, so that, under the guise of "truth," you can feed everyone with no alternative to red propaganda.
          1. rkkasa xnumx
            rkkasa xnumx 10 August 2018 16: 52
            +8
            Quote: Gopnik
            Well, of course, you would like to "prohibit and not let" everyone write the truth, as in the USSR, so that, under the guise of "truth," feed everyone with no alternative to red propaganda

            That is - Russian stupid garbage - is that in your truth? Well, an anti-Soviet is always a Russophobe.
            1. Gopnik
              Gopnik 10 August 2018 17: 56
              -2
              You are little Russophobia, and still lying. No one but you wrote
              Quote: rkkasa 81
              Russian stupid dregs
              1. rkkasa xnumx
                rkkasa xnumx 10 August 2018 18: 17
                +6
                Quote: Gopnik
                You are little Russophobia, and still lying. No one but you wrote

                Well, for example, your brother Olga about the Bolsheviks:
                Their bet was all the time on lumpen, deserters and other lower layers - scum of society

                https://topwar.ru/145376-za-sovety-bez-bolshevikov.html#comment
                And this is another:
                stupid really turned out to be pretty

                https://topwar.ru/145292-kappelevcy-berut-kazan.html#comment
                And this is only from the last pearls.
                Can you confirm your words?
                1. Gopnik
                  Gopnik 10 August 2018 18: 26
                  -5
                  Of course I confirm - you are a liar, because nowhere in these phrases is there a statement that
                  Quote: Gopnik
                  Russian stupid dregs
                  1. The comment was deleted.
                  2. rkkasa xnumx
                    rkkasa xnumx 10 August 2018 20: 47
                    +3
                    Another confirmation of my words about Voshnikov. The kamenty of adequate people is only removed on the way, but know the anti-Soviet nonsense frolic. Yeah...
        2. vladcub
          vladcub 11 August 2018 12: 57
          -1
          And anti-Soviet people say the opposite. So the truth is somewhere between the legs
    2. BAI
      BAI 10 August 2018 11: 45
      +9
      Do not take to heart. Remember - stocks of beads are limited.
    3. Alex_59
      Alex_59 10 August 2018 13: 07
      +13
      Quote: rkkasa 81
      Why are anti-Soviet activists allowed to frolic in full, to lie, to engage in trolling, to call the ancestors of most of the inhabitants of the former Republic of Ingushetia and the USSR stupid, scum, dregs, etc. words?

      Could put a hundred pluses, but there is only one.
      These people, in fact, in sovietophobic intoxication generally humiliate the whole history of our Motherland, and not just its Soviet period. Not noticing the mistakes of the adored “tsarist period” and not recognizing a single success of the Soviet period, they reduce the chronicle of our ancestors to popular print art. As if there was a paradise in which even the city rainbow farted, and then the evil orcs came and the mordor came. The maximum whom this can convince is children of early school age. But this fantasy usually falls out on the head of adults with the arrogant aplomb of omniscience. Laugh.
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 11 August 2018 06: 29
        -7
        Quote: Alex_59
        These people are actually in sovietophobic intoxication humiliate all at all history of our Motherland, and not just its Soviet period

        belay lol History CANNOT be "humiliated".
        Learn what "History" is:
        History (dr. Greek ἱστορία [⇨]) - field of knowledge, as well as humanities, engaged in the study of man (his activities, status, worldview, social connections, organizations and so on) in the past.

        Now tell me HOW you can humiliate ..... area of ​​expertise " lol
        Quote: Alex_59
        Not noticing the mistakes of the adored "tsarist period" and not recognizing a single success of the Soviet period, they reduce the chronicle of our ancestors to popular prints. As if there was a paradise in which even the policemen farted like a rainbow, and then evil orcs came and Mordor came.

        Mistakes and achievements have been at all times, their correlation is important: if by 1917 Russia grew rapidly and grew, by 1991 the Russian Cross was already built and huge Russian territories with tens of millions of Russians were lost-without war and cataclysms.
        And it does not overwhelm ANYTHING.
        Though your and dump
        Quote: Alex_59
        Fantasy on the head of adults with an arrogant aplomb of omniscience.

