Military Review

Print exclusively books, "unjustifiable to the Orthodox Church, government, and goodwill"

170 years ago, 14 April 1848, a secret censorship committee was established in Russia to supervise the seal.

Of stories appearance of censorship

In Russia, censorship, that is, the control of state bodies over the content and dissemination of information, appeared in the Old Russian state. Thus, the first Old Russian list, which included the list of renounced books, “The 1073 Izbornik of the Year” refers to the period of Kievan Rus. The renounced books were books on biblical subjects that were considered to be false (non-canonical) by the Christian church, and therefore in Russia they were rejected, deprived of authority (outdated, renounced) and forbidden.

The Russian church struggled with this literature until the 18th century, when the Spiritual Regulations of the 1721 were published. For the official ban lists were compiled (indices). In Pogodinsky Nomocanon, dated XIV century, there were texts of religious content, including those later popular with the “Judaizers” - “Six-Kings”, “Logic” and “Cosmography”. Up to the beginning of the 16th century, the number of indexes of banned books was regularly increasing, the lists themselves were replenished with new works, recognized as "false and renounced." However, they could not restrain the massive influx of literature from Byzantium and the South Slavic countries. Thus, the indices did not prevent renounced texts from widely entering almost all the monuments of Russian literature. Complementing the Bible, they were very popular and were used even by priests, as they answered questions arising from reading the Scriptures.

In the middle of the XVI century, the Stoglavy Cathedral was convened to strengthen the church and fight against heretical movements. The collection of decisions “Stoglav” adopted by the cathedral contained a section “On book scribes,” which gave the spiritual authorities the right to confiscate uncorrected manuscripts. Thus, in the country appeared a preliminary censorship of all publications before the sale. In addition, the council proposed to revise the books already in circulation.

As a result, the Stoglav adopted in 1551 was the first censorship document in Russia. His appearance was a reaction to the development of Old Russian literacy and the emergence of a greater number of new literary monuments, the content of which was not approved by the church and the state. In the period from 1551 to 1560, the year was issued before 12 of certificates and acts establishing new measures and rules in accordance with “Stoglav. The censorship activity of the church, regulated by the adopted document, was mainly focused on fighting deviations from church dogmas and sacred texts, heresy and schism. The then dissidents fled abroad - mainly to Lithuania.

In the 17th century, the struggle of church and state against dissent continued. Thus, bans on the use of books created in the territory of Little Russia and Lithuania were repeatedly imposed. And after the “reforms” of Patriarch Nikon, the books published with the blessing of the previous patriarchs, as well as the works of the Old Believers, were massively seized. Censorship also extended to iconography — in October 1667, a decree was issued prohibiting non-iconic icon painters from painting icons; and on “cheap popular” art — engraved on lime boards and hand-painted drawings, depicting mainly religious subjects, which irritated the church.

Print exclusively books, "unjustifiable to the Orthodox Church, government, and goodwill"

"Stoglav". 1551 g. Title page

Russian empire

Secular typography appeared in 1700, when Peter I gave his friend, the Amsterdam merchant J. Tessing, the monopoly right to print books for Russia for fifteen years to import and sell them. At the same time, fines were imposed for the sale of printed materials by other foreign printing houses and the requirement was introduced that books should be printed “to the glory of the great sovereign”, and “the lowering of our royal majesty” and the state should not be in the books. Interestingly, Tsar Peter made then the main and only censor, the entire typographic industry was in his hands - he was a customer, publisher, translator, editor and censor.

