Military Review

Rosatom develops heavy metal reactors for the military

50
Rosatom's specialists in the framework of the state defense order are developing in the field of nuclear reactors with a heavy liquid-metal coolant, reports RIA News.


Rosatom develops heavy metal reactors for the military


Reactor installations with a heavy liquid metal coolant: work was carried out as part of the state defense order,
says the report of Podolsk OKB Gidropress JSC (included in Rosatom).

It is about "design, as well as research and development". Details of the project are not disclosed.

The heavy liquid metal coolant (TGMT) includes lead or lead alloy with bismuth.

“The domestic nuclear industry has accumulated a unique experience of creating lead-bismuth-cooled fast neutron reactors for nuclear submarines. The culmination of these developments was the nuclear power plants for the fastest and maneuverable Soviet nuclear submarines of the 705 and 705K project, known abroad as the Alpha, and recorded in the Guinness Book of Records for their speed indicators, ”the article says.

The reactors of these submarines were small-sized with a high density of volumetric energy release. From 1977 to 1981, the Soviet the fleet Six submarines of the 705th project were handed over. In the 1990s, they were removed from the Navy, "having served substantially less than the period for which they were designed," the publication notes.
Photos used:
ITAR-TASS
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  1. Smoked
    Smoked 18 May 2018 11: 57
    +2
    What for? What did a miracle happen and a liquid reactor became economically viable?
    1. Berber
      Berber 18 May 2018 12: 00
      +2
      Probably they want to reanimate the "goldfish". At the current level of technology, it will be something with something.
      1. Smoked
        Smoked 18 May 2018 12: 02
        0
        I understand that, technology has advanced, but the cost?
        1. bulvas
          bulvas 18 May 2018 12: 15
          +1
          The reactors of these submarines were small-sized with a high density of volumetric energy release.


          Now for the lasers?

    2. max702
      max702 18 May 2018 12: 03
      +8
      Quote: Smoked
      What for? What did a miracle happen and a liquid reactor became economically viable?

      There was a problem with the coolant, sodium was already very hemorrhoid .. if they managed to replace it with lead, then this is a breakthrough ..
      1. Proxima
        Proxima 18 May 2018 12: 19
        +9
        Quote: max702
        Nuclear submarines of project 705 and 705K

        On this “miraculous solution”, Project 705 (K) Lira submarines accelerated to 80 km / h! fellow And they gained such speed in 1 minute! belay This indicates the power of the installation. In a word - a promising topic. good God help you!
      2. electrooleg
        electrooleg 18 May 2018 14: 16
        +3
        If a compact fast neutron reactor is invented, then everything will turn out in the best possible way. There the temperatures are completely different, and the pressure is different under the cover. We argue here picking a finger in the sky.
      3. Aqr009
        Aqr009 18 May 2018 19: 19
        +1
        There was a problem with the coolant sodium was very hemorrhoidal ..

        Sodium, as a basis, was chosen by the Americans, but after suffering, they abandoned development. We initially developed on an alloy of lead and bismuth.
        1. max702
          max702 19 May 2018 01: 37
          0
          Quote: Aqr009
          There was a problem with the coolant sodium was very hemorrhoidal ..

          Sodium, as a basis, was chosen by the Americans, but after suffering, they abandoned development. We initially developed on an alloy of lead and bismuth.

          Hmm .. It seems that sodium is always mentioned .. And all hopes are associated with a change in the coolant for lead ..
          1. asv363
            asv363 19 May 2018 08: 30
            +2
            In which country?
      4. demo
        demo 19 May 2018 19: 02
        +1
        Since 1952, in the OKB GIDROPRESS, work has been carried out on the creation of reactor installations for nuclear submarines (NPS) with a heavy liquid metal coolant lead-bismuth (LMT).

