Military Review

How the "perestroika" of Alexander II almost led to confusion

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How the "perestroika" of Alexander II almost led to confusion

200 years ago, 29 April 1818, was born Alexander Nikolaevich Romanov. Russian Emperor Alexander II entered the Russian history as the initiator of large-scale reforms, and is also known in Russian pre-revolutionary historiography as the “Tsar Liberator” due to the abolition of serfdom in 1861 and the victory in the Russian-Turkish war of 1877-1878.


In reality, his actions almost caused confusion. According to the chief procurator of the Synod, K.P. Pobedonostsev, the restructuring begun by Alexander II and supported by many thinking people, soon showed "the destructive consequences of bourgeois evolution." Only the tough policy of his heir Alexander III was able to suspend a catastrophe that could have happened not in 1917, but in 1881.

Alexander Nikolaevich was born 17 (29) on April 1818, in the Miracle Monastery in the Moscow Kremlin, where the royal family arrived in early April to meet Easter. Alexander was the eldest son of the first Grand Duke, and from 1825, the imperial couple Nikolai Pavlovich and Alexandra Feodorovna (daughter of the Prussian monarch Friedrich-Wilhelm III). Alexander received a good education. His mentor, who led the process of upbringing and education, and the teacher of the Russian language was V. A. Zhukovsky, the teacher of the law of God - theologian, Archpriest G. Pavsky, the teacher of history and statistics - K. I. Arsenyev, legislation - M. M. Speransky, Finance - E. F. Kankrin, foreign policy - F. I. Brunov, military instructor - Captain K. K. Merder, and other eminent teachers.

Alexander's personality was formed under the influence of his father, who wanted to see the heir to the military leader, and at the same time the poet Zhukovsky, who sought to educate an enlightened monarch, a monarch-legislator, conducting sensible reforms in Russia. Both of these trends left a deep imprint on the character of the future sovereign.

Having headed Russia in 1855, after a rather unexpected death of his father, Alexander received a heavy legacy. The severe Eastern (Crimean) war continued, Russia was internationally isolated. The country faced severe domestic political issues: the Caucasian War continued for a long time and absorbed many forces and means, the peasant question that threatened the new turmoil was not resolved, etc. Alexander Nikolayevich was forced to become the tsar-reformer. In March 1856, the Paris Peace was concluded. Russia was defeated, but managed to recover with relatively small losses, including the demilitarization of the Black Sea. In the same year, Alexander II secretly concluded a “dual union” with Prussia, breaking the diplomatic isolation of Russia. At the same time, Alexander Nikolayevich did some relaxation in domestic policy: the recruitment kits were suspended for 3; The Decembrists, Petrashevists, the participants of the Polish uprising 1830 — 1831 received privileges. In 1857, military settlements were abolished. A kind of “thaw” began in the social and political life of Russia.

Alexander headed for the abolition of serfdom and in 1861 he pushed through this decision, despite the resistance of some of the nobility. Moreover, a milder version of the reform was adopted - it was initially proposed to carry out the “Baltic version”, with the landless liberation of the peasants. However, the reform was halfway and the land issue was one of the prerequisites for the 1917 disaster of the year. Peasant plots were significantly cut back in favor of landowners, peasants had to pay a ransom, the peasant community was destroyed, and the ruined peasants became slaves to the capitalist system that was developing in Russia. With the support of the emperor, territorial and judicial reforms (1864), urban reform (1870), military reforms (60 — 70's), education reform were carried out. In general, Alexander conducted liberal reforms. Thus, the position of Jewry was alleviated, corporal punishment was abolished, censorship was facilitated, and so on.

During the reign of Alexander, Russia won the Caucasian War and completed it. The North Caucasus became peaceful, the active development of this wild margin of the empire began. The empire was successfully completed in Central Asia: in 1865 — 1881. Most of Turkestan became part of Russia. In 1870, Russia, taking advantage of Prussia’s victory over France, was able to cancel the Paris Treaty article on the neutralization of the Black Sea. Russia won the Russian-Turkish war 1877-1878. However, St. Petersburg, under pressure from Western "partners", had to abandon a significant part of the conquests. The Russian Empire returned the southern part of Bessarabia, lost after the Crimean War, and received the Kars region. But the centuries-old problem of the straits and Constantinople-Constantinople has not been resolved. And Bulgaria, liberated by the feat of the Russian soldier, began to drift towards Germany. The Balkans, not entering the sphere of influence of the Russian Empire, became the "powder cellar" of Europe. Thus, Russia's victory over Turkey was unfinished, causing new problems and issues.

It is worth remembering that Alexander's government made another strategic mistake - in the year 1867, the US sold Alaska, which seriously worsened Russia's position in the Asia-Pacific region. Under pressure from pro-Western liberal circles in Petersburg, they sold Russian America. That is, Russia has lost the ability to control the northern part of the Pacific Ocean and lost a strategic foothold on the American continent, which could restrain the predatory US aspirations in the future.

After the Polish uprising 1863-1864. and the attempts of Karakozov on the life of the emperor in April 1866, Tsar Alexander II began to listen more to supporters of a protective (conservative) course. The Grodno, Minsk and Vilna governors-general appointed a “guardian” M. N. Muravyov, he conducted a series of reforms aimed at Russification, restoring the positions of Orthodoxy in the province. Conservatives D. A. Tolstoy, F. F. Trepov, and P. A. Shuvalov were appointed to the highest state posts. Many reformists, with the exception of a few exceptions, such as War Minister Milutin and Minister of the Interior Loris-Melikov, were removed from power. However, in general, the course of reforms was continued, but more carefully.

At the end of Alexander's reign, a project was developed to expand the functions of the State Council and the establishment of the “General Commission” (congress), where it was supposed to introduce representatives from Zemstvos. As a result, autocracy could be limited in favor of organs with limited representation. The authors of this idea were the Minister of the Interior, M. T. Loris-Melikov, and the Minister of Finance, A. A. Abaza. The king, shortly before his death, approved the draft, but they did not have time to discuss it at the Council of Ministers. Alexander III will roll this project.

The reforms led to the destabilization of the domestic political situation in Russia. The liberal public demanded a change in the state system of the empire, anti-government proclamations were distributed at universities, there were calls for the overthrow of the king. Started in the minds, rampant terrorism, nihilism and anarchist ideas. The liberal intelligentsia and the students put forward more and more new requirements. The overwhelming number of those who participated in the revolutionary movement were young people of largely minor age. The revolutionary movement quickly developed, which soon began to threaten the state. An increase in crime was observed throughout the country, in 2,7 times more than in the reign of Nicholas I.

The revolutionary underground, represented by the People of the Volunteers, strengthened its position and took a course toward the liquidation of the king. According to the conspirators, the death of the emperor was supposed to cause a revolutionary wave in Russia. The guard of the sovereign was then organized extremely poorly. 25 May 1867 in Paris at Alexandra was shot by a Polish emigrant Berezovsky. 2 April 1879, when the emperor was walking around the Winter Palace without protection and without satellites, Solovyov shot Alexander several times. 19 November 1879, the conspirators blew up the train of the emperor's retinue, mistaking it for the king. 5 February 1880 was an explosion on the first floor of the Winter Palace. He led to numerous sacrifices. Only 12 in February 1880 of the year was established by the Supreme executive commission for the protection of public order and the fight against the revolutionary underground. But he was headed by a liberal-minded Count Loris-Melikov. The result of such a negligent attitude towards the mortal danger and activity of the then “fifth column” was sad. Alexander was mortally wounded by 1 (13) in March 1881, a bomb abandoned by the People's Party Grinevitsky, and died the same day in St. Petersburg.

The tragic death of Alexander Nikolaevich was largely due to his activities. No wonder Pobedonostsev said that only pure autocracy can resist the revolution. Alexander loosened the "iron" Nikolaev empire. Fortunately for Russia, the strong hand of Alexander III, who was able to freeze the decay of the empire for some time, intercepted the reins of power after his death.

Prominent Russian historian, professor V.O. Klyuchevskiy appreciated the reforms of Alexander II: “With one hand he bestowed reforms, excited the most courageous expectations in society, and with the other he put forward and supported the servants who were destroying them ...”. The historian noted: “all his great reforms were inexcusably belated, were generously conceived, hastily developed and dishonestly executed, except perhaps the judicial and military reforms ...”.

The empire in 1880- years resisted, the troubles were avoided. However, the threat was great. So, when sovereign Alexander III ascended the throne, the treasury had an annual deficit of 1880 in 44,5 million rubles. The economic development of Russia due to liberal approaches (in particular, the rejection of protectionism) slowed down, and agriculture and industry stagnated. The economic consequences of the reforms were disappointing. The public debt of Russia grew 3 times and amounted to 6 billion rubles: 500 million was spent on reforms, 1,5 billion were worth the Crimean and Russian-Turkish wars, 4 billion were spent on the construction of railways (with the active participation of foreign and Russian speculative capital).

The conservative ideologue and chief procurator of the Synod of Pobedonostsev expressed the general situation very well. On the day of the murder of Alexander II, he sent a message to the heir to the throne, in which he wrote: “You get Russia swept away, shattered, bewildered, eager to be led by a firm hand, what she wants and what she doesn’t want and can’t be prevented ... The whole secret of the Russian order and prosperity is above, in the person of the Supreme Power. Do not think that the authorities subordinate to you limit themselves and put on the case, if you do not limit yourself and do not put on the case. Where you dissolve yourself, dissolve yourself and the whole Earth. Your work will push everyone to work, your weakening and luxury will flood the whole earth with relief and luxury - this is what the union with the Earth, in which you decide, and the power that is destined to you from God ”.