        And it causes
        Quote: Alex_59
        Laughter

        lol laughing
    4. Looking for
      Looking for 10 August 2018 17: 05
      -3
      I think that is because this resource is supervised by Western money. The military theme, patriotism is just a cover for the methodological influence on the minds.
  6. BAI
    BAI 10 August 2018 10: 37
    +9
    And then, taking advantage of the weakness of Soviet Russia, the baton from the Anglo-Americans was intercepted by the Norwegians, having arranged a seal war from 1920 to 1933. 13 years!
  7. Okolotochny
    Okolotochny 10 August 2018 13: 06
    +1
    These events are very well described by V.S. Pikul in the novel "From the impasse."
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 11 August 2018 13: 03
      0
      With all due respect to V. S, I would not really rely on him: first of all, he was a writer. ARTistic Literature was engaged in, and this is Fiction
      1. Okolotochny
        Okolotochny 12 August 2018 01: 53
        0
        I am not talking about accepting the novel as a chronicle. The energy of those events is well transmitted.
  8. Alexander Greene
    Alexander Greene 10 August 2018 13: 55
    +6
    The author of the crisis of the genre, he became completely different from himself, began to rewrite the White Guard memoirs. The author is silent that with the interventionists verbal agreement “The joint action against the German danger” was concluded by the Murmansk Council, which consists entirely of Mensheviks and Socialist-Revolutionaries, and it’s far from the Bolsheviks that he received permission from Trotsky on behalf of the People’s People’s Congress without coordination with Lenin and SNK, which from Trotsky was a continuation of his line struggle with the Brest peace.
    Moreover, the author does not mention anywhere that A.M. Yuryev (real surname Alekseev) was outlawed by the Soviet government for his actions.
    1. Hantengri
      Hantengri 10 August 2018 17: 42
      +3
      Quote: Alexander Green
      The author of the crisis of the genre, he became completely different from himself, began to rewrite the White Guard memoirs.

      Samsonov here, just the same, is very similar to himself. For Samsonov is either a team of authors with, often, completely diametrical points of view, or suffers from a dissociative identity disorder (multiple personality).
  9. Alexey RA
    Alexey RA 10 August 2018 16: 22
    +10
    By the way, here is another good photo from those places:

    Lieutenant D. Gratham holds M devices. Onega, 1919
    M-device is a chemical thermogenerator: a special poisonous "candle" equipped with adamsite. Not chloropicrin, but a normal high-grade BOV.
  10. Alexey RA
    Alexey RA 10 August 2018 16: 23
    +11
    And the funniest thing is that the 6 Red Army, under the command of a seasoned representative of the exploiting classes, the former Quartermaster General of the Western Front Army Headquarters, Major General Samoilo, fought against the invaders and whites.
    1. Gopnik
      Gopnik 10 August 2018 18: 01
      -9
      Nothing surprising, at the head of the Bolsheviks was a nobleman, the grandson of a landowner-serf owner, Ulyanov and a native of the Bronstein family of large landowners. It was no accident that later these "hardened representatives of the exploiting classes" drove the Russian people into collective farm slavery and abolished all civil liberties for them.
      1. Rastas
        Rastas 10 August 2018 23: 46
        +8
        Christmas trees, how did we all survive ???? Hell, I even managed to enjoy life. It's a pity you weren't there, you would have explained to everyone about "collective farm slavery" and about "civil liberties." Finish your smerdyakovism to bear. How can you despise your own people? It follows from your words that the hardworking, God-bearing, sober Russians were defeated by the "drunken sailor", the Bolshevik Martians and a regiment of Latvians and Chinese with a handful of Hungarian, Czech and Yugoslav internationalists.
    2. Okolotochny
      Okolotochny 14 August 2018 22: 40
      0
      By the way, many say that Samoilo was the prototype of the protagonist of the novel “I Have Honor”.
    3. stalkerwalker
      stalkerwalker 14 August 2018 23: 11
      +1
      Quote: Alexey RA
      And the funniest thing is that the 6 Red Army, under the command of a seasoned representative of the exploiting classes, the former Quartermaster General of the Western Front Army Headquarters, Major General Samoilo, fought against the invaders and whites.