        The first nuclear installation, which provided a successful solution to the problem of creating a nuclear steam generating installation (NPPU) for nuclear submarines, was stand 27 / VT, built in 1958 at the industrial site of the Physics and Power Engineering Institute in Obninsk. The YAPPU documentation developer was the OKB GIDROPRESS team; the YPPU equipment manufacturer was Podolsky Plant named after Ordzhonikidze. Stand 27 / VT was a ground-based prototype of the Project 627 / VT submarine, which is a full-scale half of one side of the submarine, including a reactor, a steam generator, pumps, pipelines of the first and second circuit, a turbine installation, a control system, and other supporting systems.

        Stand 27 / VT was built with the aim of comprehensively checking design technical solutions for each equipment and systems of nuclear power supply systems, working out the operating and control modes of nuclear power plants, as well as training personnel for the future nuclear submarines.

        For the first time in world practice, a nuclear power plant was created with an LMW with a capacity of 17500 hp, in a small volume, with high parameters of steam in the secondary circuit (pressure 42 kg / cm2, temperature 440 ° C), with a pressure in the primary circuit of about 20 kg / cm2.
      5. Dashout
        Dashout 19 May 2018 21: 10
        +2
        Quote: max702
        max702 (Maxim) Yesterday, 12: 03 ↑
        Quote: Smoked
        What for? What did a miracle happen and a liquid reactor became economically viable?
        There was a problem with the coolant, sodium was already very hemorrhoid .. if they managed to replace it with lead, then this is a breakthrough ..

        Lead probably will not work ... it has a melting point somewhere (offhand) 300 C - therefore, the return will be somewhere 350 C, and this is a lot ... Most likely, there should be an alloy with a melting point near 40-80 -100 S ....
    3. Dead duck
      Dead duck 18 May 2018 12: 04
      +5
      Quote: Smoked
      What for? What did a miracle happen and a liquid reactor became economically viable?

      On the "torpedo" can be put.
      And wherever you need a quick start and "great heat dissipation."
      1. Alexander 3
        Alexander 3 18 May 2018 12: 09
        +2
        In the course of small-sized with high efficiency.
        1. Proxima
          Proxima 18 May 2018 12: 28
          +1
          Quote: Alexander 3
          In the course of small-sized with high efficiency.

          Absolutely right! And he has power - do not worry about mom! fellow
      2. Alex777
        Alex777 18 May 2018 12: 17
        +1
        On the "torpedo" can be put.
        And wherever you need a quick start and "great heat dissipation."

        Both for a laser installation and for a regular boat of type 20380 (with electric propulsion) - they are made in containers. 100 kW, 300 kW and 1 MW. hi
        1. SOF
          SOF 18 May 2018 13: 08
          0
          Quote: Alex777
          And on a laser installation, and on a regular boat type 20380

          .... and you won’t be able to bring such a thing into the hold of an aircraft-carrying cruiser? ... well, so that you didn’t have to cut a lot and modify it with a file?
          1. Alex777
            Alex777 18 May 2018 20: 25
            0
            I didn’t just mention electromotion on 20386. The cruiser can be entered, but from the tasks I see only the laser. hi
            Mb EW.
    4. Hottabych
      Hottabych 18 May 2018 12: 08
      +6
      Quote: Smoked
      What for? What did a miracle happen and a liquid reactor became economically viable?

      Have you ever looked at economic feasibility when it comes to strategic weapons?
    5. Svetlana
      Svetlana 18 May 2018 14: 16
      +1
      Quote: Smoked
      But why?
      An underwater robot (Poseidon) with a nuclear engine was built, a cruise missile (Burevestnik) with a nuclear engine was built, the next step was a thermal airship with a nuclear engine, in which the gas inside the shell was heated by heat exchangers of an onboard nuclear power plant with a liquid metal coolant. The load capacity of a thermal airship is more than 100 tons .
    6. Svetlana
      Svetlana 18 May 2018 14: 30
      +3
      Quote: Hottabych
      has a liquid reactor become economically viable?
      There are breeder nuclear reactors for producing nuclear fuel from uranium-238 and thorium-232. They are economically feasible and operate on liquid metal coolants (BREST, BN-800, etc.). Because Uranium-235 reserves on Earth are running out.
      1. asv363
        asv363 18 May 2018 15: 01
        +5
        Svetlana, BN-600 and BN-800 are working. BREST-OD-300 is still in the plans.
    7. vadimtt
      vadimtt 18 May 2018 16: 47
      0
      Most likely we are talking about a compact energy reactor for the Arctic, instead of diesel generators for outposts and bases.
      Americans, by the way, also have fun with such things (moreover, Bill Gates is involved in this wassat , develops a small-sized fast reactor for energy and heat supply of small towns).
    8. APASUS
      APASUS 18 May 2018 22: 20
      0
      Quote: Smoked
      What for? What did a miracle happen and a liquid reactor became economically viable?