Other thinkers also saw the danger of the situation. “All Russia stands at some final point, hesitating over the abyss,” noted F. M. Dostoevsky. 11 June 1881 Sovereign Alexander III wrote to his brother, Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich: "A little more, and we would be on the eve of a complete revolution." Then Russia managed to keep on the edge of the abyss.
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  1. Korsar4
    Korsar4 April 28 2018 05: 02
    +3
    Things set forth quite well-known. But from the fact that crime has grown so much, compared to the time of Nicholas I, I did not think. Characteristic touch.
    1. Bar1
      Bar1 April 28 2018 08: 55
      +1
      But the centuries-old problem of the Straits and Constantinople-Constantinople has not been resolved. And Bulgaria, liberated due to the feat of the Russian soldier, began to drift towards Germany


      to consider history as separate states of Russia, Prussia, Austria is to mislead people. It's not so. It is necessary to consider the lords who are on the thrones. In Germany, in Austria, in Russia and in Bulgaria, in England, everywhere the same people sat relative to each other i.e. all-Germans. Therefore, it is not surprising that all actions, for example, the Balkan war were undertaken by this family in favor of Europe i.e. Germans and to the detriment of the Russian and Slavic nations.
      What type of "Russian Tsar", what "Bulgarian Tsar" were the Germans and their decisions were always against their peoples and in favor of the German or European people.
      Here the story presented in this vein becomes understandable. The Germans on the thrones of all these states could not act against the German people, but they were always against the Russian people. Therefore, the Narodnaya Volya and ditched the Romanov, he did not deserve the best, like all Germans are Romanov.
      1. Monarchist
        Monarchist April 28 2018 14: 01
        +7
        Bar, do you think at least a little what to write or not? 1) before the Russo-Turkish war of 1877, Bulgaria was part of Turkey and long ago did not have its kings. 2) after the Russo-Turkish war, the so-called Grand Duchy of Bulgaria was formed with wide autonomy within the Ottoman Empire. The first V.K. was a stoop of Alexander 2, but as a result of Anglo-Austrian intrigues he was deposed. 3) in England, the king reigns, but does not rule means your statement "past the box office". In England at that time, "Lord Palmerston played the first violin, and he was the same German as you. By the way, Karl Marx was associated with Palmerston (he worked in English, and Engels was an employee of Interview Service)
        1. Bar1
          Bar1 April 28 2018 15: 06
          +2
          you actually don’t like what my thesis is, specifically, highlight, I don’t answer specifically to the dumped pile.


          Quote: Monarchist
          3) in England, the king reigns, but does not rule means your statement "by cash desk"

          strange, do you believe that? Well this is propaganda and dust in the eyes, the King of England has the right to approve the prime minister, the commander of the fleet / army, to appoint and remove the governor, is this not the highest power?
          Quote: Monarchist
          In England at that time, "Lord Palmerston played the first violin, and he was just as German as you

          Do you think Palmerston is Arab? The reigning English and supreme dukes, peers have the same relationship, therefore, power never passes to random people, well, of course they have a relationship with such an elite on the continent i.e. are related to Germans, Dutch, Danes, etc.
          Although you are a monarchist, you could figure out the European dynasties themselves are on an older line, but any family has JUNIOR children, so they occupy the posts of ministers, management companies, governors and generals. when a vacancy for a throne suddenly arises, as in Romania or Bulgaria there are always applicants for these thrones.
          This continues now.
          That is why the west i.e. princes of the blood of the Romanovs / Windsor / Hohenzoyulerny / Habsburgs can not stand upstarts like Putin.
      2. Weyland
        Weyland April 29 2018 14: 52
        +4
        Quote: Bar1
        The Germans on the thrones of all these states could not act against the German people, but were always against the Russian people.

        Bullshit! The nationality of the monarch is determined by the country that he rules from! As there Bernadotte answered Napoleon: "now I am a Swede!" Hettia was ruled by ethnic Hurrians for 300 years - and all 400 years have fought with the Hurrian state of Hanigalbat! The Frankish merchant Himself led the Western Slavs - and prettyly thrust the kingdom of the Franks! Since 1700, kings of French descent have ruled in Spain - which did not stop them from repeatedly fighting with France! And this I purely offhand gave examples - that I remembered on the move!
        1. Bar1
          Bar1 April 29 2018 16: 33
          0
          Quote: Weyland
          The nationality of the monarch is determined by the country that he rules from!


          for example, Nikolai1 built the first railway between Warsaw and Vienna and only then began to build a railway in Russia. This, of course, says that he loved the Russians very much and hated the Germans.
          Or Alexander1 also gave freedom to the Balts, Finals and Poles, and left the Russians as slaves for another 50 years, this is also an example of how the Romanovs loved the Russian people.
          Do not confuse Europe and Russia / Muscovy / Russia-these are two completely different civilizations. But those whom we call -Europeans are just one cultural community, with single dynastic rulers, so all dynastic marriages between Europeans take place naturally. There is no difference between Germans and British, Danes, Dutchs. The difference between the French and British or Spaniards is minimal. Everything is based on the Latin language and its rules and Latin vocabulary, on the basis of "Roman" law.
          They are now united into one, one economy, Europe without borders, one currency, one policy and always one enemy - Russia.
          So these are your words, nonsense. Moreover, examples about some examples from legendary antiquity.
          1. Weyland
            Weyland April 29 2018 21: 56
            +1
            Quote: Bar1
            for example, Nikolai1 built the first railway between Warsaw and Vienna and only then began to build a railway in Russia. This, of course, says that he loved the Russians very much and hated the Germans.
            Or Alexander1 also gave free to the Balts, Finals and Poles, and left the Russians as slaves for another 50 years

            Private capital began to build the Warsaw-Vienna railway, and only after bankruptcy did the government decide to save the project (but probably from the budget of the Kingdom of Poland). And as for the free Poles ... in the Kingdom of Poland (as opposed to Russia) serfdom was abolished already in 1864!
            1. Bar1
              Bar1 April 30 2018 07: 53
              0
              Quote: Weyland
              in the Kingdom of Poland (unlike Russia) serfdom was abolished already in 1864!


              The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was divided between the Germans back at E2. In 1807, Napoleon formally freed the peasants from the fortress, but after Napoleon’s expulsion, serfdom was NOT restored. Alexander 1 left the Poles free, unlike the rest of the peoples of the Republic of Ingushetia.

              https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Крепостное_право

              Which is still 1864?
              1. Weyland
                Weyland 1 May 2018 14: 11
                +1
                Quote: Bar1
                Which is still 1864?

                And you on Wikipedia see another article: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chronology of the abolition of slavery and serfdom by country.
                1. Bar1
                  Bar1 1 May 2018 15: 58
                  0
                  Quote: Weyland
                  https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Хронология отмены рабства и крепостного права по странам.


                  PEASANT REFORM IN THE KINGDOM OF POLAND 1864 - a reform in which agrarian reforms were carried out in the Polish provinces of the Russian Empire, serfdom was abolished and peasant self-government was introduced.

                  The personal dependence of the peasants on the landlords was abolished here in 1807, but at the same time, the estate of the peasants was preserved (the land used by the peasants was the property of the landlords, the peasants were obliged to serve corvée or pay a quitrent). The reform was immediately preceded by a series of decrees of Emperor Nicholas I and Emperor Alexander II, which facilitated the situation of Polish peasants: by decree of 26.5 (7.6) .1846, landowners were forbidden to join peasant farms with allotment of more than 3 morgues (1,68, 4 hectares), by decree of 16 (5.1861) .5, the corvee was replaced by quitrents, the Regulation of 17 (6.1862) .XNUMX provided for the mandatory transfer of peasants to quitrents with the right to purchase land with the consent of the landowner.

                  http://w.histrf.ru/articles/article/show/kriestia
                  nskaia_rieforma_v_tsarstvie_polskom_1864

                  people were liberated from the fortress, but the land was not, and so the same thing was done in the so-called peasant reform in Russia in 1861, people were given freedom, and the land needed to be redeemed. Your source is lying.
        2. Pissarro
          Pissarro April 29 2018 17: 51
          0
          but I can immediately bring an example about Bulgaria. I can bring the foolish Alexander the Second and set the Germans to be king. Purely by chance then Bulgaria fought for the Germans both world wars)
          1. YELLOWSTONE
            YELLOWSTONE April 29 2018 19: 57
            +2
            the Bulgarian king there put the Vienna Congress
            1. Bar1
              Bar1 April 29 2018 23: 23
              0
              Quote: YELLOWSTONE
              the Bulgarian king there put the Vienna Congress

              German royal dynasties ...
              1. YELLOWSTONE
                YELLOWSTONE April 29 2018 23: 27
                +1
                tried to write above that it was put by N-2
            2. Pissarro
              Pissarro April 30 2018 00: 28
              0
              Maybe the Berlin congress? Viennese was in 1815, and the king was put to the Bulgarians in 1878
              1. YELLOWSTONE
                YELLOWSTONE April 30 2018 00: 42
                +1
                Berlin means
      3. alatanas
        alatanas 1 May 2018 23: 26
        +1
        Ferdinand Saks-Coburg-Gotta became the first Bulgarian Tsar (3 of the Bulgarian kingdom), after the independence of Bulgaria in the 1908 year, which was during the reign of the Russian Emperor Alexander III.
    2. iouris
      iouris 1 May 2018 10: 48
      +1
      Quote: Korsar4
      Things set forth quite well-known.