      In Arkhangelsk there is a street named after a major general. And so there is a street named after Comrade Kedrov. If you ask residents of Arkhangelsk whether they know who these people were, they are unlikely to get an answer.
      By the way, there is Dreyer Street ....
  11. Koshnitsa
    Koshnitsa 10 August 2018 20: 23
    -3
    Quote: Koshnitsa
    Exactly so, the first shots in August 1914 sounded from German territory, two Russian border guards were killed, the captain-in-chief lost the officer.
    Fascism did not exist yet, but Germany has already attacked Russia.
    True, there were smart people in the leadership in Russia, and in order not to run to the Volga, they struck back.
  12. Black joe
    Black joe 10 August 2018 20: 34
    0
    It, as they say, had a continuation
    But the British really missed time
  13. serg.shishkov2015
    serg.shishkov2015 11 August 2018 10: 31
    -1
    ceased to perceive the term civil war in relation to those events. 14 countries fought on the side of the whites, and not volunteers, but regular troops with heavy artillery, tanks, aircraft, and even the fleet, right up to the aircraft carriers! and red is now reproaching the use of Chinese mercenaries. I do not justify anyone in that madness, everyone had their own truth
  14. serg.shishkov2015
    serg.shishkov2015 11 August 2018 13: 14
    +1
    I would definitely be on the side of the Reds in that war, I would fall under the tsar’s decree of 1887 on cook children, this is just about me
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. Koshnitsa
      Koshnitsa 11 August 2018 15: 03
      -5
      Would Trotsky go to serve? To Lev Davidovich?
      1. serg.shishkov2015
        serg.shishkov2015 12 August 2018 06: 03
        0
        Sasha Fadeev among his friends at the Vladivostok Commercial School was the poorest, so he had no choice what side to take, and I come from the serfs Count Shishkov. So on which side should I fight? !!!!!!!
        1. Koshnitsa
          Koshnitsa 12 August 2018 12: 14
          -2
          For some reason, the sons of wealthy landowners Ulyanov, Bronstein, Tukhachevsky fought for the Reds, and the children of the poor officers, Kornilov, Denikin for the Whites.
          Wherever they mobilized, they would go there. So it will be more true.
          And again, if you are from serfs in 1918 - ?????, then what do you have to do with cook children?
          1. serg.shishkov2015
            serg.shishkov2015 13 August 2018 06: 11
            0
            this Decree continued to be valid in 1917, if I extrapolated my current social status for that time- father fireman, mother at her last job, cleaning lady. I am in my own family with higher education the first and the first purely urban, And these comments show how much the society is divided, and a century after that war, everyone has their own truth and no arguments work. Therefore, I try not to get into these disputes
            1. Gopnik
              Gopnik 13 August 2018 11: 35
              0
              Quote: serg.shishkov2015
              this decree continued to operate in 1917


              Such a "decree" did not exist, so he could not act in 1917.
        2. Mikhail Matyugin
          Mikhail Matyugin 12 August 2018 22: 47
          +1
          Quote: serg.shishkov2015
          So on which side should I fight? !!!!!!!

          Well, firstly, at the moment there is no Civil War, and, thank God, we all do not have such a choice (well, excluding those who live in the Donbass).