In addition, Peter limited church censorship and he himself became a censor of the church. So much so that the monks themselves were prohibited by the writing tools: “The monks in the cells do not have any letters from the authorities, they do not have ink and paper in the cells ...” (decree of the year 1701). Thus, censorship passed into the hands of the state, and the church itself fell under censorship. The first civilian printing houses were opened in St. Petersburg and Moscow, as opposed to the ecclesiastical ones. Peter put an end to the monopoly of the church in matters of printing. In 1721, a special censorship body, controlled by the church, was organized - the Religious College, soon renamed the Holy Synod. It consisted of ten people, of whom only three were bishops, and the other seven were secular people. The spiritual regulations, according to which the collegium acted, described this organization as follows: "The collegium - there is a government under the sovereign monarch and it is established from the monarch." True, the church still retained some of the former functions and controlled the distribution of "objectionable literature." Thus, in 1743, the Holy Synod banned the import of books printed in Russian, as well as the translation of foreign books from abroad. Under the supervision of the church also came "free printing" in Kiev and Chernigov, engaged mainly in the release of theological literature.

In 1721, for the first time, preliminary censorship and the appropriate authority were introduced, the Izugraf Chamber of Commerce was responsible for its implementation. The chamber was established by the sovereign as a measure to counteract the sale of "sheets of different images without authorization and without evidence." “Under the fear of a cruel answer and merciless fines”, the printing of engraved popular prints and parsun was prohibited. This resolution was also applied to the "faulty" royal portraits. Also, the time of Peter's rule in Russia appeared first printed newspaper - "Vedomosti". Accordingly, the first censorship in periodicals. Peter personally controlled its publication, and many publications could see the light only with the permission of the king.

The final separation of censorship functions was approved by Empress Elizaveta Petrovna, who decreed that "all printed books in Russia belonging to the church and the church doctrine should be printed with the approbation of the Holy Synod, and civil and other things not belonging to the church, with the approbation of the Governing Senate." Control was also established for the import of literature from abroad; publications in foreign languages ​​sold in the territory of the empire, it was necessary to provide for inspection.

Under the reign of Catherine II, 1771 was allowed to print books to foreign nationals (albeit in their own language). A few years later, foreigners were allowed to produce Russian-language literature, but under the close supervision of the Synod and the Academy of Sciences. In 1783, a free printing press law was passed, equating the production of books with industry and giving individuals the opportunity to open their own businesses. However, it was possible to print exclusively the books “non-condemnable to the Orthodox Church, the government, and goodwill”. At the same time, the empress obliged the Academy of Sciences to tighten supervision over the books imported into the country; many objectionable publications were withdrawn from sales and private collections. Guilty of creating "seductive books" should have been punished. Thus, the police were connected to the censorship. True, the police officers who were supposed to carry out the preliminary procedure were often poorly educated people and negligent in their duties.

The French Revolution led to a tightening of the censorship regime. Catherine II decided to establish the institute of censorship and, accordingly, the introduction of the profession of censor. In 1796, a corresponding decree was passed, which stated: “No books written or translated in our state can be published in any printing house without inspection from one of the censors established in our capitals, and the approval of in such works or translations there is nothing to the law of God, to the rules of the state and to the good behavior of the contrary. ” The same decree effectively prohibited all private printing houses. Printed publications were to be submitted to both spiritual and secular censors. In addition, special posts for censors of Jewish books were introduced in 1797. Censors were personally responsible for approved books.

Emperor Paul I continued the work of Catherine, developing and supporting her initiatives in the field of censorship in order to isolate Russia from the penetration of the “pernicious” ideas of revolutionary Europe. Thus, the Censor Council was organized, headed by Prince A. B. Kurakin. Censorship was introduced in all ports of Russia. Then it was preserved in Kronstadt, Revel, Vyborg, Friedrichsgam and Arkhangelsk. In the other ports, the import of literature was prohibited. Editions imported through the land border were subjected to additional control. The censorship reform of Paul I ended with an 18 decree of April 1800, which strictly forbade the importation of any literature in any language into the country.

Alexander continued the work of his father. At the beginning of Alexander's rule, the state eased censorship: the lifting of the ban on the import of foreign literature into the country, the return of legal status to free-form printers. In 1804, a censorship charter was adopted. It noted: "... censorship is obliged to consider all books and essays intended to be distributed in society," that is, in fact, it was impossible to publish anything without the permission of the supervisory authority. However, in reality, a large number of “harmful” foreign essays penetrated into Russia despite all the efforts of the government. The document preserved the dominant role of the Ministry of Education, church books continued to remain in the office of the Synod, and censorship for foreign publications was given to the service of postal services. Under Alexander, the main role in organizing censorship activities was transferred to universities; special committees were established at universities. The censors were directly the deans. At the same time, the police continued to intervene in the affairs of censorship.