      In this case, the author’s peremptory attitude towards reforms “from above” is important. Everything is clear to him. Here he would drive Russia into happiness with an iron hand.
  2. apro
    apro April 28 2018 05: 34
    +4
    They didn’t sing the ode to the liberator. But all the reforms are premature. The society is feudal and the reforms are quite bourgeois. And they need a civil society. They are equal before the law. And economically equipped.
    And the blow of the reform went through the peasantry with their low land and low productivity of production. And on the support of the throne, the nobility lost their means of subsistence and corrupted by serfdom. Unable to productive activity. The nobles are the driving force of all revolutions. created the theory and practice of the struggle against the autocracy.
    1. bober1982
      bober1982 April 28 2018 08: 54
      +2
      Quote: apro
      As they did not sing an ode to the liberator, but all reforms are premature

      These reforms were carried out in a liberal spirit and very hastily, you can agree with you, and eventually led to the disaster of 1917.
      Quote: apro
      And the blow of the reform went through the peasantry with their low land and low productivity

      The abolition of serfdom only angered the peasants - they lost significant land allotments, moreover, they had to redeem the land, for this reason there were peasant unrest, as a result of such a liberation. The landlords were also unhappy - they too were cheated. And only under the reign of Nicholas II land redemption payments for peasants were canceled;
      1. Pissarro
        Pissarro April 28 2018 13: 44
        +6
        Nekrasov best described this:
        The great chain broke, tore and hit, with one end to the gentleman, the other to the peasant.

        Indeed, in order to carry out a reform so that everyone hates you, you must be able to. Here are grenades from grateful subjects in the Emperor and flew
      2. Aviator_
        Aviator_ April 28 2018 21: 30
        +2
        The peasants had to pay redemption payments before the 1925 year, only the 1905 revolution of the year stopped these payments.
      3. iouris
        iouris 1 May 2018 10: 51
        0
        Quote: bober1982
        These reforms were carried out in a liberal spirit and very hastily, you can agree with you, and eventually led to the disaster of 1917.

        On the contrary, it was precisely the inability of the autocracy to complete the reforms begun during the reign of Alexander II that led Russia and the autocracy to the catastrophe of 1917 and all subsequent disasters.
    2. alexmach
      alexmach April 28 2018 23: 55
      +2
      Premature? But there is an opinion that they were late for 100 years.
      1. iouris
        iouris 1 May 2018 10: 54
        +1
        Quote: alexmach
        But there is an opinion that they were late for 100 years.

        "All that is real is rational, all that is rational is real" (Hegel).
        If you look at England, then at 300. But here you are not England.
        History teaches that it teaches nothing.
        1. alexmach
          alexmach 1 May 2018 11: 30
          +1
          Actually, I am on the charter of noble liberties. In fact, Alexander 2 had to disentangle the problems of a hundred years ago that the then authorities could not solve them effectively and fired in 1917 by the revolution and the civil war. But his grandfather could have really solved this problem. Yes, it hurt too cool to get down to business.

          By the way, a good example about the benefits of the monarchy for Russia. One violent monarch died from an inkwell stroke and for the next 150 years his descendants were afraid to do what was necessary.
  3. Olgovich
    Olgovich April 28 2018 06: 03
    +11
    Thus, Russia's victory over Turkey was incomplete, caused new problems and questions.

    There were much fewer questions and problems after the victory than before: the author himself enumerated the achievements of Russia.
    It is worth remembering that the Alexander government made another strategic mistake - in 1867 the United States sold Alaska

    And Polynesia did not join, although such benefits promised! The reason is simple: the country had no strength at all. Development of the Far East was underway, which the author does not mention at all, although this is the Emperor’s greatest achievement in building Russia ... It was under Alexander Nikolaevich that the huge Primorsky Territory was annexed and its rapid construction and development began (Vladivostok, Khabarovka, Sofiysk, etc.) . The dispersal of forces, and even without a powerful fleet, led to the loss of Alaska and the Far East, which China, Japan, England had inflicted on.
    It was under Alexander that Russia reached the BIGGEST of its sizes., Which since 1917 have only decreased and waned.
    Prominent Russian historian, professor V.O. Klyuchevsky praised the reforms of Alexander II: “With one hand he granted reforms, aroused the most courageous expectations in society, and with the other he put forward and supported the servants who destroyed them ...”

    The people loved the Tsar-Liberator: few people know, but in almost every city there was a bust or monument to Alexander II, demolished after the Thief ...
    1. Korsar4
      Korsar4 April 28 2018 07: 48
      +3
      And under Alexander lII, didn’t the country grow?
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich April 28 2018 08: 10
        +6
        Quote: Korsar4
        And under Alexander lII, didn’t the country grow?

        Central Asia was annexed by Alexander II. Under Alexander III, the establishment and design of the southern borders of Russia was underway, as a result of which the Pamir became part of Russia.
        So formally you are right.
      2. iouris
        iouris 1 May 2018 10: 55
        0
        Quote: Korsar4
        And under Alexander lII, didn’t the country grow?

        And under Nicholas II there was growth.
    2. apro
      apro April 28 2018 08: 15
      +5
      Quote: Olgovich
      It was under Alexander that Russia reached the BIGGEST of its sizes., Which since 1917 have only decreased and waned.

      Who sold Alaska? Not the liquid Bolsheviks by chance?
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich April 28 2018 08: 20
        +4
        Quote: apro
        Who sold Alaska? Not the liquid Bolsheviks by chance?

        No, Alexander Nikolaevich, just like attached huge Wed Asia and Primorye.
        You can easily determine what the comrades you mentioned have sold RI cards 1881 g and of today maps of Russia. hi
        1. apro
          apro April 28 2018 08: 27
          +6
          Olgovich can remember the Soviet zone of influence in 1953?
          Today's Russia is the result of a bourgeois coup. Must understand.
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich April 28 2018 08: 50
            +7
            Quote: apro
            Olgovich can remember Soviet zone of influence for the year 1953?

            What kind of beast is this? We are talking about real boundaries established by the Treaties. They were and are, and not the short-lived "zone" that crumbled to dust at the first opportunity for its scattering members.
            Quote: apro
            Today's Russia is the result of a bourgeois coup. Must understand

            I do not understand: SINGLE YEARS ruled 70 some, but to blame ... NOT they ?! belay request
            Let me remind you the axiom: absolute power implies its absolute RESPONSIBILITY
            1. apro
              apro April 28 2018 08: 58
              +4
              Quote: Olgovich
              What kind of beast is this? We are talking about the real boundaries established by the Treaties. They were and are, and not the short-lived "zone" that crumbled to dust at the first opportunity for its scattering members.

              This is something that never had a red. Global project.
              Quote: Olgovich
              I did not understand: ONLY 70 years alone ruled, but to blame ... NOT they ?!
              Let me remind you the axiom: absolute power implies its absolute RESPONSIBILITY

              Ampirators alone rule. And the Red Democrats.
              Here's the responsibility for more. On the example of the last holy emperor.
              1. Olgovich
                Olgovich April 28 2018 11: 51
                +5
                Quote: apro
                This is something that RI never had. The red project is global

                Does the Holy Union say nothing?
                Nickname "Gendarme Europe"-This, of course, also testified to the" absence "of influence. yes
                Quote: apro
                Ampirators alone rule. And the Red Democrats.

                But in Russian, how does that sound? request
                Quote: apro
                Here's the responsibility for more. On the example of the last holy emperor.

                belay Under the Emperor, NOT ANY FALL of Russian land was lost.
                With the Bolsheviks, I urge once again to look at the map of the Republic of Ingushetia and the Russian Federation — the thing that the Russian people built for three hundred years is lost!
                And they who led the process are NOT to blame, yes. Martians, probably.
                1. Pissarro
                  Pissarro April 28 2018 13: 38
                  +5
                  Under the Emperor, NOT ANY FALL of Russian land was lost.


                  Actually, if everyone knows about Alaska, then the other "merit" of this Emperor is less known. In 1875, he gave the Japanese ALL the Kuril Islands. And yes, not an inch)
                  1. Olgovich
                    Olgovich April 28 2018 14: 28
                    +4
                    Quote: Pissarro
                    In 1875, he gave the Japanese ALL the Kuril Islands. And yes, not an inch)

                    Yeah in exchange for FULL Possession Russia Sakhalin, which was previously joint ownership.
                    So no span. Moreover, there are more spans.
                    1. Pissarro
                      Pissarro April 28 2018 19: 50
                      +4
                      We already owned Sakhalin, the Japanese sometimes caught fish there and did not have a single permanent resident
                      1. Olgovich
                        Olgovich April 29 2018 05: 43
                        +3
                        Quote: Pissarro
                        Sakhalin we already owned, the Japanese sometimes caught fish there and did not have a single permanent resident

                        ONCE AGAIN: it was sharing possession of Russia and Japan. After the transfer of the Kuril Islands to Japan, Sakhalin became fully Russian.
                        Can you argue with anything other than “fishermen” and “and so on”?
                        No.
          2. Korsar4
            Korsar4 April 28 2018 08: 56
            +1
            Zone of influence - there is no border. One Law, one rules, even with multi-layering, is worth a lot.
          3. RUSS
            RUSS April 28 2018 15: 33
            +3
            Quote: apro
            Olgovich can remember the Soviet zone of influence in 1953?

            Recall that when the Caspian Sea in the Russian Empire was inland, when all of northern China was under our patronage (CER), Alaska, etc.
            1. YELLOWSTONE
              YELLOWSTONE April 28 2018 16: 28
              0
              dates, poles forgot
              but with the Rusyns there was an omission
    3. Bar1
      Bar1 April 28 2018 09: 15
      +1
      Quote: Olgovich
      There were much fewer questions and problems after the victory than before: the author himself enumerated the achievements of Russia.


      problems after the war only increased. Instead of one hostile state of Turkey, two states hostile to Russia appeared Bulgaria and Turkey, is this not visible?