      This reactor is 20-30 times smaller than the standard for the Navy
  2. Hunter 2
    Hunter 2 18 May 2018 11: 59
    +4
    So that's great! I am glad that in the field of nuclear energy Russia has a leading position!
    You give a small-sized reactor - to every refrigerator! belay
  3. rocket757
    rocket757 18 May 2018 12: 00
    +11
    Et yes, our ancestors created submarines. for which there was no keeping up!
    In such a "backward" country it was the Land of Soviets!
    1. NordUral
      NordUral 18 May 2018 16: 45
      +2
      After the appearance of these boats in the states, "earplugs" for boat acoustics were patented.
    2. NordUral
      NordUral 18 May 2018 16: 46
      +3
      The reactors were what was needed, only problems on the sediment of boats created above the roof.
      1. rocket757
        rocket757 18 May 2018 21: 26
        +2
        1. we can think all the other boats in the world were quiet, quiet ... were different.
        2. The boat was for oceanic expanses, pulled to full speed and look for its fistulas.
        3. There has been no and no serious control in the ocean until now.
        4. the project had to be brought to mind in all respects ... it didn’t grow together, it’s growing together now, give the God of talent to our ... everyone!
  4. Same lech
    Same lech 18 May 2018 12: 02
    +2
    Expert opinion on this topic ...

    http://atomicexpert-old.com/content/быстрые-реакт
    ory-lead-vs-gas
    1. asv363
      asv363 18 May 2018 14: 32
      +3
      Something tells me that I talked with the author.

