Military Review

How white occupied the capital of Kuban

60
100 years ago, in August 1918, the Volunteer Army took Yekaterinodar during the Second Kuban campaign. Thus, the whites took the most important political and military center of the region of the entire North Caucasus.


How white occupied the capital of Kuban


Beginning of the campaign

After a successful uprising on the Don, White faced the question of where to strike. Ataman Krasnov offered to go to Tsaritsyn. However, the volunteers who were in conflict with the Cossack government of Krasnov decided to go to Kuban again and defeat the North Caucasian grouping of the Red Army. Thus, the whites received a safe rear (in the North Caucasus there was a powerful Red grouping that could hit the Don region from the south), captured the rear warehouses of the former Caucasian front, the region was rich in food and other resources and could hope for the support of the local population, primarily the Cossacks .

Denikin designated the strategic task of the campaign as follows: “to seize Commerce, thereby interrupting the railway communication of the North Caucasus with central Russia; then covering yourself with Tsaritsyn, turn on Tikhoretskaya. By seizing this important hub of the North Caucasus roads, ensuring the operation from the north and south of the capture of Kuschevka and the Caucasus, continue to go to Ekaterinodar to seize this military and political center of the region and the entire North Caucasus. ”

9 - 10 (22 - 23) June 1918, the Volunteer Army (YES) launched the Second Kuban campaign (Second Kuban campaign). Before the start of the campaign, the Volunteer Army consisted of 5 infantry regiments, 8 cavalry regiments, 5 with half the batteries, a total number of 8,5 — 9 thousands of bayonets and sabers with an 21 gun. The regiments were reduced to divisions: the 1 Division of General S.L. Markov, the 2 Division of General A. A. Borovsky, the 3 Division of Colonel M. G. Drozdovsky, the 1 Cavalry Division of General I. G. Erdely . In addition, the 1-I Kuban Cossack Brigade of General V.L. Pokrovsky was in the army, and a detachment of Don Cossacks was subordinated to the army for the first period of the operation.

The first serious battle took place on 12 (25) on June, when the Volunteer Army captured Commerce (now Salsk) and Shablievka. The merchant volunteers provided themselves with ammunition. It also equipped their first armored train. In strategic terms, the Volunteer Army for a long time cut the railway linking the Kuban and the Stavropol Territory with Central Russia. However, the whites suffered a heavy loss - Sergei Markov died in battle. Markov’s death was no less significant for the Volunteer Army than the death of Kornilov. General Markov in many respects personified the idea of ​​volunteering, it was his energy and fighting qualities that greatly helped the Kornilov people to retreat from under Ekaterinodar during the First Kuban campaign, which ended in defeat and nearly led to the death of the DA. Markov really was a talented commander and leader. The expression "Where is Markov - there is victory" was not an empty boast. It was not for nothing that Markov was called the “Spire of the Volunteer Army” (Alekseev was “mind”, Kornilov was “heart”). Killed one of the best commanders of the White movement. By order of the commander of the 1 officers 'regiment, he became known as the "1 officers' regiment of General Markov regiment". The Markov regiment, later deployed to the division, became one of the best units of the White Army.

After the victory at Torgovaya, Denikin undertook the second operation. He did not immediately go to the Kuban, first turned to the north. For further offensive in the direction of Tikhoretskaya, the volunteers needed to provide their rear (railway station of Torgovaya station) and to facilitate the task of keeping the southeastern district (Salsky district) to the Dontsians, for which it was necessary to break up a strong Red group with the center in the village of Velikypnyazheskaya. In the rear, 2's division of Borovskiy was left as a barrier, while the rest of 15 (28) troops attacked the Reds from Grand Duke on June. 1-I and 3-I divisions crossed the Manych and hit the village from the north and south. Erdeli's horse division, which faced the task of evacuating the Grand Duke from the east and completing the encirclement and rout of the enemy, could not overcome the stubborn resistance of Dumenko's cavalry and cross the river. As a result, the Manych group of Reds, although they were defeated, were not completely destroyed. The volunteer army secured the rear for an offensive on the Kuban. Denikin handed over the Grand Prince Don Cossacks, and they developed an offensive and soon went to the approaches to Tsaritsyn, causing a great commotion. This attack temporarily disoriented the Red Army command.

Peschanokopsky and White Clay

Denikin led the troops to the Kuban. They were moving in an accelerated march, the infantry was seated on carts, and a homemade armored train was ahead. The Reds, who had been defeated under Torgovaya, under the command of Verevkin, retreated to the Peschanokopsky and White Clay areas, blocking the way to Tikhoretskaya. Here the Reds had a strong support of the population, the locals actively joined the militia — Peschanokopskoye and Belaya Glina were populous and richest villages of the Tikhoretskaya railway line and hotbeds of Bolshevism in the province. The Reds, having joined the ranks with mobilization, came out to meet the enemy. A stubborn frontal battle ensued. The divisions of Borovsky and Drozdovsky broke into the outskirts twice and beat them twice. Having only noticed that they were being bypassed, the Reds retreated to White Clay.

The White Army stopped for a few days to rest in Peschanokopskaya. On the night of 5 (June 22), Denikin's troops marched on White Clay. Denikin planned to surround the village from all sides. All columns were ordered to launch an offensive in such a way as to attack White Clay at dawn on July 6: Borovsky from the north, Drozdovsky along the railway, Kutepova from the south. By the evening of 5 July, Erdeli with the Kuban Cossacks had to occupy Novopokrovskaya stanitsa and the station with It, destroy the railway, cover volunteers from Tikhoretskaya and cut off the retreat to the west in red. Near this large village, the Reds gathered a significant grouping, hastily redeploying to it parts of the 39 Division of the old army, the Steel Division, the Redneck Division and smaller units from the detachment defeated under Torgovaya, Velikopnyazhesky and Peschanokopsky. The core of the grouping was the "Steel" division of the Redneck and a detachment of sailors. Red Nachdiv launched an emergency mobilization of men between the ages of 17 and 45. However, the events unfolded with such speed that mobilization could not be carried out to the end - the white attack on the village prevented this.