      Quote: Olgovich
      Polynesia did not join, although such benefits promised! The reason is simple: the country had no strength for everything


      Well this is not true, I remind you that when the civil war broke out in America in 1865, for some reason Russia found the strength to send a fleet to the shores of America in order to support Saskh and scare the Anglof and the French supporting Confederates.
      Quote: Olgovich
      Development of the Far East was underway, which the author does not mention at all, although this is the Emperor’s greatest achievement in building Russia ..

      again a lie based on a traditional vision of history. The Far East has already been mastered, it was the Russian state of China Tartaria, which already had cities and ports in Manchuria, for example, the city of Albazin, or the city of Red Mountain near Beijing, these were Russian regions, there are old maps for that. The Romanovs never mastered anything , they only gave away the Russian lands of Oregon, California, Alaska, Manchuria. Actually the Romanes and created the United States by giving them the Russian lands and protecting them from European predators.

      Quote: Olgovich
      It was under Alexander that Russia reached the BIGGEST of its sizes., Which since 1917 have only decreased and waned.


      Romanov Russia grew up. But the Russian people decreased, who became Americans, Chinese and all kinds of Circassians, Tatars, Sarts in Central Asia, it was these nations that created the Romanovs.

      Quote: Olgovich
      The people loved the Tsar-Liberator: few people know, but in almost every city there was a bust or monument to Alexander II, demolished after the Thief ...

      Well, so we have monuments to Yeltsin, a drunk, a prostitute, and what kind of people like him?
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich April 28 2018 12: 00
        +7
        Quote: Bar1
        problems after the war only increased. Instead of one hostile state of Turkey, two states hostile to Russia appeared Bulgaria and Turkey, is this not visible?

        No, not visible. It can be seen that Turkey contracted like shagreen skin and weakened. Independent states were formed in the Balkans, they could not become Russia, but Turkey became LESS on them.
        Quote: Bar1
        Well this is not true, I remind you that when the civil war broke out in America in 1865, for some reason Russia found the strength to send a fleet to the shores of America in order to support Saskh and scare the Anglof and the French supporting Confederates.

        The truth is that there were NOT forces to develop, and a one-time sending of the fleet was not the development and settlement of lands. Unclear?
        Quote: Bar1
        again a lie based on a traditional vision of history. Far East given has already been mastered,It was Russian state Chinese Tartaria,which already had cities and ports in Manchuria, for example a city Albazin, or the city of Red Mountain near Beijing

        Ahhh, you would immediately warn that you are from a parallel reality.
        But I was not there and not in courses ..
        So callhi
        1. Bar1
          Bar1 April 28 2018 15: 33
          0
          Quote: Olgovich
          No, not visible. It can be seen that Turkey contracted like shagreen skin and weakened. Independent states were formed in the Balkans, they could not become Russia, but Turkey became LESS on them.


          yeah, you don’t see it mean? And then Bulgaria has formed and strengthened?

          the truth is that there were NOT forces to develop, and a one-time sending of the fleet was not the development and settlement of lands. Unclear?


          you are a government under Putin, there is no money and is not expected.

          Quote: Olgovich
          Ahhh, you would immediately warn that you are from a parallel reality


          In general, I am one of those who study REAL facts, according to documents, and not from articles and textbooks.
          here is a map of Manchuria Winsgain 1720 written
          -Korogorod
          -Libino city
          -Labininskaya river or fast or Shingal, now called ShINGan.
          -Nikansky -city



          or here is a map of 1736
          -Red Mountain is a city, what's the name for the Manchus?



          The Far East was mastered and mastered by the Russians and mastered a long time ago, it can be said that the White Rus population is endemic to these places.
          You can recall the map of Remezov, where at the mouth of the Amur was the kingdom of Gilyatsky.
          You can recall that in Japan and now live -AINS -white population of the Far East, so the Bering Strait was called Aninsky or Ainsky.
      2. naidas
        naidas April 28 2018 18: 03
        +1
        Quote: Bar1
        Red Mountain city near Beijing


        This is where General Charles Cousin-Montaban received the title "Count of Balitsiao" from Napoleon III? in 1860
    4. rkkasa xnumx
      rkkasa xnumx April 28 2018 09: 58
      +6
      Quote: Olgovich
      It is worth remembering that the Alexander government made another strategic mistake - in 1867 the United States sold Alaska
      And Polynesia did not join, although such benefits promised! The reason is simple: the country had no strength for everything

      That is, when the rule of the tsarist government and the EaP brought the country to a halt, and Poland and Finland split off at the beginning of the XNUMXth century, it was the bad Bolsheviks who were to blame. And when a good king sells Alaska for a penny, the country had no strength.
      Quote: Olgovich
      The people loved the Tsar-Liberator <...> in almost every city there was a bust or a monument to Alexander II

      In almost every Soviet city there was a bust or a monument to V.I. To Lenin. That is, the people loved him. And you, in your kamenty, with obstinacy worthy of a better application, constantly insult the leader of the Bolsheviks. So you are against the people.
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich April 28 2018 12: 10
        +4
        Quote: rkkasa 81
        That is, when the reign of the tsarist government and the EaP brought the country to a hilt, and at the beginning of the XNUMXth century, Poland and Finland split off, then the bad Bolsheviks were to blame.

        The Bolsheviks recognized the independence of Poland, Finland, Latvia, Estonia, Ukraine, Georgia, the FDR on the basis of their program documents and decrees. Forgot?
        Brothers Ukrainians! Not even for a minute are we thinking of encroaching on the rights of Ukraine. Revolutionary proletariat he is only interested in ensuring that all nations have the right to self-determination, right up to secession.

        Even from the point of view of the right ones only national interests of Ukraine You must support the Workers 'and Peasants' Government of Russia. Think about tomorrow. Where is the class that would be able to ensure freedom for all peoples, including Ukrainians? During the 8 months of the revolution, you saw the policies of the Cadet bourgeoisie and the policies of the coalition ministries in which the Mensheviks and Socialist Revolutionaries met. This policy led to the defeat of the national freedoms of Ukraine.
        yes
        How sick, how rooting for ridkina Urkainu
        Quote: rkkasa 81
        In almost every Soviet city there was a bust or a monument to V.I. To Lenin. That is, the people loved him. And you, in your kamenty, with obstinacy worthy of a better application, constantly insult the leader of the Bolsheviks. So you are against the people.

        In Russia, people raised money for the monuments to Alexander, and monuments to tourists were erected on the orders of the Communist Party. Did you catch the difference?
        1. Pissarro
          Pissarro April 28 2018 13: 29
          +4
          In Russia, people raised money for the monuments to Alexander, and monuments to tourists were erected on the orders of the Communist Party. Did you catch the difference?


          People also threw bombs at him. They didn’t throw at predecessors
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich April 28 2018 14: 37
            +3
            Quote: Pissarro
            Bombs in it too people threw it. They didn’t throw at predecessors

            People?! The people handed over these half-crazy people, wandering the villages with incomprehensible peasants ravings, to the police.
            He also protected the Emperor from killers:
            Osip Ivanovich Komissarov (Komisarov) (1838; the village of Molvitino, Buisky uyezd, Kostroma province (now the town of Susanino, Susaninsky district, Kostroma region), Russian Empire - 1892; Poltava province, Russian Empire) - peasant, a native of Kostroma province, which is April 4, 1866 saved the life of emperor Alexander II, taking aside the hand of the assassination attempt on the emperor D. Karakozov.
            With the full approval and gathering of the people, the psychopath-terrorist Karakozov was hanged. yes
          2. Weyland
            Weyland April 29 2018 15: 07
            +2
            Quote: Pissarro
            Bombs were also thrown at him by people

            What kind of people - workers or peasants? For example, Sofia Perovskaya is the daughter of the Governor General of St. Petersburg. Karakozov, Berezovsky, Grinevitsky are also nobles!
            1. Pissarro
              Pissarro April 29 2018 17: 52
              0
              well, so he managed to get everyone, and peasants and nobles
              1. YELLOWSTONE
                YELLOWSTONE April 29 2018 19: 59
                +3
                the Decembrists tried to kill the king and his family because Masons, peasants do not do this
        2. rkkasa xnumx
          rkkasa xnumx April 28 2018 14: 28
          +7
          Quote: Olgovich
          Bolsheviks ...

          The Bolsheviks adopted a backward, agrarian country, besides being devastated by the WWII, gave the Lyule to the invaders and their white landlords, and created the state - one of the two most influential in the world.
          The October Revolution, the Bolsheviks, Ukraine, the CPSU - this is certainly good, but the article is about A 2. Therefore, let's talk about bald (no, well, VI Lenin can be called bald?) fornication (and what else to call a man who, without hiding and not being ashamed of his children and his sick wife, takes his girlfriend home?).
          The bald fornicator noted three things:
          1 Because of cowardice and greed, I was afraid to free the peasants without redemption payments, thereby, if not creating, then at least exacerbating the negative that the dynasty came to a head at the beginning of XX.
          2 Selling Alaska for a penny.
          3 And of course fornication. Moreover, his last passion, so twisted the bald fornicator that she spun them as she wanted. She received inconceivable content, got into various things, and the LB’s entourage even had fears that the tsar might pass the throne to his son from his vertigo.
          Quote: Olgovich
          In Russia, I raised money for the monuments to Alexander people

          People ... people, this is somewhat vague. Let’s clarify - these were grateful peasants, small shopkeepers and artisans, who for the sake of the monument were even ready to get into debt-arrears? Or were they the rich who profit from the common people, and who thus showed their loyal moods?
          The answer is obvious.
          1. YELLOWSTONE
            YELLOWSTONE April 28 2018 14: 40
            +4
            so backward that they themselves didn’t build a single battleship later and in the USA a whole ship of brains sailed (to build airplanes, televisions, helicopters, etc.) which they considered to be ... and almost immediately they had to call the Junkers Cepellin and Ford to Russia - in vain chtoli on their heads then and during this some people proudly wore a hat called popularly "enema" lol
            1. rkkasa xnumx
              rkkasa xnumx April 28 2018 15: 25
              +4
              Quote: YELLOWSTONE
              so backward that they themselves did not build a single battleship later, and a whole ship of brains sailed to the USA

              First of all, tanks, planes, artillery, machine guns were needed, so in the USSR they did not build a single battleship. RI battleships helped a lot?
              There were not many brains in RI, since they fit in one ship.
              Aircraft production in Russia and abroad in 1914-1917. :
              Russia - 3949; Germany - 28185; France - 36228; Great Britain - 22747.
              But in fact, everything was even worse, because our planes were assembled from imported spare parts.
              RI without supplies of allies could not have fought at all; all was missing - starting with aircraft-guns-shells, and ending with rifles-machine guns-cartridges.
              1. YELLOWSTONE
                YELLOWSTONE April 28 2018 16: 26
                +3
                RI battleships helped, it ended not as a result of the war, but as a result of someone's revolution, even two, and continued to fight until the infamous Brest peace concluded by Trotsky.
                Soviet battleships in England had to occupy. Then beautify Italian reparations.