Era of Nicholas

In 1826, a new charter was adopted. He made history under the name "cast-iron charter." The main role in censorship was maintained by the Ministry of Education. This process was led by the General Directorate of Censorship. It was headed by A. I. Krasovsky. When it was made structural changes in censorship. Thus, the Supreme Censorship Committee was established, consisting of three members - ministers of public education, foreign and internal affairs. The main censorship committee in St. Petersburg was established in the country, and local censorship committees were established in Moscow, Dorpat and Vilna. The main censorship committee reported directly to the minister, and the rest to the trustees of educational districts. In addition, the right to censorship remained with the clergy, the academy and universities, some administrative, central and local institutions. During this period, the flowering of bureaucracy in censorship agencies occurred and a huge blockage in the work of censors who could not cope with a large amount of work.

The new censorship charter was adopted on 22 on April 1828 of the year. The censorship practice was reoriented to prevent harmful books. The new charter did not contain instructions for writers, did not set the direction of social thought, its main task was to prohibit the sale and distribution of books that "harm the faith, the throne, the good morals, the personal honor of citizens." According to the 1828 charter of the year, booksellers were given a special role in censorship. So, they were obliged to provide registers of all publications that were on sale - trading without special permission was prohibited.

A new revolutionary wave in Europe has led to a new tightening of censorship in Russia. At the beginning of March 1848, the Ministry of Public Education received an order from Tsar Nicholas I: “It is necessary to form a committee to consider whether censorship is correct, and published journals are complying with the data for each program. To the committee to inform me with evidence, where it will find what omissions of the censorship and its superiors, that is, the Ministry of Public Education, and which journals and what came out of their program. ”

Already 9 March 1848, for this purpose, a Special Committee was created, with Maritime Minister Prince Menshikov appointed as chairman. The 14 of April of the same year was replaced by a temporary Menshikov committee by a permanent secret committee, nicknamed “Buturlin”, after its chairman, Count D. P. Buturlin. The official name of this body was “The Committee for the Higher Supervision of the Spirit and Direction of Works Printed in Russia”. He existed until 1855 year. As a result, the period from 1848 to 1855 is the year in modern historiography, according to M. K. Lemke, referred to only as “the era of censorship terror”. For all the years of the committee’s existence, only the Northern Bee, the Library for Reading and the Moskvityanin received its approval. “Domestic Notes”, “Sovremennik” and other progressive publications were strictly warned. Buturlin even in the Gospel could see the democratic nature, and in the formula of the "official nationality" - revolutionism. As a result, many publications were closed, in particular, Literaturnaya Gazeta.

Thus, the “Buturlin” Committee significantly tightened censorship in the country. In particular, Prince P. Shirinsky-Shikhmatov, who offered to “encourage reading of books not of the civil, but of the church press,” became the Minister of Public Enlightenment, since the former more often represent “useless reading”, while the latter “strengthen the commoner by faith” and contribute to transferring all kinds of hardships. " The purpose of the personnel policy of the censorship apparatus was the replacement of censors-writers by censors-officials. The procedure itself prohibiting a work was blurred. As a result, a large number of works were not allowed to be printed by orders of the departments that are not at all related to censorship. Liberalization of the regime occurred only under Alexander II.
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  1. Olgovich
    Olgovich April 13 2018 06: 34
    Reasonable censorship is necessary.
    I have a collection of articles in the magazine "Polar Star", released in 1907.
    Reading it is just scary, such is the intensity of anti-state propaganda! And it is legally printed in Russia!