By the evening of July 5, units of the Drozdovsky 3 Division approached the village and engaged in a fierce battle with the Reds. Drozdovtsy hoped to take the village a sudden night attack, but she failed. Drozdovtsy were discovered and ran into machine-gun fire. Colonel M.A. Zhebrak (Zhebrak-Rusanovich, Drozdovsky’s closest ally) personally led to the attack two battalions of his 2 Officer Rifle Regiment, leaving one battalion in reserve. In the 2 hour of the night of July 6 (23), the advancing chains and regiment headquarters came under heavy fire from the Reds' machine-gun battery and lost about 400 people (80 officers were killed and before 300 was wounded), including the regiment commander and all his officers who were killed headquarters. According to Denikin, Zhebrak “led the regiment innocently”, moving the fighters forward without intelligence and having finally attacked the Red Army’s strong position. According to the Drozdovites, a seriously wounded Zhebrak with other officers was captured and killed after terrible torture. According to Anton Turkul, “our commander was obviously badly wounded in the attack. The Reds captured him still alive, beat him with butts, tortured him, burned him on fire. He was tortured. He was burned alive. ” The lieutenant of the horse artillery V. Matasov recalled that after the battle, more than 100 bodies of Drozdov's were found, among which are the corpses of 43 officers and Colonel Zhebrak. “The bodies were disfigured by torture and bullying; many had their ears, noses, tongues cut off, their arms and legs twisted. Some officers were burned alive after being wounded. The regiment [ovnik] Zhebrak was also burned, ”writes Matasov.


Commander of the 2 th officer rifle regiment of the 3 division in the Volunteer Army, Colonel Mikhail Antonovich
Zhebrak-Rusanovich

On the morning of July 6, when the remaining parts of the YES approached the village, the assault resumed. Having made a round from the south of the enemy’s position, Kutepov broke through with the Kornilovites, from the west - Borovsky. Boil a street fight. Red began to depart to the east. Soon the departure turned into a hectic escape. White cavalry pursued and dispersed the enemy. About 5 thousand people were captured, many red hid. Began white terror. The enraged Drozdists, who wanted to avenge the death of their comrades, broke up into small groups, walked around the courtyards of the village, and searched for the Red Army men, doing trial and reprisals over them. Also, a monetary contribution in 2, 5 million rubles was imposed on the village for resistance - in punishment for the armed resistance of the White Army. Drozdovsky himself pointed out those prisoners of the Red Army who, in his opinion, should be shot immediately. When the general got tired of it, then, according to the memoirist D. B. Bologovsky, “the rest were all shot wholesale”. In addition, in front of the population of Belaya Glina, specially convened for the occasion on the square, the public execution of two commissars - a native of White Clay Kalaida and a commissar in charge of Peschanokopskaya defense was arranged.

In total for 3 of the day by the verdict of the military court (the role of the prosecutor performed by Lieutenant Zelenin) was shot from 1500 to 2000 of the Red Army captured in the area of ​​the Drozdovskaya division. Drozdovsky and Drozdovtsy in those days were particularly brutal. Probably, General I. T. Belyaev writes in his memoirs about the episode Beloglinsky: “Going outside the gate, I came across a group of young officers, hurrying to the station with rifles in their hands. Ahead was Drozdovsky himself in a cap with a white band on the back of his head, charging the rifle on the move with an excited look ... - Where are you going? I asked, puzzled, by one of the overtaking officers. - To the station! He answered on the go. - They collected prisoners of the Red Army, we will shoot them, to attract young people. A distraught old woman ran after them. “My son,” she pleaded, “give me my son!”

The Kornilov and Markovites also captured prisoners: commissars, sailors and volunteers from the villagers were shot, and the peasant guys were tried to be put into operation, forming the Soldiers regiment, later renamed Samursky. These first prisoners were called in the Markov brigade "Beloglinsky volunteers." The peasants of White Clay, frightened by executions, put white bandages on their caps and said: “We are white!” In the village, an attempt was made to create a “Assistance Committee of the Volunteer Army” - it was assumed that he would be engaged in setting up nutritional and linen points for wounded White Guards at train stations . Nothing good, however, came out of this idea.

As a result, the bloody terror of the volunteers, conducted by them in White Clay, only embittered the population and increased the notoriety of the Volunteer Army, rumors of the cruelty of which continued to spread throughout the Kuban. Denikin had to personally stop this bloodbath. According to Denikin, who reprimanded Drozdovsky for this massacre, the time for the evolution of the attitude of volunteers to prisoners has not yet come, the bestial beginning, which owned equally red and white, has not yet been eradicated in a voluntary environment. Cruelty engendered cruelty, and mutual brutality of the parties reached an extreme limit.

It was only after these severe defeats that the Soviet leadership in the region apparently realized the full danger of the Volunteer Army. 7 July (24 June Art. 194) 1-s Extraordinary Congress of Soviets of the North Caucasus was convened in Ekaterinodar, which decided to unite all the Soviet republics (Kuban-Black Sea, Stavropol, Terek) into a single North-Caucasian SSR. The main goal pursued by the Soviet leaders is the fight against whites. A. Rubin, the former chairman of the Kuban-Black Sea SNK, became the chairman of the Central Election Commission of the Republic. The commander of the North Caucasus Red Army was K. Kalnin. Obviously, the decision on such an association was late, it was necessary to do this much earlier. The region was completely cut off from the center (from the north - the Don region, from the south - anti-Soviet Transcaucasia, the message on the Black and Caspian seas is extremely difficult), which dictated the need for close cooperation and rigid centralization at the local level for the survival and preservation of Soviet power in the region. At the same time, the Reds initially had large military forces, military reserves, relied on the territory rich in various resources and human reserves.


Volunteer Army soldiers near tank "General Drozdovsky"

To be continued ...
Author:
Articles from this series:
Smoot. 1918 year

How to create a volunteer army
How the battle for the Don began
"Your talk is not needed by the working people. The guard is tired!"
100 years of the Workers 'and Peasants' Red Army and Navy
Who incited the Civil War
White fought for the interests of the West
Anti-Russian and anti-state white project
How "Ukrainian Chimera" incited the Civil War
How to create Ukraine and the "Ukrainian people"
How the red took Kiev
Victory of the Red Army on the Don
Bloody Battle of the Ice Campaign
How Kornilov stormed Ekaterinodar
Destined to die? Died with honor!
People against power
How Drozdovtsy broke through on the Don
How drozdovtsy stormed Rostov
Don Republic Ataman Krasnov
West helped the Bolsheviks?
Why did the West support both red and white?
Why do Czechoslovak murderers and looters erect monuments in Russia
Second Kuban campaign
Eastern Front Education
Why did they kill the Russian tsar?
Rise of the Left Social Revolutionaries and its weirdness
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  1. Olgovich
    Olgovich 2 August 2018 06: 39
    +3
    . In this case, the Reds initially had large military forces, military reserves, relied on a territory rich in various resources and human reserves.