                And where is Austria-Hungary? The peak of aviation production came at the end of the war.
                In fact, in other countries, analogues of the pre-war 4-engine “Ilya Muromets”, the creator of which left one of these ships, appeared only at the end of the war in November 1918, and the Russian Empire ceased to exist in February 1917

                Was it about a free Lend-Lease, or about a gas mask with which the rest of Russia shared with its allies who constantly threw it for free? And whom did she even have to support with troops on their front?
                1. rkkasa xnumx
                  rkkasa xnumx April 28 2018 17: 44
                  +3
                  Quote: YELLOWSTONE
                  And where is Austria-Hungary? The peak of aviation production came at the end of the war.

                  Is France-England-Germany enough for you?
                  Well, over the years (well, let’s drop the 17th year):
                  Russia 1914 - 445; 1915 - 686; 1916 - 1432.
                  Germany 1914 - 1348; 1915 - 4532; 1916 - 8182.
                  France 1914 - 541; 1915 - 4469; 1916 - 7549.
                  England 1914 - 245; 1915 - 1932; 1916 - 6149.
                  And once again - the production of aircraft in RI - only thanks to foreign supplies.
                  Quote: YELLOWSTONE
                  In fact, in other countries, analogues of the pre-war 4-engine "Ilya Muromets", the creator of which left one of these ships, appeared only at the end of the war

                  "Ilya Muromets" ? Less than 80 units were built, and that is only thanks to foreign motors.
                  And by the end of the war, in other countries there appeared not analogues of "IM", but aircraft much more advanced.
                  Quote: YELLOWSTONE
                  Was it about a free Lend-Lease, or about a gas mask with which the rest of Russia shared with its allies who constantly threw it for free? And whom did she even have to support with troops on their front?

                  "What are the bumps, what are the bears" (C)?
                  1. YELLOWSTONE
                    YELLOWSTONE April 28 2018 18: 13
                    +2
                    Again Austria and Italy where?
                    the numbers are already completely different 8 thousand and not 28 thousand bully
                    where 2,5 thousand Russian lost?
                    not only, and not only, and out of these 80 "Murom" Germans were able to shoot down only 1, importer engines and machine guns on them incidentally refused more often (therefore he was shot down) ... by the end of the war there appeared which could stand in one with him only Handley Page category which did not manage to make a single departure.

                    do you pretend that you don’t know what chemical weapons of mass destruction are and what died most of all in the WWII?
                    1. rkkasa xnumx
                      rkkasa xnumx April 28 2018 18: 48
                      +2
                      Quote: YELLOWSTONE
                      Again Austria and Italy where?

                      Why do you need Austria and Italy? Not, if you think that RI should be compared with these "big" powers, then for God's sake. Look for data on them, and compare.
                      And I believe that RI should be compared with truly serious players.
                      Quote: YELLOWSTONE
                      the numbers are already completely different 8 thousand and not 28 thousand

                      ?
                      Quote: YELLOWSTONE
                      where 2,5 thousand Russian lost?

                      ?
                      Quote: YELLOWSTONE
                      not only and not only

                      Not only everything, but even some?
                      Quote: YELLOWSTONE
                      of these 80 "Murom" Germans were able to bring down only 1

                      Quote: YELLOWSTONE
                      by the end of the war there appeared that only Handley Page who could not make a single flight could stand with him in one category

                      Less than 80 were built, fewer at the front. And there would have been “IMs” even less, and they would have flown even less, so the Germans would have never shot down a single one.
                      And in any case, several dozen “IMs” did not do the weather.
                      Germany: Zeppelin Staaken bomb load - 1200-2000kg. At "IM" 400-500kg. Managed to fly.
                      Quote: YELLOWSTONE
                      do you pretend that you don’t know what chemical weapons of mass destruction are and what died most of all in the WWII?

                      I know. And I know that the “advanced” RI failed to acquire them. But our soldiers were poisoned.
                      From chem. weapons in WWII died the most? Figas news ...
                      1. YELLOWSTONE
                        YELLOWSTONE April 28 2018 19: 01
                        +2
                        Well, Austria is big enough in general, but about the Italian battleships already existed, were still in the interwar period and the leaders were different. The Germans incidentally occupied, too.
                        Quote: rkkasa 81
                        ?

                        these are not answers.
                        Quote: rkkasa 81
                        Not only everything, but even some?

                        quite a few
                        the fact of the matter is that the weather was being done, and if of course you compare again the early Muromets at the greatest range, with the late Shtaken at the shortest (and so late that almost like a handley page) then yes - this is your fs yes laughing
                        and if their revolutionaries had rotted on the earth as far back as 1914, they would not have flown at all.
                        Quote: rkkasa 81
                        From chem. weapons in WWII died the most? Figas news ...

                        then what do you know at all? she managed to get them too, the main thing was that she managed to supply gas masks for herself and advanced allies, until the civilized Germans poisoned them all.
                    2. rkkasa xnumx
                      rkkasa xnumx April 28 2018 19: 43
                      +2
                      Quote: YELLOWSTONE
                      about the Italian battleships were already there, were in the interwar period and the leaders are different. The Germans by the way

                      What are Italian battleships, the interwar period and the Germans? It was about PMV aviation:
                      Quote: YELLOWSTONE
                      And where is Austria-Hungary? The peak of aviation production came at the end of the war.

                      Quote: YELLOWSTONE
                      did the weather

                      Several dozens of “IMs” flying on foreign engines, against tens of thousands of German aircraft, did not do the weather.
                      Quote: YELLOWSTONE
                      From chem. weapons in WWII died the most? Figas news ...
                      then what do you know at all?

                      Yes, more of yours yes
                      Quote: YELLOWSTONE
                      these are not answers

                      And there were no questions. There was an incoherent set of words and numbers.
                      1. YELLOWSTONE
                        YELLOWSTONE April 28 2018 20: 26
                        +2
                        it was about aviation and battleships, and much more, even about an “enema” cap, and how backward Russia saved the advanced Entente from German gases
                        verbiage and rambling set of numbers was in response yes again, tens of thousands of German planes came from somewhere instead of just 8 bully
                        you went in cycles, there were "IM" not on foreign engines, and 76 of them made more than a few dozen weather inflatable zeppelins laughing and other countries had the whole war and there were none
                        of the leaders, for example, the Italian “Tashkent”, of the Luttsov cruisers purchased in 1940, aircraft engines in the USSR were all German (at best) licensed, after the war trophy or tyrenny English jet, and this was before the AL-7 on the Su-7 sad probably someone was late for this on the ship or stole only two spikelets
                      2. YELLOWSTONE
                        YELLOWSTONE April 28 2018 20: 52
                        +2
                        no, not 76, turning out to be 85+, in short under a hundred laughing this is not counting the prototype "Russian Knight" yes and etc.
                        a rented British battleship - Royal Sovereign, (1916) and the infamous Novorossiysk, formerly Italian Giulio Cesare (1914) received from reparations
                    3. rkkasa xnumx
                      rkkasa xnumx April 29 2018 07: 13
                      +1
                      We switched to you? OK.
                      About Austria - once again poke you in your kament? :
                      Quote: YELLOWSTONE
                      And where is Austria-Hungary? The peak of aviation production came at the end of the war.

                      About battleships and chem. I already explained the weapon, if it doesn’t reach you, then these are your problems.
                      I take data on aircraft production from here - www.airaces.ru/stati/otechestvennoe-samoljotostro
                      enie-v-gody-pervojj-mirovojj-vojjny.html

                      - And where do you get your stuff about just 8 thousand German planes?
                      Quote: YELLOWSTONE
                      were not “IM” on foreign engines, and 76 of them made more than a few dozen inflatable zeppelins

                      Quote: YELLOWSTONE
                      no, not 76, turning out to be 85+, in short under a hundred