          And, secondly, on the other side, whose ideas are more pleasant for you, and conscience and heart tells you to fight for them.
    3. The comment was deleted.
    4. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 11 August 2018 15: 42
      +4
      Here is my grandfather, when he returned from Persia with Baratov's corps to his Voronezh village, for some reason in 1919 he did not go to Denikin, but went to the Red Army and drove the "lieutenants Golitsyns and Obolensky's cornets" all the way to Novorossiysk.
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. Koshnitsa
        Koshnitsa 11 August 2018 17: 21
        -4
        Your grandfather served as a paramedic? Or in a wagon train, in a staged team?
        I just don’t understand who else the Voronezh peasant could be in the Cossack corps?
        1. Koshnitsa
          Koshnitsa 11 August 2018 17: 58
          -3
          I understand that by commenting I will hurt you, Aviator, but be patient.
          The legend of your beautiful grandfather crumbles right before your eyes.
          There is a mismatch on the mismatch.
          Any investigator, having familiarized himself with such a biography in the 30s, would immediately begin to develop this story.
          About how the Voronezh peasant fell into the elite Cossack cavalry corps, we have already disassembled.
          But the fact that he only went to the Red Army in 1919 to the Reds makes us study the gap between the return from Persia in mid-1918 and what he did before the draft in the Red Army.
          Didn’t he serve as an hour with Krasnov, or perhaps with Denikin. By red he could have been captured, impersonating another person, and so on, even in the photo your grandfather does not look into the lens. It’s strange.
          There are more questions than answers.
          And the fact that the participants in the GV told in their declining years is a different story.
          1. Koshnitsa
            Koshnitsa 11 August 2018 19: 39
            -1
            The composition of the Persian corps of Baratov in 1918:
            = 2nd Plastun battalion of the Kuban army
            = 1st Tskhinvali Plastun battalion of the Tersky army
            = 39 Cossack hundreds of Kuban, Terek and Ural Cossacks
            = 2 local teams (Terek and Kuban troops) are modern border guards
            = 1st Terek Cossack Mountain Cavalry Battery
            = 2nd Kuban Cossack Mountain Cavalry Battery
            TOTAL: 20 guns, 4 thousand bayonets, 6 thousand sabers
            Only Cossacks, natives of Voronezh villages were not there.
            You can check it yourself.
      3. serg.shishkov2015
        serg.shishkov2015 13 August 2018 06: 38
        -1
        It was a time of troubles. here are the Zhilinsky brothers. RIA generals. became teachers of the Nizhny Novgorod infantry courses with the Reds, and therefore we must be smarter than fools and provocateurs, so that the trouble would not return
        1. Koshnitsa
          Koshnitsa 13 August 2018 11: 57
          -3
          If you want to live, you’re not getting so bored!
          it’s just that the Reds captured the center of the country with the main population and arsenals, and having hunger, they could control it.
  15. RUSS
    RUSS 12 August 2018 21: 47
    +1
    The interventionists were allies of the White movement and pursued several goals, one of which was to save from the hands of the Germans and Red Guards the stockpiles of weapons and equipment delivered to the northern Russian ports to help the Russian army participating in the First World War. All the forces of the interventionists were under the command of the British, in general, the contingent of troops was international and included a British flotilla of 20 ships and aircraft, about 5 thousand soldiers of the US Army, 14 battalions of the countries of the British Commonwealth (Canadian brigade and Australian infantry), 2000 French as well as 1000 British-Serbian and Polish shooters.
    The main goal, for which in 1918 the international contingent began to land [in Russia], is, of course, the protection of military depots. Quite large reserves of material resources were stored in the north of the country, which the allies delivered to Russia through the north. And [the countries of the Entente] had great fears that this weaponry and other values ​​might fall to their opponents in World War I - the countries of the Fourth Union, primarily Germany. Thus, the allies at the initial stage of the intervention considered the goal to protect these resources, and it was the protection of these warehouses that was the initial pretext for the landing in the north of the country. In the future, along with the desire to restore at least some form of the Eastern Front of the First World War, the Allies, of course, pursued primarily their national interests.
  16. Tests
    Tests 13 August 2018 21: 38
    0
    As in the 19th century, during the Crimean War, the subjects of the British crown robbed the Barents Sea and the White Sea, so in the 20th century they were robbed. The only thing that distinguished them was the ability to build concentration camps, they trained on drills. Yokanga and Mudyug are traces of civilized Europe in the wild North of Russia ... The Ministry of Emergency Situations constantly and today destroys explosive gifts of "installer" (as the storyteller Stepan Pisakhov called them) from the banks of Onega, Vaga and Northern Dvina.
    1. Koshnitsa
      Koshnitsa 13 August 2018 22: 06
      -2
      Pomors massively went for war to fight.
      In, soaring, business!
  17. Tests
    Tests 13 August 2018 23: 04
    0
    Koshnitsa (Sergei), dear, there was such a word and deed - mobilization. The mobilized Pomors set up blockhouses along Mehrenga for the British. "Bloody Chekists" did not touch those mobilized. And in the Finnish and Great Patriotic War, they (formerly mobilized) fought "for the Reds" ... Some of the mobilized sailors and stokers with "instructors" went to England on steamers and returned back, and some remained there. The Civil War is the worst of all wars ...
  18. Koshnitsa
    Koshnitsa 14 August 2018 13: 12
    0
    Quote: Tests
    "Bloody Chekists" did not touch those mobilized

    Oh really. I know the grandchildren who closed their visas for serving with Miller’s grandfathers. The Soviet government never forgave anyone.
    There were some devils in Shencurat, the Pomors fought well.
  19. faterdom
    faterdom 3 November 2018 01: 20
    0
    On the island of Mudyug in the delta of Sev. Dvina civilized British organized a concentration camp. Well, it is customary for them, the burden of a white man to carry the gifts of civilization to wild peoples.
    The so-called English Cemetery has survived from their campaign in the city center. Well-groomed - the UK regularly allocates money for its maintenance. This is how we digest the English quite calmly. Even if they want to increase it - we will allocate a place - let them come. It's not a pity for "partners".