    And still, a small army of Russian patriots, without weapons, without resources, defeated the rebels.
    Chronicle of the glorious deeds of the Volunteer Army ...
    1. rkkasa xnumx
      rkkasa xnumx 2 August 2018 08: 08
      +16
      Quote: Olgovich
      And still, a small army of Russian patriots, without weapons, without resources, defeated the rebels

      patriots of Russia - patriots of old Russia, backward, cruel and unfair to the majority of the population.
      without weapons, without resources - Is it like they beat your opponents with the holy spirit? lol From the same Germans, didn’t the whites accept handouts? Through Krasnova.
      But in principle, for once, one can partly agree with Olgovich. Perhaps, really - some kind of white army, opposed by the forces of the Reds, at first they were not an army with discipline, training and experience, but simply detachments of armed people who rebelled against the old hopeless life. According to gentlemen - rebels, s.
      But over time, these groups of armed people gained experience, fully realized that whites are fierce enemies whom they must mercilessly destroy, and in the end became the Red Army, which defeated the bailers good
      Quote: Olgovich
      Chronicle of Glorious Affairs of the Volunteer Army

      Chronicle of shameful and shameful acts of geeks who fought against their people.
      1. Lieutenant Teterin
        Lieutenant Teterin 2 August 2018 08: 40
        +5
        Quote: rkkasa 81
        patriots of Russia - patriots of old Russia, backward, cruel and unfair to the majority of the population.

        Is that what you called your homeland now? A country where a jury could justify you in the most hopeless situation? Where did the government program to help barren regions operate, and during the reign of revolutionary terror, military courts executed only captured criminals with weapons, and then not all.
        Truly, scratch the red, you will find a Russophobe.


        Quote: rkkasa 81
        without weapons, without resources - is it like they beat your opponents with the holy spirit? From the same Germans, didn’t the whites accept handouts? Through Krasnova.

        Under the control of the Reds, there were huge stocks of weapons and ammunition accumulated by the Russian defense industry during the years of WWII. White saved every cartridge and shell. And from Krasnov, volunteers did not accept German help; study history better.

        Quote: rkkasa 81
        just detachments of armed people who rebelled against the old hopeless life.

        Yeah. So life was so hopeless that then all rose up against the Bolsheviks — from the monarchists and Socialist-Revolutionaries. And so the people loved the Reds, that even whole cities and provinces rebelled against them.

        Quote: rkkasa 81
        Chronicle of shameful and shameful acts of geeks who fought against their people.

        You perfectly described with this phrase the acts of the Bolsheviks, who destroyed the historical center of Yaroslavl with artillery, poisoned the rebellious Tambov province with gas, killed people after they were born in "bourgeois" families and blew all of Russia with blood.
        1. rkkasa xnumx
          rkkasa xnumx 2 August 2018 09: 30
          +11
          Quote: Lieutenant Teterin
          Under the control of the Reds, there were huge stocks of weapons and ammunition accumulated by the Russian defense industry during the years of WWII.

          On the WWI fronts, the Russian army experienced problems with both weapons and ammunition. This is because the king and the EaP accumulated reserves for the Reds. OK.
          Quote: Lieutenant Teterin
          volunteers didn’t accept German help from Krasnov, study history better

          Krasnov firmly connects his rule with friendship with Germany and receives great help from it, including weapons, part of which transfers to the Volunteer Army General Denikin. In the first month and a half, the Germans handed over to Don, Kuban and the Volunteer Army 11 three-line rifles, 651 guns, 46 machine guns, 88 artillery shells and 109 rifle cartridges. A third of the artillery shells and one quarter of the cartridges were ceded to Don by the Volunteer Army.

          However, even here he hears accusations of a "German orientation" from pro-Derekinik politicians who called on Krasnov to an alliance with the Entente. During one of the sessions of the Circle, Krasnov, responding to attacks in relations with the Germans and hearing that he was given the example of the pigeon purity of the Volunteer Army, which invariably bears unwavering fidelity to its allies on its banner, exclaimed:

          - Yes, yes, gentlemen! A volunteer army is pure and infallible. But after all, it’s me, the Don Ataman, I take German shells and cartridges with my dirty hands, wash them in the waves of the Quiet Don and give them clean to the Volunteer Army! All the shame of this business lies with me! A storm of applause covered the words of the chieftain. Attacks for the "German orientation" ceased.

          “What can I say empty about loyalty to the allies,” said the Cossacks. - Who changed: Russia - to the allies or allies - to Russia? If the allies were faithful to Russia, would they have allowed such a disaster! Either they themselves are traitors, or they are so weak that we have nothing to do with them. That is what the Volunteer Army is loyal to the Allies, but how that - cartridges or shells - takes from us. Probably the Allies didn’t give her anything! ”
          Quote: Lieutenant Teterin
          then all rose up against the Bolsheviks

          Everyone rose against the Bolsheviks ... but the whites lost ... Well, against all the will of God. Apparently the Most High did not like the bells, since he sent them defeat.
          Quote: Lieutenant Teterin
          who destroyed the historical center of Yaroslavl by artillery, poisoned the rebellious Tambov province with gas, killed people after they were born in "bourgeois" families and spilled blood all over Russia

          crying crying crying
        2. BAI
          BAI 2 August 2018 11: 21
          +9
          during the reign of revolutionary terror, military courts executed only criminals seized with weapons, and not all of them.
          Truly, scratch the red, you will find a Russophobe.

          The righteous are:
          “The White Guards are very offensive to the population, especially the mothers of the Red Army were whipped with rods, and the wives and children of the workers were loaded with two barges, sent inland and burned when they began to retreat. Residents were very happy that their red saviors had come ”(Nizhny Novgorod, July 2, 1919).
          “The villains threw a bomb at the gates, and as a result of the atrocities, 8 people were killed, and this is the work of the cultural people - liberators, in the end, they will cause mass terror on our part, and all hostages on their part will be destroyed in extreme cases for their atrocities "(Petrograd province, Oranienbaum, July 4, 1919).
          “Everything is bad, but worse there is no Cossack whip. She spares no one - neither old nor small. The Cossacks did not give us any food, but took away our clothes, not only that they robbed, but we had to carry it ourselves without a penny [payment], if not, then to the field court. A lot of civilians were shot, not only men, but also women, as well as children, Cut off legs, hands, gouged out eyes " , (Samara province, Novouzensk district, July 20, 1919).
          “The White Guard gangs launched an offensive and took Zhalybek for several days. They lit a train station, a mill, barns, bread trains, a warehouse, robbed the inhabitants of the city, plundered all the institutions, took one and a half million money from our executive committee and fled. There were victims ”(Astrakhan province, Astrakhan, August 9, 1919).
          “Cossacks stood close to us and in Baland we set up 18 thousand soldiers, almost by force on the huts. "The peasants are all terribly dissatisfied with their mischief, they climb into gardens, kitchen gardens, etc." (Saratov province, Balanda, July 10, 1919).
          “Cossacks, as soon as they occupy our locality, select the best horses” (Voronezh, July 26, 1919).
          “The whites came to us, many were brutally beaten and shot. White defeated everything and took away all the cattle. White mobilized until the age of 35. In Ucha, 60 Red Army soldiers who were captured were shot; they take away all that is from the prisoners and take away the money ”(Vyatka province, Vyatka Polyana, July 18, 1919).
          “In the spring we had a white army, and then our rich arrived. They began to search, arrested, and then began to lash, so that got 200 pieces each ”(Vyatka province, Karakulup, July 18, 1919).
          “The whites took out our whole oats from us, did not have time to sow, and also took things and clothes from us” (Vyatka province, Luke, August 13, 1919).
          “They met the whole villages running away from the Cossacks on oxen and horses, leading whole herds of cattle from the Don region”, (Saratov province, Atkarsky uyezd, village of Yungerovka, July 28, 1919).
          Etc. - the list is endless.
          Truly, scratch the white - you will find a liar and a hypocrite.
        3. Sugar Honeyovich
          Sugar Honeyovich 2 August 2018 15: 42
          +10
          Quote: Lieutenant Teterin
          That life was so hopeless