                      76 ... 85 ... a hundred ... soon you will "build" them with thousands. This is for you at the gathering of AI lovers.
                      In, it turns out that the Germans, in addition to the inflatable zeppelins, had no other aircraft at all ... Well, after this, perhaps the conversation with the troll can be ended. hi
                      1. YELLOWSTONE
                        YELLOWSTONE April 29 2018 07: 31
                        +1
                        stick to your own and try to find data on Austria-Hungary there, along with Italy (the very one whose leaders and battleships were then)
                        about battleships, leaders and cruisers, and especially about the chemical (with or without a gas mask) you still won’t reach you, because there’s nothing to answer ...
                        about 8 thousand you even got better above, taking into account the time frame
                        85+ (with Svyatogor and with the Russian Knight already 87+) is almost a hundred, which, with only 1m shot down by the Germans, your revolutionaries then rotted on the ground, even the war did not have time to end
                        such as "Ilya Muromets" was not, therefore, there were inflatable hydrogen that burned over England like matches, and the team did not even take parachutes with them, saving weight
                        all you can do is spoil it, and bring it down from a sore head to a healthy one, there’s nothing more under the hat (by the way, besides the enema, it was very similar to the Kaiser crest - know yours).
              2. Aviator_
                Aviator_ April 28 2018 21: 37
                +4
                In addition, absolutely all Russian aviation on imported engines. The first domestic aircraft engine - the 100-strong M-11 (1927 g), was created under the bloody Bolsheviks.
                1. YELLOWSTONE
                  YELLOWSTONE April 29 2018 08: 25
                  +1
                  you are mistaken, for example, on the part of "Ilya Muromets" were engines of Russian production
                  Soviet engines were copies of foreign ones to the AL-7 cradle
                  1. Aviator_
                    Aviator_ April 29 2018 08: 34
                    +2
                    What kind of aircraft engines on the "Ilya" were Russian? Type of? And then the aircraft designer V. B. Shavrov in his fundamental work (The history of aircraft designs in the USSR, before 1938, t. 1, M. 1985) did not suspect about this)
                    1. YELLOWSTONE
                      YELLOWSTONE April 29 2018 08: 39
                      +2
                      look in the literature on "Ilya Muromets", which was made by the Russian designer Sikorsky before the USSR
                      1. Aviator_
                        Aviator_ April 29 2018 09: 56
                        +3
                        I gave you a link to specific literature on Elijah, give me the same specifics.
                    2. YELLOWSTONE
                      YELLOWSTONE April 29 2018 10: 19
                      +2
                      You did not give a link but a reference to a book written and published still in the USSR, which is probably why he "did not suspect".
                      specifically it is possible to google in Google about various engines on "IM"
                      1. Aviator_
                        Aviator_ April 29 2018 11: 28
                        +2
                        The aircraft designer, who began work with Grigorovich himself at the beginning of the 20's, could not "not suspect." So there is no answer to my question.
                    3. YELLOWSTONE
                      YELLOWSTONE April 29 2018 13: 42
                      +2
                      But what does "Grigorovich himself" have to do with the planes of some Sikorsky? which were 15 years earlier, 4-2 times more in another country.
                      thus, if he himself had not forgotten, it could have turned out that both the engines and not just the planes, the damned tsarism was not so backward, and he would go after Grigorovich himself.
                      For example, besides the Salmsons there were still such
                      Argus Russobalt Sunbeam Renault
                      140 h.p. 150 h.p. 160 h.p. 220 h.p.
                      This is from Google, into which for some reason you immediately became too lazy to look. and contrary to conventional wisdom, a more reliable "opinion", all of their own including ball bearings up to two Maidan-1917 lol in tsarist Russia was.
                      1. Aviator_
                        Aviator_ April 29 2018 15: 14
                        +2
                        These are Russian motors
                        [/ quote] "Argus" "Sunbeam" "Renault" [quote]
                        ?
                        Well, you have fun!
                    4. YELLOWSTONE
                      YELLOWSTONE April 29 2018 15: 31
                      +1
                      you somehow selectively quote them lol
                      1. Aviator_
                        Aviator_ April 29 2018 17: 07
                        +1
                        Sorry, Russobalt missed. And what kind of dvigun was, in more detail, pzhlst.
                  2. Aviator_
                    Aviator_ April 29 2018 08: 37
                    +2
                    And do not confuse copies of engines (IL-400) and licensed production. Again, about the fact that before AL-7 all the “copies” are you with your finger in the sky (if not to say otherwise). And what was the prototype of NK-12?
                    1. YELLOWSTONE
                      YELLOWSTONE April 29 2018 08: 41
                      +1
                      and I don’t confuse, the first Soviet aircraft engine is Al-7 for Su-7
                      NK-12 was made by the Germans in the USSR on the basis of their
                      1. Aviator_
                        Aviator_ April 29 2018 09: 55
                        +2
                        Dear, you greatly exaggerate the gloomy Teutonic genius. Especially about the NK-12, which is still unparalleled in the world.
                    2. YELLOWSTONE
                      YELLOWSTONE April 29 2018 10: 22
                      +1
                      Not at all, for example RB153 MAN Turbo did not master
                      especially about NK-12, you can also google or ask DimerVladimer
          2. Olgovich
            Olgovich April 28 2018 15: 07
            +3
            Quote: rkkasa 81
            Bolsheviks accepted

            Captured by force and deceit
            Quote: rkkasa 81
            backward, agricultural country

            Watching TV? So every time you turn it on, remember now that first in the world The television broadcast was made in RUSSIA in 1911. The same with the radio when you turn it on. Etc. Chop it into a bundle on your nose. yes
            Quote: rkkasa 81
            pressed the luli to the interventionists

            lol Tell us about the "battles" on the Bolshevik-French, Bolshevik-American "fronts" lol laughing
            Quote: rkkasa 81
            big

            Loss ratio 4: 1 Did not know?
            Quote: rkkasa 81
            1 Because of cowardice and greed, I was afraid to release the peasants without redemption payments, thereby, if not creating, then at least exacerbating the negative that the dynasty came to an end at the beginning of XX

            And he also had to issue a decree so that everyone would become well, for example, rich. yes
            Politics is the art of the possible
            Quote: rkkasa 81
            2 Selling Alaska for a penny.

            or taken away for free, there was no other way
            Quote: rkkasa 81
            3 And of course fornication. Moreover, his last passion, so twisted the bald fornicator that she spun them as she wanted. She received inconceivable content, got into various things, and the LB’s entourage even had fears that the tsar might pass the throne to his son from his vertigo.

            Oh, you climbed into bed already ... I can’t answer about another hairless one, I’m afraid that I’ll get before.
            And it’s not solid
            Quote: rkkasa 81
            People ... people, this is somewhat vague. Let’s clarify - these were grateful peasants, small shopkeepers and artisans, who for the sake of the monument were even ready to get into debt-arrears? Or were they the rich who profit from the common people, and who thus showed their loyal moods?
            Response obvious.

            Not at all: they collected a pretty penny, the whole world.
            1. rkkasa xnumx
              rkkasa xnumx April 28 2018 16: 01
              +5
              Quote: Olgovich
              Captured by force

              I also believe that the Bolsheviks are power! Glad you share my opinion.
              Quote: Olgovich
              4: 1 loss ratio

              A loader, loosened to a foreign land, plows, and consoles himself - but we won! The loss ratio is 4: 1!
              Just like beaten Germans about the war with the USSR, excuses are the same laughing
              And by the way - if even with a loss ratio of 4: 1, the Bolsheviks still won, it turns out that on their side people fought a lot more than on the side of the whites.
              Quote: Olgovich
              Selling Alaska for a penny.
              or taken away for free, there was no other way

              Well, how so ... a great, mighty RI, and suddenly such powerlessness? And didn’t they even try to defend their country? Probably the A-2 was a Bolshevik, the bald harlot was sold to the Yankees ...
              Quote: Olgovich
              Politics is the art of the possible

              Well, since we admit that even the autocrat could not always act as he wanted, and was forced to take into account different circumstances, then we must also treat the Bolsheviks as well. Right ?
              Quote: Olgovich
              Oh, you climbed into bed already

              Well, firstly, we will not say where you constantly climb; and secondly, for the monarchy, questions of the king’s personal relations, questions of the succession to the throne are very important. Therefore, I had to recall the adventures of LB.
              1. Olgovich
                Olgovich April 29 2018 06: 19
                +2
                Quote: rkkasa 81
                I also believe that the Bolsheviks force !

                When the bandit will gut you in the gateway, remember yourself today: he is stronger, then he is RIGHT! yes An unexpected stab in the back to the back of a fighting person from a weak scoundrel is more dangerous than the fight itself.
                Quote: rkkasa 81
                A loader thrust out to a foreign land plows, and consoles himself - but we won! !

                Crawls trampled into the mud Bukharin with Zinoviev at the feet of his "comrades in the struggle" with animal horror in his eyes, begs the morphine bowl and thinks: "And we winners! "
                Quote: rkkasa 81
                And by the way - if even with a loss ratio of 4: 1, the Bolsheviks still won, it turns out that people fought on their side a lot morethan on the side of white

                The voluntary appeal has almost completely failed. Forcibly mobilized and - almost half dithered, although relatives and fellow villagers were responsible for this and shared responsibility. Plus hostage and the threat of starvation. Plus a lie in everything and everything. Those. the most base and shameful methods. Be proud! yes
                Quote: rkkasa 81
                Well, how so ... a great, mighty RI, and suddenly such powerlessness? And didn’t they even try to defend their country? Probably the A-2 was a Bolshevik, the bald harlot was sold to the Yankees ..

                The biggest country peace is powerlessness ?! fool lol
                If it powerlessness, HOW is the action of the Bolsheviks called, after which a small RF remained from the huge RI in 1991? Strength, do I understand you correctly? yes lol
                Quote: rkkasa 81
                Well, since we admit that even the autocrat could not always act as he wanted, and was forced to take into account different circumstances, then we must also treat the Bolsheviks as well. Right

                Absolutely ALL consider and evaluate circumstances. The question is the correctness of the assessment.
                Quote: rkkasa 81
                Well, firstly, we won’t say where you constantly climb

                belay lol
                Quote: rkkasa 81
                and secondly, for the monarchy, questions of the king’s personal relations, questions of the succession to the throne are very important.