    And real medieval censorship began with one of first decrees Bolshevik power. FORBIDDING newspapers and magazines that opposed the coup.
    And for a long 70 years, there remained one Pravda without news and Izvestia without truth ....
    1. apro
      apro April 13 2018 07: 13
      Quote: Olgovich
      And for a long 70 years, there remained one Pravda without news and Izvestia without truth ....

      This is a controversial statement ... Soviet censorship behaved differently in different years. From liberalism to the 30s. To the anti-Soviet of the sixties. And insanity of the 70s. And sewers of the mid 80s.
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich April 13 2018 08: 02
        Quote: apro
        This controversial statement ... Soviet censorship behaved differently in different years.t liberalism until the 30sto the anti-Soviet of the sixties. and senility of the 70s. and sewers of the mid 80s.

        Liberalism 30-x?! belay
        I already choked ... Are you talking about this?.
    2. K.A.S.
      K.A.S. April 13 2018 09: 05
      But reasonable! But the question of rationality arises! Everyone has a different concept of rationality!
      So you and I often tell the truth about the USSR, will it be reasonable for us to shut our mouths? Some commentators do not hesitate to lie about modern Russia that corruption is poverty and other utter, impudent, unprincipled lies. Would it be reasonable for them to shut their mouths after reviving articles 70 and 190-1?
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich April 13 2018 14: 56
        Quote: K.A.S.
        But the question of rationality arises!

        Of course, the concept has no clear boundaries. But if censorship allows a person to KNOW, be aware of and. at the same time, suppresses anti-state., national scourge, etc., is somewhere that middle ground.
    3. Bar1
      Bar1 April 13 2018 12: 04
      Quote: Olgovich
      Reading it is just scary, such is the intensity of anti-state propaganda! And it is legally printed in Russia!

      and what is so terrible there, what ideas were forbidden for publication? Extremism, inciting national isolation, blasphemy against the Jewish and Christian god?

      If you look at the website of the Ministry of Justice of modern Russia, the list of PROHIBITED LITERATURE simply goes through the roof, 4.5 thousand books, publications, films and even songs are banned.

      Moreover, most of the banned literature deals with prohibitions on Jewish topics, for example, the film -Eternal Jew Jewry.
      The VO website also has censorship and also concerns the prohibition on pronouncing a word that begins on F and ends on ID.
  2. Korsar4
    Korsar4 April 13 2018 08: 24
    Not everything can be splashed onto newspaper pages. In pursuit of a sensation, and simply for selfish purposes, any information can be disseminated. And it is not harmless.

    Chaos is not accidentally created. It is often manageable. And remember the 80s - 90s of the XNUMXth century - how they created new heroes and denigrated old ones.

    "We cannot predict
    How our word will respond "(c).
  3. Basil50
    Basil50 April 13 2018 09: 51
    The author himself probably did not understand what he wrote.
    The main idea is that only Christianization became the basis of the idea of ​​censorship. It was they who began to evaluate literature deciding what can be read by PEOPLE and what is strongly forbidden.
    Under the Romanovs, old books were seized with ferocity and ruthlessness worthy of Christians. Under Tsar Fedor, the state archives were destroyed; under Peter, a decree appeared according to which both the owner and all members of his family were killed for the old book.
    Under censorship in tsarist RUSSIA for WWII, almost all media were in the hands of Jewish publishers. At the same time, we are being told today about universal anti-Semitism in RUSSIA
    1. Monarchist
      Monarchist April 13 2018 11: 33
      Vasily, I rarely agree with you, but I agree: "almost all the media were in the hands of Jewish publishers. At the same time, today they tell us about polls anti-simitism in Russia." The Jews are such comrades that they lied in the eye of a needle and if for profit it needs an anti-Semitic slogan like a sentence: "*** poisoners of the right-winger, and if so hit ***" the administration "has no time" to read and think carefully, they will look at the headlines and it’s enough, but in the article you can write the opposite: “*** rescuers of Orthodoxy” .. Until 1917, there were many Jews among doctors, pharmacists and jewelers in the Republic of Ingushetia, and they depended on them
      1. K.A.S.
        K.A.S. April 13 2018 11: 48
        Quote: Monarchist
        Until 1917, there were many Jews among doctors, pharmacists and jewelers in the Republic of Ingushetia, and they depended on them