          How much? Contemporaries evaluated that life as follows:
          "I don’t understand the rich, I’ve been trained before everything, they understand all the strangers, they speak all languages. With us, however, they won’t find a joint word. It’s not from one homeland."

          "Whatever you say to him - he’s all in your face ... For" exactly "and then - in the mouth ... Well, my strength is gone, but you can’t complain, they don’t accept complaints about gentlemen officers ..."

          "I could not bear it. What am I, boy, or something, to beat me? He came and reported, and instead of truth, beat me again in punishment cell. And he returned - they scoffed at me ..."

          "The true truth, comrade, that you can’t put up with it soon. Now they’ll call you“ hey ”, and soon they will order you to go on a dog’s whistle”

          "... Zhenka writes: our merchant insults me so far - it’s just impossible to live. I decided this way: we were not intercessors for ourselves, it happened to us that we did it, but now we have learned it. Every day I go under death , so that my woman wouldn’t be given cereals, but for sin ... If they let me go now, they’ll drive the flock back to the war ... No, I decided: I’ll return the knife to Onufry’s belly ... I’ve learned, it’s not scary .. "I think that they will not be executed, but they will, so they will all get tired ..."

          "In my memory, it was just feasting, and we swelled on rye kvass. And with our fathers and grandfathers, our peasants’s blood was poured under pink bushes. Let our children don’t admire such memos. We need to take it down."

          "A simple man from birth is a revolutionary. He tries his needs with a zhamen, sees all the tight things on his parents. From an early age, he is too busy to work, and none of the smooth and well-fed ones is not an adviser, but a bloodsucker. So he reckons to kick, if he doesn't."


          Quote: Lieutenant Teterin
          so the people loved the Reds, that even whole cities and provinces rebelled against them.


          And how did the people relate to the whites?

          “There is a storm over all the huts, a moan is. To the old teacher:“ How many, ”they ask,“ did you teach here? ” And she’s been here for more than thirty years. She said. "So, they say," you have trained the local communists too, you will receive a pension for that, "and through her face with a whip."
          “I have seen Kornilov-General many times. ... A brave general, but he cannot stand a soldier, a soldier of God cut him up, he ate. He didn’t have to expect good from him, even though he is the main one with us.”

          "That's not easy - these are white officers. After all, they were our commanders, they fought one war. And every brother was like a relative. We should have earned them so much that besides bile, the soldier had nothing for them not left. "

          "He holds my hand, politely says. But I feel sick nauseously, before I disliked officers in the German war. I feel good from them."

          “I’ll say: White beat me the worst. They beat me, in four places my left leg was killed. My right moldy. I asked for death - they didn’t give it, they didn’t have enough time, ours came up.”

          "The whites came in, I was recovering in the infirmary, weak as a moth. Three officers fluttered up, clicked their whips on their boots, rang out spurs in all the houses, fluttered out. But we were locked and set on fire. It’s good that the authorities changed, the burning burning doors opened."

          "We began to approach the place, something our little boy became summed up. We are trying." Yes here, - he says, - my mother and family. Didn’t they become something for my red star? " We went with him. The house was opened, there wasn’t a soul in the house, and a girl was hanging on a cherry in the garden, sister. And they found the whole little boy’s relatives, who were in the house, who were drowned in a well "

          "In that war - from under the stick, against the German, for the benefit of others. But as for yourself, but against the blood enemy, you are fighting with pleasure."

          And compared to them red:
          “The Communists have completely cleaned us up, they haven’t left a grain. All the labors are like a cow. They just put me in the unit with the officers, and that night, I heard one prayer from them, the people of the whip to subjugation. I escaped from volunteers, joined the bandits "Yes, the will hurt, I can’t wait: at the crossroads of the comrades I will meet again."
          (S. Fedorchenko "People in the war")
          1. Gopnik
            Gopnik 2 August 2018 16: 15
            0
            Good Soviet agitation, solid! Although the first volume, published during freedom of speech, is not bad from the point of view of reliability.
      2. Moskovit
        Moskovit 2 August 2018 08: 47
        +10
        Quote: rkkasa 81
        But over time, these groups of armed people gained experience, fully realized that whites are fierce enemies whom they must mercilessly destroy, and in the end became the Red Army, which defeated the bailers

        Moreover, so many former officers, including former white ones, began to serve in the Red Army, which made it possible to form a full-fledged army.
        But the Drozdovites showed themselves later. For example, one of the former commanders of the Turkul regiment devotedly served the Nazis.
        1. Lieutenant Teterin
          Lieutenant Teterin 2 August 2018 09: 00
          +2
          Quote: Moskovit
          For example, one of the former commanders of the Turkul regiment devotedly served the Nazis.


          А Soviet General Vlasov completely went over to the Nazis and led an army of collaborators.
          1. Moskovit
            Moskovit 2 August 2018 09: 26
            +7
            With Vlasov, everything is clear. A traitor with ambition. But no one put them in a concentration camp, didn’t threaten, didn’t tempt them, they themselves, repeating about honor and Russia, went into the service of the most terrible enemy of the country
          2. BAI
            BAI 2 August 2018 11: 26
            +5
            And the Soviet general Vlasov completely turned over to the Nazis

            150 White Guard generals (Krasnov, Shkuro, etc.) in the service of Hitler will we recount?
        2. The comment was deleted.
        3. RUSS
          RUSS 3 August 2018 13: 11
          0
          Quote: Moskovit
          Moreover, so many former officers, including former white ones, began to serve in the Red Army, which made it possible to form a full-fledged army.