                Ohhh, if you dig up the Bolshevik beds .. No. . But this is without me ...
                1. rkkasa xnumx
                  rkkasa xnumx April 29 2018 08: 16
                  +2
                  Bandits ... gates ... angry crime chronicle in the morning seen enough? bully
                  So you crawled in the mud next to Bukharin? What a busy life you have however wassat
                  Quote: Olgovich
                  Forcibly mobilized and- nearly half dysentery

                  Russians in your fantasies are dumb and cowardly animals crying who are not able to think for themselves, to decide for themselves, who only do what they desert from the front ... Why do you hate Russians so much ... request
                  And if white fool even from such Russians - they pulled out the lyuli, it turns out that the bailers were worse. Do you agree? yes
                  Quote: Olgovich
                  The largest country in the world

                  and didn’t even try to defend her landrepeat Yeah, shy. Truly a colossus with feet of clay.
                  Quote: Olgovich
                  Absolutely ALL consider and evaluate circumstances

                  I am glad that you are finally beginning to realize that the Bolsheviks were right good
                  Quote: Olgovich
                  if you dig the Bolshevik beds

                  There is no doubt - you like to dig in dirty linen lol
                  But the hitch is that the Bolsheviks did not get power through the bed stop . But under the monarchy, power passes precisely through the bed. Such a dynastic system. yes
                  1. YELLOWSTONE
                    YELLOWSTONE April 29 2018 09: 00
                    +2
                    if you delve into the Bolsheviks at one time there was even a socialization of wives
                  2. Olgovich
                    Olgovich April 29 2018 09: 49
                    +1
                    Quote: rkkasa 81
                    Bandits ... the gateway ..

                    Do you remember? And good! yes
                    Quote: rkkasa 81
                    So you crawling in the mud next to Bukharin?

                    No, it's over: there are "testimonies" of the "great" Leninists "trampled, humiliated and broken to the complete loss of personality:
                    -Zinoviev Apfelbaum: "I will long intently I look at you and other members of the Politburo portraits in newspapers with the thought: dear ones, look into my soul, can you really see that I’m not your enemy anymore, that I’m your body and soul
                    , --- Bukharin: "Have pity !, Pray, give morphine."
                    Steel Commissar Yezhov admitted to homosexuality, etc.
                    Few? So read yourself.
                    PS-And you about the fact that dirt is dirt, determine only falling out in the mud? lol There are other methods.
                    Quote: rkkasa 81
                    The Russians in your fantasies are stupid and cowardly animals, unable to think for themselves, to decide for themselves, who only do what they desert from the front ... Why do you hate Russians so much ..

                    You, erasing the very name RUSSIA from the map of the world for 70 years, despising Glinka, blown up ALL the main Russian monuments the glory of Russia, who robbed Russians for the sake of anyone, talking about your ..... Russianness is the height of blasphemy and hypocrisy.
                    Quote: rkkasa 81
                    And if whites even from such Russian - Lyuley snatched, it turns out that the bailers were even worse. Agree

                    What, such, worse? request Speak Russian.
                    Quote: rkkasa 81
                    and didn’t even try to defend her land Yeah, she was ashamed. Truly a colossus with feet of clay.

                    Once again: RI is the largest country in the world, and this suggests that she always defended her land.
                    But the size of the Russian Federation, after your rule, speaks precisely of your inability to uphold the clay content of the members.
                    Quote: rkkasa 81
                    I am glad that you are finally beginning to realize that the Bolsheviks were right

                    Yes, yes, but only in your reality that has disappeared forever.
                    The Ruus Cross and the disaster of 91 g say they are right. fool
                    Quote: rkkasa 81
                    There is no doubt - you like to dig in dirty linen

                    YOU dug, and I dig? belay
                    Quote: rkkasa 81
                    the Bolsheviks did not get power through the bed

                    No, through acts. yes
                    1. rkkasa xnumx
                      rkkasa xnumx April 29 2018 12: 22
                      +1
                      Not only did you crawl in the mud next to your comrades, you still managed to bring them morphine, and write down for them! You are super ! good
                      About how you installed about Yezhov, I will not ask. lol
                      Quote: Olgovich
                      You...

                      Is all the jokes about 4: 1 over? Sorry crying ... it was funny ... The new ones, about Glinka's map, are not so intricate.
                      Quote: Olgovich
                      RI-land always defended its

                      Well, this joke with a beard already, carry othersstop No am
                      Here is the Soviet Union, he always defended his lands. And moreover, even increased its territory - Zap. Ukraine, Baltic states, Tuva, Kaliningrad region, Sakhalin. good
                      Quote: Olgovich
                      disaster 91 g

                      I agree with youyes , the advent of capitalism, and the collapse of the USSR - this is a disaster for all of us.
                      Quote: Olgovich
                      the Bolsheviks did not get power through the bed
                      No, through acts

                      I am glad that we are more and more finding mutual understanding. drinks And I confess at one time I thought that before you fool do not reach hi
                      1. YELLOWSTONE
                        YELLOWSTONE April 29 2018 13: 48
                        +1
                        perhaps he had in mind other acts (in terms of the socialization of wives by the Bolsheviks), and he could not reach out to you lol
                      2. Olgovich
                        Olgovich April 30 2018 06: 54
                        +1
                        Quote: rkkasa 81
                        Not only did you crawl in the mud next to your comrades, you still managed to bring them morphine, and write down for them!

                        Boring you, a determinant of dirt empirically. I repeat once again for the tanker: all this dirt is available in the ARCHIVES and the documents are posted on the Internet and Bukharin’s letter (with the storage number in the GARF) and Yezhov’s testimony and petition Apfelbaum.
                        Quote: rkkasa 81
                        Is all the jokes about 4: 1 over? It’s a pity ... it was funny ... New ones, about Glinka’s map are not so intricate.

                        True, dear man, is interesting to normal people, and laughter causes others ...
                        Quote: rkkasa 81
                        Here is the Soviet Union, he always defended his lands. And moreover, even increased its territory - Zap. Ukraine, Baltic states, Tuva, Kaliningrad region, Sakhalin.

                        What reality do you live in? belay fool lol
                        THIRD times I propose to look at the maps of the Republic of Ingushetia, the USSR, and the Russian Federation: the territory was reduced at YOU-by THREE! And the last time the abbreviation occurred even without war. Well done communists!
                        Is it true that it hurts your eyes again?
                        Quote: rkkasa 81
                        I agree with you, the advent of capitalism, and the collapse of the USSR - this is a disaster for all of us.

                        They fell off Mars (collapse, wild capitalism) or is it to blame, nevertheless, the one who ruled SINGLE? Questions, I see repeated, and you include all misunderstanding.
                        Quote: rkkasa 81
                        No, through acts
                        I am glad that we are increasingly finding mutual understanding. And I admit, at one time I thought that before you do not reach

                        Do not knock your head: I mean OTHER Acts lol yes
              2. Olgovich
                Olgovich April 29 2018 06: 49
                +1
                PS - don’t forget about WHAT must remember when you turn on the TV and radio! yes
        3. RUSS
          RUSS April 28 2018 15: 37
          +3
          Quote: Olgovich
          The Bolsheviks recognized the independence of Poland, Finland, Latvia, Estonia, Ukraine, Georgia, the FDR on the basis of their program documents and decrees.

          You forgot the Tuva People's Republic (the former Russian Uryanhay Territory), whose independence the USSR recognized in 1924.
        4. naidas
          naidas April 28 2018 18: 18
          +3
          Quote: Olgovich
          The Bolsheviks recognized the independence of Poland, Finland, Latvia, Estonia, Ukraine, Georgia, the FDR on the basis of their program documents and decrees. Forgot?

          like the Bolsheviks, you do not confuse. (My opinion is that they released what was impossible to keep)
          March 16 (29), 1917, the Provisional Government of Russia recognized the right of Poland to independence.
          On March 7 (20), 1917, the Provisional Government issued an Act approving the Constitution of the Grand Duchy of Finland, returning to Finland all the rights of the times of autonomy and repealing all restrictions of the period of Russification.
          On July 2 (15), a telegram arrived from Kiev to Kiev with the text of a government declaration stating that the General Secretariat was recognized as the highest administrative body of Ukraine, and that the government would favorably respond to the development by the Ukrainian Council of a draft national-political statute of Ukraine.
          On March 9 (22), the Estonian Tallinn Union was organized in Revel [15], which demanded that the Provisional Government join the northern counties of Livonia in the Estland province.
          On October 8, 1917, Siberian regional workers declared Siberia autonomy and created the first Siberian government led by Potanin.
          On December 11 (24), 1917, the Lithuanian Tariba adopted a declaration of independence in the “eternal allied relations of the State of Lithuania with Germany”.
          On December 2, 1917, the LCNS adopted the declaration of self-determination of Latvia.
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich April 29 2018 06: 46
            +1
            Quote: naidas
            like the Bolsheviks, you do not confuse. (My opinion is that they released what was impossible to keep)

            No, I do not confuse, ALL independence-AFTER THE THIEF. And their recognition of the Bolsheviks, too. Can you challenge?
            Power EVERYWHERE (except for the occupied territories), before the Thief, belonged to the Provisional Government.
            -Poland-decision given to the Constituent Assembly
            - Finland, the Senate was dispersed and occupied by the Russian Army, the Finns agreed that they were wrong. -After the BOR-, referring to the absence of the legitimate authority of the EP, they asked for independence from the CSS
            -Ukraine: the modern ukronazi historians (Savchenko, for example) recognize that before the thief the real power is with the VP. Even after a thief, the UCR announced being a part of Russia. Independence declared only after the war launched by the Bolsheviks
            -Siberia-at the congress stated that Siberia operates in FULL compliance with the Russian Constitution.
            Baltic, there was nothing real.
            Have you forgotten the Muslim congress, Crimea, Kazakhs, Kuban .. yes
            1. naidas
              naidas April 29 2018 11: 19
              +3
              You do not own the information, did not provide a single document.
              This issue has already been considered in the military review "The collapse of Russia was the result of blackmail" on April 3, 2016 on the occasion of:
              Exactly 99 years ago, an event occurred that essentially legitimized the process of the collapse of the country: the Provisional Government announced its agreement in principle to grant independence to Poland. Following this, independence was demanded by Finland, Ukraine and other regions ...
              1. YELLOWSTONE
                YELLOWSTONE April 29 2018 13: 51
                +2
                but then they didn’t saw a single country into republics under the “temporary workers” who had the same berry field
                1. naidas
                  naidas April 29 2018 14: 31
                  +1
                  Quote: YELLOWSTONE
                  sawed the country

                  yes saw the new liberals in 1991 in the form of independent states,
                  the Bolsheviks managed to collect the territory of the Russian empire in the form of a federation (the United States also works)
                  1. YELLOWSTONE
                    YELLOWSTONE April 29 2018 14: 35
                    +3
                    the foundation for this cut was laid back then in 1917-1922,
                    USA remained intact
                    1. naidas
                      naidas April 29 2018 16: 29
                      +1
                      Quote: YELLOWSTONE
                      the foundation for this cut was laid back then in 1917-1922