      I have in my archive a link to VO (2013): http://topwar.ru/36398-skorostnaya-lira-apl-proek
      ta-705.html
  5. Simon
    Simon 18 May 2018 12: 05
    +5
    In the 1990s, they were withdrawn from the Navy, "having served substantially less than the period for which they were designed," the publication notes. --- It looks like Gorbachev’s hand is involved here. At this time he was already very friendly with the Americans. How many atomic submarines he destroyed according to their instructions, with ... whose!
    1. Captain Pushkin
      Captain Pushkin 18 May 2018 12: 51
      +1
      The United States also had experienced submarines with a metal coolant. They didn’t go into the series. It can be seen that not everything is so simple there.
      1. asv363
        asv363 18 May 2018 14: 00
        +3
        At the time of choosing the coolant in the USA, the sodium submarine project was really implemented. There are difficulties. Then water was chosen. And switchgear with sodium coolant have proven themselves on land.
        1. NordUral
          NordUral 18 May 2018 16: 43
          0
          For the energy sector with a constant long working cycle - this is the thing (and that with reservations). But not for boats.
  6. gridasov
    gridasov 18 May 2018 12: 58
    0
    All these concepts of reactors can be called static and uncontrollable in the parameters of regulation of energy release by radioactive materials. This means that all technologies to ensure the process have sustainable and unsolvable problems. Therefore, the final result of the development of power plants using radioactive materials remains at the same level all the time. That is, neither a breakthrough nor the possibility of real use, we will say ultra-high energy density, moreover, there is no controlled process. It is very important to understand that the intermediate stage of energy transfer from the working fluid to the coolant disconnects the interaction system. Therefore, it is possible to exclude the coolant as a stage if the system is created in a dynamic interaction format, based on the initial kinetics of the process. However, I believe that no one thinks, which means that this is comparable to "crushing water in a mortar"
    1. asv363
      asv363 18 May 2018 13: 50
      +3
      I apologize in advance, but you didn’t think about unregulated processes in reactors. Too much increase in volumetric energy release is prevented by many factors, and not just heat removal.
      1. gridasov
        gridasov 18 May 2018 15: 09
        0
        Right ! Volumetric energy release is radial destruction. But only with a dynamic process is it possible to release vector energy, and most importantly, in the next stage it is quite simple to directly convert this energy at the moment of rotation. So the reactor can be simultaneously in the design and the kinetic energy converter of the coolant or a turbine.
        1. gridasov
          gridasov 18 May 2018 15: 19
          0
          It is obvious that with this algorithm of processes that we are positioning, the quantitative parameters of the material used are reduced, and the density of concentrated energy increases. At the same time, all this is connected with the distribution of processes by vectors. Therefore, modern reactors are not perfect in terms of the complicated process by intermediate stages. And what is most important in our case, the reactor is omnivorous and the potential energy of the radioactive material is controlled by the rotor speed, where the fuel elements simply have other, additional functional tasks
          1. NordUral
            NordUral 18 May 2018 16: 42
            0
            Do you at least approximately understand the cost of servicing such boats? In the Union, they understood and came to their senses.
  7. Vladimir Smirnov_3
    Vladimir Smirnov_3 18 May 2018 14: 32
    +1
    The nuclear shield of Russia, then the USSR, was created more than half a century ago, and this saved the world from nuclear war. This shield is still in demand today, and Rosatom is continuously working to improve its developments and create new technologies, and our potential adversaries have not been able to catch up with us all these decades.
  8. dgonni
    dgonni 18 May 2018 15: 45
    +1
    Interesting, 9 years of service of the submarine which in fact is gold in terms of production and maintenance. Not a xylic upgrade, not sour. When raising some parameters. again on the same rake?
    1. vadimtt
      vadimtt 18 May 2018 16: 54
      +1
      It was gold because of the unavailability of the infrastructure (far ahead of time) and a too small series to deal with this infrastructure. It turned out to be cheaper to cut everything.
      1. dgonni
        dgonni 20 May 2018 13: 09
        0
        And probably the infrastructure has become better. Oh well!
  9. NordUral
    NordUral 18 May 2018 16: 34
    0
    Well ... Well ... They didn’t pull their Union, and here the liberals-super patriots will build it at once, and they will serve the boats themselves. They would ask metallurgists what “ko-zel” is for them (moderators, use artificial intelligence in a more advanced way, to understand the semantic shades when applying words), maybe something would come to pass.
    1. vadimtt
      vadimtt 18 May 2018 16: 58
      +1
      By the way, what is this among metallurgists? For atomic scientists, “brewing a goat” means overheating a channel in a channel reactor to the state of fuel assembly swelling. With the subsequent use of "such-and-such mother" when removing damaged TVs (many "such-and-such mothers" laughing )
      1. asv363
        asv363 18 May 2018 22: 17
        +2
        I do not remember verbatim, but rather catch it (from memories or memoirs).
  10. pafegosoff
    pafegosoff 18 May 2018 20: 10
    0
    The main problem was the constant electrical heating of the metal carrier. We have large reactors on a metal coolant, it seems, only at the Beloyarsk nuclear power plant (fast neutrons). Of course, after the 705th project, automation and the security system advanced several times ...
  11. asv363
    asv363 19 May 2018 08: 46
    +4
    Quote: pafegosoff
    The main problem was the constant electrical heating of the metal carrier.

    Steam heating from boilers, not electric heating.
  12. Dzafdet
    Dzafdet 19 May 2018 10: 01
    0
    Quote: BerBer
    Probably they want to reanimate the "goldfish". At the current level of technology, it will be something with something.

    When pipelines ruptured in the reactor circuits, polonium entered the compartments. this will really be something with something ... laughing tongue wassat