          The strength of the Red Army by the end of 1920 reached 5,5 million people. Together with people who formally did not belong to the Red Army but carried weapons (Cheka troops, emergency troops, internal security forces), 6 million were put under arms, that is, more than 6% of the total population, including old people, children and women living then in Russia.
          Repression and famine drove people into the Red Army. The soldiers received the Red Army ration, on which it was possible to survive in those hungry 1919-1920 years. (For comparison: a dependent of the bourgeois strata was supposed to have 1 egg and 0,5 kg of bread per year.)

          But even from such an army they tried to escape. In the official data of the Soviet period, published at the end of the 70s, the numbers of deserters who voluntarily returned to the Red Army were given - 700-900 thousand people a year. Behind the scenes was how many deserters did not return. At least another 650-680 thousand annually forcibly, after mass raids, was delivered to the fronts. At the VIII Party Congress in March 1919, one of the leaders of the Red Army, Grigory Sokolnikov, described the state of the Red Army as follows: “Heroism of individuals and banditry of the bulk”.
          1. Warrior2015
            Warrior2015 3 August 2018 21: 24
            +1
            Quote: RUSS
            At the Eighth Party Congress in March 1919, one of the leaders of the Red Army, Grigory Sokolnikov, described the state of the Red Army as follows: “Heroism of individuals and banditry of the mainstream”.

            Very true words however!
      3. Olgovich
        Olgovich 2 August 2018 09: 47
        0
        Quote: rkkasa 81
        patriots of Russia - patriots of old Russia, backward, cruel and unfair to the majority of the population.

        Patriots of that Russiawhere there never was an island of cannibals Nazino on the Ob, where there were never 13 million dead in terrible torment of starvation in the 20th century, where 600 people were never shot in a year (in peace time!), where there was no terrible, unprecedented in the world of the Bolshevik abortion "culture" (000 million children killed by abortion, the 180st place in the world), where a million children were not exiled to huts in the North in winter, where there was no Russian cross and unprecedented defeat for 000 years, but where there was freedom of speech, assembly, thoughts, choices.
        Quote: rkkasa 81
        without weapons, without resources - is it like they beat your opponents with the holy spirit?

        Yes, until March 1919 I had to take ALL years with a fight: while whites fought on the fronts with the German invaders, traitors who did not smell gunpowder seized the property of the Russian Army in the rear.
        There were losses because of this ...
        Quote: rkkasa 81
        no army of whites, opposed by the forces of the red, at first they were not an army with discipline, training and experience, but simply detachments of armed people who rebelled against old hopeless of life. According to gentlemen - rebels, s.

        Only 40 years later, even those very few who survived the endless “battles” (with huge sacrifices) for bread, for garlic, for the harvest, for the collective farm, etc., were able to devour like in a “hopeless” life.
        Quote: rkkasa 81
        about over time, these are simply armed troops

        The Reds had EVERYTHING: property and weapons of the 12 millionth army, factories, industrial centers. And yet Russia resisted for 4 years !.
        Either the Bolsheviks’s case in 91m: -: the "advanced detachment of society" fled quietly faster than the speed of light yes
        Quote: rkkasa 81
        Chronicle of shameful and shameful acts of geeks who fought against their people

        The people CHOSE them in the popular elections in the Parliament, the Bolsheviks shamefully lost the election.
        1. Army soldier2
          Army soldier2 2 August 2018 10: 43
          +4
          Quote: Olgovich

          Patriots of that Russia, where ... 600 000 people were never shot in a year (in peacetime!) ...

          I apologize for interfering in your emotional discussion, but is it possible in more detail about the 600000 shot per year?
          It seems that the figures of victims of repression have long been published, the results of the research are accessible and recognized as adequate by representatives of both parties. If memory serves me right, then for all the time of repressions under the 58 article and "related" articles, up to 640000 people were convicted. Condemned, not shot. For all the time of repression, and not for a year.
          I am generally against terror, both red and white. But you have to argue honestly!
          In 1990, the Museum of the Revolution hosted an exhibition of posters from the Civil War. As for the whites, that of the red posters were very similar - they accused each other of atrocities.
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 2 August 2018 10: 54
            -2
            Quote: Army 2
            I apologize for interfering in your emotional discussion, but is it possible in more detail about the 600000 shot per year?

            Help Pavlova well-known and undeniable by anyone. Type in a search engine.
            The main executions took place within one year: from August 1937 to September 1938.
          2. Alex_59
            Alex_59 2 August 2018 11: 02
            +6
            Quote: Army 2
            but is it possible in more detail about the 600000 shot per year?

            Not certainly in that way. We are talking about 680 thousands of sentences to VMN under the 58-th article of the Criminal Code of the USSR, issued during two calendar years 1937-th and 1938-th years. That is, in fact, during the leadership of Yezhov. Yezhov, in fact, no one justifies. True, everything is very subtle here, because under the 58-th article, thieves, real pests, and other deservedly condemned villains quite successfully passed, but entered by the investigators not into a simple thief’s article, but with the accused’s alleged “political intent” that the investigator allegedly saw. Well, the innocent victims, too, of course, only what kind of share of the innocent does not know anyone. In total, under the 58-th article from 1921 to 1953 years, about 800 thousand sentences were sentenced to VMN. In other years, it’s zero at all.
            The bakers do not crawl into these little things, but joyfully jump on the bones of these convicted people, diligently using this tragedy to water the history of our Motherland (specifically, its Soviet period). No attempt to be objective. Considering that a significant part of the bakeries are former political officers of the construction battalions and other Komsomol workers, this is understandable - thinking with your head is not their hobby, but it is easier to replace the now obsolete dogmas with new ones - and more. I think the point here is not in the political system of the state that raised them, but in the general nature of the kind of homo, in which, unfortunately, this type of people always falls into such positions under any government.
            1. Gopnik
              Gopnik 2 August 2018 13: 14
              -1
              Quote: Alex_59
              Not certainly in that way.


              And what exactly is "not quite so"? You wrote exactly the same thing - 600 000 shot for 12 months.
              1. Alex_59
                Alex_59 2 August 2018 14: 02
                0
                Quote: Gopnik
                And what exactly is "not quite so"? You wrote exactly the same thing - 600 000 shot for 12 months.