                      And why not under Grozny, he divided the country, or under Kievan Rus, they generally shared it.
                      There were three multinational empires in 1914 - in one of them the Bolsheviks appeared, and this one empire remained, the rest fell apart, such a time.
                      Why federalism is the foundation for disintegration, I don’t understand, write the United States yourself. It’s not about federalism, but who is in power, the liberals came to the USSR, decided to be friends with the United States, contrary to national interests. And then Russia, Kazakhs, Baltic states and others needed, they themselves can be friends with the United States, without Russia.
                      1. YELLOWSTONE
                        YELLOWSTONE April 29 2018 20: 03
                        +1
                        Terrible country is not divided
                        the federation was the RSFSR, and it wasn’t the time, but those who did it
    5. YELLOWSTONE
      YELLOWSTONE April 28 2018 20: 05
      +1
      It is worth remembering that the Alexander government made another strategic mistake - in 1867 the United States sold Alaska

      not sold but leased for 99 years
      these 99 years ended in 1966, the Communists did not begin to receive it back or extend the lease term.
      1. YELLOWSTONE
        YELLOWSTONE April 29 2018 09: 03
        +1
        instead, Crimea went somewhere in 1954
  4. Cartalon
    Cartalon April 28 2018 06: 17
    +8
    As I understand it, serfdom had to be left and nothing changed at all, but only to introduce torture upon inquiry and to execute all who blather and who are unlucky.
    1. Olgovich
      Olgovich April 28 2018 08: 13
      +5
      Quote: Cartalon
      As I understand it, serfdom had to be left and nothing changed at all, but only to introduce torture upon inquiry and to execute all who blather and who are unlucky.

      I also understood. yes serfdom, according to the article, BROKEN the peasants and made them .... slaves belay
  5. andrewkor
    andrewkor April 28 2018 06: 54
    +2
    Here is the sale of Alaska, I will not forgive him for a century!
    1. Gopnik
      Gopnik April 28 2018 14: 28
      +2
      All the same, in 1917 (or even earlier) would have been lost.
      1. andrewkor
        andrewkor April 28 2018 17: 53
        0
        Well, there would have been an independent Republic of Russian America! According to the Yalta and Postdam agreements, it would have ceded to the USSR!
  6. rkkasa xnumx
    rkkasa xnumx April 28 2018 07: 19
    +5
    Alexander headed for the abolition of serfdom and in 1861 pushed this decision, despite resistance of a part of the nobility <...> However, the reform was half-hearted and the land issue became one of the prerequisites for the catastrophe of 1917. Peasant land plots were significantly cut in favor of the landlords, the peasants had to pay a ransom, the peasant community was destroyed, and the ruined peasants became slaves of the capitalist system that was developing in Russia.

    If Alexander II, when abolishing serfdom, took into account the interests of peasants rather than landlords, he would most likely end up as Paul I. Therefore, it is natural that the landowners tried not to offend.
    Yes, and redemption payments were canceled only after the 1905 revolution.
  7. baudolino
    baudolino April 28 2018 07: 34
    +3
    The article does not mention French loans, which became the main problem for the Russian Empire in subsequent years. Which did not have time to solve the son of Alexander II. And which sideways crawled out for his grandson in 1914.
    1. Gopnik
      Gopnik April 28 2018 14: 30
      +1
      Well, the Russian Empire lived if its "main problem" were French loans from the time of Alexander II
      1. Pissarro
        Pissarro April 28 2018 19: 47
        +1
        Well, how much does it take to make loans the main problem
  8. populist
    populist April 28 2018 09: 55
    +5
    The article is incredibly superficial belay , proves nothing and explains nothing. No.
  9. Altona
    Altona April 28 2018 12: 08
    +7
    Quote: Bar1
    to consider history as separate states of Russia, Prussia, Austria is to mislead people. It's not so.

    ---------------------------
    Academician Kapitsa, who was Sergei Petrovich, expressed the idea, or rather the theory, that history should be regarded as universal and then everything will become even more clear, all the relationships will be visible. And since they teach history both in our country and in other countries, this subject is primarily used as an ideological, political tool and propaganda. Then you can manipulate and put forward absurd versions of the "chosenness" of your people and any near-scientific nonsense.
    1. andrewkor
      andrewkor April 28 2018 17: 55
      +1
      The very good “Historical Tables” method graphically shows what happened in the world at a given time interval!
  10. Curious
    Curious April 28 2018 12: 11
    +5
    Another historical delirium. "It is worth remembering that the Alexander government made another strategic mistake - in 1867 the US sold Alaska, which seriously worsened Russia's position in the Asia-Pacific region." How can one worsen or improve what is practically not? The Siberian Railway, which in 1891 began to be built from Chelyabinsk, passed through an almost uninhabited area. The map of the Far East was not complete. At the beginning of the Russo - Japanese War, communication with the Far East was supported by as many as three (!) Pairs of trains. But admirers of “protomegasciforusses” still can’t forget Alaska.
  11. Andy
    Andy April 28 2018 13: 18
    +2
    Alexander’s government made another strategic mistake - in 1867 the United States sold Alaska, which seriously worsened Russia's position in the Asia-Pacific region.
    ---
    But what was there to keep her? still in the Far East they did not consolidate as they should ... There was no fleet either.
    1. Pissarro
      Pissarro April 28 2018 13: 26
      +2
      And did someone take it to keep her? Baran sold not only Russian land, but also Russian citizens
  12. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh April 28 2018 13: 49
    +6
    "500 million was spent on reforms, 1,5 billion were spent on the Crimean and Russian-Turkish wars, 4 billion went on the construction of railways (with the active participation of foreign and Russian speculative capital)." ////

    Alexander II gave a huge breakthrough to the Russian economy after the 30-year stagnation of Nicholas I, which led to the defeat in the Crimean War from the largest Anglo-French landing.
    Alexander the Third gave the brakes, reforms stopped. And, as a result, the defeat of the Japanese.
    To reduce the lag behind Europe caused by Nicholas I, Russia needed continuous reforms and rapid development of capitalism for about 50 years.
    It was in the second half of the 19th century that America rushed forward, overtaking everyone.
    1. Pissarro
      Pissarro April 28 2018 14: 25
      +5
      Almost all liberal stamps have been collected. Myths about the defeat in the Crimean War, where half the city was taken with difficulty, having lost Kars in the Caucasus and scooping up everywhere, from Solovki to Kamchatka. The myth of Nicholas, who had just begun to build the railway and technical universities, the myths about the brake of Alexander 3, which side is he to the Japanese war
      1. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh April 29 2018 15: 52
        +1
        With one foot on the brake and the other on
        gas, not far to go. Ditch the brakes and the motor.
        What happened to Russia after Alexander 2 (1905 revolution
        and the Russo-Japanese War).
        And Japan pressed 50 years only for gas and jumped out
        from deaf feudalism to the 20th century an advanced country.
        1. YELLOWSTONE
          YELLOWSTONE April 29 2018 20: 05
          0
          and so stingy? bully
  13. Monarchist
    Monarchist April 28 2018 15: 07
    +3
    Let’s constantly understand: 1) Alexander needed to “break through the blockade”, and then it was more difficult for him than now. 2) reforms were NECESSARY: a) army reforms (Samsonov had this), b) education reform, there were a lot of publications about it, advanced Russian science, c) the need for judicial reform and the Executive also matured. Agree that one person WILL NOT BE ABLE TO SUCCESS IN RUSSIA. Emperor Nicholas 1 tried to catch everything. How Nikolai Pavlovich worked, how the emperors were protected, and much more can be read in Kolokoltsev’s book: "The Private Life of Russian Gendarmes." You know, and the French with their "Sherchelet and fam" are actually close to the goal: Alexander 2 acted as a loving husband: he yielded to the requests of his beloved and went to .... Meeting his death .. d) the abolition of serfdom was already belated. Perhaps if it was not held in 1861, but say 1841 or even earlier it would have been better.
    Alexander 3 was not selected, but he was also not completely stupid as the liberals and the Communists drew him, he did not completely abolish his father’s reforms, he simply “pulled the reins” and he was healthy. Freedom is certainly good and right, but some restrictions are needed, otherwise there will be anarchy and lawlessness
    1. Aviator_
      Aviator_ April 28 2018 21: 42
      +4
      It seems that Alexander 3 was a patriot, but his "Law on Cooking Children", which cuts off the path to the formation of a huge mass of his subjects, can not be called reasonable.
      1. YELLOWSTONE
        YELLOWSTONE April 29 2018 20: 08
        0
        no one forbade to pay for studying in high schools themselves, or to engage in self-education
  14. kalibr
    kalibr April 28 2018 22: 42
    +2
    Quote: Bar1
    AINS is a white population of the Far East, so the Bering Strait was called Aninsky or Ainsky.

    Since when has the Ainu become white?
    1. YELLOWSTONE
      YELLOWSTONE April 29 2018 20: 09
      0
      whiter than the Japanese, this is the Jemon culture that the Japanese attribute to themselves