        And after 17 Jews became more in power and became more dependent on them!
      2. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh April 13 2018 22: 32
        "almost all the media were in the hands of Jewish publishers" ////

        Naturally, the Jews’s name is: "the people of the book." Enlightenment is typography.
        All obscurantists of all times and countries primarily sought to ban the printing of books,
        trying to stop progress.
  4. Palagecha
    Palagecha April 13 2018 09: 52
    God-fearing books can and should be printed, they are eternal! Every five years, like scientific books, they change because the science supposedly develops. But here everything is clear, simple and understandable for centuries. The earth stood on three elephants, and those on the whale, , so it was, is and will be .... And no mess in my head !!!
  5. Monarchist
    Monarchist April 13 2018 11: 14
    Quote: apro
    Quote: Olgovich
    And for a long 70 years, there remained one Pravda without news and Izvestia without truth ....

    This is a controversial statement ... Soviet censorship behaved differently in different years. From liberalism to the 30s. To the anti-Soviet of the sixties. And insanity of the 70s. And sewers of the mid 80s.

    I partially agree: we had periods of permissible liberalization, and it’s quite debatable about the “anti-sixties of the sixties”: then the exposure to the "cult of personality" flourished. I can no longer remember who I read this definition: "there was a cult, but there was also a PERSONALITY."
    1. Dart2027
      Dart2027 April 13 2018 19: 07
      Quote: Monarchist
      there was a cult, but there was also a PERSONALITY

      It seems Sholokhov.
  6. Monarchist
    Monarchist April 13 2018 12: 23
    When I read the first two paragraphs, I thought: V.O. or Polonsky decided to write about censorship. Samsonov will be rich. I did not recognize you, where is the great and terrible Matrix?
    But seriously without jokes, then: “all the books that were printed in Russia, which belonged to the church and church doctrine, were printed with the approval of the Holy Synod”, this is a reasonable grain: it’s difficult for us to understand the Holy Scripture or the Qur'an, and theologians and ulama will be more likely to identify the roots of extremism.
    I agree with the opinion: Olgovich, K.A. C, Corsair, that permissiveness is a lot of stupidity, some restrictions are necessary, but within reasonable limits. After the permissiveness of the times of EBN, the timid steps of V.V. in an attempt to restore elementary order, some perceive as wild arbitrariness.
  7. Romey
    Romey April 13 2018 13: 32
    In general, I personally get the impression that censorship is simply necessary to stimulate creativity. Take the golden age of Russian literature or the Soviet cinema of the 70s, when literary and theatrical censorship simply raged. Wherever you look, some brilliant masterpieces of the most acute satire, expressed expertly and topically for all time. And now. what? In general, an intelligent person will always find a way to express his thought and convey it to the audience without looking at any censorship, and this is unnecessary for fools.
  8. Curious
    Curious April 13 2018 14: 39
    "The main idea is that only Christianization became the basis of the idea of ​​censorship. It was they who began to evaluate literature deciding what can be read by PEOPLE and what is strongly forbidden. "
    Absolutely dense statement. The prophecies of Jeremiah in Judea were burned back in the XNUMXth century BC. The books of Protagoras about the gods in Athens were fired in the XNUMXth century BC. Known to all, Plato proposed limiting the distribution of works of art because of their harmful effects on citizens.
    The presence of censorship is a sign of the existence of a state, since censorship is an integral part of any state.
    And what makes the lack of censorship, when a muddy shaft of information falls upon the fragile brains of citizens, can be seen even on the site on olgovich and other similar comrades.
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh April 13 2018 23: 43
      "The presence of censorship is a sign of the existence of the state" ////

      Add: a state that is not self-confident.
      In self-confident states, there is no censorship.
      1. Antares
        Antares April 14 2018 12: 18
        Quote: voyaka uh
        In self-confident states, there is no censorship.