                Comrade Armeec wrote that if his memory serves him, then 600 of thousands is for all the time of repression and not shot, but condemned. I corrected him that for all the years of repression from 1921 to 1953, not 58, but 600 of thousands of people were shot under the 800 article. That is, for 32 of the year - 800 of thousands of VMNs under the 58-th article. Of these, in the years of Yezhov’s leadership - 680 thousand, (approximately for 1 year), and in the remaining 31 year comes 800-680 = 120 thousand sentences of VMN.
                1. Gopnik
                  Gopnik 2 August 2018 15: 35
                  0
                  A, clear. Something like that, yes, I agree
            2. Sergej1972
              Sergej1972 4 August 2018 16: 07
              0
              The Criminal Code of the USSR never existed; the Criminal Code of the Union Republics.
        2. rkkasa xnumx
          rkkasa xnumx 2 August 2018 11: 02
          +4
          Well, only I was glad that Olgovich became at least a little sane, as he immediately returned to his usual state ...
          Quote: Olgovich
          that Russia, where there never was an island of cannibals Nazino on the Ob, where there were never 13 million people who died in terrible torment of starvation in the 20th century, where 600 people were never shot in a year (in peacetime!), where it was not terrible, unprecedented in the world Bolshevik abortion "culture" (000 million children killed by abortion-180 place in the world), where a million children were not exiled to huts to the North in winter, where there was no Russian Cross and an unprecedented defeat for 000 years, but where there was freedom of speech, meetings, thoughts, choices.

          It’s good that I read it in the afternoon, I would read it in the evening - I could not sleep with horror belay wassat fellow
          I especially liked the story of millions of kids in the North ... in the huts ...
          Quote: Olgovich
          until March 1919, EVERYTHING had to be fought: while the whites fought on the fronts with the German invaders.

          Here you need to clarify - yes, the Blya fought with the Germans - together with the Germans, hand in hand with the invaders, against Soviet Russia.
          Quote: Olgovich
          traitors who did not smell gunpowder seized the property of the Russian Army in the rear.

          Zhukov, Rokossovsky, Budyonny, Chapaev ... yeah, they didn’t smell gunpowder laughing
          Quote: Olgovich
          Only 40 years later, even those very few who survived the endless “battles” (with huge sacrifices) for bread, for garlic, for the harvest, for the collective farm, etc., were able to devour like in a “hopeless” life.

          Mr. Treplo, you have been poked into your bullshit so many times, and you’re still sick stop
          Quote: Olgovich
          The Reds had EVERYTHING: property and weapons of the 12 millionth army, factories, industrial centers. And yet Russia resisted for 4 years!

          Not, all the same, it is true - if a person is d and t, then this is for a long time. A man writes at the same time about the enormous forces of the Bolsheviks, and then - about the fact that Russia resisted these very Bolsheviks ... Mr. Treplo, where did the Bolsheviks get a huge army if all of Russia was against them ?! request
          Quote: Olgovich
          Either the Bolsheviks’s case in 91m: -: the "advanced detachment of society" fled quietly faster than the speed of light

          Who ran away, where, why, why quietly? What are you talking about?
          You better remember about the tsar-priest, how he was supported in February 17th lol
          Quote: Olgovich
          The people CHOSE them at the popular elections in the CSS

          Yes, yes, the people so wanted the bailers that they fought the whole Civil yes
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 2 August 2018 11: 32
            0
            Quote: rkkasa 81
            I especially liked the story of millions of kids in the North ... in the huts ...
            2,5 million were exiled during dispossession, about 40% of them are children. 600 people died. Most of them are children. And your ernishness at the mention of this tragedy is inappropriate.
            Quote: rkkasa 81
            Here it is required to clarify - yes, the Bylya fought with the Germans - together with the Germans, hand in hand with the invaders, against Soviet Russia.

            fool

            Quote: rkkasa 81
            Zhukov, Rokossovsky, Budyonny, Chapaev ... yeah, they didn’t smell gunpowder

            They had no sides to the leadership of the country: see the composition of the SNK (one People's Commissar Krylenko with, hiding with pubic eczema from the front of what it costs! lol ) By the way, recognized as a spy and bandit
            Quote: rkkasa 81
            Not, all the same, it is true - if a person and then it is for a long time.

            Do not put an end to yourself, more optimism! yes
            Quote: rkkasa 81
            Who ran away, where, why, why quietly? What are you talking about?

            The Communist Party of the Soviet Union ran up. Forgot this fact? Or I missed the millions of communist demonstrations led by members lol Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union? Their furious congresses, strikes, fights? lol
            Quote: rkkasa 81
            Yes, yes, the people so wanted the bailers that they fought the whole Civil

            3 (three)% of the population took part in the GV (on both sides). What kind of people, dear man? fool
      4. GUSAR
        GUSAR 2 August 2018 20: 27
        0
        Come on! And whose red people poisoned, huh?
    2. Jerk
      Jerk 2 August 2018 13: 03
      +5
      Who are the patriots? The tank in the last photo - where did the "unarmed" come from? And why did the whites then run into the Donbass, is it because their HOST of the French had a lot of property there, which the patriot of his master had to protect? By the way, Slashchev was therefore dismissed, he was against it. But there are many “patriots,” and Slashchev is alone.
      Glorious Annals - 2000 prisoners of war to solve ...
    3. Looking for
      Looking for 2 August 2018 19: 00
      +3
      Little, little crime, the Red Army shot the White Guards, it was necessary as in the Middle Ages, to the seventh generation.
  2. Moskovit
    Moskovit 2 August 2018 07: 51
    +8
    Quote: Olgovich

    And still, a small army of Russian patriots, without weapons, without resources, defeated the rebels.
    Chronicle of the glorious deeds of the Volunteer Army ...

    Smashed, smashed. So much so that Denikin later celebrated victory in Paris.
    1. Lieutenant Teterin
      Lieutenant Teterin 2 August 2018 08: 13
      +4
      In this battle - smashed. And this is a historical fact.
    2. Olgovich
      Olgovich 2 August 2018 10: 02
      +1
      Quote: Moskovit
      Smashed, smashed. Yes, so that Denikin then victory in Paris celebrated.

      On the State Flag of Russia watch over the Kremlin every day!
      This is the banner under which A.I. fought all his life in the name of Russia. Denikin, who rested with honor in MOSCOW. yes
      1. rkkasa xnumx
        rkkasa xnumx 2 August 2018 10: 27
        +7
        Quote: Olgovich
        Look at the State Flag of Russia over the Kremlin every day!
        This is the banner under which A.I. fought all his life in the name of Russia. Denikin, who rested with honor in MOSCOW.