        some kind of mood control should still be. More precisely, lead them! But this is painstaking work.
        Easier to ban. But prohibitions NEVER work
        And advocates of censorship need to erect a monument
        Li Si and his lord
        Qin Shi Huangdi (Epan lover)
        In 213 BC e. Li Si persuaded the emperor to burn all the books, with the exception of those that dealt with agriculture, medicine, and fortune telling. In addition, books from the imperial assembly and chronicles of the Qin rulers were spared.
        1. voyaka uh
          voyaka uh April 15 2018 11: 50
          So the Führer first of all began with strict censorship. More precisely, the prohibition of all print
          the words of all publications of all parties except the National Socialist. Burning books
          started a little later, but also quickly.
      2. Curious
        Curious April 14 2018 14: 01
        A warrior, and Israel is a self-confident state? Or is it you who have dropped the philosophical phrase? And then I remembered the commission of Eliyahu Vinohrad.
        1. voyaka uh
          voyaka uh April 15 2018 11: 46
          "Is Israel a self-confident state?" ////

          Not really, unfortunately. Therefore, we also have censorship.
          1. Curious
            Curious April 15 2018 14: 42
            What I like about you is honesty.
        YELLOWSTONE April 15 2018 17: 38
        in the USA and other countries introduced, against RT lol
  9. Dashing
    Dashing April 13 2018 16: 05
    Still, censorship is needed. True, for this, society needs to determine moral guidelines beyond which it is reprehensible to go beyond. If society does not accept pedophilia for children, homosexuality, etc., murders and "dismemberment" on the air, etc., then this should be prohibited. Otherwise, for the younger generation, this will become the norm. Historical "interpretations" issued "uphill" by grief-filmmakers-scriptwriters in the post-Soviet era simply cry for censorship! One episode of Nikita Mikhalkov’s film with an attack by a citadel with cuttings from shovels is worth something, but what about the movie “Golden Horde”?
    ALEA IACTA EST April 13 2018 17: 22
    Freedom of speech is good, but some speakers should not be allowed to the rostrum.
  11. Dart2027
    Dart2027 April 13 2018 19: 09

    Already under the Robber the fire has gone out for a long time:
    Under the Writer, he is angry from hour to hour.
    Seeing no relief
    The writer finally screams in the midst of torment,
    That there is no justice in the gods;
    30 That he filled the light with glory
    And if he wrote a little freely,
    That too painfully punished;
    That he did not think to be a robber sinner.
    Here in front of him, in all its glory,
    With snakes sizzling between the hairs
    With bloody scourges in their hands
    Of the hellish three sisters, one appeared.
    “Unhappy!” She says:
    “Do you blame Providence?”
    40 And do you equal yourself with a Robber?
    Before your nothing is his fault.
    By his fury and anger,
    He was harmful
    So far he has only lived;
    And you ... already your bones have long decayed,
    And the sun will never rise
    So that new ones from you will not light up troubles.
    Your creature’s poison not only doesn’t fade,
    But, spilling, century-by-century lutes.
  12. Bersaglieri
    Bersaglieri April 13 2018 22: 39
    V. Pikul on the topic of the organization was a wonderful miniature: "The most useful thing is to ban!"
  13. Bersaglieri
    Bersaglieri April 13 2018 22: 50
    I reveal the second volume of the Petersburg Necropolis and on page 513 I find the scumbag I searched for. Here it is: Krasovsky Alexander Ivanovich, Privy Councilor, Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Censorship, November 19, 1857, at the age of 77.

    He went out of the family of the dean; his father, Archpriest John, was the spiritual companion of Emperor Paul I, served as the Sakellarii (caretaker) of the court church; a learned priest, father John left his name in Russian etymology, for which he became a member of the Russian Academy. The offspring of this venerable linguist, brought up in fear of God, first worked in the role of a translator, then was a librarian, and in 1821 he took up the post of censor, and from this path did not turn back, gaining the glory of the most fierce scorpion.