        You don’t even have to look at the flag - and so it’s immediately clear whose power is now in the country. Rising prices for housing and communal services, pension tricks, the degradation of medicine, education, science, industry, drug addiction, the extinction of the population, rampant crime and embezzlement - all this clearly indicates that the power in Russia seized power. Temporarily yes
      2. BAI
        BAI 2 August 2018 12: 09
        +4
        A.I. Denikin, who rested with honor in MOSCOW.
        We have memorial plaques hanging to the fascist-Manerheim.
        And who in 1946 year called on the United States and its allies to attack the USSR?
        Since the future portends the inevitable struggle between democratic peace-loving countries and the Soviets, whatever the forms of struggle, immediate steps must be taken to guarantee the most favorable conditions during the upcoming conflict.

        further from the war plan:


        b. In the event of the occupation of Russian territory, immediately establish Russian self-government and, at the earliest opportunity, encourage the creation of a temporary central government on Russian lands, formed from Russian citizens with the possible participation of specially selected emigrants.

        at. Under no circumstances should any of Russia's neighbors be allowed to participate in military administration in the occupied provinces of Russia. An interim military government should be formed exclusively under the auspices of disinterested and supportive great powers.

        The occupation and government of the invaders. The greatest patriot!
      3. Jerk
        Jerk 2 August 2018 13: 05
        +3
        And next time you are at the parade - to the red banners of military units. And who broke them?
        1. Gopnik
          Gopnik 2 August 2018 13: 16
          0
          There were red banners at the military units and under the tsar-priest. And by the way, modern banners are made in imperial style.
          1. Jerk
            Jerk 2 August 2018 13: 22
            +2

            Sickle with a hammer you large in the photo highlight?
            1. Gopnik
              Gopnik 2 August 2018 13: 41
              +2
              These are historical banners (and the modern army does not refuse the legacy of the Red Army, like the imperial one), the banners of the military unit of the modern type look different. And by the way, the photo, judging by the form, is quite old.
              1. Jerk
                Jerk 2 August 2018 14: 03
                +5
                In the news of 2018, and the banners of the "broken" (c) armies in the parades are not winked
                As for the continuity - with the Red Army there is for sure. Something in the state from the Empire is also visible. But here neither those nor the others have any relation to the whites, and, which is logical, in principle, they cannot have.
                What connection, in principle, can a country have with mercenaries who fought, if not dodge, against their own country with foreign money?
                "Tunic English,
                Shoulder strap french
                Japanese tobacco,
                Ruler of Omsk. "
                1. Gopnik
                  Gopnik 2 August 2018 15: 40
                  +1
                  Quote: Jerk
                  What connection, in principle, can a country have with mercenaries who fought, if not dodge, against their own country with foreign money?


                  I don’t know, in the USSR with them, i.e. by the Bolsheviks, they maintained communications and continuity (although they returned the Russian uniform, epaulettes, officers, St. George’s ribbon, etc.), now they also do not refuse to the end.
                  Although I’m sure that when the last citizens educated in the USSR (that is, with brain-clogged lies) leave, there will be less and less continuity
                  1. Jerk
                    Jerk 2 August 2018 15: 52
                    +1
                    What does the whites have to do with it? The imperial army is possible. Because and the USSR was actually an empire. It would be difficult for the Red Army to defend Crimea from the Germans in World War II, considering itself the heirs of the whites ... I remember that Slashchev, the “patriot,” yes, had a special German battalion in Crimea - from the occupying colonists ... That's just under them and mow the Red Army! And at the same time under Krasnova with Shkuro, even though at birth he had a surname more precisely - Skur.
                    1. Gopnik
                      Gopnik 2 August 2018 16: 20
                      +1
                      And the so-called (mostly red) “whites” is the Russian army.

                      Quote: Jerk
                      It would be difficult for the Red Army to defend Crimea from the Germans in World War II, considering itself the heirs of the whites ..


                      So they did not protect him, bringing to a deafening disaster. And as they remembered about the Russian army - shoulder straps and St. George’s ribbon were introduced, the officers were returned, the commissars were driven under the bench - Crimea and freed.
                      And at the same time, the red commander, a member of the Bolshevik party and a participant in the civil war, Vlasov gears with the Germans
                      1. Jerk
                        Jerk 2 August 2018 17: 00
                        +3
                        The so-called “reds” of the officers of the Republic of Ingushetia consisted of very significant numbers. By the way, the very Slashchev who quarreled with the "patriots" who were protecting the French factories in the Donbass from the Russians — it was precisely at the officer’s courses that the shot was taught as a result ... But those with whom he quarreled - they all twisted patriotly over the hill, patriots are figs.
                        That’s the difference between an army officer and a gang — the Armed Forces in general do not have the right to go into politics, serve, not hold a rally — and the difference between the army of the Republic of Ingushetia and just whites, God forbid these icons!
  3. Lieutenant Teterin
    Lieutenant Teterin 2 August 2018 08: 09
    +3
    The article simply lists the well-known facts about the civil war. And the author made a significant inaccuracy in the description of the battles for White Clay. Speaking of the executions of the captives of the Reds, he gives figures, without indicating the source. Even General Denikin writes in his memoirs that "The next day I heard that Drozdovsky shot a lot of captured Red Army soldiers" https://www.runivers.ru/bookreader/book479776/#pa
    ge / 186 / mode / 1up
    In other words, the exact number of deaths is not known reliably, and the volunteers, shocked by the bestial cruelty of the reprisal of the Reds over the captured officers, retold each other the events of the past day. Of course, against the background of emotional shock, Drozdovites avenged red for the torment of their comrades-in-arms, but as the history of the GV shows in such cases, commissars, agitators, Chekists, fanatical communists were usually killed - that is, people whose hands were in the blood of innocents to the very shoulders.
    As for the "bad glory" of the whites, it wasn’t particularly bad if it was recruited from captured Red Army soldiers (who were supposedly shot by thousands), the Samur regiment fought with dignity on the side of the whites ...
    1. phair
      phair 2 August 2018 08: 21
      +2
      So Semenova and Kalmykov can be justified. They shot about 200 people (wealthy citizens) in Khabarovsk and robbed them. Gone to China. Semenov was shot by the EMNIP in 1946.
    2. Moskovit
      Moskovit 2 August 2018 08: 27
      +5
      If the white general admitted that "a lot" means it was just a question of thousands. So the white knights were red with the blood of their own compatriots. This is one of the reasons why they were defeated. Not justifying the red terror.
      1. Lieutenant Teterin
        Lieutenant Teterin 2 August 2018 08: 59
        +3
        Please read carefully. Denikin made his opinion on the basis of rumors, he directly writes about it: "I heard." That is, not Drozdovsky and his officers did not tell Denikin about this, but he heard somewhere.
        Quote: Moskovit
        So the white knights were red with the blood of their own compatriots.

        If whites were red with blood, then red — alo-crimson. And this is precisely the reason for their victory. The Reds fettered the country with the horror of terror.
        1. Moskovit
          Moskovit 2 August 2018 09: 41
          +4
          Well, what are the rumors, my grandmother said something near the entrance. He, as army commander, was informed of these facts. Just to relieve himself of responsibility, it turned into his memoirs "I heard."
          Do you all think that the reason for the reds victory in terror? On the contrary, the country had to rebel against it.
        2. BAI
          BAI 2 August 2018 13: 13
          +4
          Quote: Lieutenant Teterin
          If whites were red with blood, then red — alo-crimson.

          Why, you, there was absolutely no blood on the whites. In the literal sense of the word:
          Kornilov: "We went to power in order to hang, but we had to hang in order to come to power."
          As in the Inquisition - "without shedding blood."
      2. Gopnik
        Gopnik 2 August 2018 13: 18
        +1
        Thousands, it’s “a lot” for the Reds, they shot it on such a scale, for the “many” White it’s already a few dozen.
    3. rkkasa xnumx
      rkkasa xnumx 2 August 2018 09: 38
      +3
      Quote: Lieutenant Teterin
      volunteers shocked by the brutal brutality of the reprisals of the red captive officers

      And on the basis of what, should we trust Drozdovites? These fiends could well justify the atrocities of the Reds to justify their own atrocities.
  4. vladimirvn
    vladimirvn 2 August 2018 12: 17
    +3
    Break! Russians beat Russians with bestial cruelty.
    1. BAI
      BAI 2 August 2018 13: 17
      +3
      This is a hallmark of all civil wars - meaningless cruelty on both sides. And the war ends "for the complete destruction of the enemy" because no compromise is possible. What we see in the comments.
    2. Looking for
      Looking for 2 August 2018 19: 04
      +2
      It was not the Russians that destroyed the Russians, but the CLASS destroyed the CLASS.
  5. Seamaster
    Seamaster 2 August 2018 12: 27
    +6
    The given case with Zhebrak is a shameless lie of the White Guard propaganda, which had to justify the atrocities of the Drozdovites after the end of the battle.
    Judge for yourselves: a night attack ending in the morning. The colonel and 43 officers were captured (to be captured at the ATTACK - this must be managed! And were they captured at all, or were they killed?).
    After a short time - again the attack of white. The Reds, instead of preparing to repel this attack, lovingly and thoughtfully shred and burn captive prisoners, having only 1-3 hours left.
    And they lay out the carcasses of the victims more picturesque to cause the fury of the whites.
    Would you believe that?
    No?
    So respected people write about this: Turkul (you know this?) And the lieutenant of horse artillery Matasov (almost the mother of Teresa), also a participant in the executions of the Reds. That is, two war criminals (they themselves confessed) explain their atrocities to the classic "What are they? ...
    Olgovich, now is not the year 1990.
    Maybe you broke away from the current events there, at home, but in Russia the stupid propaganda of Solzhenitsyn, Korotich, the memoirs of the White Guard propagandists and war criminals are no longer taken seriously.
    And you only operate on these materials.
    As axioms like multiplication tables.
    1. Gopnik
      Gopnik 2 August 2018 13: 20
      +1
      Yes, the Reds have all the “lies” and “fakes” when they poke them with their faces into the facts of their atrocities against the Russians.
      1. Seamaster
        Seamaster 2 August 2018 14: 32
        +3
        Are the facts that Turkul wrote?
        Nude Nude!
  6. Rostislav Mikhailovich
    Rostislav Mikhailovich 2 August 2018 13: 56
    0
    Our grandfathers would know that the Kuban instead of the Russians will go to the Armenians ......
    1. Seamaster
      Seamaster 2 August 2018 14: 34
      +6
      Excuse me, do you yourself live in the Kuban?
      Do you Armenians climb onto the balcony?
      I live in Krasnodar all my life (not counting my studies, army, work).
      There are no more Armenians in the city than Jews in Moscow.
  7. Gopnik
    Gopnik 2 August 2018 17: 16
    +2
    Quote: Jerk
    The so-called “reds” of the officers of the Republic of Ingushetia consisted of very significant numbers. By the way, the very Slashchev who quarreled with the "patriots" who were protecting the French factories in the Donbass from the Russians — it was precisely at the officer’s courses that the shot was taught as a result ... But those with whom he quarreled - they all twisted patriotly over the hill, patriots are figs.
    That’s the difference between an army officer and a gang — the Armed Forces in general do not have the right to go into politics, serve, not hold a rally — and the difference between the army of the Republic of Ingushetia and just whites, God forbid these icons!


    Of course, to a large extent - whom they managed to mobilize, under the threat of execution, consisted of those. True, the Russian army still had more officers.
    But Slashchev - a naive fool, believed in red, for which he paid with his life. And those who did not believe, at least survived. In addition to those who fell victim to the Bolshevik attacks (Kutepov, Miller), of course
    1. Seamaster
      Seamaster 2 August 2018 18: 39
      +3
      About 75% of the royal officers who remained alive by that time served for the Reds, 25% for the Whites.
      The main number of white officers are war officers, former high school students and students. Asterisks on soldiers' uniforms were drawn with a chemical pencil.
      White’s military capabilities are shown even in the attack described in the article, when 43 officers and a real colonel are captured.
      Apparently, they were so drunk that they fell asleep in a neutral strip.
      Right during the attack.
      The entire Naval Headquarters, almost all admirals, went over to the Reds. The best generals, too.
      Sorry, but Krasnov, Kornilov, Denikin, Wrangel and Kolchak, who joined them, did not belong to the intellectual elite of the imperial army.
      1. Gopnik
        Gopnik 3 August 2018 12: 07
        0
        Quote: Seamaster
        About 75% of the royal officers who remained alive by that time served for the Reds, 25% for the Whites.


        This is just a lie.

        Quote: Seamaster
        The entire Naval Headquarters, almost all admirals, went over to the Reds.


        Which is no wonder. From Petrograd, the staff should make it to the districts controlled by the whites, and the red former mobilized officers. Those. they did not "cross", but were mobilized.
        1. Seamaster
          Seamaster 3 August 2018 18: 03
          0
          Victim of the exam?
          From Petrograd to "white" Finland was a little closer than from Petrograd to Novocherkassk.
          All operations won by the Reds were planned and carried out by former tsarist generals who served in the Reds headquarters.
          But Tukhachevsky, Yakir, Budyonny, Voroshilov - these are just “labels”.
    2. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 3 August 2018 16: 40
      0
      Academician A.N. Krylov, a shipbuilder with an admiral's rank, went over to the Reds from the very beginning. And his two sons died in the ranks of the whites.
  8. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 3 August 2018 16: 36
    +3
    [/ quote] General Markov in many respects personified the idea of ​​volunteering, [quote]

    A general, even a talented one, in principle, cannot personify an idea. The idea of ​​volunteering was political - to return everything back, mainly land to the landlords. But it was the “Land Decree” that the Civil War was won, see the memoirs of A.I. Denikin, he writes about it bitterly there.